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Sgl. JOHN FINNIGAN, U.S. Army, a ","",ber of Hql. Blry., 151h AAA AW Bn., attached to Co.
C, 31st Infantry, distinguished himself by gallantry in action near Naedang, Korea. On 2 No.
vember 1951, while attempting to maneuver his holltrock to within close proximity of a combat
patrol which was engaged in a firefight with the enemy when a call for litters reached him.
Immediately, he secured the litters and mode his wayan foot through a hail of enemy small
arms, automatic weapons, and mortar fire to reach the medical aidmen. leaving the litters with

the aidmen, he began maneuvering so as to draw the enemy fire from the wounded men's area.

With complete disregard for his porsonal safety, he continuously exposed himself to the concen.
troted enemy fire and engaged the hostile force in a heavy firefight and succeeded in lilting the
enemy's fire from the casualties. The quick thinking and intrepid actions of Sgt. Finnigan
enabled the medical aidmen to successfully evacuate 15 men from the dangerously exposed
creo. The gallantry displayed reflects great credit on himself and the military service. x x x



1st Lt Henry S. Dunbar III (V) 1st Lt George E. Mitchell

Sgt Paul E. Jenkins
Sic Bernard W. Wylie
Cpl Perry Davis, Jr.
Sgt Garland L. Frye (V)
Pvt Arthur E. Castro
Sgl Rex E. Jenkins Pvt Franklin R. Kuhn
Sgt Ernest C. Phelps Pvt Elverd C. Mclamb
Cpl Morvin G. Neiberger (VI Pvt Michael J. Ryan

Cpl James B. Sayre (V) Pvt Cosey A. Stallworth


15th AAA AW BN (SPI Cpl Stafford D. Shipley
Pvt Philip G. Bonk
Copt Henri F. Wroblewski
Sic Wayne M. Robinson Pvt Albert 1. Bazar

Sgt Curtis C. Venney Pvt leon A. Regiec


82nd AAA AW BN (SPI Sgt Donald C. Cole
Sgt James W. Everett
Copt Donald E. Smith Sgt William E. Vernon

M.Sgt George A. Santoy Cpl Kenneth K. Ellis, Jr.
M.Sgt Edmond W. Spradley Cpl Harry C. Wolter

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FOUNDED in 1892
Published from 1892 until 1922 as
LT. GEN. LEROY LUTES Published from 1922 until 1948 as the
ADDITIONAL MEMBERS OF THE COVER: 250th AAA Group, Col. M. Lazar, Commanding, fire 120-mm
EXECUTIVE COUNCIL gun during inspection of their positions by l\laj. Gen. \Villard
W. Irvine.
MAJOR JAMES E. CALKINS By Brig. Gell. Thomas R. Phillips 11
CIVILIAN AUXILIARIES. By Maj. Gell. Palll W. RlItledge 13
FIRE CONTROL SYSTEi\1 SCR-584. By Major Francis M. COllllelly 16
The purpoJe of the ASIOciation shall be to GENERAL PORTER MAKES HISTORY. By Jerome Kearful 19
promote the efficiency of the Antiaircraft WITH THE 15TH AAA AW BATTALION (SP).
Artillery by maintaining iIJ standards and tra. By Capt. Charles F. Farber 20
ditions, by disseminating professional knowl- THE SAGA OF "WHISTLING DICK."
edge, by inspiring greater effort toward the By Lt. Co/. John B. B. Trussell, Jr 22
improvement of materiel and methods of KNOW YOUR FRIENDLY AIRCRAFT" 24
training and by fOJ1ering mutual utlderJ1and. THE FIRST DAYS IN KOREA. By Brig. Gen. George B. Barth 26
ing, respect and cooperation among all arms,
branches and components of the Regular
Army, National Guard, Organized Reserves, By Capt. Joseph E. Alelanson, Jr 31
and Resert'e Officers' Training Corps.
COMBAT LEADERSHIP. By Maj. Gen. Terry Allen 32
TRAINING IN THE 35TH AAA BRIGADE. By lV1ajor Villa Carter 34
The JOURNAL prints articles on subjects of PLOTTING BY VIEWCASTER. By Sgt. William J. Tobin 36
professional and general interest to personnel of 56TH AAA BRIGADE. By 1st Lt. Donald E. Harkins 37
the Antiaircraft Artillery in order to stimulate
thought and provoke discussion. However,
opinions expressed and condusions drawn in WATCH YOUR RCAT'S.
articles are in no sense official. They do not re- By IHajor Theodore Wyckoff and 1st Lt. Charles A. Dennen ... 39
Oed the opinions or conclusions of any official
or branch of the Department of the Army.
By Capt. Blaine YOllng 40
The JOURNAL does not carry paid advertising.
EXERCISE HELPFUL. By Co/. C. G. Patterson 4I
Th. JOURNAL pays for original articles upon
publication. Manuscript should be addressed to BOOK REVIEWS 43
the Editor. The JOURNAL is not responsible NEWS & COi\IMENT 44
for manuscripts unaccompanied by return


M Sgt Fred A. Baker, Business Manager
Sgt leI Ralph N. Charleston, Cir. l\lgr.
Sgt leI James E. Moore, Jr., Editorial Assistant

• ~blished bimonthly by the United States Antiaircraft Association. Editorial and executive offices. 631 Pennsylvania Avenue, ~.'V.,

t aabington 4, D. C. Terms: $3.00 per year. Foreign subscriptions, $4.00 per year. Single copies. 75c. Entered as second.class matter
~~shington. D. C.; additional entry at Richmon'!. Va., under the Act of Yarch 3, 1879. Copyright, 1952, by the United States
halrcraft Association.
\'V'ar Department is reorganized as war begins. Army Service Forces
created to control all the technical services and to supervise and direct
all supply and logistic activity.

As the Japs struck with devastating

surprise and effect in December 1941 to As Director of Operotions in the Army Serv-
work up the plans for the logistic sup-
port and submit them to the General
plunge us into \Vorld vVar II, the \Var ice Forces Lieu!. Generol Lutes orgonized ond Staff. Alas! it did not work that way.
supervised the system of supply for our field
Department had already become a rath- ormies in 011 of the for flung theoters. He The General Staff not only grew in size
er unwieldy organization. Some sixty wos the moster trouble shooter ond expediter but tried to hold on to many administra-
for 011 the bottlenecks ond growing poins in
odd separate offices and agencies were the exponding supply ond tronsportotion sys- tive details. It could not overcome the
reporting directly to General George C. tems. formed habits of running all the detaih
As the wor ended he relieved Generol
l'.hrshall, the Chief of Staff. Somervell os the commonder ond took over of the small peacetime army.
For the great number of officials en- the tosk of returning troops ond supply Already General Marshall had GI-IQ
stores to the Stotes, of closing out this vost
gaged in preparing studies, programs, empire, disposing of surplus properties, foc- for the Ground Forces under the com.
tories, and supplies, and reorganizing the mand of Lieut. General McNair and
projects, and plans there were entirely Army's supply system to 0 peocetime bosis.
too few prepared to make decisions and From his memories ond personol diory he the Air Forces under General "Hap'
initiate action. General Leslie J. l\k- writes 0 series of orticles highlighting the Arnold. The Service Force was to be
moin problems encountered ond the solutions
Nair, then with GHQ, was already say- opplied. His informol ond interesting notes the new organization, the commander
ing that it was more difficult to get a on his contacts with MacArthur, Eisenhower, of which was to take over the vast ad-
Nimitz, Brodley, ond other commonders en-
project approved by the vVar Depart- liven the story ond throw new light on im- ministrative and supply functions from
ment than it was to get a bill through portont decisions ond the turn of events. the burdens of the Chief of Staff. Gen-j
eral Marshall shrewdly chose for theI
This is the first orticle to be published. A
Congress. second, The Spring of 1942, will oppeor in
At any rate, early in 1942 a sweep-, the next issue. commander of his new Army Service
ing change was made in the organization Forces a dynamic regular officer of the
of the Army, but not without creating Engineer Corps, then Brigadier Gen-
jealousies and resentments in a number the Ground Forces, the Air Forces and eral Brehon Somervell (now Gener~
of places, which, to some extent, still the Service Forces, each to have its own Somervell, retired, President of Koppers
exist. commander and staff with sufficient Company). General Somervell had su-
General Marshall had the vision to autonomy to carry out the operations pervised the construction of the mobiliza-
realize that the burdens of mobilizing, charged to each. tion camps and installations, and at the
training, administering, moving and The \Var Department General Staff time was Assistant Chief of Staff, GJ
equipping a huge Army would be so was intended to remain small as a super (Logistics). He was to be known late!
great that they would materially inter- policy and supervisory staff. It was orig- as the builder of the famous Pentagol1,
fere with his more important duties with inally assumed that a grand decision now headquarters of all the Armed
the Combined and Joint Chiefs of Staff such as the invasion of Africa would be Forces. The men who occupy this bui!
concerning military strategy, unless he made by the Combined Chiefs of Staff; ing today no longer quip about it. Th
took steps to delegate these burdens to that the United States Army General are glad Somervell had the vision t
competent subordinate leaders. Staff would prepare the United States build it.
To meet this situation he directed Army's general plan, including the or-
and approved a reorganization of the ganizations and strength to participate;
Army into three major commands; i.e., that the Army Service Forces would taking command of the Army

$en'ice Forces, General Somen'ell did but was made at the Army Service Forces States; and the writer as Director of
not ha,'e time to form the type of or- staff levels. Operations.
oanization he considered best to meet To assist him in his duties of com- By the Spring of 1945 I was to suc-
ilie situation. The urgency of war pre- mand coordination of this huge or- ceed General Styer as Deputy, and in
wnted. He had to be content with a ganization, he formed a functional staff October 1945 to succeed General Somer-
loose confederation of so-<:alled T echni- consisting first of Colonel Delp Styer, veil. In addition to the foregoing ele-
cal Sen'ices, consisting of the Ordnance Chief of Staff (now Lieut. General. re- ments, General Somervell created an
Department, the Engineer Corps, Quar- tired); Lieut. Colonel Lucius Clay (now important di,'ision in his own office, the
termaster Corps, Signal Corps, Chemical General Clay, retired) to coordinate pro- Control Division under Major General
Corps, 1\ledical Corps, and Transporta- curement; Brigadier General Joseph Dal- Clinton Robinson, to study and constant-
tion Corps. Also embraced were such ton (now 1\lajor General, retired) to su- ly improve organization and manage-
miscellaneous administrative services as pervise personnel matters; Major General ment methods. Through the war a
the Judge Advocate General (Law), James L. Collins (now retired) (brother considerable number of changes occurred
Post Exchange Services, Adjutant Gen- of the present Chief of Staff) to coordi- in personnel and organization, but the
eral (Records), Finance Department, nate miscellaneous administrative serv- foregoing gives a simple outline of the
and Provost Marshal. Had time per- ices; Brigadier General \VaIter \Veible general organization, omitting the rami-
mitted, I think he would have preferred (now Major General) to supervise train- fications and breakdowns of the subordi-
to reorganize along functional lines, ing programs; 1\lajor General George nate sections under these major activities.
grouping common activities of the Tech- Grunert (now Lieut. General, retired) The dynamo was Somervell, who
nical Services. Such a drastic change to administer the eight (later six) geo- drove himself harder than he drove any
could not be made at the operation levels graphical service commands in the United of his subordinates and whose strongest

Rations for the troops: A shipment arrives in Japan.

Dwight D. Eisenhower, the top com-
mander who in his younger years had
gone to the Army's Industrial College
and served a while under the Under
Secretary of \\Tar-who realized that the
world had witnessed the greatest mili-
tary supply operation in history-a world.
wide logistic operation of unparalled
magnitude. He stated that no command-
er had ever received better support than
he. Although he yielded to the recom.
mendations of the Patch and Simpson
Boards and to the pressure from Tech-,
nical Service officers, to recommend to
the Secretary of \\Tar the abolishment
of the Army Service Forces, as such, he
directed that an embryo headquarters of
the Army Service Forces be planned and I
maintained at least on paper in order
to revive this or a similar organization
in case of a major war. However, on
General Eisenhower's retirement, even
this embryo and the old procedures were
Jerry cans in Italy: A QM company fills 20 thousand a day.
characteristics were evidenced in his Service Force headquarters struggled to I am now reminded of those days be-
slogan to the command, 'The impossible standardize the administrative proce- cause I have recently read House Re-
we do at once-the miraculous takes a dures of the services and with consider- port No. 658, dated 27 June 1951, from
little longer." I well remember his first able success. However, the resistance of the Committee on Expenditures in the
instructions to me, pointing his finger the Technical Services was always smol- Executive Departments, subject, "Fed-
as he said: "I hold you responsible for dering. Each longed to shake loose from eral Supply Management." This report
seeing that supplies and equipment this driver who set goals for their accom- states in part, "The subcommittee was
reach the troops in the field throughout plishment and then required checkups particularly impressed with the difficul-
the world. Get things done-you will to pro\'e whether or not they made their ties of coordinating supply activities
make mistakes-but get them done. I goals. Each longed for the day when among the military departments and
will not kick if 54% of the time you are they could once more, as an independent with civilian agencies in view of the
right." His energies were always di- organization, report directly to the Chief evident fact that the Army Supply Sys-
rected toward getting the true facts in of Staff. tem itself suffers from a severe lack of
each matter and then making speed to So, when the returning combat com- internal coordination. The seven Tech. t
accomplish results. manders came back after the war ended nical S.ervices or Corps-Ordnance, I
in Europe, boards were formed to deter- Engineering, Quartermaster, Medical,
Chemical, Signal and Transportation-
T HE Tech~ical Services did not relish
being placed under a commander and
mine whether the Army Service Forces
should be continued. One board was
chairmaned by Major General "Sandy"
are each a separate and distinct operat-
ing activity."
staff. During the long years of peace Patch and the other by Lieut. General So we find in 1951 that the clock has
and our short wars since 1776, they had \Villiam Simpson. Most of the other re- been turned backward. At this writing
built up vertical empires, each entrench- turning commanders had understood the it appears that Congress has found that
ed in its own system of organization old army organization before they went since June 1946, when the Army Serv-
and procedures. Each with powerful overseas and never bothered much about ice Forces were dissolved, the old com-
industrial associations prepared to protect logistics of supply. They had left that petition and uncoordinated activities
the autonomy of the separate Technical throughout their younger years to the have been renewed. It was repeatedly
Services in order to gain and maintain Technical Services. Moreover, even predicted by General Somervell and
business favors. True, each had fine though they ranked as corps and army others that this would happen unless
traditions of service, but different con- commanders, in such a large army they steps were taken to maintain some type
tractual methods, different stock control were on the receiving end and had no of organization similar to the Army Serr-l
systems, competitive buying of common responsibility for initiating logistic poli- ice Forces in order to provide central
items and many other different proce- cies or procedures. Most of them little direction in procurement and distribu-
dures which made these seven separate understood under what system in World tion of supplies, standardize common
systems wasteful of personnel, funds, War II they had been moved, supplied procedures and eliminate competition in
materials and supplies. Throughout the and maintained. the procurement of common items, facili-
war and until June 1946, the Army However, there was one-General ties and personnel. Competition in civil

life is the life of pri,'ate enterprise, but fact, General Somen'ell, after the war, general level of all supplies authorized
competition in some activities within the referred to it as the most successful and for each area such as General Eisen-
(l(),'ernment could consume wealth faster lasting of all the Army Sen'ice Force hower's command or General i\lacAr-
~han pri,'ate enterprise can create it. plans and operations. The basic plan thur's command. If we had not done
was fairly simple, but the procedures and this, it is obvious that either 1\ lacArthur
refinements became complex-too much or Eisenhower at ,'arious times would
AT the time of Pearl Harbor, I had so to fully describe here. have been unduly short of critical items.
only vaguely heard of General Somer- In the basic plan we divided the world By the same token, the staffs in all ports
,.ell. Our paths had never crossed. I into major segments in consonance with had to maintain records of the strength
\ras then commanding the 37th Anti- the boundaries of the militarv theaters of each overseas area allocated to them
aircraft Artillery Brigade with the Fourth of operation and allocated ea~h one of for support and were reguired to limit
Air Force at Los Angeles, but that was these major segments to a port in the shipments accordingly. These supply
soon to change. In January 1942, I was United States for support. For example, staffs in the ports, while under the port
called from command of my brigade on Europe and the i\lediterranean to New commander (a Transportation general) .
the Pacific Coast to report to Major Gen- York; Alaska and the Aleutians to Seattle; were actually directly under the Direc-
eral Richard C. Moore, Deputy Chief the South and Southwest Pacific to San tor of Operations, Headguarters ASF,
of Staff to General i\larshalL General Francisco, and Los Angeles; the Carib- for logistic supply direction after the
~Ioore was a guiet, ruddy-faced engineer bean area and South to New Orleans; ASF was formed i\larch 9, 1942.
officer with bright intelligent eyes, un- \Vest and Northwest Africa to Norfolk, The Overseas Supply Staffs in the
der bushy blond eyebrows. He said, etc. In each of these ports we placed a ports would interpret reguisitions from
"General, you may not realize it, but competent group of staff officers and overseas for thousands of items into ap-
as a lieutenant colonel in the Louisiana technical service officers. These staffs proved priorities and guantities and send
~Ianeuvers, you were the first man in were to receive from our \Vashington of- them on to filler depots designated by
the Army since \Vorld \Var I to plan fice the policies and directives governing the vVashington office as the backup
and supervise the movement, supply overseas supply and also to receive from depots for specific ports. If these depots
and maintenance of half a million men overseas commanders their reguisitions could not fill the reguisitions, they were
in the field." He referred to my duties for supplies in the priority of need. From sent on to special key technical service
as G4 of the Third Army in maneuvers Washington we tightly controlled items depots handling such items. A running
in Louisiana through 1940-41. "I have in short supply in order that. they could card system in the port told the status
lold Somervell," he continued, "that he be used most effectively. To illustrate- of the call for each major item; i.e.,
should get you in here at least for a until a weapon such as the then new when and where it was called for and
while to give him the field viewpoint." bazooka was in production sufficiently when it would be due into port for out-
to eguip all combat troops entitled to shipment. These requisitions were trans-
With a few other remarks, he dis-
it, we informed each port the limit that lated by the port staffs into ship cubages
missed me with instructions to report to
could be shipped to each area. and tonnages. The ships were then called
Brigadier General Somervell, Assistant
We also prescribed to the ports the for by the port commander through the
Chief of Staff, G4, and a few minutes
later, I stood in front of Somervell's
desk. He was writing, and I looked him
O\'er carefully before he glanced up.
Immaculate, guick of action, lean, gray
hair, close cropped mustache, and two
years younger than myself, I thought,
"He is a tough driver." On looking up
he cracked, "Well-you finally got here."
He quickly outlined what he thought I
should do first; i.e., prepare a general
plan under which all supply distribution
operations from the United States to
o\"erseas areas could be guided, super-
\"ised, and properly controlled. A large
order, but instinctively I knew I could
work for him loyally. I-Ie was the type
I liked and respected-smart, dynamic
and practical.
With the help of some of his staff, I
supervised the preparation of a general
logistics plan for the support of our over-
seas operations throughout the world,
which, with later refinements, served
successfully throughout the war. In Supplies for the 7th Division at Kwajalein.
Chief of Transportation, Washington, ing the overseas distribution, my office early days of the North African expedi-
and arrangements were made for 0Javy tackled the next job of attempting to tion. Luckily, the invasion did not meet
convoy. streamline distribution to troops within immediate stiff resistance, but for one
Sounds simple, but the system re- the United States. We called it then example, it was noticeable that many
quired careful, constant direction and <'The Direct System of Supply," where- Signal Corps men had been in service
coordination. Through the system, I by the old corps area staffs were elimi- but a few \veeks and were not qualified
could put my finger on any depot in nated from the channels of supply and in the use of radio or v.'ire communica.
the United States that failed to honor troops authorized to place their requisi- tions. The Army found itself dependent
a requisition on time. By inspection of tions directly to designated depots. Al- upon the Navy for ship to shore and
port records, I could teU whether Eisen- though the corps area commander was vice versa communications. This tend.
hower or MacArthur were being short relieved from actual supply operations, ency of the General Staff to discount
changed or whether they were over- he was not relieved of responsibility to the importance of service troops was to
stocked in anything from shovels to troops in his area for checking and re- be encountered many times in various
trucks or bombs to beans. When troops porting on the status of equipping troops. ways before the war ended.
overseas complained of shortages and the One of the first things we discovered Soon after the organization of the
port records here showed otherwise, I in the Operations Division of the Army Army Service Forces, my Operations Di-
would go overseas and check from the Service Forces was that the General Staff vision found itself swamped with a vast
front lines back to the overseas depots had made no provision for service troops number of activities that involved co-
and bases to find where the break oc- to support the Army and Air Force as ordination with the various divisions of
curred. As Somervell said later, it really a whole. They had provided in the tables the Army Services Forces and matters
worked. When it is remembered that of organization service troops for each requiring coordination with the General
we shipped 135 million ship tons over- separate field army and corps but none Staff, the Air Forces and overseas com.
seas in nearly six million different types for construction, for general storage, for manders.
of items, the magnitude of the problem operating expanding schools, camps, I prepared a rough draft of a stand-
begins to dawn on us. ports, ships, and myriads of other activi- ing operating procedure for equipping
But the magnitude of these operations ties. and checking the preparations of a divi-
was not the only headache! To distrib- When we brought this to the atten- sion for overseas movement. It was writ-
ute to areas from Iceland to Africa, tion of G3 of the War Department early ten on about four pages, legal cap size.
Newfoundland to Brazil, Alaska to in 1942, the General Staff was quite I selected a young lieutenant colonel of
Guadalcanal and New Guinea-to India, embarrassed. They had submitted their the Staff-William E. Caraway-to take
to China, and dozens of other smaller requirements for the draft to President it at once to Fort Dix, New Jersey, and
areas and stations-in priorities that met Roosevelt and had promised him they obtain the views of a division command-
the emphasis of the strategic plans called would need no increases for nine months er there awaiting time of departure with
for refinements in the techniques of or more. They did not want to return his division for overseas movement. Colo-
planning and operating that were to be to the President with further requests nel Caraway returned saying the divi-
real tests of professional skill and physi- for draftees, but we had to have some sion was enthusiastic about the guidance
cal stamina of many key officers. To action. The matter was argued back contained in the paper. Under Colonel
Major General William M. Goodman and forth from March 6, 1942 until Caraway and Colonel Oliver Troster,
belongs considerable credit for the devel- June 1942. Our world-wide requirements this short paper was developed with re-
opment of a sound operating procedure for these purposes initially had been esti- finements to become a booklet and later
within the Port of Embarkation of New mated to be over 600,000 troops. a Technical Regulation or Manual, the
York. As the war progressed, he devel- We finally got a promise of deferred substance of which continues in use to-
oped the statistical system in the port draftees in the number of 475,000, but day. Eventually, it had to be broadened
to a high degree and we later installed it they would not begin to come into our to cover code markings for secret move-
at other ports. control until August 1942. To this de- ments, packaging for special amphibious
After preparing the general plans lay can be attributed the poor quality operations, and many other important
and setting up the system for supervis- of service troops later supporting the instructions.

Army Emergency Relief

T ~E 1951 joint fund campaign of
Army Emergency Relief and Army Re-
instrument of morale and welfare to their
A joint campaign is conducted each
year to raise in a single campaign the
lief Society was closed with the most The largest single contribution was funds necessary tQ permit both organiza-
gratifying results. The total contribu- made by the Far East Command, tions to operate, without incurring an
tions amounted to $554,517.42 which is which amounted to $280,505.00. Of this annual deficit and to keep the Army in.
indicative of the increasing interest and amount the Eighth Army in Korea con- formed concerning their work. Through
support by members of the Army. Army tributed over $137,000.00. Other com- the campaign, the aims, accomplish-
Emergency Relief is recognized by com- mands throughout the Army responded ments and capabilities of both organiza-
manders at all leyels as an important with generous contributions. tions were made known.
Colonel Hennig and the 10th AAA Group
COLONEL WILLIAM H. HENNIG. veteran com- From Pyongyang the group pushed north with the dh'ision
mander of the 10th AAA Group and senior AAA commander to Kunu-Ri and Unsan where the\' hit the Chinese Reds in
in Korea since September, 1950 has departed for his new as- force. Here the division was so ~utnumbered it was com-
signment with Army Field Forces Headquarters at Fort pressed into a narrow horseshoe defense. This stunning de-
Monroe, Va. velopment of Chinese Red Forces was first reported to the
A summary of the achievements of the 10th AAA Group Corps Headquarters by the radio of the 10th AAA Group and
under his command can well begin on 14 September when by a map overlay which Colonel Hennig sent to the Corps
the group moved to Taegu to operate in a field artillery role chief of staff by his liaison officer, Capt. Rawcliffe. Informa-
and reinforce the artillery fires of the 1st Cavalry Division in tion got through to the Corps m:Jl11ents before the road to the
its operations in the now famous "Bowling Alley." The group rear was cut.
included the 68th AAA Gun Bn., Lt. Col. R. C. Cheal, com- Two Chinese Red Armies were in Korea on October 25,
manding and the 78th AAA Gun Bn., Lt. Col. T. W. Ackert, but this apparently was known only to the 1st ROK Division.
commanding. Both the group and the battalions were com- Three of the divisions of these armies were deployed against
mended for this action by the commander of the 1st Cavalry the 1st ROK Division. The division attacked to e:\..pand its
Division. perimeter and then held for a week through sheer bluff and
On September 19, the group and its battalions were placed determination. On 2 Novembe"r one regiment was overrun
in support of the 1st ROK Division then to the right of the and the ammunition ran out. Intelligence reports indicated
1st Cavalry Division. Because of the critical situation, Colo- that some 500 Red Chinese dead were hauled away per day
nel Hennig moved the guns of the battalions around the right during this period mostly due to the effective artillery fire.
Hank of the 1st ROK Division to take up exposed positions of At the end of the period the division withdrew without the
advantage near Sin won. From these positions the fires of the loss of a single piece of artillery except for mortars. The only
90mm guns became extremely effective and knocked out artillery casualties suffered were in the 2d Chemical Mortar
enemy supporting elements in front of the 1st Cavalry Divi-
Battalion which had one company overrun in the bitter
sion then held up at Tabu-Dong. This action paved the way
for the division to roll north some twenty-six miles to the
Naktong River crossings. For his action in the Unsan operation, Colonel Hennig
was awarded the Silver Star.
Continuing in support of the 1st ROK Division, the 10th
Group helpe'd block escape routes of the demoralized North Early in November 1950 the group acted as division artil-
Korea Divisions permitting them to be surrounded and cap- lery for the 1st Cavalry Division and for Task Force Allen in
tured. The 1st ROK Division took thousands of prisoners and the vicinity of Kunu-Ri. It then moved back to the 1st ROK
the 10th Group units themselves captured more prisoners Division and the "Reconnaissance in Force" of 24 November
than the total group strength. With the 1st ROK Division which uncovered several hundred thousand Chinese Reds.
the group pushed north to the parallel, crossed it and con- During the withdrawal, the artillery of the 10th AAA Group
tinued the fight toward Pyongyang. After a series of sharp held off the superior numbers of the enemy and enabled ele-
engagements through Korangpo-Ri Sibyon-Ni, Singye and ments of the 24th Division and the 35th Infantry Regiment
Taedong-Ni, it arrived at Pyongyang on 19 October and and finally the 1st ROK Division to withdraw across the
rolled into the North Korean Capital with the leading tank Chongchon River without incident.
and infantry units. On arrival the group headquarters had to
~ At Yongyu General Paik gave his gold ring to Colonel
clear the enemy out of the position to be occupied as its
command post. Hennig to signify permanent friendship and the two parted
For the actions from Taegu to Pyongyang, Colonel I-Iennig
was awarded an oak leaf cluster to the Legion of Merit and Colonel Hennig's 10th Group then moved some 220 miles
the group headquarters was awarded the Korean National south to Seoul to establish the AA defenses of Korea. There
Colors by General Paik-Sun-Yup. the 10th AAA Group expanded by additional battalions de-
Because of communications difficulties, the group head- ployed its units to meet the growing air threat that was ex-
quarters was constantly pushed well forward during this op- pected to come from the area north of the Yalu River. Thus
eration so that Colonel Hennig could keep in close touch with far there has been no real air raid launched against these
the situation. The presence of the group headquarters so far defenses but only harassing attempts by lone obsolete North
forward increased the confidence and morale of the ROK Korean aircraft Hown at very low altitudes at night.
infantrymen. The officers and men of the 10th Group will long remem-
During this period a firm and lasting friendship develpped ber Colonel Hennig as a keen artilleryman with the courage
between Colonel Hennig and General Paik, commander of of his convictions, a natural leader, and a two-fisted com-
the ROK Division. mander.

T HERE are three things the Anti- Korea consider the A"'TUIRCRAFTJOUR-
aircraft troops in Korea are waiting for NAL their very own.
men get pretty tired waiting for targets
that seldom show up.
as this ninth report goes to press-the As winter draws to a close, it is found The nearest thing to an antiaircraft de-
long sought truce, some lucrative targets that the UN Air Force has completely fense combat situation developed when
till then in the air or on the ground, , thwarted the efforts of the Communist three itinerant hostile planes of obsolete
and the ANTIAIRCRAFTJOURNAL. In all air units to maintain operating bases types flew.over an airfield. Two were
seriousness the JOURNALserves to show close to the front lines from which they damaged by antiaircraft weapons and
them convincing interest back home, and could launch mass or sneak attacks disappeared quickly and the other man-
they like it. against our forces or installations. Even aged to drop some bombs around the
It is gratifying to note the increased air-against-air combat has gravitated perimeter of the area. A few other spo-
interest displayed by the young antiair- northward toward the Yalu Hiver sanc- radic efforts of this nature have occurred
craft officers and men in writing articles tuary with its obvious advantages for but, in the language of the antiaircraft
for the JOURNALcovering in detail the the enemy. Our magnificent airmen artillerymen, "the greatest damage in-
more interesting episodes of combat ac-. grapple with the Communist pilots over flicted is to our reputations-we can't
tion in Korea. These fine stories have done his own defenses and consequently get hit them if they don't come in and 6gh1."
more than just help to break the monot- hit by the hostile ground fire and anti- With the UN infantry static warfare
ony of the dreariness in the battle area. aircraft artillery. The enemy airplanes, continues. There are raids in force,
The men get a fine boost in morale and however, do not cross our front lines ex- pushes here and there to improve posi-
they also get copies to send home. That cept at most infrequent intervals as a . tions or to drive the opposition out of a
is the reason why the 1\AA troops In result of which our antiaircraft artillery- particularly favorable area. The front,

Lt. Col. Charles E. Henry decorates two JouT1la/ authors: 1st Lts. Paul S. Vanrure (left) and Robert C. Morrison (right),
21st AAA A\V Bn., won Silver Stars for gallantry in action in Korea.
however, is close to stabilized. The "flak matic Artillery" as first reported in this tion to others killed and wounded dur-
wagons" are being used to the usual series of articles. A very appropriate ing engagement of the other installations
advantage in the various types of close summary of the achievements of the mentioned above.
support described so many times before 10th AAA Group under Colonel Hen- Lieutenant Colonel George \Vebster's
in this series. The mutual confidence nig's command is appended to this report. 68th AAA Gun Battalion had a break
among members of the infantry-armor- in the monotony of target waiting when
The 10th AAA Group Headquarters
antiaircraft team continues to develop it engaged some bogies on one occasion.
presently is commanded by Lieutenant
in rapid strides and is manifested in the
Colonel ~T erner L. Larsen, himself a The enemy immediately took evasive ac-
perfection of new techniques in laying tion and disappeared. The initial ap-
veteran of the Korean war action, and
down and shifting of infantry support commander of the 50th AAA A\V Bat- proach was at just over treetop height
fires. In defensive operations, the place- and ground clutter bothered the radar
talion. Larsen collaborated with Colo-
ment of intensive automatic weapons operators but they are getting used to
nel Hennig on many of his basic policies
fire on short notice has salvaged many tracking through light ground haze and
and is an ideal man to carryon with the
a critical situation.
10th Group. The 50th AAA Battalion refuse to alibi at all on this score.
All in all, things are about the same is attached to the 10th Group. All batteries of this battalion are con-
with the antiaircraft troops-except for The group has concentrated on polish- structing what is termed the "Poor Man's
one thing. Colonel William I-I. Hennig, ing up the firing techniques of the bat- T-33." This is accomplished by combin-
veteran commander of the 10th AAA talions in anticipation of some air attacks ing the radar and computer vans into
Group has been "rotated." This senior from the Red Air Force during the peri- a single fire control center, thereby elim-
commander of antiaircraft forces in Korea od when it was concentrating strength inating the need for a separate Bat-
since the early days has been outstand- and attempting to build operable for- tery Commander's CPo The location of
ing among troop commanders. A grad- ward operating strips. 'As a result the the battery commander in close proximi-
uate of the Class of 1928 at the Military antiaircraft was never better prepared to ty to the heart of the battery's operations
Academy, Hennig has participated in meet any such hostile efforts as may makes for greater coordination and closer
all the normal types of antiaircraft artil- develop in the future. control.
lery employment and not a little of the Lieutenant Colonel Webster deco-
In conducting practice .firings at
unorthodox use of these weapons. In rated First Lieutenant Carl E. North,
ground targets, the batteries under 10th
the early days of rapid advance and just- Jr., with the Soldier's Medal for out-
Group training instruction were intro-
as-rapid retirement, Hennig commanded standing heroism in rescuing a wounded
duced to the novel method of firing at
a group organization of 90 millimeter member of a group of British engineer
live enemy installations instead of the
antiaircraft battalions which was used troops, who was located in a barbed wire
usual dummy targets. This is possible in
entirely as field artillery. The batteries entanglement. Lieutenant North has re-
a stabilized warfare situation and full
did not even carry with them their motor turned to the United States since the
opportunity was taken of the advantages
generator sets, their radars or their di- event.
offered. Batteries were moved forward
rector equipment. \Vith attached field
to positions where observed fire could The 78th AAA Gun Battalion, com-
artiIlery battalions, the group provided
be undertaken and scheduled practices manded by Lieutenant Colonel Daniel
artillery support for the 1st Cavalry Divi-
were carried out. Air and ground spot- G. Grandin, has been engaged in anti-
sion and la,er became the divisional artil-
ters reported 20 bunkers destroyed, all aircraft defense of harbor installations
lery for the First Republic of Korea
occupied by enemy troops; eleven others in a critical area. Lieutenant Colonel
Division under Major General Paik
damaged; se\'en machine gun emplace- Grandin replaced Lieutenant Colonel
ments destroyed; two others damaged; John B. Parrott who has been trans-
It was in those days that the antiair- one antitank gun emplacement destroyed ferred to the Zone of Interior for assign-
craft artillery in ground support role and fifty-seven hostile troops killed by ment.
made history under the title of "Auto- fire directed at personnel targets in addi- The 865th AAA AW Battalion (SP)
is providing defense for an Air Force arms and automatic weapons fire. Lieu- A Platoon of Battery B under Lieuten-
base but things have been relatively tenant Ludger Conyers, Sgt. Billie E. ant Pirkl supported an infantry patrol
quiet of late. There was one low level Drummond and Corporal Donald P. and engaged in a short but spirited ac-
bombing attempted by a hostile itinerant Wichman were outstanding in the oper- tion. During this action four of the
light plane but no significant damage ation. enemy were killed in action.
was done either by attacker or defenders Battery B, under Captain Glen H. Brigadier General William E. Wal-
in this instance. Wilson also fired considerably from the ters, commanding the 25th Division
One automatic weapons section, con- MLR positions during the period since Artillery, presented decorations to several
sisting of one M-34 and one M-16, sup- the last report. Lieutenants Robert members of the battalion. Major Rob-
ported a 90mm gun in forward area Wright and George T. James alternated ert R. Taylor, Jr., received a third Certif-
artillery action. The results of the sup- their platoons in one period of concen- icate of Achievement and Captain Jack
port mission were recorded as 22 enemy trated action in which Sgt. 1st Class R. Lary, Michael B. Kaminski and Ray-
killed in action, 2 bunkers destroyed, 2 Alvie A. Bullock, Sgt. Dale McKessor mond L. Snider and Sergeant Anselmo
machine guns put out of action and an and Corporal Ernest J.
Lucero did some L. H. Untalan, who entered the US
unknown number of enemy wounded. outstanding shooting. Army from Guam, received Bronze Star
The 933rd AW Battalion (Mobile) D Battery, under Captain Richard medals. Cumulative awards in the bat-
under Lieutenant Colonel Charles E. Pride, a veteran of Korean service, like- talion are: Silver Star 20; Bronze Star
Roden report "business as usual," but no wise participated in this type of action (V) 49; Bronze Star (M) 36, Soldier
special incidents of note. against the enemy. Some new replace- Medal 2; Commendation Ribbon 2;
ments in Lieutenant Robert Steelman's Purple Heart 139. The total decorations
platoon performed outstandingly in their number 248.
THE 3rd AM AW Battalion (SP), first action against the enemy.
commanded by Lieutenant Colonel John The 15th AM AW Battalion (SP),
P. Goettl, has been providing defense for commanded by Lieutenant Colonel T HE 82nd AM AW Battalion (SP),
the 3rd Division CP, Corps Artillery James M. Moore, is engaged in direct commanded by Lieutenant Colonel
units in the division sector and the 99th support of the 7th Infantry Division, Howard A. Geddis, has been engaged in
Field Artillery Battalion which for a general support of the division field artil- both ground support and air defense of
time was under operational control of lery and the antiaircraft defense of the the 2nd Infantry Division and the IX
the division artillery. The battalion's division zone of action. Corps Headquarters. Because of the
M-39 vehicles have been performing Harassing and interdiction fires were large number of replacements for this
outstandingly with front line infantry put down in the forward infantry areas. battalion, it has been necessary to hold
regiments in supply and evacuation To reinforce the artillery fire in support frequent target practices at the 10th
functions. of the infantry, two 90mm T-8 guns Group range, but the respective batteries
Two M-19 weapons, one from each have been attached to the battalion. now are well trained and ready for any
of Batteries A and D, fired at targets of These two guns were operated as Bat- type of combat they may be called upon
opportunity from positions on the 15th tery "Y," under Captain Wrobleski. to perform.
Infantry main line of resistance. The More than 45 enemy bunkers have been So another cycle in the activities of
results were highly satisfactory. Battery destroyed by this improvised unit with the antiaircraft artillery in Korea has
B engaged in similar activity on another attendant excellent results in enemy been completed. From the initial stages
occasion and expended 323 rounds of 40 killed and wounded. of combat when all operations were in
mm ammunition in neutralizing nine On January 5th Brigadier General the role of ground support and no anti-
bunkers and inflicting ten enemy casual- Harry MeR. Roper, 7th Division artil- aircraft defense at all was established,
ties. lery commander, presented the silver the antiaircraft troops later were divided
Battery A of the 3rd MAW Battal- star to Sergeant John Finnigan of Head- into the orthodox categories of air de-
ion supported the 7th Infantry Regiment quarters Battery. Six purple hearts were fense and ground support units but since
in one company size raid against an awarded to members of the battalion the ground situation was a dynamic oue
enemy held position. Captain Kenneth during the past two months period. at that time, the balance in employment
D. Biersack made a forward area recon- of ack ack units was still heavily di-
naissance and located his CP with the rected toward ground fire missions. As
infantry commander from where it was ~T. COL. CHARLESE. HENRY the ground force action became more
possible to obtain perfect coordination turned over command of the 21st AM stabilized, there was a return to com-
of infantry and antiaircraft ground sup- AW Battalion (SP) to Lieutenant Colo- plete normalcy with even the divisional
port fires. Lieutenant Walter A. Guy nel James L. Crane in J~muary. During antiaircraft elements being assigned to
distinguIshed himself during this action. the first part of this reporting period, air defense missions in addition to pro-
On the night of the raid, the infantry the batteries were attached to the 25th viding close support fire. The ability of
reached the objective without difficulty Division field artillery as supporting ele- these troops to adapt themselves to such
but was taken under heavy fire as it re- ments. Later on they reverted to anti- changes in conditions is a tribute to the
turned to the friendly area. Battery A aircraft defense roles except Battery A training and efficiency of the officer and
took the opposition elements under fire which was supporting a forward infan- enlisted personnel of the United States
and quickly silenced the hostile small try element. Army Antiaircraft Artillery.

Targets ill America 50 Far From Kremlin's Bases That Most Raiders Could Not Ret1lnz-501'iet Unioll
Weak ill Capacity to Absorb Attack.

C01lrtesy of the St. Louis Post Dispatch

By Brig. Gen. Thomas R. Phillips

AIR defense is much more difficult Such Sacrifices Unlikely Any Hight from Northeast Siberia
for the Soviet Union than for the United must pass over the Aleutian islands or
If the Soviet Union, as reported, has
States. The United States is able to Alaska to reach the United States. Here
fewer than 500 medium bombers, it is
launch innumerable missions against we have the advantage of knowing, even
unlikely that many will deliberately be
Russia and Siberia while the Soviet from the time the enemy leaves the
sacrificed on such missions.
Union can send few against the United ground, that the Hight is being made.
It is easy to magnify the over-all im-
States, and most of these without any Our fighters in Alaska may be able to
portance of our cities and industry as a
possibility of return to home base. intercept, but if not, ample warning is
target for enemy bombing. The reality
Newfoundland, where United States assured, so the enemy planes can be
is that the Soviets will be fighting a
bombers would refuel on the airway to tracked and interceptors alerted in Cana-
major war in Europe and initially, at
Russia, is about 3500 miles from Mos- da and the United States. \Vith the
least, the most important targets for So-
cow. Our 10,000-mile B-36 heavies could United States and Canadian defenses
viet bombers will be the British and
make the round-trip with ease. Great now being prepared, enemy bombing
French ports and our overseas air bases
Britain is only about 1600 miles from from Siberia will at least be very costly
from which our bombing retaliation
~Ioscow, France 1350 miles, North Afri- and possibly completely thwarted.
would be conducted.
ca 1600 miles, and Turkey 1100 miles.
The difficulty of bombing the United l\lissions From East Europe
All of these distances are within round-
States may turn Soviet thoughts to other
trip of the B-29 and of the BA7 and In bombing missions to the United
methods of delivery of their bombs. It
B-52 jet bombers. States from Eastern Europe or from
is perfectly feasible for them to use sub-
From the Soviet side, Seattle is 2150 northwestern Russia-the area of Mur-
marines to launch' V-I type of guided
miles from Northeast Siberia, San Fran- mansk and Leningrad-the Red planes
missiles with atomic warheads against
cisco 2750 miles, Chicago 3540 miles, would be picked up in Norway or \Vest-
coastal cities. It is possible for them to
and St. Louis 3600 miles. ern Europe. They would be tagged
direct atomic torpedoes into harbors.
From Eastern Germany to New York again from Great Britain, the Faeroes
Their atomic mines can be laid from ap-
is 4050 miles and from i\Iurmansk to islands, Iceland or Greenland, depend-
parently innocent merchant ships.
Chicago is 4200 miles. ing on the route. They would be picked
Defense against such possibilities is
The Soviet copy of our B-29 bomber up again in Newfoundland or Labrador
just as important as defense against air
may be able to make a round-trip be- and even then would still have 1200
tween Eastern Siberia and Seattle or miles to fly to reach New York.
Hanford, although we do not know \Vith so much warning and any rea-
Two Air Bases In Siberia
enough about its performance to be cer- sonable defense, it should be possible to
tain of this, but the distances to all other There are at least two air bases on the intercept and destroy them.
critical areas in the United States are so northeast tip of Siberia. They probably The geographical characteristic that
great that any bombing missions against are nOt fully equipped bases, since there so greatly favors United States air de-
. this country, except to the Pacific North- is no railroad in the area and the har- fense is that any area from which Soviet
West,would be one-way flights in which bors are frozen about half the year, but planes can take off for the United States
the plane and the crew would be lost. the air fields could be used for refueling is at the 'narrow point of the arc-that
of planes based farther inland. Since is, the spread between Chicago and San
they are only a short distance from our Francisco is about 2000 miles, whereas
Brig. Gen. Thomas R. Phillips, USA Ret., bombers in Alaska, it is unlikely that the the spread in Alaska between the routes
noted antiaircraft artilleryman, is now mili-
tary analyst for the Sf. Lou;s Post Dispatch. Soviets would station any planes there to these cities is not more than 100 miles.
waiting to be destroyed. The same characteristic is evident, al-
MARCH-APRIL, 1952 11
though to a lesser degree, for the routes cl~se-in defense forces around critical port and industrial systems. Although
to the United States from European areas. ~ losco\\", for example, is reported there are a few serious bottlenecks in the
Russia. It is unlikely that \ Vest Ger- to be ringed by 17 airdromes. Other cities American transportation system, the net-
many, France and Great Britain, with and industrial areas are protected in the work as a whole is so great and presents
their fighter forces and warning systems, same manner. so many alternative routes that serious
would be Hown m'er en route to the This defense requirement is one rea- interference for any length of time is
United States. From Northern Russia son for the design of the (vIlG-I5, the almost impossible.
the arc would be narrow over Norway Soviet interceptor being used in Korea. The Soviet Union, on the other hand,
and only 500 or 600 miles wide at Ice- In the i\IIG straying power has been has a very limited rail net and almost
land and Greenland. sacrificed for rapid climb and great speed. no paved roads. If the rail net were
As a result, it cannot stray far from its cut and kept interrupted, the effect on
Raids Against Soviet Union airdromes in Korea. Soviet supply services would be very seri-
The opposite is the case for our mis- The i\IIG has been quite successful at ous. The wide dispersion of Soviet in.
sions against the Soviet Union. From interception at the single locality it is dustry makes it peculiarly dependent on
bases in Turkey, Africa, Europe and defending-the so-called MIG-alley. The its railroads,
farther North, our bombers can enter Reds know where our targets are, they \\lith a few critical exceptions the
the Soviet Union anywhere on a perim- have ample warning, and are in the air United States has many plants devoted
eter of about 6000 miles. to meet our planes when they arrive. to the same kind of product. If one were
\Vhereas our forward air defense re- Perhaps .MIG-alley is a trial run for the destroyed, others could fill in. The So.
quires only narrow arcs of vigilance, defense of Moscow. viet Union is particularly weak in this
\Vestern Russia must attempt to cover respect and is correspondingly vulner-
its great perimeter from the north, west MIG is Not a Night Fighter able to industrial bombardment.
and south against our entry, The dis- But the i\HG is not equipped for night On balance, the United States has a
tance is so great that forward air defenses fighting. It is unlikely that our slow little-understood but tremendous advan-
are impossible. The United States can B-29 and B-36 bombers would be used tage vis-a-vis the Soviet Union in every
establish very effective defense thou- over the Soviet Union in daylight and factor relating to strategic bombardment,
sands of miles outside the country while it is probable that our jet bombers could air defense, vulnerability, and capacity to
the Soviet Union must make the best evade the lVIIG's in daytime. absorb attacks.
, defense it can well within its territory. Allied to the problem of air defense Perhaps this is one reason why the
This is done by setting up strong is the vulnerability of a nation's trans- Kremlin has not risked war.


New \Vea]JOlls, DesJ1ite Effectiveness, Are Too Costly and Require Too kIt/cll Ma1lJ1ower to Be Used
Except to Prqtect Most Importa1lt Localities .

.F ULLY effective defense is impossible

as long as the enemy has suitable air-
artillery would be several times greater
than we shall ever have.
effort be made outside of the United
States, in Alaska, Canada and Europe?
planes and fields from which to operate. Or should we depend principally on
There are two reasons for this: Firstly, St. Louis as an Example close-in defense in the United States?
the comparative ineffectiveness of all air Actually, we shall use a much less The answers today are a compromise.
defense measures, either interceptor air- force and defend only the most impor- Offensive operations will be undertaken
craft, antiaircraft artillery or antiaircraft tant areas. Close-in defense of a locality, against enemy bases. Some defense will
rockets; secondly, the magnitude of the such as St. Louis, is a sort of last-ditch be provided outside of the United States.
defense which would be required to cov- defense. S1. Louis also would be de- And in the United States the probable
er the principal areas of any nation. fended by interceptors on the Canadian lines of approach, and the most impor-
In the United States, for example, border, or in Canada, or in Alaska and tant areas and localities will be protected
there are 232 cities with a population of Europe. And finally most effective de- with interceptors and antiaircraft artil-
more than 50,000 and there are prob- fense of all would be given by our bomb- lery and rockets.
ably a greater number of critical in- ing operations against the enemy air The technical complexity of air de-
dustrial communications points which bases from which he would take off for fense has increased with the speed of
should be defended. A minimum average the United States. aircraft. A jet bomber Hies at a speed
defense for each locality would require of eight miles a minute while the jet
about 5000 antiaircraft and interceptor Speed Increases Problem fighter rushes at more than 10 miles a
personnel; if 600 localities were to be One of the problems of air defense is minute. If they are approaching, they
defended the personnel requirements to determine where to make the effort. are 18 miles apart when within a minute
would amount to 3,000,000 men, while Should offensive operations be depended of each other and interception without
the quantities of aircraft and antiaircraft on for defense? Should our principal guidance would be most unlikely.
Importance of Radar Net feeted, will undoubtedly replace the gun is adequate for any conceivable advance
Guidance is provided by radar. Radio for higher altitudes. Development has in aircraft. It is guided from the ground,
instructions to the interceptor pilots tell proceeded far enough so that it is cer- may also have a homing device which
them which way and how high to go tain that rockets will be much more ef- comes into play when it gets close to
10 meet the enemy. At present-day speeds fective than guns at great ranges and the target, and mayor may not be
the interceptor may find them. and may altitudes. Two types are most promis- equipped with a proximity fuse. Its ac-
not. The differential in speed between ing. One is a small rocket, little more curacy, as determined by test firings, is
the jet bomber and the jet interceptor expensive than a shell, which is effec- so great that destruction of located ene-
is not great enough to prO\'ide any as- ti\'e to an altitude of 60,000 feet. my aircraft is almost certain. If guided
surance that contact will be made. \Vhereas a shell starts out with a veloc- rockets fulfill their present promise, they
There is a better chance if sufficient ity of 3000 feet per second, this rapidly are quite certain to supersede aircraft for
ad\'ance warning is received. \Varning decreases until the remaining velOCity all close-in defense.
is provided by still another radar set at 30,000 feet is less than 1000 feet per For lower altitudes, the new skysweep-
which can pick up high-Hying planes at seeond. This makes the time of Hight er antiaircraft cannon is sure death for
distances up to 200 miles. This is the to a point in front of the .gun, at 30,- enemy planes. It is a three-inch fully
search radar which composes the Ameri- 000 feet of altitude, about 30 seconds. automatic gun firing an unbelievable
can radar screen just about completed In 30 seconds a 500-mile per hour bomb- number of shells per minute. It requires
on the air avenues of enemy approach. er would have traveled 7500 yards so both a search radar and a tracking radar,
For highly critical areas interceptor de- that the gun-aiming device must predict the latter taking ovcr from the former
I fense may be provided well forward from the position of the plane that far in ad- whcn the plane is within firing range.
the locality as well as close to it. How- vance and aim five miles ahead of the The radar data is electrically fed through
ever. the more important close-in defense plane. The rocket, with a constant veloc- a computing device and an electrical
is a function of antiaircraft artillery and ity of 5000 feet a second, takes only system' which aims the gun and fires it
rockets. one quarter of the gun's time of Right without any human assistance. All the
The high speed of planes increases the and thus reduces the lead needed and gunners need to do is to feed clips of
I complexity of the always difficult anti- the chances of error due to a change in shells into the loading trough.
aircraft gun problem. Also altitudes of the bomber's course. In spite of the effectiveness of new
iQ,OOOfeet take the bomber out of the The small rocket is not guided, but it weapons, antiaircraft defense can never
range of our excellent 90-mm antiaircraft has a proximity fuse and can be fired be fully effective. They are too costly
gun. Heavier guns which can reach to simultaneously in great numbers. Its ac- and use too much manpower ever to
higher altitude are very costly and can- curacy is less than that of the gun, but be used to protect more than a limited
not be made in large numbers. its effectiveness should be greater at all number of the most important localities.
altitudes. Our most effective defense will be the
Antiaircraft Rockets The most promising antiaircraft de- offensive of our own bombers to destroy
The antiaircraft rocket, when per- vice is a large guided rocket. Its range the enemy aircraft beforc they take off.

By Major General Paul W. Rutledge
l.~ 1944 and 1945, when we were
scraping the bottom of the manpower
lery unit serving in home defenses can
be filled by women; many other positions
with rights, responsibilities and benefits
barrel, we learned that our nation's man- can be filled capably by men who are Category II: Personnel recruited on a
power resources were not inexhaustible; not otherwise qualified for full military purely voluntary and part-time basis, not
and, it is now apparent that the same duty-men who are over-age, draft ex- subject to full military control, and
situation may arise again. empt, or physically handicapped. formed into civilian auxiliary units.
Confronted with this situation, our In the event of an all out war, with Such personnel would continue their
military planning must explore every its attendant demands for physically normal civilian pursuits and activities,
possible source or means of more effi- qualified men, it may become desirable, except in times of emergency.
cient utilization of our available man- or even imperative, to utilize such sub- The vital difference between Cate-
power. In our antiaircraft defenses in standard personnel in either or both of gory I and II lies in the element of mili-
the Zone of the Interior, there exists a the following categories: tary control. Caregory I personnel could
tremendous potentiality for the exploita- Category I: Personnel enlisted for full- be utilized in a regular military organ-
tion of sources of manpower not normal- or part-time duty in a military unit and ization, while the Category II personnel,
ly considered in the military. service pool. subject to complete military control. formed into civilian auxiliaries, would
~Iany positions in an antiaircraft artil- This would include full military status retain a purely voluntary status with
MARCH-APRIL, 1952 13
only such military stature and posture an ineffectual organization, produced less inducements will demand legislation anc
as the loyalty of each person would di- successful results than in Great Britian. executi\'e action at the highest nationa.
rect. It is generally agreed that militarily Our own manpower situation in the level.
no major difficulties will be presented United States late in \Vorld \Var II \\Thether or not these matters are use(
in utilizing Category I type personnel. forced us to utilize limited service men as recruiting inducements, they will slit
However, with Category II personnel in antiaircraft units and some noncom- require ~olution by their very nature.
or the civilian auxiliaries, we are faced bat organizations. From this we learned before civilian am.:iliary organizatioill
with new and peculiar problems, many it could be done, particularly in our can be formed. For example, will a chi!
of which will demand completely new Zone of the Interior with the physically ian in an AA auxiliary be entitled to tht
approaches in our military thinking and limited personnel under military control. free S 10,000 government insurance? Wil
concepts. But, can purely volunteer personnel he or she be entitled to a pension for
Before proceeding further let us exam- (Category II) be organized into civilian an injury incurred in a volunteer statm
ine past experience in this field. Both auxiliaries which are capable of operat- during a training session? Will prior
Great Britain and Germany made ex-
tensive use of substandard or nonmili-
tary type personnel in the AA defenses
ing successfully in our AA defenses? In
arriving at an answer to this question,
let's look at some of the problems to be
physical disabilities, aggravated by \'01
unteer service, later be the basis for
claims for veteran's compensation?
of their homelands in \\Torld \Var II. solved in utilizing civilian auxiliary or-
Our first problem is one of procure-
Then too, the program for recruiting
civilians for AA auxiliaries will probabl~
have to be restricted to certain manpoweT
BEGINNING in the early days of ment. Can we secure the \'olunteers for pools. Obviously, we cannot entice Civil
the war, the British trained thousands civilian auxiliaries? How can we recruit Defense personnel from their highly im-
of women and used them in mixed bat- them? \Vhat inducements are needed portant tasks; doctors, policemen, fire-
teries with male personnel. As the war to attract volunteers? Certainly the mo- men, members of reserve or National
progressed, more and more able-bodied tivation will be greatly different under Guard military units are obviously re-
men were screened out of antiaircraft peacetime or pre-hostility conditions than quired elsewhere in an emergency. But
batteries and sent into other combat it will be after the first bombs fall. here again, a policy decision must be
units. They were replaced by women Perhaps patriotism will provide that made at very high level.
or by men incapable of general military motivation, especially in the case of
service. The results testify to the tre- former servicemen not physically quali-
mendous possibilities of such measures. fied for active service in the Armed A-l\'OTHER problem is that of siting
The Germans likewise resorted to the Forces. Perhaps cold anger and a desire the antiaircraft batteries to facilitate re-
utilization of women and men with for revenge will be the motivating force liance on volunteer personnel. The man-
physical limitations or those over-age for after hostilities start. l\laybe a distinc- ning personnel must come from the
military service. \Vorkers were pressed tive uniform, social opportunities, finan- immediate vicinity of the site if they are
into service in part-time antiaircraft aux- cial benefits such as pay, medical care, to be available when needed. It will
iliaries; even prisoners of war, foreign na- hospitalization, veteran's rights, or pen- probably be impracticable to site man)'
tionals and the very aged were forced sions will be the inducements. But what- batteries by industrial plants to utilize
into service. However, low morale caused ever the reason or reasons, it is imme- the employees as part-time auxiliary men:
by the specter of impending defeat, and diately apparent that creation of such however, it should be practicable to

General Rutledge Leaues Eastern AA Command

Photo courtesy of Army Tim ..

Maj. Gen. Rutledge on the eve of his departure for EUCOM takes the salute at a farewell review in his
honor on 9 Feb., with Co!. Robin B. Pape, CO of the 80th AAA Group. The 526th, 69th and 259th
AAA Gun Bns. paraded at Fon Totten, N. Y.
locatemany batteries in residential areas. ing a defense, and for securing valuable has military stature? Or will dis-
Bv using three or more shifts of person- information. It is most apparent that cipline be lost when the first bombs
n~l some degree of readiness can be some security clearance program would fall, with personnel abandoning
maintained daily around the clock. Of be advisahle for all personnel and an their posts to assist and be with their
course this volunteer duty will eventu- absolute necessity for key specialists, families in time of great danger?
ally interfere with sleep and rest, often such as radar personnel.
(9) Can absenteeism be Con-
ju~t due to a false alarm. Such a security program demands di- trolled to the point where effective
Also we may as well face squarely plomacy as well as effectiveness. For teams can be developed?
one of the trying problems in antiaircraft although a civilian auxiliary organization
(0) Can units be developed, ca-
defense, that is the utter monotony, con- might attract subversive personnel, it
pable of delivering accurate, effec-
finement, and boredom of standing alerts would also attract people of the highest tive antiaircraft fire ?
dav after day and month after month patriotic motives who might easily be
when the enemy attacks fail to develop. offended hy a security investigation if
We may well anticipate a real problem the necessity therefor were not fully ex-
THESE, then, are but a few of the
in maintaining the enthusiasm among plained.
questions to be considered in the utiliza-
volunteers. Some of the training problems to be
tion of civilian auxiliaries. Many of these
What dependability can we expect solved include:
difficulties can be overcome, as a test
from civilians during an attack? Can conducted in the Panama Canal Zone
(1) Acquisition of adequate
we expect them to forget all else and last summer proved. It was my good
training facilities-classrooms, train-
repair to their battle stations in time of fortune to observe the culmination
ing aids, and equipment at each bat-
emergency? Or are they more likely to tery site. of this Panama Antiaircraft Civilian
want to be with their families in time Auxiliary Program last August (ANrr-
(2) Carefully planned training
of emergency or threat of impending AIRCRAFT JOURNAL, September-October
schedules especially for those activi-
atomic attack? With no military con- 1951). I sat in on training classes and
ties requiring outdoor time (service
trols-or at best with limited control of observed the enthusiasm engendered
practices). Scarcity of AA firing
such personnel-how effective can we among the volunteer civilians; I watched
ranges near metropolitan areas in
expect a civilian auxiliary unit to be them go through the various drills and
the United States emphasizes this
when they are most needed? duties of artillerymen; and I observed
Early in the planning we should de- not without a good deal of admiration"
(3) Well organized and clearly
cide: presented instruction. Part-time these same civilians fire AW and 90-m~
a. How much warning of an enemy duty means that training must be service practices with a degree of skill
air attack can we expect? reduced to barest fundamental comparable to that expected of a regular
b. What time tolerance must we al- skills. military battery. The Panama tests
low a civilian auxiliary from sounding (4) Methods of alerting person- pointed up our military thinking on the
of alert until unit is prepared to deliver nel for duty in an emergency to get whole problem and gave us a base Upon
fire? speed and simplification. which to construct further plans and
Obviously, with civilian auxiliaries, tests.
(5) Security and maintenance of
we must be prepared to be more liberal equipment deployed on a defense It is not my purpose here to present
in our requirements on these points than site. A certain number of full-time a case for or against the utilization of
with a military unit. But can we afford personnel will be necessary to per- civilian auxiliaries. Rather, it has been
this differentiaJ-this time loss in opera- form these functions. merely to stimulate discussion and
tional readiness-in our initial defense (6) What time tolerance can be thought by presenting a few aspects of
before hostilities? Can we gamble on a allowed in manning equipment? the problem.
capability to bring destructive AA fire How much will this tolerance vary Let me repeat, in conclusion, that our
upon the first enemy plane-especially prior to and after the outbreak of manpower situation will be such in any
when that plane may be carrying an hostilities? Can we afford to utilize future war that undoubtedly antiaircraft
atomicbomb? Perhaps not initially, but personnel who are further removed artillery will be called upon to utilize
later, when the threat to our homeland from their post of duty than short some "substandard" personnel, at least
is minimized and our offensive effort is walking distance? How will traffic in our Zone of Interior defenses. Utiliza-
mounted, can we afford not to utilize conditions during and just prior to tion of that manpower-females and
such civilian auxiliary units in our ZI an emergency affect this time toler- physically handicapped, over-aged males
defenses? ance? -will pose many problems. Some of
Closely coupled with the personnel (7) Will this time tolerance dic- those problems will, of necessity, be
problems already discussed, is the securi- tate that civilian auxiliary units be solved in high level policy decisions;
ty angle. It is almost certain that sub- used only to augment and not re- others will require. special enabling legis-
versive elements would be attracted place army units in a defense? lation; but a vast majority of them will
quickly to a civilian auxiliary unit. An (8) Can military control and dis- be successfully overcome only by the
organization which could be easily in- cipline be maintained-in other hard work and experience of those of us
filtrated, it would afford an extraordinary words, can a civilian auxiliary unit who will actually have to cope with
opportunity for sabotage, for undermin- be developed to the point where it them!

MARCH-APRILr 1952 15
By Major Francis M. Connelly
S3, 245th AAA Gmt Bn.

Figure 1 shows complete assembly us- 1)' at 35~ each) when pressed on "Stand better illumination through the material,
ing the Remote Data indicator placed By" condition of readiness, energizes a but the cost is high, $ 1.73 per Sq Ft., de.
on top of the Fire Control and Status factory type klaxon horn to alert the livered. It can be obtained from the Do
Box. batteries (present price is $16.00 whole- Pont de Nemours Co., Plastics Division,
The Fire Control and Status Box in- sale). The horn must be 24V, AC, to A TIN: Sales, \Vilmington, Delaware.
cludes a battery of switchboard lights fit in with the power output of the trans- This puts the total cost of the board at
in the vertical plane at the left of draw- former in the unit. Due to the cost of $20.76 for two sheets, exclusive of light
ing. and a battery of switchboard lights the horn, other means of alerting the bat- sockets and bulbs. Choosing the cheap-
in the horizontal line at the right, to teries may have to be used. est way out, this Battalion used plate
indicate status of guns, and radar "On The remaining feature is the Target glass obtained from Ordnance under
Target." Rate Indicator. By using three Ord Cat salvage conditions. The total cost of
The left battery of lights is operated No. 7574115, and one Ord Cat No. the board, using plate glass, was $3.10
manually by five 6 amp toggle switches, 7574116 milliammeter gauges, we have for the sockets and lamps.
purchased locally for 25~ per switch. taken the exact data from the computer The inside portion of one glass has
The "On Target" light and all gun lights by means of connect!ng the correspond- a grid system painted on it, as well as
are energized manually by switches at ing dials of the target rate indicator to the gun and radar rings. The other piece
their respective locations, i.e., radar and
The "Fire" button, located on top of
those of the Computer. This should be
acceptable to Ordnance since we make
no changes or modifications to the com-
of glass is placed against the painted side
of the first piece, and fitted into its frame
of 2 x 4s. This allows writing on both
front panel-board, is used to fire the guns puters, but merely "tap" the data at its sides of the board without rubbing or
'by means of a 6 inch Bell 24V, AC, source. chipping off the grid system. A mold.
located at each gun (purchased locally This improvised instrument is located ing is placed around the frame of the
at $1.25 each). A safety feature has in the command post. glass to finish the board and hold it in
been built into this button by connect- The Vertical Correlation Board, sup- place.
ing the power to the "Battle Stations" ported vertically by a suitable 2" x 4" The "I" Plotter and the Radar Plotter,
switch, thus the battery cannot fire until wood frame, is composed of transparent using different colored grease pencil~ I
a "Battle Stations" condition has been material, such as two pieces of glass, 24 plot their respective information on op-
indicated. See figure 2. x 30 inches. Lucite is really better due posite sides of the glass (one of the t\\'o
The "Alert" button (purchased local- to its ability to carry light laterally and plotters must write and plot backwards). I
This system gives the battery command-
er at a glance the information he must
have before he can fire, and it also in-
dicates to him visually whether his radar
plots are correlated with the plots from
AAOC. He can also see when the plane
is in range of his radar and guns.

lUIlt' .. I

...... $H:'!:" cu.)
..... ,:, ':'0

." ...


fl: nll'!C_ TO c ..... o. to.. C.OtH

UIo.\ot. ~ ~.. t.=.OO .. ~ t_'.c. ~ C.c~,":

Figure I-Fire Control System. Figure 2-\'V'iring Diagram, Fire Control Box.
By Major M. R. McCarthy, Artillery

ONE problem of the AAA gun bat- a plotting board be maintained in each "on target." This time is established
tery commander in battle is that of tar- gun battery command post on which to by experience vvith each battery. As-
get selection. With a number of targets plot the locations of other aircraft, hos- sume here the time to be 20 seconds.
coming in range the problem becomes tile or unidentified, within range of the Therefore, the distance covered
rery complex indeed. Training Circular defense as received from the MaC. in this time is 3920 yards (196
18,27 December 1950 teaches that: By consulting his plotting board and yds/sec x 20 sec = 3920 yds).
1. Each fire unit should be assigned applying his rules for target selection, 3. Compute the travel of the tar-
a primary sector and a contingent sector the battery commander can determine get during the period from radar
of fire. the proper moment to cease tracking the "on target" until the battery fires.
2. If only one target appears in the target then being engaged and transfer This time duration includes slew-
primary sector of a fire unit, it should to a new and more profitable target. ing time, settling time and drill
be engaged as long as possible. time, and is also determined from
3. If more than one target appears THE PROBLEM battery experience. Assume here the
in the primary sector, the commander time is 30 seconds. The distance
should engage effectively the maximum CONSIDER a simple defense con- covered then is 5880 yards (196
practicable number. sisting of four gun battery positions, as yds/sec x 30 sec = 5880 yds).
4. If none appears in the primary shown in Figure 1. 4. Compute the travel of the tar-
sector, the maximum practicable num- Notice that a primary sector has been get during the time of Right of the
ber in the contingent sector should be assigned for each battery. For A Bat- projectile to the predicted position
engaged. tery, for example, the primary sectors of the target at the maximum range
5. Approaching targets are more prof- of the other three batteries constitute the of the battery. Here we take the
itable to engage than receding targets. contingent sector. It has been found time of Right to be 30.11. The travel
6. Each target should be engaged up less confusing to intersect primary sec- during this time is 5902 yards (196
to the final moment of bomb release by tors at the optimum range. yds/sec x 30.11 sec = 5902 yards).
at least one fire unit. This organization into sectors provides 5. Determine the maximum hori-
TC 18 then goes on to state that: "The in itself a basic coordination in t;he fire zontal gun range corresponding to
AAA defense commander should estab- distribution of the batteries. If there is an altitude of 30,000 feet and a fuze
lishrules for the selection of targets with- only one suitable target in the normal range of 30 seconds, which in this
in the primary and contingent sectors sector, the battery commander's choice case we find to be 7280 yards.
... " It is the purpose of this article to is simple. But if two or more suitable
The total of the values determined
suggestone approach to that problem. targets are in the normal sector, then
in steps 2, 3, 4, and 5 above establishes
vVe shall consider the gun battery we need a further basis for determining
the optimum range, in this instance 22,-
equipped with the SCR-584. Once a priority.
982 yards.
target is being tracked for engagement, Such a range priority may be based
The validity of the optimum range
the radar is blind to any other threats on what we shall call the optimum range.
so determined can be verified from ex-
against the area. This neceSsitates that This range is defined as that range at
perience. If we find we are not ready
which the decision must be made to en-
to open fire at maximum gun range, the
gage so that fire may be brought to bear
optimum range line is too close. If we
on the target at maximum range of the
find we are ready before the target is
battery. Optimum range may be cal-
within fuze range, the optimum range
culated by the fo~lowing procedure:
is too great.
1. Determine the expected target Referring to Figure 1, a target on or
speed and altitude of attack. (As- near the optimum range is a better tar-
sume here a speed of 400 miles per get than either one further out, or one
hour and an altitude of 30,000 closer in.
2. Compute the travel of the tar-
get during the time between the SINCE there is an optimum range,
battery commander's decision to en- there must also be an outer range, that
... '
gage and the time the radar reports is, a range beyond which a target is of
Figure 1.
MARCH-APRIL, 1952' 17
no immediate interest from an engage- of the items determined in steps I, give preference to targets closest to
ment point of view, and an inner range, 2, 3, and 4. In this instance, the in- the primary sector.
that is, a range within which an engage- ner range is found to be 18,076
6. Next target priority is one
ment is just barely possible. yards. It should be noted that if
within the primary sector and clos-
the decision to track is given at in- est to outer range.
The difference between {)ptimum
ner range, time should permit an
range and outer range is the distance 7. Targets outside the priml:):ry
engagement of one salvo.
which a directly appmaching target can sector are discarded when other tar-
cover during the entire time taken by gets reach a higher priority.
These outer, optimum, and inner
the gun battery to pick up and effective-
range priority arcs should be plotted on 8. Give targets approaching in-
ly engage another target. This time again
any equipment showing target location ner range or inside such range a
will be determined fr{)m experience.
and to be used in target selection. In- low priority.
However, it will be about 100 seconds.
cluded in this category would be battery
Outer range would then be 19,600 yards
plotting boards, radar PPI scopes if used EXAMPLE
beyond optimum range, or at a range of
for target selection, and AAOC opera-
42,582 yards.
tion boards. FIGURE 2 shows an assumed situa-
Inner range is computed as follows: The AAOC will seldom designate tion as displayed on the battery plotting
specific targets to an indicated battery, board.
1. Compute the travel of the tar-
but, in.some instances, it may be neces-
get during the pick-up period, using
the same assumptions as above in
computing optimum range, to get Now that all of the aids are available
to assist in target selection, formulation
the same value, 3920 yards.
of specific rules for target selection is
2. Compute the travel of the tar- possible.
get during the settling and drill
time, same as for optimum range,

3. Compute the travel of the tar- 1. Engage appmaching targets in

get during the time of flight to the preference to crossing or receding
point on the trajectory located by targets.
the arguments of 30,000 feet alti- 2. Engage as many targets as pos-
tude and maximum elevation of the sible-keep the guns firing!
gun. At a value of 75 -approxi- Figure 2.
3. As first priority, engage tar-
mately 1300 mils-the time of flight
gets closest to optimum range and
is 22.94 seconds. The distance cpv- within the primary sector. After considering the rules for selec-
ered is 4496 yards (196 ydsj sec tion of targets, it can be seen that targets
4. If none, engage targets outside
x 22.94 sec = 4496 yards). numbered 2, 3, and 4 are not considered
the primary sector and closest to suitable for engagement at this instant.
4. Determine the minimum hori- optimum range, provided that it is Target number I is the first priority
zontal range for an elevation of 750
possible to fire at least one salvo at target since it is within the primary sec-
and an altitude of 30,000 feet. Fmm such a target before any target with- tor and closest to optimum range.
Fr 90-AA-B-3, this distance is in the primary sector reaches opti- If target number 1 did not exist, tar-
found to be 3780 yards. mum range. get number 6 would probably be con-
5. The inner range is the total 5. Outside the primary sector sidered as first priority since a short
engagement would be possible on this
target before target number 7 reached
optimum range in the primary sector.
Lifein the White House with- At that instant, engagement of number
6 would be stopped and the order given

MR. PRESIDENT to pick up target number 7.

Target number 6 is much preferred
By William Hillman over number 5, even though both are out.
side of the primary sector and at optimum
range, for two reasons: first, number 6
Today's most talked of book-the diary and papers of President is closer to the primary sector, and sec-
Truman since he first took the oath of office upon the death of ond, number 6 is -an approaching target
whereas number 5 is apparently on a
President Roosevelt. 253 Pagesi $5.00. cmssing course.
Study and practice in this matter is
excellent training for the battery officer.

General Porter Makes History!
By Jerome Kearful

11\ 1882, General Ulysses S. Grant acid burns and was, in one place, rather
\-indicated former General Fitz John Por- weak as a consequence. This faulty rope
ter with an article entitled "An Unde- was payed out, with the General shout-
serred Stigma," that appeared in the ing downwards his encouragement.
North American Review for December General Porter was about lifty feet in
of that year. During the twenty years the air when the taut cable parted with
that had intervened since Second Bull an explosion like a bursting shell. Just
Run, the ex-general's reputation had before correspondent Townsend had
been under a cloud, in which time many turned to speak to a companion. The
of Porter's genuine merits and accom- portion of the rope attached to the earth,
, plishments had become obscured and suddenly freed of its strain, struck him
forgotten. across the face and felled him to the
Among Fitz John Porter's unique ad- ground!
I ditions to the military history of the Civil 1 As Townsend struggled to his feet, he
\Var was a solo Hight in a free balloon heard gasps of surprise and curses of
orer enemy lines and back again safely to
I chagrin. As soon as his vision cleared, he
his own base! Here is the story of that ~ looked upwards. General Fitz John Por-
remarkable event, that took place just ter, his balloon rockinot> like a feather in
ninety years ago. the breeze, was making a speedy ascent
A man by the name of George Alfred without even a thread to tie him to his
Townsend, correspondent for the New comrades <?nthe ground below!
York Herald, saw the whole affair.
Among other activities, Townsend had
made a friend of Thaddeus S. C. Lowe, THADDEUS LOWE, violently agi-
first "aeronaut" of the United States tated, cupped his hands together and
Army, and, with the help of Joseph bawled into the sky, shouting instruction
Henry of the Smithsonian Institution, or- to Porter to "climb-to-the-netting-and-
ganizer of the Balloon Corps. Behind the reach-the-valve-rope." Either General
Federal lines at Yorktown, Virginia, Porter heard the aeronaut, or some of the
Townsend watched interestedly as Lowe rudimental Hying instruction he had re-
patiently showed the "ropes" of balloon ceived came to his mind. For he did
observation Hight to General Fitz John attempt to reach the valve rope, as Lowe
Porter, chief in command in the area. had directed. But it was too high for
Both Porter and Lowe were natives of A. C .Q'l.'
him, and the balloon was rocking so that
the state of New Hampshire, a circum- he could not accomplish his aim. As the
stance which seemed to increase their balloon rose higher, Porter abandoned
mutual respect. his attempt and, appearing at the side of
George Townsend noticed that, after a federate batteries. Balloon Corps men the car, made gestures of failure and
few trips aloft with Lowe, General Por- scurried about, hastily preparing one of resignation to the comrades that he was
ter began to demand that he should make the oil-covered canvas bags and an ob- so unexpectedly leaving behind him.
observation ascents alone, at such time as servation car for the General's use. At For several minutes that seemed like
he might feel inclined. There s«aemed the lirst possible moment, Porter, carry- hours, the freed balloon and the reluc-
little enough danger, since the Federal ing a long black telescope, clambered tant aeronaut continued their ascent,
balloons were always safely moored at a into the car and ordered the rope cable almost directly above the spot whence the
height and beyond the range of Confed- payed out with dispatch. strange Hight had started. What would
erate lire. Now, in their haste to get the General happen next? A silence. 'settled over the
One day, General Porter appeared, in aloft, the balloon .crew overlooked the watching party. Every eye was strained
a considerable hurry, and ordered that a fact that this .rope, that was the sole skyward.
balloon be immediately prepared for means of keeping the balloon from drift- Then the upper air currents began to
ascent for his use. He wanted to observe ing away, and carrying General Porter take charge of the errant aerostat. At
at lirst hand the location of certain Con- with it, had recently accumulated several lirst, the Federals noted with satisfaction

MARCH-APRIL, 1952 19
that the balloon seemed to be headed in until it came to a standstill directly over hand. Now, more rapidly than Gener;\
the direction of Fortress Monroe, on a the great Confederate works ringing the Porter had been carried westward over
southeasterly course that lay within the \illage of Yorktown! the Confederate lines, a contrary \",ind
Federal lines. A shout of relief arose as The Confederate rifle fire ceased. Awe suddenly began to bear him back and
it appeared that General Porter was safe and amazement gripped both contending downwards to his comrades! Animated
from enemy hands. armies, as a hundred thousand men for- hope again spread throughout the FtXl-
Then, with the vagary of the winds up got their other interests and fixed their erals.
in the region where the balloon was float- fascinated gaze on that strange drama The air current that was effecting
ing, a new and stronger current caught in the sky. Porter's rescue did not fail him. Once
the canvas bag and-this time, it was Every available telescope in both more, the balloon passed over the Federal
driven directly toward the Confederate armies was brought to bear on the bal- outposts. It continued into safe territory!
lines! Dragging the appendage of its lo~m. Observers noted that General But General Fitz John Porter wise~
parted mooring rope like a piece of spa- Porter, floating unattached above the was taking no chances. With alacrity and
ghetti, it headed for Yorktown like a Confederate Army, seemed to regain his greater assurance than he had shown be-
homing pigeon. composure. Apparently resigned to what- fore, he climbed to the netting to reach
Before this, the Confederates had ever end fate might have in store for the valve rope. This time, he was suc-
taken note of the strange phenomenon him, he decided to put the remaining cessful. The valve opened, and the bal.
behind the enemy's lines. Alarm signals interval to good use. He calmly un- loon plunged to earth like a bird shot on
had sounded, and there was a sudden limbered his own, long, black telescope, the wing.
hustle and bustle among the soldiers in started making careful observations of The speed of the descent was such
grey. As the wayward balloon continued the Confederate works, and jotting down that the General might well have been
its westward flight and passed over the his findings in a notebook! injured on reaching the ground. But
last Federal outposts" there was a unani- But the suspense could not continue his luck still held. His' fall was broken
mous groan from General Porter's com- indefinitely. It seemed that General when the car struck the top of a tent and
rades and the sound of rifle fire from Porter was lost, when it appeared that lightened his impact with the earth to
the Confederates. the balloon was gradually settling earth- the extent that he was able to pick him.
ward. The Confederates anticipated the self uninjured out of a tangle of canvas
gift of a balloon and its pilot, though and netting. Within seconds his hand
HAD there been antiaircraft weapons they little suspected that this pilot was was wrung with delight by his comrades.
that day, General Porter and his balloon the commander of the great force oppos- while shouts of congratulation filled the
would have met their end in short order. ing them! aIr.
But the rifle fire failed of its mark, and All seemed to be over, when the un- General Fitz John Porter had made
the perverse balloon continued its flight predictable air currents again took a history!

With The 15th AAA AW Battalion (SP)

By Capt. Charles F. Farber
THE self-propelled AAA battalions ' used very advantageously as an armored to the self-propelled outfit for close fire
have proven in the Korean conflict that ambulance, an armored vehicle for bring- support.
they are indispensable to the infantry ing infantry troops up and through the The morale of the men in the 15th
division. The firing batreries consist of front lines and an armored patrol and AA AW Battalion (SP) was the highest
eight 1\119s,eight M16s and three M39s communications vehicle. I have ever seen anywhere. Some of
(personnel carriers). Although the M39 The fire power and mobility of all the reasons for this were the high degree
is not considered as a weapon it has been these weapons have been like big broth- of confidence they placed in their equip-
ers to the doughboys; they feel as though ment plus the 'knowledge of its devas'
these weapons are, in effect, a lifesaver tating effect on the enemy. Whenever
Capt. Farber served in Korea as a battery
commander with the 15th AAA AW Bn. {SP} to them and it was with warm feeling there was a lull in battle you could see
and an the staff of the 7th Division. He is that they applied the term Flak Wagon the crews climbing all over the equip-
presently instructor of tactics at the M &
GM Branch, TAS, Fort Bliss, Texas. to this equipment. No matter what phase ment-maintaining and preparing it for
of battle is in progress, the infantry looks action even before they took a much
6. Convoy protection against air extremely difficult because the ,'ehicles
and ground attack; authorized were insufficient. Often-
7. Defense of field artillery posi- times, 2lh ton trucks could not reach
tions and di,'ision installations. positions of the 1'1I9s or 1'1I6s because
of terrain difficulties. This problem was
overcome by using the 1'139 as an am-
The enemy is afraid of these weapons;
munition carrier. Gasoline was a very dif-
once ferreted out they cannot withstand
ficult problem especially on a long move.
the withering and devastating fire that
Borrowed trucks loaded with 55 gallon
they are subjected to.
drums followed the column. The gas
One of the .M16's of the author's battery In the early stages of combat self-
was pumped by hand into the combat
being repaired near Suwon, Korea, after propelled units were misused by the
vehicles. Hand pumping of approxi-
its track had been damaged by a road RCTs because of a lack of knowledge
mine. This is typical of roadside repairs mately 110 gallons of gasoline into each
and experience as to the limitations of
made by the unit. of the eight l'II 9s and ]\ 116s was a
the weapons and their proper usage.
herculean task and delayed convoy move-
\ Vhen the RCT commander saw that
needed rest. They used their ingenuity ment considerably. Another major prob-
the "Flak \Vagons" had such terrific fire
in making makeshift repairs of all kinds lem invoked the limitations of the single
power and maneuverability, they were
to keep these weapons rolling whenever
tank retriever in headquarters battery.
inclined to use them in any eventuality
there was a lack of spare parts. For ex- Very often a battery would be with a
without due thought to their vulner-
ample, a power charger on an 1'116 tur- task force many miles from battalion
ability. Oftentimes they were placed
ret burned out rendering a sorely needed headquarters and would be in dire need
in outpost positions or sent on patrols
weapon useless and out of action. Since of the retriever in the battalion head-
in guerrilla infested country with no riRe-
there was no replacement, a scheme was quarters motor pool. Because the retriev-
men for protection; often they were
devised whereby a 210 charger (Little er could not always reach the disabled
called upon to lay on sustained fire with-
Joe) was mounted on a frame welded vehicle in time, the vehicles had to be
out appreciating the rapid ammunition
to the rear of the turret; this still allowed destroyed.
expenditure. \Vhen the battle took its
for 360 traverse and although the track-
0 After much thought I have concluded
worst turn they were kept on the move
ing rate was slower, it was able to fulfill that the headquarters battery should be
night and day without opportunity fo-r
itsground support mission. The infantry converted into a combined headquarters
the maintenance so necessary to keep
is proud to have a self-propelled unit and service battery. This could be done
them active as fighting machines. This
with them and the men and officers are economically by the addition of a few
misuse was corrected when both the in-
I proud to be in this type unit. men and necessary additional vehicles.
fantry and AAA commanders learned
Track laying ammunition vehicles should
Our unit was used in all phases of that they should be used much the same
be added to the TO&E and a 750 gal-
combat and even though these vehicles as an infantry heavy weapons company.
Ion gasoline truck to each firing battery.
presented a high silhouette and were Self-propelled units should never be sent
At least three tank retrievers should be
"thin skinned," the casualty rate was ex- on a mission without adequate riRe pro-
included in the battalion motor pool
tremely low, The high morale, high state tection nor to a position from which they
rather than one as is now the case.
of training and terrific fire power are cannot make a rapid withdrawal.
I would also suggest the mounting of
responsible for the low casualty rate.
caliber .30 machine guns on all jeeps
Some of the missions successfully accom-
THESE were not the only problems in the battalion. Very often these ve-
plished were:
facing the unit in the early stages of hicles are used as scout vehicles ahead
combat'. Another important problem of the column or are used on patrols.
1. ]\Ilaintaining area and security
was that the TO&E for a self-propelled Many times the machine gun mounted
unit was drawn up primarily for AA de- on a jeep has proved invaluable. This
2. Direct support of infantry in addition, of course, should only be used
fense and not for continuous support
bridge crossing, advances and with-
of the infantry in a ground role. As a in combat theaters.
drawals; Self-propelled light antiaircraft units
result the field artillery battalions were
3. Clearing out hills and pill- hard pressed to keep attached self-pro- are versatile and useful in any phase of
boxes; pelled batteries supplied with gasoline combat whether in an air defense mis-
4. The establishment of road and ammunition, and very often could sion or in the ground role. \Vith only a
blocks; not meet the demand. The headquar- few necessary modifications, those units
5. Covering avenues of approach ters battery of the self-propelled battal- organic to the infantry will be able to
and defiles; ion assisted when possible but this was do an even better job.

MARCH-APRIL, 1952 21
The Saga of ttWhistling Dick"
By Major John B. B. Trussell, Jr.

IN a story which he called "The Burial bluffs above the l\1ississippi, the cannon gunboats "Dick" had been put out of ac-
of the Guns," Thomas Nelson Page told hurled their shot at Flag Officer Porter's tion. A section of the muzzle was blown
of Confederate artillerymen in the days gunboats on the river. Apparently it was off, though whether a projectile ex-
just before Appomattox. Rather than then that "Dick" earned its name. The ploded inside the bore or whether a shot
surrender to the enemy the cannon hoarse scream of its projectiles flying from the river struck the piece we dp not
which had been their charge and pride, through the air at the then-remarkable know. "Dick's" disability, however, was
they manhandled them to the edge of a range of three miles was so characteristic only temporary. With supreme disregard
cliff and pushed them over, into the river as to draw special attention. And Com- for the laws of exterior ballistics the crew
below. This may be a sentimental story, pany E's gunners made good practice, for simply sawed off the damaged part and
but it illustrates the attachment which one historian credits the fire of the guns, made the best of what was left. The
grows up among gunners for their weap- the Blakely being outstanding among gun was in action again on May 27,
ons, prompting men half humorously but them, with defeating General Grant's when a gunboat reported being engaged
half seriously to christen their cannon, to early assaults on Vicksburg. by it.
endow them with individual personali- But Grant was not a man to be easily
ties, to paint devices on the tubes to show discouraged. Moreover, Vicksburg domi-
the achievements credited-note it well nated the Mississippi. Control of the WHISTLING Dick's" subsequent
-not to the crew so much as to the guns river would cut off from Virginia the movements are controversial. The his-
themselves. It is part of that age-old supplies coming in from the unravaged torical tablet marking the position of
artillery tradition-that within the limits fields of Texas. Vicksburg had to be Company E, 1st Louisiana Heavy Artil-
of human capability, a cannon must taken. So, fighting his way in a wide lery at Vicksburg states flatly that on
never fall intact into enemy hands. swing from the south, by May 18 Grant May 28 the gun was moved to a position
Whether Page's story was suggested invested Vicksburg with 71,000 Federal in support of Lee's Brigade, near the
by the legend of 'Whistling Dick" or soldiers and 248 cannon. The 18,000 center of the defense line, too far away
whether this legend is a mere transplant- Confederates held positions along an for it to fire effectively on river targets.
ing of the story from Virginia to Missis- entrenched line bent for eight miles like It is understandable that General Pem-
sippi is probably impossible to tell. There a huge bow, protecting the town, with berton, the Confederate commander,
are, certainly, marked similarities be. the river as a bowstring. would divert every piece of ordnance
tween the two. True or not, the "Whis- The Southern artillery on the river that the river defenses could spare to
tling Dick" legend could have happened. line concentrated its attention on the strengthen the lines, for by repeated if
Even though the smoke of battle and the Navy. We know from the Official Rec- costly assaults Grant was hammering
haze of time obscure some of the details, ords' rueful testimony that "Dick" helped away at the Southerners' wi:ll to resist.
perhaps we can decide whether there is to make the waters of the Mississippi, if But meanwhile, Porter's river force bom-
any truth in the story that used to be told not too hot, at least uncomfortably warm barded the town almost continuously. /

by the old men who in their youth wore for the Union gunboats. The batteries' The Federal vessels could move quite
the gray. fire, in fact, was sufficiently irritating to freely, for the river batteries mounted
'Whistling Dick" was an 8-inch provoke Porter into seizing the first only thirty-five guns (two of which
Blakely rifle. Cast at the Low-Moor Iron promising opportunity of carrying out a burst), and the ammunition shortage de-
Works in England early in 1861, it was concentrated attack upon them. On May manded that every powder grain be
brought to the Norfolk, Virginia Navy 22 Grant requested naval mortar support hoarded. The result was a reluctance to
Yard. On the word of no less an author- for an assault he was hurling at the weaken the river defenses more than was
ity than Admiral David Porter, it was Southerners' lines. Besides the mortars, absolutely unavoidable. It cannot be
with the abandonment of this yard by though, and without being asked, Porter said, therefore, that there were military
U. S. naval forces on April 20, 1861 sent three gunboats to bombard the Con- considerations determining beyond argu-
that "Dick" went over to the Rebels and federate artillery positions. One of them ment that one line of defense or the
transferred from the Navy to the Army. concentrated exclusivelv on "the main other was the place to concentrate the
After this, for a full two years "Dick's" work ( ... the battery containing the heavy artillery.
record is blank. However, there is a defi- heavy rifled gun)" and silenced it. Actually, there is evidence completely
nite record that by May 18, 1863 "Dick" Grant's assault failed except for a tem- contradicting the statement on the his-
was in Vicksburg, Mississippi, one of porary breach in one of the Confederate torical marker. On June 4, a gunboat
two pieces manned by Company E, 1st redoubts. The attacking force was deci- captain reported to Porter that "When
Louisiana Heavy Artillery. Sited on the mated. But in the engagement with the firing upon the city last night 'Whistling
Dick' gave each of us a shot, fortunately indicate) the gun remained on the bluffs Certainly there is a sound military case
not striking us." Again, on June 17, above the river, as the distance over for preventing usable equipment from
there is the naval officers report that a which it would have to be moved would being captured, though this alone is not
round from "Whistling Dick" had struck be considerably smaller. enough to support the legend-if this had
one of the Federal cannon. There is, Also, when Mr. Leech's story was pub- been a command policy, it might be
therefore, some reason for doubting lished, Lieutenant A. L. Slack, who had asked \",'hy all of Vicksburg's cannon
whether the Blakely gun was moved served as an officer of the 1st Louisiana were not destroyed. The best explana-
from its site on the bluffs until after the Heavy Artillery, denied it categorically, tion for singling out the one gun would
middle of June, if, indeed, it was moved stating that the gun was moved to the seem to be the fact that 'Whistling
at aU. The question is not merely aca- support of Lee's Brigade, and surrend- Dick" was a symbol, not only to its crew
demic, for it helps determine which of ered there on July 4. This is the version but to the whole garrison, in an age
the various stories about 'Whistling which has been officially accepted. Cer- which was especially subject to romantic
Dick's" ultimate fate is more probably tainly, some gun passing as "Whistling gestures. It is quite logical, therefore,
correct. Dick" was surrendered with the garrison that only the one gun would be de-
The most popular legend is that on the on July 4. The Vicksburg National stroyed and the others surrendered.
night before the surrender, a detachment Military Park has a photograph taken We know, too, that there is so much
of men moved 'Whistling Dick" from its just after the surrender, showing a confusion about the date when "Dick" is
position onto a raft, ferried it out into the Blakely rifle. The photograph is labelled supposed to have been moved from the
current and pushed it over into the river. 'Whistling Dick." Today, at Trophy river to the land defenses as to throw
There is even a participant's account, by Point on the grounds of the U. S. Mili- serious doubt on whether it was moved
one A. P. Leech, during the siege a ser- tary Academy, a gun with a metal plate at all. And if it remained on the river
geant of Company K, 35th Mississippi identifying it as 'Whistling Dick" lies on bluffs, it seems probable that hauling it
Infantry. In 1900, when he described a metal rack, trunnion to trunnion with to a raft and ferrying it into the stream
the affair, he was an ordained minister. other cannon captured in battle by U. S. would be within the physical capabilities
Sergeant (or Reverend) Leech's state- troops. Their touchholes plugged, their of fourteen men, starved though they
ment contains a preciseness of detail that flaring mouths stilled, the old guns keep might be. Added to these facts is the
lends it a distinct air of validity. He silent vigil above the Hudson. Is the one artillery tradition of keeping the guns
remembers that there were fourteen men called "'Whistling Dick" really what it from the enemy even in defeat, a tradi-
in the detail and that the raft was made purports to be, or is it an impostor? To tion which never flourished stronger
of two small coal barges lashed together. an artilleryman, the gun looks as if a con- than among Confederate gunners. Taken
He recalls that the projectiles were oddly siderable length of the muzzle is missing, all together, the weight of the evidence
shaped-"square-cut with pointed ends." for the barrel seems surprisingly short is such that one can be morally sure of
It is to this peculiarity that he attributes compared with the breadth of the breech. the truth of the "Whistling Dick" leg-
the gun's characteristic sound. And it is no mortar, for the riflings of the end, even if it may not be possible to
Dissidents find several flaws in this bore are plain to see. prove incontrovertibly that the gun was
version. By July 3, the night before the not surrendered.
surrender, the siege had lasted more than Whatever was done with the Blakely
six weeks. The Confederates (never PERHAPS, after all, the gun at West gun, the very growth of the legend itself
well fed) had long been on extremely Point is the same which, nearly ninety is an indication of the attachment which
short rations, even for them. How, it is years ago, hurled shrieking defiance at fighting men' develop for the cannon
asked, could fourteen men, weak from the enemy below. But one does not have they serve. Whether 'Whistling Dick"
starvation, manhandle a piece of heavy to be an arrant sentimentalist to prefer to lies on the muddy bottom of the Missis-
ordnance from a position near the en- believe that the gun which became so sippi or under the trees of Trophy Point,
trenchments to the jiver's edge, espe- important a symbol to the defenders of it stands for a story which typifies a
cially down the steep bluffs of Vicks- Vicksburg was in fact thrown into the glorious tradition. It has earned its retire-
burg's river front? This argument has river to. keep it from falling into the ment. With the gallant men who served
considerable strength, though it is weak- enemy's hands. There is logic as well as it and the equally gallant men who
ened somewhat if (as the naval reports sentiment to support this contention. fought against them, may irrest in peace.

On one bright 25th of April, a member of Congress addressed the House of Representatives as
"I would ask, in a few words, if we ought to continue this establishment (the Navy) in its present
state? For the expense of a Navy has been proved to be in inverse ratio to its utility. To what purpose
do we keep up the Marines-another branch of the Establishment? If I am correctly informed, these
men are willing to run away whenever they have a chance to desert-if they can "getan opportunity
-and I am willing that they can quit the service, without being exposed to be brought to a court-
martial for desertion."
That speech was delivered in 1810. Four years later an enemy landed on the shores of Chesa-
peake Bay, marched to Washington and burned the building in which those words were spoken.
-Admiral William M. Fleehteler, Chief of Naval Operations, Chicago, 111., 7 Mar. 52.
1952 23

Grumman "Hellcat," designed, in \V'orld \V'ar II, for carrier or land based operations, is still in use for training.

"Mars" is the largest flying boat in operation by the Navy.


Navy's PBM "Mariner" uses a JATO (Jet Assist Take-Off).

Carrier based fighter planes, Navy "Panthers" of the jet family.

Major General William F. Dean


• The overco1lfidence we had when we entered Korea
A MIDNIGHT phone call on 30
June 1950 sent me to temporary com-
i1l JU1le 1950 was soon replaced by stubbom determina-
mand of the artillery of the 24th Division tion, professional compete1lce and uncommon valor
(its commander, Brigadier General
Henry J. D. Meyer, was on leave in the
United States). Four days later, after
seeing all my artillery loaded on ships, my By Brigadier General George B. Barth
plane landed at the air strip in Taejon.
In the single room of the South Korean
government building used as Major Gen-
resentative to assist General Dean. The shoestring, our leadership would be top-
eral \Villiam F. Dean's headquarters,
two generals were studying a large wall notch. The South Korean Minister of
there was an air of suppressed excite-
map. General Dean, a big robust six- Defense occupied the adjoining office.
ment. The first U.S. troops, a skeleton
footer with a bristling crew cut, ,was Upon learning that I was to go forward
battalion of the 21st Infantry with one
decisive; determination and leadership to Osan, he provided me with two jeeps
battery of the 52d Field Artillery Battal-
Howed from him. General Church, slim, driven by Korean l\IIPs. He also gave me
ion, were to go into action the next day
wiry and somewhat stooped, revealed a Lieutenant Colonel Yim who was a
far to the north at Osan. General Dean
calmness almost amounting to uncon- graduate of The Infantry School and
had Hown in ahead of his staff and taken
cern, as he went over dispositions and spoke very good English.
over command from Brigadier General
plans. I'm sure he had no such feeling \Ve left Taejon about three in the aft-
John Church who, with a small staff, re-
inside for he had been through much in ernoon and by midnight were in Pyong-
mained on as General MacArthur's rep-
the past few days. He had seen the taek where I met Lieutenant Colonel
*Reprinted with permission from the Morch, 1952 lightning thrusts of the North Koreans Charles B. Smith, commander of the 1st
issue of Combat Forces.
rout the Republican forces and drive Battalion of the 21st Infantry. Young.
them out of Seoul. Stopping at Suwon clean-cut and vigorous, Smith was my
he had conferred with General i\lac- man from the minute I saw him. He
Brigadier General George B. Borth was
General Deon's artillery commander during Arthur, but shortly thereafter had again probably had no more real idea of what
the first days in Korea. He later went into been forced to leave. lay ahead than I did but his quiet con-
Korea as the artillery commander of the 25th
Division. General Borth graduated from the
As I watched Dean and Church I had fidence was assurance that his men
Military Academy in 191B. the comfortable feeling that even though would give a good account of themsel\'Cs.
we were entering the Korean \Var on a As we rode forward to Osan where his
battalion was already in posItIon, batten' fire came down on our batten' The day dragged on with no news of
shared the prevailing overconfidence. I withi~ two minutes after we opened up, the fight at Osan. There was no radio
remember that Smith and I tried to pre- but it was not effective. \Ve left the bat- contact and we had no Cub planes to
\'ent South Korean engineers from pre- tery position and returned to Pyongtaek scout ahead. By evening, mo\'ement in
paring several bridges for demolition. to alert the 34th Infantry. It was ap- the town where the tanks were located
We finally ended up by throwing boxes parent that the bulk of the tanks would plainly indicated that we could e"1'ect an
of dynamite into the river from one break through and must be engaged attack early the next morning. Ayers's
bridge. No thought of retreat or disaster farther back. position was not a strong one, either
entered our minds. Shortly after daylight The 1st Battalion of the 34th Infantn', flank could easily be turned. Three
on 5 July I inspected the defensive posi- commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Ha'r- bridges along his front were prepared for
tion with Smith, found it on very strong old B. Ayers, was in position just north of demolition (stark reality had quickly
ground but pitifully weak as to numbers Pyongtaek. The other battalion began changed my ideas about blowing up
since the battalion had been flown in arriving by rail and was sent to garrison bridges!). Ayers prepared for defense,
without being brought up to strength the road center at Ansong, ten miles to but mv orders to him were different from
and was short about three hundred men the east. The remainder of the regiment those given to Smith. \Ve could not af-
and about a third of its machine guns was due to arrive at Songhwan during ford to sacrifice a second battalion at thi~
and mortars. He was ordered to hold in the night. In those days our "economy" time. Ayers could only hope to hold out
place to gain time even though his force regiments only consisted of two battal- for a few hours if the enemy got around
was surrounded. The 34th Infantry was ions instead of three, so we had no re- his flanks. So he was ordered to hold
unloading at Pyongtaek and I e"1'ected serve to reinforce either of the widely until envelopment was threatened and
to get them forward the next day in case separated battalions. Before the 34th then delay in successive positions to gain
Smith needed help. How wrong I was! could get bazooka teams forward, the time. It was apparent from the first day's
leading tanks of the enemy came out of action that the enemy's tanks would
C the town three miles north of the posi- break through and go until stopped by
~OON after we arrived at the battery tion. Upon being fired upon they re- some obstacle and then hole up and wait
gun position, "'Fire Mission" came over turned to the south edge of town and until their infantry caught up. \Ve there-
the phone from a fonvard observer. At remained there all day. Ayers's men at- fore had to block the fonvard bounds of
0816 5 July the first American round of tempted to stalk them but the 2.36-inch the tanks as often as possible.
the Korean conflict was on the way, fired
by the second gun section of Battery
A, 52d Field Artillery. The target was
bazooka shells just rattled off their hulls.
Large patrols attempted to enter the town
but were driven off by small-arms and
-' O\V was Smith doing? Through
eight tanks. The observer reported fire tank fire. This indicated that the enemy the long hours I waited and hoped,
well adjusted but ineffective, the tanks was building up strength and waiting dreading the news that by now, I felt
kept coming. Soon a total of forty was until his infantry finished off Smith's was sure to come. Finally, toward mid-
observed and reported. Enemy counter- battalion. night four of the survivors came in ex-

After fightillg a gritt)', rocklike defe1lSe for three da)'s the ulldermalllled alld ot.ergll1l1led 21 st Illfalltr)' was forced to retreat
from /lOrth of Chollall 011 10 Jul)'.

MARCH-APRIL, 1952 27
hausted and hardly coherent. r\ minute Pem' and the other survivors. He
later Lieutenant Colonel f\\. O. Perry. checked and approved our plans for the
who had been at Battery A's position next day and returned to Taejon. As
throughout the fight, arrived. He was Perry stood up to leave I found that he
calm and collected and from him and the had been wounded in the leg but had
other four we pieced together the ghastly said nothing about it and refused e\'acua-
story. tion. Early on the morning of 6 July,
The leading wave of tanks had been Ayers prepared to evacuate his headquar-
followed bv swarms of Red infantry. The ters south of the river while I went back
tanks ran past Smith's position h~ading to Songhwan to find the regimental com-
down the road to the south at top speed. mander of the 34th Infantrv.
The infantry formed up in the protected
ditch along the road at the base of the
hill, attacking on bugle-call signal. The
fire of our infantry drove them back but
K FOUND the 34th headquarters in 01/ 3 Jul)' elemel/ts of tbe Ntb Dillisioll
the process of moving to Chonan. After were waitil/g for a boat at Japal/ese port.
they re-formed again and again. Finally acquainting Colonel Jay B. Lovless, the
the entire position was surrounded and
after about six hours our ammunition
gave out and Smith had given the order
to come off the position in small groups.
regimental commander, with the situa-
tion and the orders I had given to Ayers,
I left for Chonan to reconnoiter further
delaying positions and arrange for the
No one surrendered, but the casualties detrainment of two troop trains that were
were heavy and many wounded were left expected to arrive at any time. The re-
in enemy hands. The position was lost mainder of Smith's battalion, consisting
and with it all the machine guns and of Companies C and D, and part of the
heavy equipment of the battalion; but headquarters had arrived in Chonan. I
when all th'e survivors had come in sev- selected a defensive position for this force
B)' tbe 6tb of Jul)' elemelJts of tbe 24tb
eral days later only 145 of the original about two miles south of Chonan, so that Djz'isiol/ were being flown iI/to Korea.
500 men were unaccounted for (these if the 34th Infantry was forced back
are approximate figures). Smith's men their withdrawal would be covered. I
had fought a magnificent, unequal fight then went on back along the railroad
and had gained one day of precious looking for other defensive positions and
time. They had done all that was hu- for the 63d Field Artillery, the next unit
manly possible. (Several months later I due to arrive. \Ve stopped at a railroad
was glad to be at the command post of station and put in a call for General
the 21st Infantry when Major General Dean at Taejon. Colonel Vim, speaking
John Church pinned the Distinguished Korean, was able to get through and
Service Cross on Smith for his gallant have the stationmaster at Taejon send
leadership in the Osan fight.) for a staff officer from our headquarters.
From the stories of Colonel Perry and This was our only means of communica-
the others I learned that the first tanks tion since Signal Corps units had not yet
came down the road near the artillerv arrived. \Ve located the 63d Field Artil-
position shortly after I 'had left and co~- lerv and had them detrain at Chochiwon
tinued to appear in small groups for and move forward.
several hours. The battery engaged them By the time I returned to Chonan it
at a range of about a hundred yards, the was early afternoon. There I was much
tanks stopping to return fire and then surprised to find Ayers's battalion retreat-
moving on. Our men stood to their guns ing through the town. I found Lovless,
in the face of the point-blank fire of the who reported that Ayers had been at-
tanks and succeeded in knocking out five tacked and was being heavily pressed,
of them by hits on the treads or by set- with his rear guard at that time just
ting them afire. \Ve had no armor- north of Chonan. I took the reports at
Trucks and guns mOIled northward bJ
piercing ammunition or incendiary shell, face value, gave orders that Ayers's bat-
rail toward tbe 24tb's tbinly beld lines.
and our high-explosive could not pierce talion would tie in with the defensive po-
the tank armor. \Vhen Perrv finally saw sition already being established south of
that the infantry was runni~g out ;f am- Chonan by Company C of the 21st In-
munition and would be forced to give up fantry and, since his other battalion at
the positions, he removed the sights and Anso~g was now outflanked, sent Lav-
breechblocks from his guns and led his less to move it by motor to the Chon an
men out of the position. (During the position to deepen the new defensive p0-
fight Perry had led bazooka teams out sition. I sent my aide, Lieutenant Boyd,
into the open and within fifty yards to General Dean to give him firsthand
of enemy tanks. For his gallantry he information of developments.
also received the Distinguished Service I know now that I made a grave mis-
Cross.) take by accepting the reports of Ayers's
General Dean arrived at our head- situation without finding him and verify-
quarters in time to hear the reports of ing them. Actuallv he had been attacked
Or'erconfidence disappeared when bodies of Americans were found sbot tbrough tbe bead witb hands tied behind their backs.

at Pyongtaek and had blown the bridges ing him north of Chonan at all costs. artillery positions. Profiting by this early
in front of him which caused the enemy On the 7th contact was made and in disaster, we learned that there were no
tanks to be held up all day. The Red i~- the next several days the 34th was badly "front lines" as we had understood them
fan try had enveloped his left Rank just as mauled in heavy fighting around Cho- before. Artillery batteries had to be
we had feared and he had withdrawn his nan. But valuable time was gained. The trained to fight as infantry in defense of
force south of the river to prevent en- 34th retreated through Chonan taking their guns. Batteries had to establish
circlement. The enemy had stopped up positions on the Kongju road, west observation posts, and security detach-
south of the river to wait for their tanks of Chochiwon, on the 10th. Bv that time, ments on the hills overlooking gun posi-
to cross, allowing Ayers to break contact. Smith had returned and reorganized his tions. Furthermore, we saw that infan-
Ayers must not have understood that to battalion; new guns had been given Bat- try commanders must plan to have tanks
gain time he should defend on the first tery A of the 52d Field Artillery and the and mobile infantry go to the assistance
a\'ailable position from which he could 21 st Infantry was fully concentrated of artillery in case of serious attack. After
physically block the tanks by demolitions. around Chochiwon. The main attack the 63d was hit we reorganized it, bor-
There were two such locations between drove against the 21st Infantry's posi- rowed six guns from the other batteries
Pyongtaek and Chonan. Instead, he had tions, where, for three days, that fine of division, and got it back in action
come all the way back through Chonan. regiment held like a rock ~nder the in- armed with two three-gun batteries in
I probably could have stopped him and spired leadership of Colonel Richard \\T. twentv-four hours.
gotten his battalion on a position north Stephens. Rugged, bluff and dynamic, In ~bout two days' time I had a third
of Chon an by dark. The next day the Stephens sparked the 21 st with de- battery of 155mm howitzers thrown to-
other battalion of the 34th did get back termination and courage. Almost over- gether by drawing officers and men out
to such a position, but met the enemy night ''The Gimlets" became one of the .of other batteries. Their gun drill con-
before it had time to dig in and prepare a staunchest of the regiments that saw sisted of firing against the enemy. They
strong defense. service in Korea. His leading battalion learned fast.
was surrounded but held while the rear By such improvisations we created

T RAINS swarming with refugees and

others loaded with South Korean troops
battalion fought its way up and relieved
it. It was there that we first encountered
units missing as a result of "economy."

moved south all day. Since the railroad

coming from enemy-held territory was
the savage brutality of the enemy-six of
our soldiers dead with their hands tied
behind them and bullets through their
THE ring of steel was tightening
around the doomed city, and it was ap-
still intact, I feared that the North Ko- heads. \\Then the 34th Infantrv was parent that the battered 24th Division
reans might load a train with their own attacked and forced to withdraw' across could only hold out a little while. An-
troops-you couldn't tell the difference the Kum River into Kongju, Stephens's other division, the 25th, had landed at
between North and South Korean sol- flank was exposed and he withdrew Pusan and was on. the way, but it
diers-and run them through us to the south of the river in good order. By 14 could not arrive in time to save the
rear. We had no explosives but we July, the 19th Infantry had arrrived and hard-pressed 24th.
pulled up sections of track south of Cho- taken up positions south of the Kum On 14 July, General Meyer returned
nan to prevent any such surprise. River for the final defense of T aejon. to his division. My job with the Taro
That evening Boyd returned bringing Meanwhile, the 34th was driven out of Leaf was over and I returned to myoId
General Dean to the 34th's headquarters. Kongju and retired east to Nonsan with command-the 25th Division. I was glad
General Dean was much disturbed by their line facing west. to be back among the men I had
the withdrawal and ordered one battal- \Vhile the Reds were crossing the river
trained and worked with so long; but I
ion to advance early the next morning, and. attacking the 34th Infantry's posi-
north of Chonan. I remained until the had gone through trying times with the
tion, thev also sent a force into the hills
order was carried out. Then, since about th~ee miles south of the town and 24th and had formed a strong attachment
Smith's battalion was gone and there was attacked the 63d Field Artillerv battalion for it. The wearers of the Taro Leaf
no need for coordinating the action of from both flanks and the ;ear. Our patch had been thrown in piecemeal
forces of two different regiments, I re- men were caught by surprise and were and sacrified to gain time. They had
turned to Taejon to resume my artillery driven from their position in confusion. contended stubbornly against overwhelm-
duties, leaving with the bitter feeling All the guns and most of the transporta- ing odds and I left them with the feeling
that I had failed General Dean by not tion were lost. This was the first of that they were writing a page in Ameri-
staying with Colonel Ayers and keep- many infiltration attacks against our can history that should be remembered.
MARCH-APRIL, 1952 29
* * * ********
ROLL ** *
Original Honor Roll 204tb AM Group 715t AM Gun Sn 708th AAA Gun Bn
Col. F. C. Grevemberg, La. Mai. J. H. Felter Lt. Col. P. L. Gelzinger, Po.
88th AAA Airborne Sn 205th AM Group . 75th AM Gun Bn 709lh AM Gun Bn
Lt. Col. R. B. Barry, Jr.
Col. V. G. Hines, Wash Lt. Col. J. T. H. Spengler Lt. Col. S. l. Cone
228th AAA Group
207th AM Group 78th AM Gun Bn 710th AAA Gun Bn.
Col. D. W. Bethea, Jr., S. C.
Lt. Col. R. G. Irish, N. Y. Lt. Co!. D. G. Grandin Lt. Col. C. C. 8erkeley, Va.
J07th AAA AW Sn {MI
208th AAA Group 79th AM Gun Bn 711th AAA Gun Bn
U. Col. T. H. Pope, Jr., S. C.
Lt. Col. N. J. Walton, Ala.

Col. H. S. Ives Lt. Co!. F. E. Pratt
305th AAA Gt-oup
209th AM Group 80th AM Airborne Bn 712th AAA Gun Bn
Col. John S. Mayer, N. Y.
Col. E. J. Welte, N. Y. Lt. Col. l. W. linderer Lt. Col. H. H. Taylor, Jr., Fla.
2111h AAA Group 713th AAA Gun Bn

Separate Commands 82nd AAA AW Bn
Col. G. F. Lineham, Jr., Mass. Maj. H. A. Geddis Lt. Col. B. N. Singleton, S. C.
Army AAA Command 214th AAA Group 915tAAAAWBn 715th AM Gun Bn
Maj. Gen. W. W. Irvine Col. J. G. Johnson, Ga. Lt. Col. R. A. Claiee Lt. Col. H. B. Reubel, N. Y.
Third Army Training
Brig. Gen. C. H. Armstrong
East AAA Command
Center 216th AAA Group
Col. W. E. Johnson, Minn.
218th AM Group .
95th AAA Gun Bn
It. Col. l. S. Dougherty
1015t AAA Gun Bn
716th AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Col. Joe R. Stewart, N. Mex.
717th AAA Gun Bn *
Brig. Gen. Wm. H. Hamilton
Central AAA Command
Col. D. J. Boiley
Col. V. P. lupinacci, Po.
220lh AM Group
Col. R. H. Hopkins, Mass.
It. Col. H. J. Ellis
102nd AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Col. M. H. Roesser, N. Y.
Lt. Col. E. D. Pelzer, N. Mex.
718th AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Col. J. J. Loughran *
West AAA Command
Brig. Gen. R. W. Berry
224th AAA Group
Col. E. W. Thompson, Va.
226th AAA Group
115th AAA Gun Bn.
It. Col. W. D. McCoin, Miss.
120th AAA Gun Bn
720th AAA Gun Bn.
Lt. Col. G. A. Duke, Calif.
726th AAA Gun Bn *
Guided Missile Dept.
Col. John D. Sides, Ala. Lt. Col. H. C. Gray, N. Mex. It. Col. C. F. Arnold, N. Mex.
AA & GM School
227th AAA Group 126th AAA AW Bn 728th AAA Gun Bn.
Col. F. M. McGoldrick
Col. P. l. Wall, Fla. Lt. Col. R. C. Carrera, Moss. Maj. G. C. Moore, Calif.
32nd AAA Brigade
Col. M. W. May, Jr.
34th AAA Brigade
250th AAA Group
Col. A. M. lazar, Calif.
302nd AAA Group
Col. John M. Welch, Ohio
313th AAA Group
127th AAA AW Bn ISPJ
Lt. Col. H. G. White, N. Y.
133rd AAA AW Bn
Lt. Col. E. J. Modjeske, Illinois
142nd AAA AW Bn
730th AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Col. C. D. Holliday, Calif.
736th AAA Gun Bn
It. Col. F. T. lynch, Dela.
745th AAA Gun Bn
Brig. Gen. R. R. Hendrix Col. A. F. Hoehle, Po. Lt. Col. C. Beckman, N. Y. Maj. E. Mountain, Conn.

35th AAA Brigade 3261h AAA Group 150th AAA Gun Bn 747th AAA Gun Bn
Brig. Gen. Homer Case Col. M. D. Meyers, Po. Lt. Col. l. O. Ellis, Jr., N. C. Lt. Col. J. F. Kane, Mass.
38th AAA Brigade 374th AAA Group 238th AAA Gun Bn. 753rd AM Gun Bn
Col. K. R. Kenerick Col. T. F. Mullaney, Jr., Illinois Maj. T. P. O'Keefe, Conn. Lt. Col. W. H. Nicolson
40th AAA Brigade 51 5th AAA Group 243rd AAA A W Bn. 764th AAA Gun Bn
Brig. Gen. James G. Devine Col. F. G. Rowell, N. Mex. It. Col. E. E. McMillon, R. I. Lt. Col. Wm. J. Bennett
47th AAA Brigade

245th AAA Gun I3n 768th AAA Gun Bn
Col. G. C. Gibbs Battalions Lt. Col.c.
M. Brown, N. Y. Lt. Col. T. H. Kuyper, Illinois
56th AAA Brigade 3rd AAA AW Bn 250th AAA Gun Bn 772nd AAA Gun Bn
Brig. Gen. H. F. Meyers

Lt. Col. J. B. Goettl Lt. Col. A. J. Twiggs, Ga. Col. F. S. Grant, Mass.
104th AAA Brigade 3rd AAA Tng. Bn. 256th AAA AW Bn 773rd AAA Gun Bn
Brig. Gen. V. P. Coyne, Mass. Lt. Col.. E. E. Twining Lt. Col. R. W. Haag, Minn. Lt. Col. G. F. Slavin
105th AAA Brigade

41h AAA AW Bn IMI 260lh AAA Gun Bn 804th AAA AW Sn IMJ
Brig. Gen. A. H. Daud, N. Y. Lt. Col. R. J. Connelly Maj. P. Scott, D. C. Maj. S. N. Caudill, N. Mex.
J 07th AAA Brigade 9th AAA Gun Bn 3371h AAA Gun Bn. 867th AAA A W Bn
Brig. Gen. J. W. Squire, Va. Maj. S. M. Arnold

Lt. Col. H. D. Johnson Lt. Col. J. H. Valliere, Po.
11 Jth AAA Brigade 151h AAA AW Bn ISPJ 340lh AAA Gun Bn 903rd AAA AW Bn
Brig. Gen. Chas. G. Sage, N. Mex. ll. Col. Jas. M. Moore Lt. Col. G. V. SelWyn, D. C. Lt. Col. J. D. Shearouse
112th AAA Brigade 215t AAA AW Bn ISPJ 369th AAA Gun Bn. 30th AAA Lt. Btry
Brig. Gen. J. W. Cook, Calif. It. Col. J. l. Crane Lt. Col. C. S. Heming, N. Y. Capt. W. A. Brant
114th AAA Brigade 35th AAA Gun Bn. 385th AAA AW Bn
Brig. Gen. G. W. Fisher Maj. A. H. Stamwood Maj. D. K. Scott, Illinois Operations Detachments
39th AAA AW Bn IMJ
Lt. Col. P. J. locey, Jr.
398th AAA AW Bn
Lt. Col. l. B. Dean
102nd AAA Opn •• Det.
Capt. G. J. lahey, N. Y.
1st AAA Training Group 46th AAA AW Bn ISPJ 420th AAA Gun Bn. 115th AAA Opn •• Det.
Co!. E. W. Heathcote Lt. Col. P. A. Anson Lt. Col. G. S. Green, Wash. Lt. A. Dillon
2nd AAA Group 48th AAA AW Bn. 443rd AAA AW Bn ISPJ 177th AAA Opn •• Det.
Co!. C. G. Patterson Lt. Col. O. K. Marshall Lt. Col. B. A. Spiller Maj. W. F. Hale, Va.
10th AAA Group
Lt. Co!. W. l. larsem
16th AAA Group
Col. F. J. Woods
Lt. Col. W. l. larson
60th AAA AW Bn
Lt. Col. R. T. Cassidy
489th AAA AW Bn
Capt. J. E. Cornish, Illinois
502nd AAA Gun Bn
It. Col. P. G. Brown
18lst AAA Opn •• Det.
Maj. R. H. Maser, N. Mex.
184th AAA Opns. Det.
Maj. C. Morrill, Calif.
191h AAA Group 62nd AAA AW Bn ISPJ 507th AAA AW Bn 186th AAA Opns. Del.
Col. O. D. Martin Lt. Col. C. E. Meadows Lt. Col. S. J. Paciorek Maj. Wm. S. Wall, Calif.
65th AAA Group
Col. S. J. Goodman
97th AAA Group
Col. E. H. Walter
63rd AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Col. B. I. Greenberg
64th AAA Gun Bn.
Lt. Col. R. A. Lanpher
685th AAA Gun Bn
It. Col. C. A. Fraser, Mass.
697th AAA AW Bn
Maj. W. C. Thompson, N. Mex.
286th AAA Opns. Det.
Capt. F. R. Kane, Dela.
50lst AAA Opns. Del.
Maj. E. F. Deleon
197th AAA Group 65th AAA Gun Bn 6981h AAA Gun Bn 503rd AAA Opns. Det.
Col. A. S. Baker, N. H. It. Col. H. C. Brown Lt. Col. F. Monico, Illinois Capt. l. Koenitsberg
200lh AAA Group
Col. C. M. Woodbury, N. Mex.
68th AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Col. G. B. Webster, Jr.


7071h AAA Gun BI).
It. Col. F. Fulton, Jr., Po.
510lh AAA Opns. Del.
Maj. E.F. Deleon
1. To qualify or to requalify for a listing an the Journal Honor Roll,
units must submit the names of subscribers and a roster of officers
3. Brigades and groups with 90% or more subscribers among the officers
assigned to the unit are eligible for listing, provided that the unit *
assigned to the unit on date of application.
2. Battalions with 80% or more subscribers among the officers assigned
to the unit are eligible for listing, provided that the unit consists of
consists of not less than seven officers.

4. Units will remain on the HonO£ Roll for one year after qualification
not less than twenty officers. or requalification.

¥¥¥¥~ *
Officer Candidate School at Fort Bliss
By Capt. Joseph E. Melanson, Jr.

r HE present Antiaircraft Artillery

Officer Candidate School was inaugu-
ership and possesses officer potential. :\
To meet this standard the program
in organIzmg it, in quartering and in-
doctrinating the candidates in the rigor-
rated 14 October, 1951, when Colonel of instruction covers a period of 22 ous standards demanded.
Robert H. Krueger was informed that he weeks, 44 hours per week. The depart- One of the most important hours dur-
was to be the director of this new depart- ments of Tactics, Gunnery, Electronics, ing the initial processing is a conference
ment of the Antiaircraft and Guided and General Subjects of the Antiaircraft devoted to the code of honor under
l\lissiles Branch, The Artillery School. and Guided Missiles School give to the which the candidates live during their
At the same time Colonel Krueger was OCS stpdents instruction equivalent 22 weeks of training. An honor system
ad\'ised that the annual quota of the to the associate officer's basic course. similar to that employed at the Military
school would be 2,500 candidates and The administration, supervision, and Academy is in effect. The functioning
that three classes would be in operation additional instruction in the general of the code of honor is left entirely to
bv Christmas. courses such as army administration, the candidates and the over-all coordinat-
, A cadre of operating personnel was militarv sanitation and nrst aid, and ing agency is the candidate honor com-
obtained at once by levy upon the staff mathe~atics are responsibilities of the mittee comprised of three members from
and faculty of the school. This gave Department of OCS. the senior class and one member from
enough key people to initiate plans for To meet the mission, six instruction each of the junior classes. One of the
the OCS and its expansion. teams were organized, each consisting of three members from the senior class
Officer teams were sent out to study a major, senior team instructor; a cap- is designated president of the honor com-
the operation of other officer candidate tain, executive officer; and six lieuten- mittee and all members are elected by
schools and soon returned with volumes ants, team instructors. The teams, let- their fellow candidates. The duties of
of instructional material and forms, and tered A through F, have the responsibili- the honor committee are to investigate
also with some good ideas, too. ty of instructing the candidates assigned all alleged violations of the honor code,
Soon the program of training as well them. interpret the code for the candidates,
as the administrative features were well
Class Number 1, assigned to instruc- and set needed precedent.
under way toward solution.
tion team A, arrived at Fort Bliss 15 The candidate's day begins with rev-
The location for the new school was
November 1951 and was scheduled to eille at 0530. From reveille he goes
found in the old station hospital area
begin classroom work 19 November. The to breakfast; then some housekeeping
at the northeast extremity of the main
basic organization of the class is a bat- and a period of exercise before his nrst
post facing Biggs Field. This area had
tery, and the first three days were used class at 0800. With an hour for lunch
been used by the German scientists after
the war and more recently by the First
Guided Missiles Group. Soon the car-
penters, painters, plumbers, and electri-
cians were in the area busy rehabilitating
it in a suitable fashion.
The mission of the school is to:
~ Develop in the candidate physical pro-
ficiency and the qualities of character,
leadership, loyality, and discipline re-
quired of an officer.
~ Provide the candidate with the funda-
menrlll knowledge required of a junior
officer in antiaircraft artillery.
~ Determine whether the candidate
meets the requirements of military lead-

Captain Melansan, USMA 1945 and a Wis-

cansin graduate with MA in Jaurnalism, 1949, Co!. Krueger congratulates candidates and instructors on 100 per cent donations
is naw serving as Assistant 53 with the OCS. to the Fort Bliss Blood Bank. Left to right: Major F. I. Rettgers, Candidates L. S.
Bunch and J. C. Caldwell, Jr. with Co!. Krueger.
MARCH-APRIL, 1952 31
he attends classes until 1700, five days candidate is placed in many posItIons candidate get on a more successful
a week. Each Saturday a session is de- of responsibility. The functioning of course.
voted to indoctrination in supply econ- the candidate battery is entrusted to the During his 19th week, he becomes a
omy. and four hours of prescribed aca- candidates. All of the positions of com- senior candidate. At this time he is
demic work. During the afternoon he mand in the structure of the battery are granted extra privileges and emphasis is
participates in a parade and undergoes rotated weekly among the candidates so placed on preparing him for the duties
an inspection in ranks. that each candidate has ample oppor- which will confront him upon his grad-
The candidate has few off-duty privi- tunitv..to demonstrate his ability in the uation. He is given a distinguishing
leges during his first four weeks. He is art of leading men. insignia which requires a salute from
not allowed to lea,'e the immediate area To graduate, a candidate must meet members of the junior classes. He assists
nor has he much free time to escort visi- the required standards in his academic in the inspections of the junior classes
tors. He has study hall periods from work, leadership, and physical profi- and much of the responsibility for main-
1800 to 2000 daily. After the comple- ciency. If he is found deficient in any taining the decorum of the candidates
tion of four weeks. privileges are granted one of the three, the candidate becomes rests in his hands.
at the discretion of the senior team in- acquainted with the Officer Candidate After 22 rigorous weeks, he is com-
structor and may be as elaborate as a Board. \Vhile this is not always a pleas- missioned a second lieutenant of Artillery
weekend pass. ant acquaintance, the Board is often able in the ORC. He is then assigned to a~-
During his stay at the school, the to salvage the situation and help the tive duty immediately with an AAA unit.
for the psychology of military leadership.
we must consider this vital question:


- THE WILL TO" FIGHT The average American soldier is a
- WHY DOES iifE AMERICAN SOLDIER FIGHT self-thinking individual, with basic mo-
. HE FIGHTS;fOR HIS UNIT tives of patriotism and lm'e of country.
-MAKE HIS UNIT WORTH FIGHTING FOR !t! But, once his own unit is committed to
battle, his most urgent incentive is the
fact that:
-DISC INE .CHARACTER . Therefore, every American combat
- ~ INING .SOLDIERLY ABILITY leader must, by training and by his own
~MWORK -KNOWLEDGE OF HIS MEN personal example, instill the highest de-
gree of combat efficiency and self-con-
- ELiEF IN THE UNIT fidence into the soldiers of his command,
By first examining the basic require-
ments of a combat unit, namely: DIS.
UNIT," we can more readily visualize
Major General Terry Allen, USA Ret., conducts his leadership conference with the essential attributes of a combat lead-
OCS students at the AA & GM School, Fort Bliss, Texas. er.
By Maj. Gen. Terry Allen DISCIPLINE is the foundation of
teamwork and efficiency in any organ-
ization. l\lilitary discipline has been de-
MILITARY leadership has been stud- know that, first and foremost, any com- fined as being a mental attitude, which
• analyzed throughout the ages.
ied and mander must be able to instill in his renders proper military conduct instinc'
\Ve know that any military commander soldiers: THE WILL TO FIGHT tive on the part of the soldier. Ii further
must have proven ability to lead the signifies a deep se~se of loyalty and co-
men entrusted to his command. The You can't put this over by "bluff or operation, and cheerful obedience to
actual methods of exercising command bluster." The commander himself must constituted authority.
and leadership will vary in ac~ordance be imbued with a competitive fighting \Vith so much talk today of the need
with the personality and characteristics spirit. He must know his job, and the for social reforms, military discipline has
of each commander. However, we do needs and capabilities of his men. As often been maligned and criticized by
an unthinking public, who connect the emphasis on combat technique and team- LEADERSHIP REQUIREMENTS
term "discipline" solely with military work. Every soldier in the outfit must
American combat units all have the
punishment. Whereas, DISCIPLINE, know 'WHY" he is doing 'WHAT."
same potential capabilities. Their com-
in its true sense, really means coopera- Top physical fitness must be stressed.
bat efficiency and esprit will depend on
tion and teamwork. The American A soldier's technical expertness is nulli-
the leadership of their commanders. A
,'outh learns team discipline on school fied unless he has the physical stamina
"sorry outfit" means a "sorry command-
~thletic teams, where he must "Play and guts to sustain all-out efforts, when
er. "
ball, for the good of the team"; or "Turn the going is tough. Officers or enlisted
To uphold high standards of combat
in his suit." men who cannot survive a tough train-
Discipline cannot be attained by fear efficiency, the leader must be a man of
ing program have no place in combat.
of punishment. It can only be attained positive CHARACTER, with outstand-
The slogan, "get smart and get tough," ing SOLDIERLY ABILITY. His per-
bv the precept and example of the lead- summarizes unit training needs. MIS-
e;s. For that reason, any military lead- sonality should be such that he is able to
er must make sure that his orders and CAN BE CORRECTED. MISTAKES
instructions are sound and explicit; and MAND," and to acquire their confi-
MADE IN BATTLE ARE PAID FOR dence. Soldiers will follow a colorful
that they are issued with firmness and IN THE LIVES OF YOUR MEN.
impartiality towards aU concerned. competent leader, however tough he may
be, provided they believe in him, and
With honest forthright leadership the TEAMWORK
feel that he knows his job.
men soon realize that the demands made TEAM SPIRIT is essential to battle
upon them are made in their own best success. There must be an abiding con- CHARACTER
interests. The American soldier is often fidence in the leader, and assurance that
a rugged individualist; but, ?ee~ down A leader must have determination, and
all units and individuals are "putting
in his own heart, he takes pnde 1U serv- sincerity of purpose. If he is guided by
out for the good of the team." This
ing in a tough, well-disciplined outnt; selfish ulterior motives, he will soon lose
sense of teamwork must apply to the
where duty and training requiremen:s the confidence of the men under his
administrative, supply and service ele-
are sound and exacting; and where hls command. He is not expected to be
ments, as well as to the combat elements
own needs are skillfully attended to. a pantywaist; but he must be a square
of the command. Likewise, attached
shooter, and have high personal stand-
DISCIPLINE enables green troops to supporting units must be considered as
ards. A sense of humor that enables
withstand the first shock of battle, to integral parts of the team.
him to laugh off petty annoyances, is
react under fire like veterans, and to
helpful to any leader.
win when the odds are against them. BELIEf IN THE UNIT
Excessive casualties are the exception in A leader must be forceful, but he must
"BELIEF IN THE UNIT," other- be fair and impartial. He must be quick
a well-disciplined unit, which has been
wise known as morale, is an indefinable to award for duty well done; likewise,
trained to react instinctively under any
quality, attained only in certain units. he must be quick to take sharp correc-
It indicates pride and confidence, and tive measures for any neglect of duty.
A well-disciplined combat unit can be is the most essential combat attribute.
recognized by its alert connd~nt. be~r- It is not a cheap commodity, built up SOLDJERLY ABILITY
ing, and by its efficient functlOmng 1U on free cigarettes, free beer, free shows A military leader must be able to lead
the field. One cannot expect officers and other bargain counter inducements. and direct his troops decisively in bat-
or soldiers to maintain a parade ground It is built on DISCIPLINE, TRAIN- tle. He must have hard common sense
appearance during the stress of front ING, TEAMWORK, and on CON- and a practical working knowledge of
line combat conditions. But, an alert FIDENCE in their leaders. This type his job. He must know the combat func-
soldierly bearing should be instinctive, of unit esprit is accomplished by the tioning, capabilities, and weapons of his
even under the most trying conditions. combined efforts of officers and enlisted own unit, of the next higher unit, or
Some individuals are inclined to become men. of any supporting unit that may be at-
slovenly in their performance of routine
When American soldiers are imbued tached to his command. He must have
duties, when the going gets tough. But
with an intense belief in their outfit, sound judgment: but he should also
this slipshod attitude is never con~on:d
they will never let their units down, have imagination, bold initiative, and
in any outfit which has a deep pnde m
regardless of their fatigue or battle weari- the faculty of being able to beat the
ness. They wear their division insignia enemy to the punch.
The NCO's are the backbone of any
with a fierce pride, and will 1lght for It is the leader's responsibility to pre-
military organization, in maint~i~ing
their outut, "At the drop of a hat." Units pare his men for combat, and to make
high standards of discipline and trammg.
with this pride of accomplishment have sure that none of his men die in battle
Give them definite responsibilities, hon-
a cocky self-assurance, all their own, because of stupid legdeIShip. He should
est support, and authority to act on the~r
which pays off in battle. strive to attain his combat objectives by
own initiative. But, make sure that thIS
History is replete with examples of smart quick maneuver, with maximum
authority is intelligently and rightfully
American combat units which have over- damage to the enemy, and with mini-
come insurmountable obstacles, because mum dam~ge to his own troops. To get
TRAINING of their unit esprit and their intensive the job done quickly, with a minimum
TRAINING must be realistic, with belief in themselves. of battle casualties and other losses, is

MARCH-APRIL, 1952 33
the true test of battle leadership.
The leader must inspire confidence,
Training in The 35th AAA Brigade
and set an example of cheerfulness and
fortitude, even after prolonged exposure
By Major Villa Carter
to hardship, danger, and fatigue. Top
physical fitness and the ability to take it
should be a matter of personal pride W HEN the sinister muzzles of 90
millimeter AAA guns suddenly poked
\Vith winterized sites completed, each
battalion now sends its batteries to the
with every combat officer.
out of sandbag re\'etments o\.ernight over field regularly . To minimize movement
KNOWLEDGE OF HIS MEN the nation's capital and its environs re- of equipment with consequent damage to
The leader must know his men, their cently, police headquarters was swarmed positions, the length of stay of each
needs and capabilities, and know what with anxious calls. battery in the field has been increased.
they are up against. To have belief in People wanted to know what was go- Supplementing the field training, air
his outfit, the American soldier must ing on. vVhy had the Army moved in? defense exercises and tactical field exer-
know and have confidence in his leaders. The answer was that it was just regular cises, are called from time to time with
He depends on the fact that his officers training for the 35th AAA Brigade. the entire brigade moving into on-site
and NCO's know what they're doing. Surprise practice movements, field ex- training positions.
Company and battery officers are di- ercises, artillery drills, tracking missions Vlith the considerable time spent "on-
rectly responsible for the immediate and antiaircraft firings are features of the site," each battery has improved its
needs of their men; for their living con- training program. The units of the bri- training position to a point where en-
ditions, their food, their health, their gade have complcted their initial training listed personnel enjoy comfortable living
recreation, their equipment, their train- at training centers. Consequently the in the field.
ing, and their discipline. Higher com- training consists mainly of field exercises A continuing program of field and
manders have the same over-all responsi- of this kind and other advanced training. garrison training, highlighted by surprise
bility towards their entire command. The Highlighting the garrison training are movements, is keeping the brigade on the
needs and welfare of their sick and surprise practice movements and occupa- alert at all times.
wounded should always be a matter of tion of gun positions. They serve to keep
deep consideration. batteries operationally ready and to im-
The preparation for combat of battle prove efficiency in the rapid occupation Taking over the antiaircraft defense of
replacements is a mattcr of immediate of positions and accurate orientation and Baltimore, the 208th AAA Group under
concern for all commanders. The effec- synchronization of equipment. Col. Howard S. Ives, moved recently to
tive preparation of these new men for Each week one battery of a battalion Catonsville, Md. where it will be based
their arduous combat tasks will boost is ordered to move to another area on the for the duration of its active federal serv-
their morale and confidence, and will post, where it becomes operational as ice. A Connecticut National Guard unit,
raise the battle efficiency of the entire quickly as possible. The surprise order is the 208th will revert to nonactive. status
command. given while the batteries are performing in May 1953.
All commanders, regardless of grade, normal training. The battery's guns, di- Col. D. D. Martin has assumed com-
should frequently visit their forward ele- rectors and radars are in the firing posi- mand of the 19th AAA Group. The
ments on the battlefield, to inspire con- tion in the gun park. The battery march commander and his staff are dividing
fidence and to get firsthand combat orders its equipment and moves to the time between training sites of the units
information. • selected area. of the group and the AAA firing point at
With the coming of winter, a plan was Bethany Beach.
initiated to winterize one on-site training Col. Harold P. Gard has been ordered
Victory iJl battle is dependent upon position per battalion so troops could be to Alaska and he has been replaced as
skillful planning by the high command. kept in the field during cold weather. brigade executive by Col. Francis A.
But, it is the unsung heroes of the com- Second Army and Military District of Liwski who joined the brigade from the
bat units-the b~ttle-wise company and Washington engineers cooperated in pre- Artillery Section of the Career l'vlanage-
battery officers, the faithful NCO's, and paring plans for flooring and framework ment Branch in \Vashington.
the fighting GI's who make victory pos- for squad tents, mess halls, battery CP The 35th AAA Gun Battalion arrived
sible. It will be your job to lead and and orderly rooms. at Fort Meade from Camp Stewart un-
direct our soldiers in battle. l\lake sure Funds were obtained for lumber and der Major Arthur H. Stamwood. Lt. Col.
that you are fit and prepared to do so. to provide I100volt single phase power to George vV. Best was recently assigned to
THE ULTU"IATE TEST of any each of the winterized sites. Material command the 36th AAA Gun Battalion.
military leader is in actual combat. This was delivered to Fort Myer, Virginia, The 260th AAA Gun Battalion, com-
determines whether the training of his where the post commander and post en- manded by Major Paul Scott, and the
unit has been practical, realistic, and gineer supplied power saws and shops 208th AAA Group were awarded battle
sound; whether he has instilled disci- for pre-(:utting the lumber. Troop labor streamers for their unit's participation in
pline, confidence, and esprit in his unit; was used to erect the framework for the World.\Var II. The organizational Col-
and whether he has the guts :md ability winterized tents. The enthusiastic sol- ors of the two National Guard units were
to "call the signals" on the battlefield. diers did a professional job, and their decorated at an evening parade ceremony
THE BATTLE IS THE PAY-OFF. work saved considerable time and money. at Fort Meade.

fORT BLISS gained another artillery wound dressed at an aid station, he re- Classes opening were: Associate Bat-
unit on February 1, with the activation turned to his position and directed the tery Officers Course No. 38; Associate
of the 6th Antiaircraft Artillery Group. fire of the mortars until further wounded Antiaircraft Artillery Officer Advanced
Commander of the new Group is Col. by flying shrapnel. Course No.8; Artillery Fire Control Sys-
William J. Wuest, formerly deputy post i\hjor General John T. Lewis, Com- tem Officer Course No.3; Fire Control
commander at Fort Bliss. His adjutant manding General of Fort Bliss, made System Transition Course No.7; Gun-
is Lt. Harold W. Boone. the presentation of the Silver Star to the nery Control Course No. 30; Operations
Col. Charles G. Dunn succeeds Col. hero's father. Chief No.4; Transition Officer (Korea)
Wuest as the new deputy post com- Other awards presented in January in- Medium and Heavy Antiaircraft Artil-
mander at Fort Bliss. Coming to the post cluded Bronze Star Clusters to Major lery Course No.1; Transition Officer
in November 1951, he served briefly as J. W. Spellman and Capt. J. H. Fluston, (Korea) Light AM Course No.1; a
commanding officer of the 226th AAA for service in Korea. Col. A. C. Ramsey, Fire Control System Range Officer or
Group before taking over the duty of post quartermaster at Fort Bliss, made Operator Course; four Artillery Fire
comptroller of the post. He will hold the the presentations. Control System Specialist Courses; two
comptroller position concurrently with Nineteen-year-old Corporal William Antiaircraft Artillery Mechanic Courses;
his new assignment. P. McCraney, now assigned to the 716th a Fire Control Electrician Course; and
AAA Gun Battalion at Fort Bliss, re- an Artillery Integrated Fire Control Sys-
PIa Overseas ceived the Distinguished Service Cross, tem Course.
the nation's second highest award for Students from seven Allied nations;
Major Louis B. \\Tantuck, post public
valor, and the Purple Heart with two Italy, Turkey, France, Canada, Den-
information officer at Fort Bliss for more
Oak Leaf Clusters in a ceremony at the mark, Portugal, and the Netherlands
than two and a half years, left the post
post, February 9. They were awarded were included in the class rolls.
January 29 for leave before reporting
for wounds received in three different Major General Roscoe C. Wilson, U.
overseas in the Far East Command in
engagements while a member of the 35th S. Air Force, Commandant of the Air
~Iarch. He was succeeded by Major
Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Divi- War College, and Brig. Gen. Fritz A.
Charles J. Brandt, who recently returned
sion, in Korea. Peterson, commanding general of the
from service in Europe.
Brig. Gen. Frederic L. Hayden deco- 47th Division Artillery at Camp Rucker,
i\lajor Brandt is well-known in the
rated the young soldier at a formation Alabama, headed the list of senior officers
El Paso area, having served as public
in recognition of his "extraordinary hero- who attended a guided missiles orienta-
information officer here from 1946 to
ism in action." tion course at Fort Bliss, January 23-26.
1948. He went from the Bliss assign-
On the same day in another ceremony Sixty-five officers were enrolled in the
ment to Athens, Greece, where he served
at Fort Bliss, Master Sergeant Wilbur class which witnessed a firing demonstra-
as PIa for the U. S. Military Group
F. Thater, first sergeant of Battery B, tion of antiaircraft artillery on Fort Bliss
during the Greek Guerrilla 'vVar. He
728th AAA Gun Battalion, received the Ranges and visited \\Thite Sands Proving
also served in T rieste as Superintendent
Bronze Star Medal for service with the Ground, New Mexico.
of the 4,000-man civilian Venezio-Giulia
57th Field Artillery Battalion in Korea.
Police Force for the Allied rVlilitary Gov- A special guided missile orientation
Col. \V. B. Logan, commanding officer
ernment. course for senior officer personnel at Fort
of the 11th AAA Group, presented the
Bliss was a feature of January activities.
Awards decoration.
Approximately sixty officers attended the
The Silver Star posthumously awarded three-day course which was designed to
School Activities
to Sergeant Frank R. Salgado, Jr., of orient post officers on the latest develop-
:\larfa, Texas, was presented to his fa- Seventeen classes opened during the ments in guided missiles.
ther, Francisco Salgado, Sr., in a cere- 'week of January 7 in the Antiaircraft One hundred and eighty officers were
mony at Fort Bliss, January 18. and Guided Missiles Branch of the Artil- graduated from Associate Battery Offi-
The award was made to Sergeant'Sal- lery School at Fort Bliss. Total enroll- cers Course No. 36 on January 31. The
gado for his heroic actions at Poncho, ment in the group was 612, the number students had completed a I5-week course
Korea, on September 5 and 6, ' 1951. being divided almost equally between stressing antiaircraft gunnery and tactics,
After being wounded and having his officers and enlisted men. communications and guided missiles.

MARCH-APRIL, 1952 35
By Sgt. William J. Tobin

IN a command post tent in the gun'

park of the 736th Antiaircraft Artillery
To compensate for these drawbacks,
and obtain a system which is more ac-
seated at each side, their backs to the
screen. A positive reproduction of the
Gun Battalion, experimentation is being curate, more rapid, requiring less space, defended area, approximately 10 x 10
conducted in the use of a new method easy in assembly and much more trans- inches square and bearing the GEOREF
of plotting for a 90-mm gun unit. This portable, the 736th Battalion developed Grid, is mounted on the glass top of the
new method, employing the Overhead the use of the overhead viewcaster. The viewcaster. Cellophane, wrapped on
Projector PH-637-commonly called a viewcaster instrument is not T /O&E rolls and attached to the sides of the
viewcaster or Vu-Graph-has been in property; it was obtained on memoran- viewcaster, is rolled across the grid. The
use for some time, and has been found dum receipt from the Second Army Pho- plots are recorded on this transparent
to meet all the requirements placed on to Laboratory and Film Library. sheet with wax pencil, and are projected
a battalion operations center iI,1a tacti- The instrument packs for traveling in to the screen along with the grid.
cal position. The experimental work is a portable case weighing approximately The grid in use by the 736th Battal-
directed toward improving and stream- 30 pounds-one man can handle it with- ion was prepared under the direction
lining AAOC procedures. out difficulty. The projector itself is of 1st Lt. Kenneth C. Johnson, who con.
The July-August 1951 issue of the broken down into the projector proper, ceived the method of using the view-
ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNALpresented a new the reflecting mirror and a steel mount- caster. The grid was taken from the one
type antiaircraft artillery operations cen- ing rod which supports the reflecting in use on the plotting board, reduced in
ter in use by the 503d AAA Operations mirror above the projector. The projector scale, and drawn on tracing cloth. From
Detachment in permanent tactical posi- is powered by a generating unit PE- there it was photographically reproduced
tion. The AAOC described is suited to 75, which weighs approximately 315 by the Signal Corps onto the transparent
a large tactical operation as conducted pounds. Used with the projector is a positive which is used on the projector.
by the 503d. However, such an elaborate portable movie screen of the standard A more rapid method, but less perma-
operations center is not practical for type which fits into a canvas carrying nent, is to simply reproduce the grid
units of a lower echelon. case. directly onto a piece of acetate with
Antiaircraft battalions have as T /O&E In operation, the projector is placed drawing ink.
equipment the plotting kit AN/TSA-l. on a folding field table, with a plotter The distance between the projector
This kit includes four 4-foot by 4-foot
boards which join to form the plotting
table. It is designed for transportability
and use in field positions. However,
many of the same objections hold for
its use by a battalion as for use of the
slightly more complete AN/TTQ-l by
an operations detachment.
The table itself, once assembled, is
large and unhandy to work around.
Plotters must either crawl across the
board to place the arrows which mark
the route of the target plane, or else shift
telephone headsets to another side of the
board, meanwhile losing any plots which
are reported in the interim.
The equipment itself, when packed
for movement, is heavy and cumbersome.
The plotting oftentimes is slow and not
too accurate, due to the margin of error
introduced in the placement of the mark-
ing arrows on the board. Raid stands
also must be made up and moved along
with the arrows, giving data on that par- The Viewcaster Projector. Corporals George Schreiber and Stuart Allen man the
ticular series of, plots. lO-inch "plotting board" which is projected on the portable screen in background.

and the screen can vary to any reason- Permanent records also may be kept records the various batteries' plots in a
able distance. In the 736th, the projec- from the cellophane roll, with time and similar manner from the opposite side
tion normally was cast over the T jO&E date noted and with appropriate tick of the viewcaster. \Vhen a battery re-
plotting table, with the screen set up marks to identify the location on the ports on target, he merely places a check
at the opposite side of the table. This grid. This latter method actuaJly pre- mark beside the code number of that
results in a projection distance of approx- serves a picture of the mission for future battery. This code number list is placed
imately nine feet, making a picture ap- reference. at any spot on the cellophane transpar-
pro:-:imately 9 feet square. The ease in plotting by this method ency and also projected on the screen.
Telephone lines bring the intelligence is a marked improvement over the stand- Colonel Lynch and Lieut. Johnson are
line from the MOC to one of the plot- ard plotting board. The plotter on the not yet ready to recommend their equip-
ters. and the operational control line intelligence line, when receiving a plot, ment and procedures for standardization, •
from the battery radars to the other plot- marks it with a dot directly over the but they are well convinced that they
ter. If written records of the plots are proper grid area. A series of these plots, are working in the right direction for
desired, two other recorders may be tied connected with a solid line, gives an imprO\'ement in AAOC procedure, par-
into the same lines and seated in any accurate picture of the raid, clearly vis- ticularly for the gun battalion operating
convenient place in the battalion AAOC. ible at a distance. The radar plotter independently.


By 1st Lt. Donald E. Harkins
Aide-de-Cnlll p

T HE 56th AAA Brigade was reacti-

vated at Camp Edwards, Mass., in Feb.
The 197th AM Group under Colo-
nel Albert S. Baker at Fort Banks, Mass.,
336th AAA Gun Bn., Lt. Col. Addi.
ruary and has been under the command is a pa~t of the command. It includes son M. White
of Brig. Gen. Harry F. Meyers since 11 the 685th AAA Gun Battalion under 380th A1\A Gun Bn., Lt. Col. John
~Iarch, ] 951. Before the headquarters Lt. Col. Carl A. Fraser, the 704th AM W, Walker
and headquarters battery completed its Gun Battalion under Lt. Col. M. S. 44th AAA Gun Bn., Major Herbert
individual basic training, Army Field Hoffman, and the 745th AAA Gun Bat- G. Cummings
Forces gave the brigade the responsibility talion under Major Earle Mountain. 398th AAA AW Bn., Lt. Col. Louis
of formulating and supervising training B. Dean
of all AA units at Camp Edwards. Con-
tinuous assignments of units were made
to the brigade until it consisted of three
T HE 2nd AAA Group, Col. C. G.
Patterson, commanding, and the follow-
Lt. Col. Paul A. Harmon, 52, and
Major \Vorth C. Connor, SI are now
attending the Command and General
groups, eleven battalions, four AA oper- ing battalions in training at Camp Staff College, at Fort Leavenworth, Kan-
ations detachments, and four signal radar Edwards are also a part of the 56th AAA sas.
maintenance units. The brigade com-
pleted its Field Force Training Test on
the 16th of August 1951 and continued
to train subordinate units until its trans- CHANGE ON OKINAWA
fer from Camp Edwards.
Colonel Joy T. \X'rean turns over com-
On 5 November, 1951, the brigade mand of the 97th AAA Group on Oki-
headquarters moved to Fort Devens, nawa to Colonel Eugene H. Walter.
~Iass. \\lith this assignment it assumed After almost three years in command,
the mission of AA defense of vital areas Co1. W rean moves on to the AA & GM
Center, Fort Bliss, Texas. Col.' Walter's
located in the northern sector of the previous assignment was with Head-
Eastern Army Antiaircraft Command. quarters Army Field Forces. The group
General l\levers, also commands Fort comprises: 22nd AA AW Bn., Lt. Col.
Devens. For this responsibility, however, H. P. Wills, commanding; 65th AAA
he has a post staff separate from the Gun Bn., Lt. Col. Harry C. Brown;
705th AAA Gun Bn., Lt. Col. W. F.
brigade. Colonel Edward B. J\IcCarthy Kuhn and the 507th Operations Detach-
is the post executive. ment, Major J. C. Maris.
MARCH-APRIL, 1952 37
ten AAA battalions from Camp Stewart talion came to Stewart for three weeks The board recommended to General
for new stations in the Eastern Army An- of firing. During the period they com- Armstrong that all activities not specif.
tiaircraft Command, taking their places pleted their first year of training in icallv considered as "on-the-job" trainin~
in the continental air defense system. federal sen'ice. Lt. Co!. R. \\T. Hoag be s~spended during the work week and
Co!. Gerald G. Gibbs, commanding commands the [\Iinnesota National held on Saturday mornings. This would'
officer of the 47th AAA Brigade, prior Guard unit which is based at Camp include inspections, I&E, character guid.
to his departure for his new station at Ruckner, Ala. ance and physical training, using the
Sixth Army Headquarters, Presidio of weekdays solely for military purposes.
• San Francisco, Calif., stressed the need Post Economy Board
for maintaining a high degree of com- In seeking methods to consen'e man- Polaroid l\IG Trainer
bat effectiveness in his farewell message power and supply, the post's recently The Polaroid machine gun trainer cur.
to the units. appointed board of officers started a se- rently in use for training gunners On
The 43rd RCAT Detachment recent- ries of studies to make sure that all en- the caliber .50 weapons is one of fi\'e
ly launched successfully the R-Cat tow- listed men are employed in the most allocated to the Army. The device per-
ing a flag target for the regular target essentiall\'IOS categories. Consideration mits "firing" on a target which is flashed
practices of the 256th AAA AW Bat- was being given to the possibility of re- across a screen by means of a motion pic-
talion. assigning certain enlisted occupations to ture projector. As the trigger is squeezed,
The main idea in the scheme is to civilian employees and instituting new tracers appear on the screen and when
save precious time on the range by elim- efforts for better use of equipment and hits on the target image are scored, sound
inating delays incident to shooting down supplies. (Continued on page 39)
the RCA TS when the gunners get too
hot. The flag target is not quite so vul-
Lieut. John R. Spitz, 43td executive,
said that the R-Cats maneuverability is
not much hampered by the tow target,
which is attached on a cable and trails
the plane by 500 yards.
Brig. Gen. Clare H. Armstrong pre-
sented the General Clare H. Armstrong
Trophy for proficiency in gunnery to the
337th AAA Gun Battalion, the 712th
and 698th. Battery D of the 27th AAA
AW Battalion was also awarded the tro-

ORC and Guard Training

Tentative plans call for annual two-
week training for more than six-thou-
sand National Guard and Organized
Reserve Corps officers and enlisted men
at Camp Stewart between June 15 and
August 31. This will include eighteen
AAA battalions from Georgia, Alabama,
Tennessee, North Carolina, Mississippi,
South Carolina and Florida which com-
prise the Third Army a'rea.
Largest element of the training units
are from Alabama with 1900, including
the 312th AAA Brigade with five bat-

U.S. Army Photo
During the week of February 19, the Brig. Gen. Clare H. Armstrong, commanding general, Camp' Stewart, Ga., presentS
38th AAA Gun Battalion, commanded the General Clare H. Armstrong Trophy for proficiency in firing. to Major Chri~t':
by Lt. Co!. Stanley R. Kelley, arrived pher S. Hill, commanding officer of the. 337th AA~ Gun B.attahon. !he?O ml~h'
meter unit had the best over-all record 10 five service practices. At nght IS Major
from Camp Edwards, Mass., to train at Frank M. Buchanan of the 712th Battalion, receiving two cups for placing first in
Stewart, the Army Training Test and for winning the advanced service practice. Behind the
In January, the 256th AAA AW Bat- general is his aide, 1st Lieutenant Frank Shaw.
WAlCH YOUR RCAl'S 34th Brigade Notes

U NITS of the 34th AAA Brigade,

By Major Theodore Wyckoff commanded by Brig. Gen. R. R. Hen-

drix, have recently completed an air de-
34th AM Brigade and fense exercise held jointly with French
AAA and U. S. and French air forces.
1st Lt. Charles A. Dennen Operation Cirrus was coordinated with
the French Army ground problem. Ex-
49th ReAT Det. ercise Jupiter and this interallied ma-
nem'er was followed by an all-American
problem involving U. S. Army and Air
AU\IOST everybody in antiaircraft you get 144 launchings per year for your Forces in the American zone in Ger-
comes in contact with RCATs-radio- battalion. And each of these launchings, many.
controlled airplane targets-sooner or far from costing $780 a piece, now costs High priority has been given to the
later. They are mighty nice things to only $480 a piece-$478.47 to be exact establishment of brigade's Artillery Elec-
ha\'e around-they'll fly on rainy days -a sa\'ing of three hundred and fOllr tronic J\laintenance School which is
when towed sleeves are out of the ques- dollars every time a target is put in the operating at Karlsruhe under Major Jo-
tion, and they'll fly maneuvering courses, air. seph J. Wiacek. The school will furnish
which towed sleeves can't-But there is What's m,?re, if the RCAT Detach- a steady supply of radar mechanics and
one thing about RCATs: they're not ment is in business as a going concern, fire control electricians to AAA and Field
cheap. The OQ-19 costs $2,350.00, and it can begin to economize on certain Artillery units of the Seventh Army.
an A\V battalion after it has finished spare parts which it doesn't use so fre- Among the units of the brigade par-
its initial training program, is authorized quently: engines, which cost $739 a ticipating in air defense are: 260th AAA
to expend 24 of them every year. That piece, for example. Over a period of Group, Col. LeRoy H. Mann; 46th AM
is $56,400 worth of targets per year per time the principal requirements for spare AW BN., Lt. Col. Paul A. Anson; 48th
battalion. parts turn out to be for batteries, $40 AAA A W BN., Lt. Col. O. K. Marshall;
The key point of my whole thesis will each, parachutes, $296 each, and props, 62nd AM AW BN., Lt. Col. C. E .
I be the importance of having adequate . $15 each. As these economies are ef- J\leadows; 95th AAA Gun Bn., Lt. Col.
sl'are parts. Now, depending on whether fected the cost per launching drops, and L. S. Dougherty; 443rd AAA A W BN
the 5-4's and Air Force procurement peo- in proportion, the RCAT Commander's (SP), Lt. Col. B. A. Spiller and the
ple in your area are on the ball or not, efficiency report rating for "economy" 91st AAA AW BN., Lt. Col. R. A. Claf-
you mayor may not get two spare parts goes up. fee.
kits, Air Force stock number 5300- Watch yom RCAT's and get your The 552nd AAA Gun Battalion re-
497780, which cost $6250 a piece, and spare parts! cently celebrated its third anniversary
which are issued on the basis of one per There is one other important thing since reactivation. Gen. Hendrix was
twelve OQ-19' s. If you get them, they that you can do to effect economy. That on hand to join the celebration and to
are issued to the RCAT detachment is to schedule your automatic weapons pin on Lt. Col. Lawrence N. Reiman,
which supports you. Let's see what dif- firing so as to put 40's first and .50 cali- the commander, the new battalion in-
ference it makes. ber machine guns second, and on fifties SIgne.
An OQ-19 can be made to fly an to fire only two weapons at a time, one
average of three times, if a skilled crew, or two barrels per weapon. The reason Camp Stewart
I such as the 49th RCA T Detachment, for this is that the RCA T attrition (Continued from page 38)
is good at salvaging batteries, repairing rate for forties is much lower than for effects produce a peep. The course of
wings, and replacing propellors and para- fifties, and the RCAT pilot can maneu- the tracer stream is observed through
chutes from targets shot down. This ver away from two tracer streams with- polaroid glasses.
is what the 49th had to do last summer, out difficulty, but not from more than Machine gun crews will all receive
when there were no issued spare parts two. instruction with the trainer prior to ac-
available in Europe, and so the average This way you can. stretch the useful tual target firing and periodic practice
Cost per RCAT flight was $780, or life of the plane on each launching as with the device will be required during
S783.33, to be exact. From your total nearly as possible to the maximum Hy- the training program.
annual allowance-to train all your 64 ing time on a tankful of gas, which
gun sections-you get only 72 flights- is an hour and five or ten minutes. So, Stewart Newspaper Honored
a bare 1Ul flights per section. if you fire forties for about 35 or 40 The Camp Stewart Rocket, published
But if you get the spare parts, (as minutes, and then switch to fifties for 20 weekly at J esu p, Ga." was named as the
the 34th Brigade did this year,-thanks or 25 minutes, or as long as the plane outstanding all-service civilian enterprise
to Major Robert \V. Fiske, S4) see what lasts, your chances of getting maximum for the month of December by the
happens? The detachment can then ex- use out of your target are good. Armed Forces Press. Colonel Franklin
actly double its efficiency and it imme- And above all don't permit easy S. Pruyn, chief of the AFPS, awarded
diately starts making each of your 24 courses just to boost gunner morale. We a certificate of commendation to the
targets fly six times instead of three, and need training-not braggadocio! publishers.
MARCH-APRIL, 1952 39
88th Abn AAA Battalion - Exercise Snowfall
By Captain Blaine Young
THE 88th Airborne AAA Battalion, personnel of the battalion were all rela.
Lt. Co!. Robert B. Barry, Jr., command- tively comfortable in improvised lean-t(lS.
ing, completed in February its participa- snow huts, and deep fox holes. ThOSe
tion in Exercise Snowfall with the 11th who were fortunate enough to be near
Airborne Division. Other Army units one of the arctic type warming tents
participating included the 3rd Armored were indeed lucky. For extended periods
Cavalry, the 278th RCT as Aggressor, in extreme cold, an arctic type shelter
and the 306th Logistical Command sup- tent is required for each gun section.
porting both sides. The exercise served to show again that
The 18th Air Force provided the Quad fifty rurret mounted on snow sleds. our airborne AA weapons leave a lot to
Troop Carrier Command, the Tactical be desired. The mounts for the 40mm as
Air Command, and units to operate the X plus I and set up AA defense there. well as for the caliber .50 weapons can he
Joint Operations Center, Tactical Air Captain James Bouknight brought air dropped, but they are sensitive to
Control Center, and other required serv- Able Battery in to air land at \Vheeler- damage. Once dropped these mounts
ices. Sac AFB on X plus 2, and on the same give no real mobility. The only really
Incident to the Exercise the author date the remainder of the battalion also suitable mount as now used is the 1\1-63
and Captain John Crawford had to start came in. Thereafter some elements mount for the single caliber .50 machine
on planning early in October. Changes moved as necessary, but the entire battal- gun.
in loading plans and air loading plans ion continued in the AA role. Exercise SNOWFALL did wonders in
were necessary due to the new 2~-ton By this time the cold weather and rounding out the training of this battal.
truck and 1~-ton trailer. Variations had snow arrived with a vengeance. Tem- ion. By the end of the exercise the unit
to provide for air movement in the G46, peratures dropped to below zero every was functioning as a smooth working
C-82, G119, or C-124. Before it was night and ranged in the teens during the team. l\!10rale had reached a high point
over every officer and man in the battal- day. Special arctic equipment plus and the personnel could look back on a
ion was involved. Yankee ingenuity came into full play and very tough job well done.
Right after Christmas Captain John
Adams, S4, led the advance parties to
Fort Drum, N. Y.
During the air movement of 10,000
troops from Fort Campbell to Fort Drum
the batteries Hew in with their RCT's.
Captain Owen Hew the Hq. Battery in
with Division headquarters.
Immediately upon arrival all were is-
sued arctic equipment, including the
sleeping bag, shoe pacs, parka, mittens,
snowshoes, warming tents and stoves.
During the training phase all were given
intense training in Arctic survival by
Lieut. Hart's trained team. During the
same period the batteries participated in
RCT problems and began to experience
the cold weather difficulties in radio
As the main maneuver began Captain
Patrick Malone's Baker Battery air
landed at \Vheeler-Sac AFB and set up
the AA defense. Lt. Co!. Barry, Capt.
Vandervort, Lt. Vranish, and a small bat-
talion advance echelon came in same
time to set up the AAOC, keep pace Brig. Gen. W'illiam M. Hamilton, 102nd AAA Brigade, and Co!. Fred J. Woods, I
with the T ACC and provide AAAIS. group and post commander, congrarulate Chief W'arrant Officer Roy A.. Moore.
Lieut. Dorsey Morgan led Charlie
Battery in to parachute on the DZ on
16th AAA Group, at Fort Hancock, N. Y. upon the award of the Bronze Star
Medal (OLC) for combat service in Korea.
By Colonel c. G. Patterson

EXERCISE "Helpful," conducted at bilities and procedures m air-ground I5Ist Group was made a,'ailable to act
Camp Edwards, i\lass., 18-20 December operations. as air coordinator.
1951, was conceived and executed pri-
marily to provide personnel of the 151st GENERAL PLAN

:\ircraft Control and \Varning Group THE I5Ist AC&W Group provided:
with experience in their air-ground oper- THE general situation was based on Space, facilities, and personnel for the
ation role in "Snowfall." The entire Aggressor launching a three-pronged JOC, their own Tactical Air Control
exercise was planned, executed, and cri- amphibious and airborne assault along Center (T ACC), two Tactical Air Direc-
tiqued within a period of three weeks. the Massachusetts coast in the vicinity tion Centers (TADC), one Tactical Air
On 30 November, Major Gouchoe, of Boston on 11 December. After con- Control Party (T ACP), one Tactical Air
1\3, I51st AC&W Group, asked if 2d AA solidation of the beachheads, Aggressor Directing Party (TADP) utilizing an
Group could arrange to ration and quar- launched an attack generally west and SCR 584 of the 704th AAA Gun Bat-
ter two forward air control parties south to secure the Southern New Eng- talion in lieu of an i\lSQ type radar,
(FACP) at Camp Wellfleet firing range. land area as a base for further air-ground and necessary early warning radar. Com-
He explained that they were planning operations. The 'Twenty-Fifth Army," mimications were installed between the
to use the Wellfleet area to give the supported by the "Ninth Air Force," JOC and Headquarters 2d AA Group
FACP personnel experience in selecting conducted a strategic withdrawal against and bet\veen the T ACC and 302d
ground targets for air attack and in guid- numerically superior Aggressor ground AAOD operating the AAOC for 2d
ing aircraft to the target. \Ve replied and air forces while building up re- AA Group.
that we would be happy to make such sources for a counteroffensive. The The 633d and 704th AAA Gun Battal-
arrangements, but hastened to point out "XL Corps," with Headquarters at Camp ions were deployed to provide AA de-
that the land area in that vicinity is Edwards, defended the southern end of fense of the vital installations in the
very limited and that ground attack air- the line with two infantry divisions vicinity of Camp Edwards and to sup-
craft in the area might interfere with (336th & 259th) and one armored divi- port Corps Artillery from position. The
the AA firing range. As an alternative, sion (658th) and provided ground and 398th AAA AW Battalion established
it was suggested that the Camp Edwards AA defenses of the vital targets in the a visual AAAIS but did not deploy fire
area presented much more suitable ter- Cape Cod area. The "259th Infantry Di- units. However, convoys from the 398th
rain for air-ground operations and, in vision," 2d AA Group, most of the "XL and I5Ist were utilized to represent Ag-
addition, 2d AA Group was anxious to Corps Artillery," and the I5Ist AC&W gressor forces during the course of the
participate in a joint air-ground exercise. Group were located in the vicinity of exercise. They were attacked by F-5I
As a result, early in the week of 2 Camp Edwards. F-5I aircraft, based at aircraft when available, and at other
December, Lt. Colonel J. \V. Connelly, Dow AFB and Grenier AFB, were to times by an AT -6. When convoys were
CO, I51st AC&W Group, and Colonel be available for ground support missions. not in the area, one sergeant with a jeep,
C. G. Patterson, CO, 2d AA Group, While the disposition of forces left plus a ],4 ton trailer full of smoke gre-
agreed to conduct a joint air-ground ex- much to be desired from the strategic nades, represented the Aggressor forces
ercise at Camp Edwards, outlined their standpoint, this artificiality was accepted in the Camp Edwards range impact area.
concept of the exercise, and initiated in order that maximum benefit might On radio instructions from the TACP,
joint planning. Colonel A. T. Bowers, be derived from the exercise. In addi- he set off various colored smoke candles
S3, Camp Edwards, accepted the re- tion, the JOC was to operate at the Corps to represent targets for air attack.
Sponsibilities of senior ground force com- rather than Army level. Other than Two types of air missions were uti-
mander and detailed his assistant, Major units of the 2d AA Group, ground forces lized-preplanned at the JOC, based on
J. \\1. Anderson (now S3, 2d AA were represented by one officer with a the reported situation, and targets of
Croup), as G3 Air on the joint staff at radio jeep (CG 259th Division) to work opportunity as called for by the T ACP.
the Joint Operations Center (jOC). with the TACP. Headquarters 2d AA \Vhen aircraft were not in the area,
Utilizing the I5Ist AC&W Group and Group represented Headquarters XL or when requested missions were not
2d AA Group staffs, a joint staff was Corps Artillery, while Headquarters XL deemed appropriate for air attack, targets
organized and given a concentrated brief- Corps was represented by the G3 Air were assigned to AA gun batteries thru
ing on capabilities, limitations, responsi- at the JOe. One AT -6 aircraft of the "XL Corps Artillery" and 2d AA Group.

MARCH-APRIL, 1952 41
CoNDUCT OF THE ExERCISE Cape Cod early on 19 December. The
TADP in the SCR 584 brought the at-

THE general plan for Exercise "Help-

fuY' was issued to all units on 15 Decem-
tacking aircraft directly over the target
on blind bombing missions.
On 20 December, the F-51s at Grenier
ber, together with Intelligence Estimate
Number One. By this date, three In- were still grounded by icy runways, but
telligence Bulletins had been distributed Dow AFB was clear and F-Sls appeared These military books are best sellers
and all personnel were familiar with the over Camp Edwards in flights of four today. Thousands of officers and
general situation and enemy activties. aircraft beginning at 0900. Aircraft were men-old-timers and those returning
A joint briefing for commanders and available until 1420 engaging preplanned to active duty-are building their
staffs of participating units was held on and call mission targets. The 398th aI1d military libraries with these up-to-
15 December. At this time, it was again 151st convoys were dive-bombed and date editions. Some buy a book a
emphasized that the purpose of the ex- strafed the entire time they were trav- month; others a book every quarter.
ercise was, primarily, to assist the 151st ersing the impact area. The AT-6, in
AC&W Group in getting ready for addition to acting as air coordinator, car- The Officer's Guide $3.50
"Snowfall" and, in so doing, AAA units ried out blind bombing missions under
The Noncom's Guide 2.50
could gain valuable experience in the radar control from the TADP. The
C-47 representing Aggressor penetrated Company Administration and
air-ground, as well as in the antiaircraft
the area several times, each time being the Personnel Office 2.50
role. Everything was in readiness for the
exercise to begin at :first light on the intercepted by a flight of F-51s under The Serviceman and the Law .. 3.50
18th; that is, except the weather. the control of TADC No.2. In addi-
Index-Digest to the Uniform
tion to air strikes and interceptions, the
The 704th made a daylight move to Code of Military Justice 2.50
F-S1s were utilized to make dive bomb-
positions on 17 December and checked ing and strafing runs on the various AA New Drill Regulations 1.50
out operation of the SCR 584 to be gun positions. During such attacks, the Caden"e System of Teaching
used as the TADP. Communications by F-51s were designated as Aggressor air- Close Order Drill 1.00
telephone and radio were installed to craft. The exercise ended on the after-
TADC No. 1. The 633d made a night Map and Aerial Photograph
noon of 20 December and all units
move on 17 December, since they were Reading, Complete 2.75
returned to base.
also going thru the tactical phase of their Basic Training Guide 2.50
Army Training Test. The 398th AAAIS CRITIQUE Essentials of Military Training .. 3.75
was established prior to dawn on 18 De-
cember. Kill-Or Get Killed 3.75
THE following comments during the
The low overcast and intermittent Modern Judo; 2 vols., each 3.00
critique are worth mentioning.
rain on the Cape on the 18th was snow Small Arms of the World 6.00
~ Close support aircraft are not always
and ice at Grenier AFB and Dow AFB, The Military Staff 3.00
available due to other commitments,
and friendly aircraft were unable to take
weather, or other factors. Artillery is Intelligence is for Commanders 3.85
off. However, the AT-6 used by the air
still the main reliance.
coordinator was diverted to the attack Income Tax Guide (for mil-
role, thus providing an excellent oppor- ~ Information must flow up and down. itary personnel) 1.00
tunity to check communications and air- Too frequently spot reports and other in- Principles Qf Insurance .......• 75
ground operations procedures. The 633d formation died at the end of a telephone
and 704th were assigned a considerable line or in a journal. and 2 background books
number of ground :fire missions in the ~ Adequate, reliable, and flexible com- that point the way
absence of aircraft. munications are the single most impor-
The night of the 18th, the weather tant factor in air-ground operations. The The Red Army Today, by Ely .. 3.50
turned clear and cold-changing the purpose is to assure instantaneous com- The army you may someday
myriads of puddles into solid ice. On munications with an elements of the air- have to fight.
the 19th, the runways at Grenier and ground team.
The Price of Survival, by Sweet 2.85
Dow were still covered with ice, so again ~ Communications are vulnerable to sat- A clearly marked course for
the AT -6 acted as the air attack force, uration and jamming. the future.
while a C-47 acted as the Aggressor air
force. Both preplanned and targets of op- ~ Tactical air power is a powerful weap-
portunity targets were attacked, and in- on of opportunity.
terceptions run against the Aggressor air- To the antiaircraft troops the exercise Order from
craft. Successful preplanned missions was primarily practice and a test in air-
were Hown against the Bourne and Saga- ground communications and coordina-
more Bridges across the Cape Cod Canal tion. We learned a lot about the air sup- 631 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W.
in an effort to halt the amphibious-air- port problems, the required teamwork, Washington 4, D. C.
borne operation launched at the base of and the language and procedures in use.

DOUGLAS MacARTHUR. By Clark Lee Arthur Feud. This part may be lacking limited success of Canaris' efforts to aid
and Richard Henschel. Henry Holt in documentation, but not one bit in in- the Allies was due to the caution of
and Company. 370 pages; illustrated; terest. British Intelligence, Colvin says. This
index. Price: $6.00. J\larching on through the Clark Field is an age-old intelligence problem. In-
debacle, the Comeback, Japan, Korea, formation is seldom lacking, but there
It's time we had a reasonably com-
and the Firing Squad, the authors do a must be discrimination between the good
plete and undistorted life of General
great job of giving the reader the inside and the bad. Colvin freely condemns
~lacArthur and this is the nearest to it
scenes on this stirring story of a great British intelligence for its failure to make
so far. The authors know a lot about general. full use of the Admiral's assistance, but
the man they describe, they write of him
he offers no solution to the problem. He
warmly and make of him the remark- MASTER SPY. By Ian Colvin. New
York: McGraw-Hili Book Company, only underscores it. Therefore, this book
able Hesh-and-blood person he actually
Inc., 1951. 286 Pages. $3.50. constitutes merely another monograph on
is, rather than the artificial stiff-natured
one more of the many ramifications of
person some writers have depicted him After a war a trend usually develops
the unfolding history of vVorld \Var n.
as being. Lee and Henschel show him toward the glorification of former ene-
to be a great and able leader, and they mies. Rommel has already been elevated
show it so thoroughly and clearly that to the Luckner-Richthofen pedestal. Su- MEN OF WEST POINT. By Col. R.
e\'en those who disagree with the Gen- perficially, it might appear that the same Ernest Dupuy, USA IRet.!. William
eral's political viewpoint and his gen- treatment is being given to Admiral Wil- Sloane Associates. 486 pages. $5.00.
eral world view must feel the degree helm Canaris, Germany's World War
of his greatness. 11 Chief of Military Intelligence. But The author has produced a book that
These authors do largely agree with Ian Colvin does far more than write is fully as important to the military
him but make no big point of it. They scholar as Clausewitz. It is more than a
sympathertically of a senior German of-
cover his whole life story with such com- ficer; he aims at no less than showing study of graduates of the Military Acad-
petence and in such interesting detail that Canaris seized every opportunity emy in war and peace. It is a history
that the man is made clear as an admir- of the founding of a great nation and
short of open rebellion to sabotage Hit-
able American servant of his country. ler's aggression. the proud part played in the American
There is a lot of new material here. Mr. saga by \Vest Pointers since the first
Such a contention regarding one of
Ilenschel does a superb job of telling the class of ten cadets were authorized as a
the German General Staff's ranking
General's life in pictures. He has as- part of the newly established "Corps of
members is startling, but Colvin sustains
sembled several hundred illustrations Engineers" in 1802.
it convincingly, although some of his
which are well arranged with well-done evidence is based on inference. The An important niche in America's his-
captions in a section of 128 pages. Both motive attributed to the Admiral is a tory has never been adequately accorded
text and picture life are good, and army conviction dating from 1938 that Ger- to Dennis Hart l\Iahan, father of the
families will be drawn to the book by many faced inevitable defeat. In retro- great naval strategist and professor of
this splendid picture section, spect, the facts seem obvious; neverthe- engineering and military science, Co!.
General MacArthur is of course a less, few other German military men Dupuy gives full treatment to one of
hrst class subject for a book of first class appear to have understood them. vVhat the nation's most gifted teachers. Ma.
interest. His purposeful and active life trains of thought, what personality traits han's profound inHuence upon genera-
had been filled with controversial in- combined to make Canaris believe and tions of \Vest Pointers from 1826 to
terest long before he tangled with the act as he did? This book's failure to an- 1871, had a great effect upon the mili
present administration. And the authors swer such questions is its greatest short- tary destiny of the United States and
go out to make the most of it. coming. In short, as a biography it is upon military thought and practice the
As a curtain raiser we get a fascinating unsatisfactory. vVe are given some ac- world over.
account of the first MacArthur's feud count of what Canaris did, but only the America's great leaders as well as the
with William Howard Taft in the Phil- haziest picture of the sort of man he was. exploits of unrenowneq soldiers are all
ippines. Then on to Douglas MacArthur Military readers will find the book's examined in relation to the manifold
in the Rainbow Division, his tiffs with chief value in its presentation of certain contributions made by Academy gradu-
Pershing and Billy l\'litchell-his first aspects of two intelligence organizations ates to the growth of the country's great-
marriage, and "l\IacArthur and Politics." -the German, composed of jealous, com- ness.
Clark Lee spreads no oil on the water petitive agencies; and the conservative, Men of 'Vest Point is worth-while
in his chapter on the l\larshall-Mac- tradition-bound British service. The reading.
MARCH-APRIL, 1952 43
?2ew~ and eomment In accordance with the constitution of the Antiaircraft Association, the follow-
ing annual statements of the Association and Journal are published for the infor-
mation of all Association members and subscribers.

Executive Council BALANCE SHEET-DECEMBER 31, 1951
The Executive Council of the United
States Antiaircraft Association held its ASSETS
annual meeting at Fort Leslie McNair
on the evening of March 11, 1952.
Cash on deposit $ 6,161.45
Lieutenant General LeRoy Lutes, who Office cash fund ..........•..........•...................... 25.00
resigned as President of the Association Accounts receivable:
incident to his recent retirement, was Merchandise accounts $1,417.83
elected Honorary President. General Subscriptions .......................•......•... 1,000.00
Lutes, now an official with the Pacihc $2,417.82
Tire and Rubber Company in Oakland, less reserve for bad debts 00 • 00 • 00 578.82 1,839.01
California, was unable to attend. Inventory of books, held for sale 73.20
Major General Willard W. Irvine, TOTAL CURRENT ASSETS. 00 .. 00 H ••••• 00 00 " ••• 00 00$ 8,098.66
Commanding General of the Army AA FIXED ASSETS:
Command, was elected President. Office furniture and equipment $8,320.34
One matter of interest to the members less reserve for depreciation .•............ , 8,132.61 187.73
is the decision reached on subscription
rates. Most of the service journals have
Inventory of office supplies .•........... " $1,597.29
already increased their rates to meet the Deposit with U.S. Government Printing Office 51.62 1,648.91
rising publication costs since the war. TOTAL ASSETS $ 9,935.30
Our council, however, has had some lati-
tude in this matter due to the sound LIABIlITIES AND NET WORTH
hnancial status of the Association. CURRENT LIABIlITIES:
Accordingly the Council has consist- Accounts payable $ 129.29
ently placed the emphasis on increasing District of Columbia sales tax . 1.86
the circulation and held the domestic TOTAL CURRENT LIABIlITIES 00 00 00 00 •• 00 • $ 131.15
subscription price at $3.00 per year. This
rate has been in effect since 1919. The
Unexpired subscriptions 10,605.33
results have been quite favorable, too.
Last year the number of subscribers NET WORTH:
climbed rapidly almost to the 8,000 mark. Surplus, balance December 31, 1950 $2,366.55
Unfortunately, the publication costs less: Net loss for the year ended December 31, 1951,
also climbed and the JOURNALcame to per Exhibit Boo 00 H 3,167.73
the end of the year with a small dehcit. Deficit, balance December 31, 1951 00 .. 00 00 801.18
Facing further cost increases, the TOTAL LIABIlITIES AND NET WORTH $ 9,935.30
Council decided to stick by its guns, to
hold the current subscription rates, and THE UNITED STATES ANTIAIRCRAFT ASSOCIATION
to continue the emphasis on increasing BALANCE SHEET-DECEMBER 31, 1951
the circulation.
Other Association members participat-
ing in the meeting included Major Gen- Cash in ba nk .. 00 ....... 00 ... 00 • 00 00 ...... 00 .. 00 00 .. 00 .. 00 ... $ 652.27
erals Robert T. Frederick and Stanley
U.S. Government bonds, Schedule 1 $63,933.13
R. Mickelsen and other AAA officers Common stock .•.......•....................... 160.00
in the Washington area. $64,153.13
Also attending were Brig. General TOTAL ASSETS $64,805.40
Homer Case, Col. Harold P. Gard and
Major James C. Todd of the 35th AAA NET WORTH
Brigade; Col. Howard S. Ives, 208th SURPLUS BALANCE, December 31, 1950 .•...•....•.....•........ $65,176.92
AAA Group and the following battal- less:
ion commanders: Lt. Col. George W. Excess of disbursements over receipts for the year ended Decem-
Best, 36th; Lt. Col. Frank T. Lynch, ber 31, 1951, for Exhibit B 00 00 • 371.52
736th; Lt. Col. William D. McCain, SURPLUS BALANCE, December 31, 1951 ..•........•...•.......•. $64,805.40
115th; Major Joseph H. Felter, 71st,
and Major Arthur H. Stamwood, 35th.
General Officer Promotions

Gen. Henagan Gen. Fraser Gen. Mickelsen Gen. Milburn

Brig. Gen. John C. Henagan of Dillon, S.c., well known Brigadier Generals Stanly R. Mickelsen and Bryan L. Mil-
World \Var II antiaircraft commander, took command of the burn were recently promoted to the grade of 1\hjor General.
51st Infantry Division (S.C.-Fla. N.G.) on January 31. General Mickelsen, entering the Army in 1917 from Min-
Since 1947 General Henagan has served as Assistant Divi- nesota, won his regular commission in the CAC in the First
sion Commander and also found time to serve as an outstand- Officers Training Camp.
ing membe~ of the United States Antiaircraft Association His first assignment was with the AAA Board at Fort Mon-
Executive Council. roe, Va., and early thereafter he was sent to the Panama
He came on active duty in 1941 in command of the 107th Canal Zone to aid in organizing its AAA defenses.
AA AW Battalion from his home town, Dillon, and com- Among his assignments between the wars, he served as an
manded that battalion with distinction in England, Algeria, instructor with the Connecticut National Guard and later at
and in the Tunisian campaign. He later landed at Salerno the Coast Artillery School. Upon graduation from the War
in command of the 5th AAA Group, participating with the College in 1938 he served with the \Var Department General
5th Army in the Italian campaigns. Staff.
During the invasion of Southern France General Henagan He was promoted to Brigadier General in 1942 to com-
commanded the AAA with the VI Corps as it spearheaded mand the 47th AAA Brigade in Iceland. He later commanded
the Seventh Army drive up the Rhone Valley, across the the AAATC at Fort Bliss, Texas. In 1944 he went to Europe
Vosges mountains, and the Rhine. In 1945 he was assigned to where he served as Chief of the Displaced Persons Branch
the XXI Corps where he commanded its AAA till the end and later as director of the Civil Affairs Division of the Euro-
of hostili ties. pean Command.
War decorations: L1\'I, BSi\I, Croix de Guerre, France, and In 1947 General Mickelsen returned to serve as the As-
Italian Military Valor Cross. sistant Commandant of The Artillery School at Fort Sill.
Since 1950 he has served in the Pentagon as the Deputy
Brig. Gen. Joseph B. Fraser, commanding general of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, for Guided Missiles.
108th AAA Brigade and the AAA Defenses in the Philadel- \Var decorations: DSM, LM.
phia Area, was appointed to command the 48th Infantry Divi-
sion (Ga.-Fla. N.G.) on 3 March 1952. Major General Milburn entered the Army from Arkansas
A resident of Hinesville, Ga., and prominent in business, in 1917 and won his regular commission in the CAC in The
civic, and educational affairs in Georgia, General Fraser First Officers Training Camp.
brought his brigade on active duty at Fort Bliss, Texas, in Au- Among his early achievements in the Coast Artillery, he com-
gust, 1950. In April, 1951, the brigade was transferred to manded Battery C, 65th C. A. in Panama in 1928 when that
Swarthmore, Pa., where General Fraser organized and has battery won the Knox Trophy in its Antiaircraft target prac-
since commanded this important element of the Army AA tices. His various assignments before \Vorld War II included
Command. He expects to be released from active duty in April tours of duty as an instructor both at the Coast Artillery
to take over his new assignment as 48th Division Commander. School and at the Command and General Staff School.
Serving with field artillery in France in WWI and the 108th During the \Var General l\lilburn commanded the 39th
Cavalry (Ga. N.G.) between the wars, General Fraser took AAA Brigade at Seattle and served later as Commandant,
the IOlst AAA Bn to the Southwest Pacific in February, 1942, the AAA School at Fort Davis. In 1944 he went overseas to
where he commanded a Provisional AAA Brigade at Port serve eventually as Chief of Staff of the U. S. Group Con-
i\loresby till April, 1943. Returning to the States he took trol Council in Germany and later with the Berlin Command.
the 23rd AAA Group to England in 1943 and joined the After serving as Chief of Staff at the AA and GM Center
XV Corps in 1944, where he commanded General Wade at Fort Bliss from 1948 to 1950 General Milburn transferred
Haislip's AAA through France and Germany till the end of to Tokyo where he now serves as Gl, GHQ Far East Com-
the War. War decorations: L1\1 (OLC), BSM, Croix de mand.
Cuerre with Palm, France, and Oak Leaf Emblem, Australia. War decorations: L1\1 (OLC), BSl\'1.
MARCH-APRIL, 1952 45
Co!. Argo Retires
Colonel Reamer \V. NOO
Field Expedients
o retired in To the Editor:
\Vashington, D.C., for 'age on February The followinoo items may• prm'e of in-
the 29th after almost 35 years service
in the Army. For the pas~ three years
terest to other AM battalions. History of the I
Captain Vincent E. Cahill and Sgt.
Colonel Argo has served as Chief of the
Donald \Vills of Batterv C have found
1'Ianpower Branch, Management Divi-
that by placing two 24~ light bulbs op-
sion of the office of the Army Comp-
posite the edge of the ple;dglass on the
T-33 plotting board, plots made bv china
l\lrs. Argo died in the Naval Station
marking pencils instantly becom~ lumi-
Hospital at Annapolis in January and
nous. This eliminated the necessity of
was buried in the Arlington Cemetery.
turning on the ceiling lights in order Antiaircraft
Colonel Aroooand his dauohters
o '
to see the plotting board while tracking,
Ellen and Marjory, continue to reside
and of course permitted better observa-
in their home at 9 1'Iarvland Avenue
Annapolis, 1'laryland .• '
tion of the various radar scopes. Command
The 24v current may be obtained by
Bliss Library Receives olin/al File connecting a single line to the lower
The librarv of the AA and GM School terminal on the power ringing switch
has just acq~ired a complete bound set on the switchboard. B)' o oroundino0 the
of the JOllT1l1ll of the U. S. Artillery, 56 sockets when they are mounted the
volumes, 1892-1922, and the Coast Artil- circuit is completed. The lights are Complete and authentically com-
lery JOllrnal, volumes 57 through 90, mounted with the bulb to the front of piled World War II History of the
1922-1947. the board. There are some small holes
AAA in the Pacific.
This acquisition gives the School li- about 3/16 of an inch in diameter in
brary a complete record of the ANTIAIR- the frame of the plotting board which
CRAFTJOURNALand its illustrious pred- can be used. These holes should be
ecessors through 60 years of continued scraped to remove all paint so a good
publication. contact can be made.
These volumes were presented to the By bending the small mounting tip Complete data on all units at-
library by the President of AFF Board on the socket outward and inserting it
tached, from activation until end
In the small hole in the frame a con-
No.4. They were originally a part of
of war.
the records of the Coast Artillery Board venient ground is provided and it also
when it was located at Fort Monroe, Va. serves to steady the socket in mounting.
The lights are connected in parallel by ---0 _
Report of Air Losses connecting the single wire to both lights.
The Secretary of the Air Force A toggle switch is installed in the line to
Thomas K. Finletter recently reported: facilitate turning off the lights . • Illustrations
"As of Januarv 31st the USAF had
Lieut. Col. Maynard G. Moyer, has • Locations and dates
knocked down' 279 Communist planes
demonstrated that another time and labor • Decorations
in air-to-air combat and had destroyed an
saving device which may be of interest
additional 70 on the ground. During the • Statistical data
to units in static position within the
same period, the USAF lost 58 planes in
air-to-air combat, 336 to enemy ground ZI is a speed wrench for use in opening
fire plus eight others to unknown causes. sealed ammunition boxes in a hurry. ---0---
Of this total, 65 planes were lost in The handle may be made from the
close support operations and 296 in in- rod that runs through the center of the
terdiction operations, while the Com- ammo box, heated and bent in the shape $2.00 Limited Edition $2.00
munists have lost no planes at all in of a speed wrench. The wrench itself,
close support or interdiction." or the business end, is made from % inch Order'rom
pipe. This is slit on two sides in order
Chicken Feathers Save \X1oo1 In ANTIAI RCRAFT
to fit over the wing nuts on the ammo
New Sleeping Bag
box. It has been found that the use of
The Army has recentlv announced JOURNAL
these wrenches has greatly reduced the
that chicke~ feathers, so' plentiful in
time necessary to open and prepare for 631 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W.
U.S.A., can now be converted to valu-
action ammunition which has been
able use in the new sleeping bag to keep
sealed for some time. Washington, D. C.
the serviceman warm. This will not
only operate to save wool but the report MAJORROBERTE. RANDOLPH
also indicates that the feather insulation 69th MA Gun Bn.
makes the sleeping bag twice as warm. Fort Totten, N. Y.

ART' L L E R Y '0 R D E R S
DA Special Orders Covering January 1, 1952 through February 29, 1952.
Promotions and Demotions not included.

COLONelS Raleigh, Edward c., 31st AAA Brig. Ft Lewis, Munguia, R. V., EUCOM, Bremerhaven.
Cauthen, Wm. A., 14th AAA Gp., Cpo Stewart, Wash. Olmsted, Alfred M., Far East Command, Yoko-
Ga. Rist, Austin S., Far East Command, Yokohama. hama.
Cotter, Clarence E., Hq Fifth Army, Chicago, Rose, Edward L., 277th AAA Gp, Cp Stewart, Olson, Charles \X'., 7th AAA Gp Cp Stewart,
Ill. Ga. Ga.
Gard, Harold P., USA Alaska, Ft Richardson, Rutkin, Joseph, Far East Command, Yokohama Orvis, Robert E., Far East Command, Yoko-
Alaska. Sargent, H. A., Far East Command, Yoko- hama.
Ha\\1horne, Wm. B., USA Alaska, Ft Richard- hama. Osburn, ). c., Far East Command, Yokohama.
son, Alaska. Williams, Robert 0., Far East Command, Yoko- Pack, Glenn H., USA Caribbean, Ft. Amador
Martin, Murry J., 7th AAA Gp., Cpo Stewart, hama. CZ. '
Ga. Wooding, Nathaniel H., Jr., USA Alaska, Fort Pauk, Walter Jr., Far East Command, Yoko-
~e1son, Paul B., 6516th ASU, Wash NG Instr Richardson. hama.
Gp., Camp Murray, Ft Lewis, Wash. \X'orseck, P. J., Far East Command, Yokohama. Poston, John W., Stu Det AA & GM Br TAS
Rude, Walter A., 13th AAA Gp., Cpo Stewart, Ft Bliss, Tex. '
Ga. CAPTAINS Ray, Robert 0., EUCOM, Bremerhaven.
Vestal, W. M., AFF Bd. 4, Fl. Bliss, Texas. Ansel, N. D., Far East Command, Yokohama. Rivera, Eduardo, EUCOM, Bremerhaven.
Boggs, Ian N., Stu Det Arty Sch, Ft Sill, Okla. Rodgers, William J., Far East Command, Yoko-
LIEUTENANT COLONelS Brantley, J. M., EUCOM, Bremerhaven hama.
Cassibry, Robert c., OACOFS G2 8533d AAU Bromberg, William, Far East Command, Yoko- Rogers, Orlin W., Far East Command, Yoko-
Washington, DC. hama. hama.
Cheal, Raymond c., Hq Western Army AA Breuning, E. G., Far East Command, Yoko- Simmons, Daniel H., 4052d ASU AAA & GM
Comd 8577th AAU Hamilton AFB, Calif. hama Clr, Ft Bliss, Tex.
Cunningham, H. A., Jr., Far East Command, Cacchiotti, Ralph R., 31st AAA Brig., Ft Lewis, Sorello, Michael, 47th AAA Brig., Cp Stew-
Yokohama. Wash. art, Ga.
Foster, Robert )., Far East Command, Yoko- Colbert, Edward F., 197th AAA Gp., Ft Banks, Sosnove, William, Far East Command, Yoko-
hama. Mass. hama.
Galyean, D., Sr., Far East Command, Yoko- Cole, Lawrence A., Stu Det AA & Gm Br TAS Steinhagen, Carl A., 4054th ASU AA & GM
hama. Ft Bliss, Tex. ' Br T AS, Ft Bliss, Tex.
Lowrie, T. W., Sr., Far East Command, Yoko- Condon, Chester H., Hq & Hq Co ASA Europe Swieckowski, Stanley A., Hq Cen Army AA
hama. 8620th AAU, Frankfurt, Germany. Comd 8577th AAU, Kansas City, Mo.
McCrory, John R., 4052d ASU AAA & GM Crooks, James A., 4052d ASU AAA & GM Ctr Thibeault, Raymond E., 197th AAA Gp., Ft
Clr, Ft Bliss, Tex. Ft Bliss, Tex. ' Banks, Mass.
Michelet, Howard E., Stu Det AA & GM Br Croucher, James W., USA Alaska, Fort Rich- Torcaso, Roy R., Stu Det Army Lang Sch,
TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex. ardson. Monterey, Calif.
Robinette, William R., Hq Sixth Army, Ft. D'Amato, Michael A., Stu Det AA & GM Br Trout, Wm. T., Far East Command, Yokohama.
MacArthur, Calif. T AS, Ft Bliss, Tex. Turnbull, Francis W., Hq Cen Army AA Comd
Shagrin, Richard A., 5th AAA AW Bn, Cpo Danchertsen, John D., USA Alaska, Fort Rich- 8577th AAU, Kansas City, Mo.
McCoy, Wise. ardson. Vanrooy, Donald c., USA Alaska, Fort Rich-
Spelz, Reinhard L., USA Caribbean, Ft Ama- Depass, Maurice M., Far East Command, Yoko- ardson.
dor, CZ. hama. Wagon, H. L., Far East Command, Yokohama_
Walker, Stanley M., AAFES 8655th AAU New DeWitt, Richard P., 3320th ASU NC NG Instr Weber, James J., 80th AAA Gp, Fl. Totten,
York, NY. ' Gp wlsta, Raeford, NC. ro.'Y.
Waugh, William H., Jr., OAC of S 8535th Drapkin, S. R., Far East Command, Yokohama. West, William J., Far East Command, Yoko-
AAU, Wash, DC. Etter, Richard E., 47th AAA Brig., Cpo Stew- hama.
art, Ga. Wing, Richard L., Far East Command, Yoko-
MAJORS Fitzpatrick, T. E., Far East Command, Yoko- hama.
Brown, W. G., Far East Command Yokohama hama.
Forstot, George, Far East Command, Yoko- FIRST LIEUTENANTS
Burger, Paul S., Hq Eastern Army AA Comd:
8577th AAU Stuart AFB, New York hama. Arnold, Charles c., Far East Command, Yoko-
Chapman, H. B., Far East Command, Yoko- Foster, Jack W., Stu Det AA & GM Br TAS hama.
hama. Ft Bliss, Tex. ' Baker, Arnold W., 47th AAA Brig, Cp Stew-
Chavis, Thomas N., lO8th AAA Brig., Swarth- Fowler, Wilbur B., 47th AAA Brig., Cp Stew- art, Ga ..
more, Pa. art, Ga. Bailey, Lawrence R., Jr., Stu Dct Arty Sch, Ft
Conway, M. )., Far East Command, Yokohama. Frick, Edwin J., 336th AAA Gun Bn, Cp Ed- Sill, Okla.
Cook, Robert R., Hq Sp Wpns Comd 8452d wards. Mass. Barrett, E. D., Far East Command, Yokohama.
A.AUSandia Base, Albuquerque, N Mex. Gildon, Milo E., USA Alaska, Fort Richard- Beard, H. c., Jr., Far East Command, Yoko-
De.s1o,Paul)., Far East Command, Yokohama. son. hama.
Faucloth, ). T., Jr., Far East Command, Yoko- Giniger, Kenneth S., CIA 8751st AAU, Wash- Bjugstad, W. G., Far East Command, Yoko-
hama. ington, DC. hama.
Gallagher, H. c., Far East Command, Yoko- Gorgol, David 0., 4052d ASU AAA & GM Broillet, Eugene H., 35th AAA Brigade, Ft
hama. Center, Ft Bliss, Tex. Meade, Md.
Greco, Frank, EUCOM, Bremerhaven Hattersley, Elwood B., Far East Command, Buettner, Joseph R., Jr., 4054th ASU AA &
Harvey, R. W., Far East Command, Yokohama. Yokohama. GM Br T AS, Ft Bliss, Tex.
Healy, Raymond A., 326th AAA Opns Det, Burton, W. A., Far East Command, Yokohama.
Hawthorne, Frank Jr., Far East Command Ft Totten, NY.
Yokohama. ' Carnes, Alan D., 47th AAA Brigade, Cp Stew-
Loring, \X'arren E., EUCOM, Bremerhaven. art, Ga.
Hernandez, Walter R., USA Alaska, Fort Rich- McAdams, P. )., Jr., EUCOM, Bremerhaven Carrol, John P., EUCOM, Bremerhaven.
ardson, Alaska. McCravey, J. L., EUCOM, Bremerhaven. Cheney, J. P., Jr., Far East Command, Yoko-
Jones, Woodrow A., USA Caribbean Ft Ama- Martin, Joseph B., Far East Command, Yoko- hama.
dor. CZ. ' hama. Clark, Richard c., USA Caribbean, Ft Ama-
Kemp,A. D., Far East Command, Yokohama. Mayers, E. D., Far East Command, Yokohama. dor, CZ.
King, Randolph c., Far East Command Yoko- Meany, Edward F., USA Caribbean, Ft Ama- Cleary, L. )., Far East Command, Yokohama_
hama. ' dor, CZ. Clouser, John J., 4052d ASU AAA & GM
McCaUley, R. H., Far East Command, Yoko- Mertins, Milford M., USA Alaska, Ft Richard- Clr, Ft Bliss, Tex.
hama. son. Cochran, John )., 47th AAA Brig, Cp Stew-
McGovern, James F., 47th AAA Brig., Cpo Mitchell, Robert c., Stu Det AA & GM Br art, Ga.
Stewart, Ga. T AS, Fl. Bliss, Tex. Cool, James L., EUCOM, Bremerhaven.
MARCH-APRIL, 1952 47
Cook, J. W., Jr., Far East Command, Yoko- Sjoholm, E. M., Far East Command, Yokohama. Hayes, Luther Z., to Stu Det AA & GM Bt
hama. Solari, Joseph M., 4052d ASU AM RTC, TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex.
Crain, Wm. H., Stu Det AA & GM Br TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex. Helton, Clinton, to Stu Det AA & GM Br TAs,
Ft Bliss, Tex. Stephenson, Lorenzo E., Stu Det AA & GM Br Ft Bliss, Tex.
Crawford, Ralph E., 47th AAA Brig, Cp Stew- TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex. Hyne, Mertil, to 716th AAA Gun Bn, Ft Bliss,
art, Ga. Sullivan, Wm. F., 47th AM Brig., Cp Stew- Tex.
Dale, Ed E., Far East Command, Yokohama. art, Ga. Jepsen, Robert J., to Far East Command, Yo-
Day, Seth S., Stu Det AA & GM Br TAS, Ft Thompson, Harry I., Jr., 4054th ASU AA & kohama, Japan.
Bliss, Tex. GM Br TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex. Johns, John H., to 77th AM Gun Bn, Cp
Dennert, M. K., Far East Command, Yoko- Viscardi, F. N., Far East Command, Yokohama. Stewart, Ga.
hama. Wells, W. W., Far East Command, Yokohama. Karmin, Kurt B., to USA Alaska, Fort Rich-
Demitroulis, J. G., Far East Command, Yoko- Woodberry, F. S., Far East Command, Yoko- ardson, Alaska.
hama. hama. Korolchuk, Theodore, to 701st CIC Det, Ft
Duflicy, J. P., Jr., Far East Command, Yoko- Workman, B. J., Far East Command, Yoko- Bragg, N. C
hama. hama. Kulik, F. M., Jr., to Far East Command, Yo-
Elness, Loren D., 5th AAA AW BN, Cp Mc- Young, John, III, Stu Det AA & GM Br TAS, kohama Japan.
Coy, Wise. Ft Bliss, Tex. Lait, Robert M., to Far East Command, Yo-
Friedrich, W. H., Far East Command, Yoko- kohama, Japan.
hama. SECOND LIEUTENANTS Lee, E. C, Jr., to EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger-
Gaffney, John R., USA Alaska, Fort Richard- Barco, Irvin L., to Stu Det Arty Sch, Ft Sill, many.
son. Okla. Lefevre, Luke D., to Far East Command, Yoko-
Hewlett, P. B., Far East Command, Yokohama. Bartlett, E. J., to Far East Command, Yoko- hama, Japan.
Hoffman, Robert M., Far East Command, Yoko- hama, Japan. Merriam, Charles, to USA Caribbean, Ft Ama-
hama. Beil, James N., to 768th AAA Gun Bn., Cp dor, CZ.
Horner, ]. D., Far East Command, Yokohama. McCoy, Wise. Miyashire, Minoru, to 525th MI Svc Gp, Ft
Jamerson, Solomon J., Stu Det AA & GM Br Chisling, M. S., to Far East Command, Y oko- Bragg, North Carolina.
TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex. hama, Japan. Moore, Lynden A., to USA Alaska, Ft. Richard-
Johnson, Paul C, Stu Det AA & GM Br TAS, Chrisanthis, William P., to 38th AAA Gun son, Alaska.
Ft Bliss, Tex. Bn, Cp Stewart, Ga. Morrison, A. T., Jr., to EUCOM, Bremerhaven,
Jones, Robert L., 47th AAA Brig, Cp Stewart, Cliburn, Cecil D., to USA Alaska, Ft Richard- Germany.
Ga. son, Alaska. Newman, Richard M., to Stu Det AA & GM
Kelly, Gerard J., Stu Det AA & GM Br TAS, Cushman, A. B., to Far East Command, Yoko- Br TAS, Ft Bliss, Texas.
Ft Bliss, Tex. hama, Japan. Novak, Leonard ]., to USA Alaska, Ft. Rich-
Liard, T.]., Jr., Far East Command, Yokohama. Czapor, Edward P., to 4052d ASU AAA and ardson, Alaska.
Lyons, Charles F., Far East Command, Yoko- GM Br TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex. Nyman, E: L., to Far East Command, Y okO-
hama. Davis, Gordon E., to Far East Command, Y oko- hama, Japan.
Lyons, John, Far East Command, Yokohama. hama, Japan. O'Donnell, Anthony W., to 35th AAA Gun
McClung, ]. c., EUCOM, Bremerhaven. Davis, Leon M., to 4052a ASU AAA and GM Bn, Cp Stewart, Ga.
McCluskey, A. H., EUCOM, Bremerhaven. Cen, Ft Bliss, Tex. Ohlandt, Frederick W., Jr., to USA Alaska,
McIntyre, Charles E., III, Far East Command, Davis, M. M., to Far East Command, Yoko- Ft. Richardson, Alaska.
Yokohama. - hama, Japan. Penn, William A., to Stu Det AA & GM Br
Martin, Clayton G., OAC of S G2 Det M Devage, James, to Far East Command, Yoko- TAS, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
8582d AAU, Washington, DC. hama, Japan. Peters, G. T., to Far East Command, Yoko.
Merton, Donald H., 7689th Hq Gp USFA, Dinkins, William H., to 4052d ASU AAA & hama, Japan.
Salzburg, Austria. GM Cen, Ft Bliss, Tex. Porter, T. D., to EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger-
Milde, George K., 4052d ASU AAA RTC, Ft Donnelly, Dennis D., to Hq ASA TC 8622d many.
Bliss, Tex. AAU, Ft Devens, Mass. Sanders, Deluce, to Far East Command, Yoko-
Newland, Czerny R., Stu Det AA & GM Br Earle, William c., to 37th AAA Gun Bn, Cp hama, Japan.
TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex. Stewart, Ga. Schnibben, John H., Jr., to 5th AM AW Bn,
Pancake, V. E., EUCOM, Bremerhaven. Engle, Orville R., to USA Alaska, Ft Richard- Cp McCoy, Wise.
Peoples, Avery G., 4052d ASU AAA & GM son, Alaska. Schuch, R. L., to EUCOM, Bremerhaven, Ger.
Or, Ft Bliss, Tex. Fasone, James G., to Stu Det AA & GM Br many.
Reynolds, Robert W., Jr., 464th AAA AW Bn, TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex. Shelton, Cyrus Q., Jr. to 59th AAA AW Bn,
Cp Roberts, Calif. Fink, Harry J., Jr., to USA Alaska, Ft Rich- Ft Bliss, Tex.
Roberts, Milford G., Stu Det Arty Sch, Ft Sill, ardson, Alaska. Smith, Frank D., to Stu Det AA & GM Br TAS,
Okla. Flaherty, E. B., to Far East Command, Yoko- Ft Bliss, Tex.
Rochester, A. D., Jr., Far East Command, Yoko- hama, Japan. Smith, Kenneth F., to Stu Det AA & GM Br
hama. Gaudet, N. A., to Far East Command, Yoko- TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex.
Ryan, James c., Far East Command, Yoko- hama, Japan. Sodones, John P., to USA Alaska, Fort Rich-
hama. Glass, James A., to Stu Det AA & GM Br TAS, ardson, Alaska.
Savelle, Duane H., 35th AAA Gun Bn, Cp Ft Bliss, Tex. Stevenson, James R., to 56th AAA Gun Bn,
Stewart, Ga. Godwin, Ralph L., to 35th AAA Gun Bn, Cp Cp Stewart, Ga.
ScheH, J. J., Far East Command, Yokohama. Umphlett, Clyde J., to 80th AAA Gp, Ft Tot.
Stewart, Ga. ten, NY.
Schlenker, P. M., Far East Command, Yoko-
hama. Gorham, John M., to USA Alaska, Fort Rich- Vannortwick, Davis M., to USA Alaska, Fort
Sehorne, James D., Jr., 4052d ASU AA & GM ardson, Alaska. Richardson, Alaska.
Or, Ft Bliss, Tex. Gregoire, William N., to 37th AAA Gun Bn, Wagner, Ernest J., to Far East Command, Yo.
Selivanoff, Vladimir M., USA Alaska, Fort Cp Stewart, Ga. kohama, Japan.
Richardson. Harrison, C. H., to Far East Command, Yoko,' Wagner, Melvin G., to "C"SAAlaska, Fort
Sellery, A. R., Far East Command, Yokohama. hama, Japan. Richardson, Alaska.
Semper, Edward T., 1117th ASU, Cp Edwards, Hayes, John A., to Far East Command, Y oko- Williams, John H., to Stu Det AA & GM Br
Mass. hama, Japan. TAS, Ft Bliss, Tex.

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Douglas MacArthur

Clark Lee and Richard Henschel

This fascinating, three-dimensional portrait of General of the Army Douglas

MacArthur is much more than an engrossing pictorial record of his career from

boyhood to the present, as reflected in more than 375 carefully selected photo-

graphs, many never before published. It is an astute, expertly written, behind-

the-scenesbiography of MacArthur the man, the father, and the soldier.



By R. Ernest Dupuy, Colonel, U.S.A. Ret.

The story of the First One Hundred and Fifty Years of

The United States Military Academy

Since its inception, the U.S.M.A. has given the nation military heroes, statesmen
and outstanding leaders on the national scene. The story of West Point in
America's service is a stirring account of the nation's history and the invaluable

contributions of its graduates to the country's greatness.



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