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Advantages of food preservation

1- Preparation of food is more easier & rapid than before.

2- Transportation of food from one country to another is facilitated by
3- The diet is more balanced & more varied.
4- Some seasonal food become available through the year round.
Causes of spoilage
1- Microbial spoilage.
2- Chemical spoilage (autolysis).
3- Mechanical deterioration.
Principles of food preservation
[1] Prevention or delay of the microbial spoilage of food :-
a) Hindering the growth & multiplication of M.Os. [bacteriostatic method]
→ by chilling, freezing, smoking, curing (addition of chemicals as
(b) Killing of existing M.O. [bactericidal method]
→ by using high temperature & radiation.
[2] Prevention or delay of chemical spoilage of food :-
a) Delayment of enzymatic spoilage of food → by Blanching.
b) Delayment of pure chemical reaction → Addition of antioxidants to food
suspected to be deteriorated or spoiled by oxidation.
[3] Prevention of mechanical deterioration of food by removal of the
Types of food preservation
[A] According to addition of chemical substance :-
(1) Physical → High temperature, low temperature & radiation.
(2) Chemical → Curing, smoking, salting & addition of antibiotics.
[B] According to mode o action :-
(1) Bactericidal → High temperature & radiation.
(2) Bacteriostatic → Other methods of preservation except high
temperature & radiation.
N.B. Methods used to prevent microbial spoilage of food also used to
retard enzymatic spoilage of food (except radiation which affect only M.O.
but not affect enzymes).
Microbial Growth Curve

A → Log phase (phase of adaptation in which there is no growth.

B → (+ve) Acceleration phase → Rate of growth is accelerated.
C → Logarithmic phase of growth → Rate of growth is most rapid &
D → (–ve) Acceleration phase → Rate of growth is decreased.
E → Maximum stationary phase → Rate of growth is constant.
F → Decline phase [Accelerated death phase] → Number of M.Os.
G → Death phase → Number of M.Os. greatly decreased.
Generation Time → It is the time elapsed between formation of mother
cell to daughter cell.
The longest → in A & B [Lag phase].
The shortest → in C [Logarithmic phase of growth].
So prevent logarithmic phase of growth for reduction of contamination (to
decrease number of cells resulted from divided mother cell).
* It is important in food preservation to avoid addition of actively growing
M.Os. during their logarithmic phase of growth through :-
(1) Addition of as few as possible of food spoilage M.Os. through
reduction of contamination i.e. Microbial load in food should be minimum
through reduction of contamination.
(2) Avoid addition of actively growing M.Os. during their logarithmic
phase of growth (longer generation time) to reduce contamination.
(3) Creation of one or more of unfavourable conditions for growth &
multiple of M.Os. → Unfavourable PH, oxidation reduction potential,
moisture or temperature (below minimum or above maximum).
(4) Killing of existing M.Os. by use of bactericidal methods of food
preservation [high temperature & radiation].
N.B. One or more of methods of preservation could be used together for
preservation of food.

Preservation by high temperature [Canning]

* Canning → Preservation of meat by high temperature & putting it in
permanently sealed container to prevent recontamination after preservation.
* Mode of action → Coagulation of protein by high temperature leading to
microbial enzyme.
* Type of cans used :-
1- Commonly used cans are made from mild steel, lined in the internal
layer by zinc oxide or tin (amount of zinc oxide or tin shouldn't exceed
1.5% of total weight of can) & free from lead impurities.
2- Some food that not preserved by high temperature is packaged in cans
made from glass (as jams) due to acidity.
-- Mild steel is preferable than glass due to :-
1- Not easily broken. 2- Prevent oxidation of food by O2.
3- Conductive to
* Sealing of can should be from outside not in contact with the content of
the can, with side sealing done firstly then end sealing. Each can has one
side seal & 2 end seals (upper & lower).
* Shape of can → Cuboidal, cylindrical, flattened, barrel.
N.B. Heat transported inside the product by 2 ways :-
→ Convection & conduction.
Canning Operation
[1] Preparation of food :-
* Remove tendons & excessive fat, then washing.
* In fish, remove scales, fins, head & tail.
[2] Pickling :-
* Cured meat → meat to which NaCl & a source of nitrite is added (Na
nitrate, K nitrate, nitrous acid).
* Curing may be :
(a) Dry curing → mix NaCl + source of nitrite in dry state, then rubbing to
the product.
(b) Pickling → make a brine solution & put meat as slices in it or inject
meat with it.
* Aim of pickling → prevent dripping in can & prevent shrinkage of meat.
[3] Blanching :-
* Heating of meat to temperature of 88-93 ْ C in hot water to destroy
[4] Filling :-
* There are 2 types of filling :
(a) Manual → not used now.
(b) Mechanical → by automatic machinery.
[5] Exhausting :-
* Removal of air from the can free space before sealing.
* There are 2 types of exhausting :
(a) Steam exhausting → passing of can through steam heat chamber.
(b) Mechanical exhausting → through vacuumization.
[6] Processing :-
* It is a very specialized technique where the can are kept in metal baskets
& heat processed in closed retorts (as autoclave).
* Heat process is done by steam under pressure.
* The heat used differs according to :
(a) Size of can. (b) Type of food.
(c) Environmental condition. (d) Initial number of existing M.Os.
* Commercial canners → Commercially canned food in which some
thermophils still present but not significant as they can't grow.
-- From the standpoint of food poisoning, the most resistant M.O. which
can resist high temperature [Clostridium botulinum type A] could be
destroyed at 121 ْ C for 20 minutes. So it is better to increase time factor
than temperature to avoid physical deterioration of meat (change of colour,
odour & taste).
1 lb can
Boiled beef at 121 ْ C for 45 minutes
Corned beef at 121 ْ C for 55 minutes
Corned beef hash at 121 ْ C for 60 minutes
* Classification of canned food :
(A) According to heat used in processing :
Commercially sterilized canned food Pasteurized canned meat product
* Suitable for shelf store. * Heated to about 80-90 ْ C.
* e.g. Canned beef. * Should be acidified to PH below
* Durability :- 4.5 (because Cl. botulinum can't
at 37 ْ C → 2 years grow at PH 4.5).
at 21 ْ C → 4 years * Should be kept refrigerated in
freezer & not shelf stored.
* e.g. Canned bacon & loaf of
luncheon meat.
* Durability :-
6 months → on shelf (experimental)
1 year → in refrigerator at 4 ْ C
(B) According to PH of food :
Very acid Medium acid Low acid
canned food canned food canned food
* PH → 2.5 – 3.5 * PH → 3.6 – 4.5 * PH → 4.6 – 6.8
* e.g. Lemon & * e.g. Orange & tomato * e.g. Meat, fish & egg
-- Commercially sterilized canned food as beef is low acid canned food.
-- Pork → Lower PH below 4.5 & heating at 80-90 ْ C. This type is known
as pasteurized canned meat product.
-- The most resistant M.O. [Clostridium botulinum] couldn't grow at PH
below 4.5 & heat process must be enough to increase temperature to 50 ْ C
to deal with psychrotrophic & some of existing mesophilic M.Os (other
types of M.Os. can't grow due to low PH).
-- The presence of spoilage or public health hazard M.Os. is of low
significance in very acid canned food.
* According to temperature, M.Os. can be classified to :-
M.O. Psychrotrophs Mesophils Thermophils
Temperature 5 – 15 ْ C 25 – 35 ْ C 45 – 55 ْ C
[7] Cooling :-
* Cans are cooled to a temperature of 38-40 ْ C through showers (sprays) on
cans in baskets or through immersion in water tanks (some retorts contain
* Water is preferred to be chlorinated.
[8] Washing :-
* By water containing detergents or best to contain fatty alcohol (to remove
greasy material).
[9] Outside lacquering :-
* Insulating media applied to the outside of tin to prevent external
corrosion of cans (any hydroscopic material may adhere to body of can,
absorb water & cause corrosion of cans).
[10] Incubation test :-
* Samples of cans are divided into 2 halves :
1st half → Incubation at 55 ْ C for 4 days
2nd half → Incubation at 37 ْ C for 10 days (long period for mesophils)
Stability of canned food
[1] Canned beef & gravy :-
* Durability → 4 years at 21 ْ C / 2 years at 37 ْ C.
* Some changes could be occur at the end of storage period such as :
1- Hydrolysis of fat & severe corrosion of the can especially in humid
2- Swelling of some cans & analysis they found that 40 % is hydrogen.
[2] Canned hamburger :-
* Has the same durability of canned beef.
* Chemical changes are more common than physical changes in the form
of hydrolysis of fat & loss of riboflavin.
[3] Canned bacon :-
* Durability → 6 months at 37 ْ C / 12 months in refrigerator (at 4 ْ C).
-- The product remain acceptable for 12 months in refrigerator.
* Physical changes are more common than chemical changes.
-- Physical deterioration is rapid between 16 – 18 months of storage, but
after 12 months of storage it is more practically impossible to slightly
separate between physical & chemical changes (due to hydrolysis of fat &
protein destruction).
Spoilage of canned food
[A] Physical (mechanical) spoilage :-
(1) Distortion of some cans.
(2) Rust :
* If outside rusting (rust was not pitted inside the can) → the can released
for human consumption immediately.
* If the rust was pitted inside the tin → the can should be totally
(3) Leakage → differs according to the cause.
[B] Chemical spoilage :-
(1) Hydrolysis of fat & loss of riboflavin.
(2) Hydrogen swell :
* Occur in food containing high organic acids due to high temperature,
imperfection of tinning & lacquering of interior of can.

* Acid act on tin (zinc oxide) resulting in electric couple with the release of
hydrogen ions which cause swelling.
* This condition is enhanced by :-
1- High content of organic matter. 2- Presence of sulfur compounds.
3- High storage temperature. 4- Poor exhausting.
* The condition is rarely to occur in canned vegetables & unknown in
canned meat but can be occurred in canned sardines.
* Occur mainly in acid food (canned food).
* Method of swelling detection → by opening the can → release of
odourless inflammable gas (hydrogen gas).
(3) Sulphiding :
* It is light pink or dark purple discolouration of the inside of can.
* Occur mainly in foods containing sulfur containing protein (as
methionine or cystine).
* More common in canned fish, liver, kidney & tongue.
* Splitting of protein by high temperature in combination with growth of
Clostridium nigrificans (sulfur stinker) lead to liberation of H2S.
-- H2S + Zinc oxide → Zinc sulfide (ZnS) → Light pink or dark purple
discolouration of the inside of can only without involvement of food →
Can pass for human consumption.
-- H2S + mild steel (iron) → Iron sulfide → Blackish discolouration of the
inside of can & surface of food → requires only trimming of affected part.
[C] Microbial spoilage :-
* There are 3 types of spore-forming M.Os. which can resist normal
processing & may cause spoilage of canned food :
1- Gas producing aerobic → growing at optimum temperature of 37 ْ C.
2- Gas producing anaerobic → growing at optimum temperature of 55 ْ C.
3- Non-gas producing aerobic or facultative anaerobic → growing at
optimum temperature of 45 ْ C & cause "flat souring".
* Presence of Staphylococci, E. coli, Salmonella, Proteus, Moulds or Yeast
is indicative for :-
1- Underprocessing → one or 2 M.Os. present.
2- Infection through leakage (more common)→ large number & different
kinds of M.Os. present (leakage can be detected if the can is held under
water & squeezed → bubbles appear).
(1) Flat sour :
* Flat sour of canned foods detected only by opening the can (because it is
caused by non gas producing M.Os.).
* Mostly occur in foods containing starch & sugars and in meat products
containing cereals as sausage.
* True flat sours → Bacillus circulans, Bacillus coagulans & Bacillus
stearothermophilus (cause sour flavour of canned food).
* Source → Blancher or starch & sugar.
(b) T.A. spoilage :
* It is the nickname of M.O. causing it [Thermophilic Anaerobic non-H2S
producing] or species Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum.
* It could attack low & medium acid canned food leading to spoilage &
liberation of gases (H2 & CO2).

Preservation by low temperature [Refrigeration]

* Refrigeration → Extraction of food heat & lowering the temperature
below the surrounding temperature.
* Types of refrigeration :-
(1) Natural refrigeration :
a- Cooling in ice (disadvantages → increase bacterial growth).
b- Cooling by solid CO2.
(2) Mechanical refrigeration (Mechanical refrigerator) :
* Using liquid refrigerating → CO2 – SO2 – NH4 – Freons.
-- SO2 → Irritant & repulsive.
-- CO2 → Uneconomical.
-- NH4 → Used since 1867 & still used up till now, has irritant odour &
corrosive effect.
-- Fluorinated hydrocarbons → primarily freons.
* There are 2 types of mechanical refrigeration :
1- Chilling → above freezing point [0-2 ْ C].
2- Freezing → below freezing point [-1-(-1.5) ْ C].
-- both are bacteriostatic & physical methods of preservation.
I – Preservation by Chilling
* Chilling → Preservation of meat above freezing point usually at [0-2ْC].
* After slaughter, temperature of carcass increases (in cattle → 39 ْ C / in
sheep → 40 ْ C].
Methods of chilling (rate of chilling)
[1] Slow chilling :-
a) Carcass hanged in hanging rooms for 10 hours (lowering temperature
from 39 ْ C to 25 ْ C).
-- Hanging room should be free from dust & have fans (air increase
relative humidity) with air velocity at least 0.75 meter / second.
b) Then carcass transferred to 3 prechilling rooms. At last room,
temperature of carcass reach to 5 ْ C.
c) Then carcass transferred to main chilling room (-1-0 ْ C) where its
temperature becomes [0-2 ْ C].
* Time → 28 – 36 hours.
* Disadvantages :
1- Need more space.
2- Time consuming.
3- Loss of weight by this method may reach 5-10%.
-- Loss of weight increases when R.H. is 65%.
4- Gradual decrease of temperature is less inhibitive for growth of M.Os.
than rapid chilling.
5- High R.H. help in growth of bacteria on surface of carcass.
6- Short shelf-life time.
* Advantages :
→ Prevent cold shortening of meat.
[2] Rapid (Quick) Chilling :-
* Start one hour after slaughtering.
* Chilling room adjusted at (-3 → -4 ْ C) [-3 ْ C for 4 hours & -4 ْ C for 3
hours] & switch off the refrigerator to enter meat (load meat into
refrigerator room) then switch it on → Meat divided into parts.
* There must be spacing (rail space) between carcasses.
* Air circulate at 1 meter / second.
-- Lowering temperature of carcass from [39 ْ C → 5 ْ C], then refrigerator
temperature allowed to be raised to [-1-0 ْ C] for 14 hours to reach carcass
temperature 0-2 ْ C.
* Advantages :
1- Loss of weight not exceed 1-2 %.
2- More inhibitive for growth of M.Os. than slow chilling.
* Disadvantages : [Cold Shortening]
-- Toughness of meat due to excessive loss of moisture when meat
refrigerated where meat in normal rigor mortis PH is high & ATP is still
present leading to severe convulsions & loss of water.
-- Firstly recorded in New Zealand when rapid freezing of lambs at -1 ْ C
-- Cold shortening occur mainly in rapid chilling & not occur in slow
-- To overcome cold shortening :
1- Don't lower temperature below 10 ْ C in the first 10 hours.
2- Electric stimulation of carcass to enhance rigor mortis if carcass was fit
for quick chilling.
Factors affecting chilling
[1] Temperature :-
* Chilling occur at 10 ْ C but Staph. aureus can grow & produce toxins at
7.78 ْ C, so it's preferable to chill at 5.6 ْ C – but it's found that Clostridium
botulinum can grow & produce toxins at 3.3 ْ C.
* According to that, chilling should be done at 0-2 ْ C.
[2] Relative humidity [R.H.] :-
* Chilling at high R.H. → Growth & multiplication of M.OS.
* Chilling at low R.H. → More loss of weight.
* Most optimum R.H. ranges between 88-92 %.[88% at 2 ْ C / 92% at 0 ْ C]
-- Bacteria need high R.H. / Mould → 92 % / Yeast → 85-90 %.
* It's very important to keep temperature & R.H. stable during chilling
cycle (because any fluctuation in R.H. leads to bacterial growth & loss of
[3] Air velocity :-
* In rapid chilling → 1 meter / second.
* In slow chilling → 0.75 meter / second.
* Importance of air :
(a) Removing of odour.
(b) Prevent developing of stale odour.
(c) Keeping of constant R.H. in chilling room.
[4] Gaseous storage of meat (components of storage atmosphere) :-
(a) Introduction of CO2 in % about 10 % → prolong storage of beef from
35 to 90 days.
-- CO2 % recommended :
1- For beef → 10 % 2- For egg → 2.5 % 3- For bacon → up to 100 %
(b) Ozone → tried by several ppm but it's not used for food in case of food
spoiled by oxidation (as butter) & it had irritant effect on employees.
(c) Nitrogen → tried experimentally but not used practically till now.
* Uses of gaseous storage of meat lead to :-
1- Prolong storage life time of meat.
2- Permit use of high temperature & R.H. without effect on the shelf life
time of chilled meat.

[5] Using of U.V rays :-

* Permits use of high temperature & R.H.
* Prolong durability of chilled meat.
N.B. Any obstacle prevent U.V rays (as U.V rays has no penetration power
& destroy only surface M.Os. – high R.H. or presence of dust hinder the
action of U.V rays).
[6] Previous contamination of meat :-
* Meat should be produced under hygienic conditions. (as degree of
temperature used in chilling is not efficient to delay or stop most of M.Os.)
* Highly contaminated meat will be spoiled rapidly with low durability.
Durability of chilled meat
(1) Beef 35 days → by CO2 10 %, become 90 days
(2) Mutton 1 – 3 weeks
(3) Pork 1 – 2 weeks (according to content of fat)
(4) Rabbit 5 days
(5) Poultry 1 week
Changes which may occur in chilled meat
[A] Physical changes :-
(1) Shrinkage (loss of weight) :
* Freshly slaughtered animal loses body weight by evaporation of water.
* At first day → 1.5-2 % loss.
* Further loss of weight depend on storage condition.
(2) Darkening :
* Found on surface of meat due to oxidation of Oxyhaemoglobin into
(3) Ripening :
* Enzymes of meat still active & cause partial hydrolysis of meat protein &
fat → Meat becomes more tender, juicy, of better flavour (i.e. desirable
(4) Loss of bloom (colour & general appearance) :
* Carcass appear semi transparent (bloom) immediately after slaughter.
* When meat become moist during chilling → Collagen fibers absorb
water, swell & become dull → So meat bloom appear dull & less
(5) Sweating (dew points) :
* It's condensation of water vapor on surface of meat.
* Causes :
a- Rapid extraction of carcass to air temperature.
b- Air temperature reach dew points (due to fluctuation in temperature
between newly-added carcass & previously-added carcasses in chilling
[B] Chemical changes :-
(1) Rancidity :
* Hydrolysis of fat by action of lipase enzyme liberated by lipolytic
bacteria into free fatty acids & glycerol.
* There are 2 types → Oxidative & ketonic rancidity.
* It is the main change occurring in chilled meat more than microbial
(2) Absorption of foreign odours by fat :
* Occur by 2 ways :
a- Other food present beside chilled meat.
b- Liquid refrigeration.
(3) Brine socking (brine staining) :
* Escape of calcium chloride due to leaks in pipe system of chilling, giving
bitter flavour for meat.
(4) Ammonical odour :
* Escape of ammonical odour due to leaks in pipe system of chilling.
[C] Microbial changes :-
* Mainly caused by Psychrotrophic M.Os. (mainly Pseudomonas
Changes occurring in stored meat
[ As these changes occurred in chilled meat ]
Physical changes Chemical changes Microbial changes
1- Loss of weight 1- Rancidity
2- Darkening 2- Absorption of foreign
3- Ripening odours by fat
4- Sweating 3- Ammonical odour
5- Loss of bloom
II – Preservation by Freezing
* Freezing → Physical method of meat & meat byproduct preservation
several degrees below freezing point of meat [-1-(-1.5) ْ C].
* It is bacteriostatic method although some bacteria died during freezing
(due to conversion of available water to ice which kill bacteria) but some
moulds & yeast survive at several degrees below freezing point of meat.
Methods of freezing
[1] Sharp freezing :-
* Freezing at -29 ْ C → -34 ْ C for 3-25 hours (may be for 72 hours).
* This method is suitable for preservation of :-
1- Beef in the form of halves or quarters.
2- Small animal as a whole carcass.
3- Fish & poultry.
4- Meat slices in the form of cartons.
→ So time & temperature differ according to size of meat.
[2] Quick freezing :-
* Freezing at -46 ْ C for 30 minutes.
* This method is used for preservation of meat slices, minced meat, fish,
poultry & rabbit.
* This method is not suitable for large carcasses or quarters (because
temperature at -275 ْ C is requires to lower beef carcass temperature to
-46 ْ C in 7 minutes & this is impractical).
Quick freezing is more better than sharp freezing due to:
1- More inhibitive for bacterial growth than sharp freezing, although a
number of bacteria died in quick freezing lower than in sharp freezing.
2- More inhibitive for enzymatic activity than sharp freezing.
3- Ice crystals formed in quick freezing are smaller than that formed in
sharp freezing, so there is small amount of drip during thawing, while in
sharp freezing large amount of weep after thawing which give unpalatable
meat of low value.
Zone of Maximum Ice crystal Formation [ZMIF]
It is the zone or range of temperature at which ice crystal formation reach
its maximum with large amount of ice crystals outside the cells.
* It is 0.5 – (-4) ْ C.
* During freezing process, evaporation of water from muscle cells occur →
Large number of ice crystals are formed between muscle cells → Injury of
muscle cells during freezing → Increased drip during thawing → Bad
quality meat.
* Far away from ZMIF → Small (ultra microscopic) ice located within
muscle cells → Amount of drip is so small & practically there is no drip [&
this occur in quick freezing] → Good quality meat.
Changes occur in frozen meat
A- Physical changes B- Chemical changes
C- Microbial changes
[A] Physical changes
1- Changes due to act of freezing.
2- Changes due to faulty technique of freezing.
3- Changes before freezing.
4- Changes after thawing.
(1) Changes due to act of freezing :-
(a) Expansion in the volume of frozen meat :
* Some water of frozen meat changed into ice.
Temperature Amount of changed water into ice
-1.5 ْ C 35 %
-3 ْ C 70 %
-5 ْ C 82 %
-10 ْ C 94 %
(b) Changes in physical state of muscle plasma :
* Normally muscle plasma is soluble in water.
* When water changed into ice crystals → Muscle plasma can't retain its
solubility in water.
(c) Loss of weight :
* Frozen meat for 4 weeks undergo loss of weight at 2 degrees of
temperature → (-8 ْ C) & (-30 ْ C).
Frozen meat Loss of weight at Temperature of
(-8 ْ C) (-30 ْ C)
Wrapped meat 0.16 % 0.05 %
Unwrapped meat 1.05 % 0.2 %
* So wrapping of frozen meat must be done before freezing to decrease
loss of weight & decrease incidence of freezer burn.
* Cartooned meat loses weight as half as does in non cartooned meat.
* Losses in empty stores is greater than full one (due to air circulation in
empty stores).
(d) Darkening in colour :
* Due to oxidation of Myoglobin to Metmyoglobin on surface of meat.
(2) Changes due to faulty technique of freezing :-
(a) Brine socking or staining :
* Leakage in pipe system → Liquid refrigerants (calcium chloride or
ammonium hydroxide) precipitation on surface of meat → Cause greening
of surface of meat & may penetrate into deeper tissues of meat giving a
bitter taste on cooking.
* Judgment → Condemnation.
(b) Ammonical odour :
* Leakage in pipe system → Escape of ammonia → Ammonical odour.
(c) Fibrosis of musculature :
* Occur in long standing frozen meat.
* 75 % of water changed into ice & at -0.4 ْ C → All water changed into ice
& salting out of protein → Development of extrafibrous band especially in
buttocks region.
* Affected part appear leathery in texture & unpalatable.
* Judgment → Should be condemned.
(d) Freezer burn :
* Occur due to dehydration of ice crystals on surface of frozen meat or
offals (liver, heart, kidneys).
* Lesions :
1- On surface of frozen meat → Dry, wrinkled, brown button-like areas
(due to dehydration of ice crystals on surface of frozen meat &
recrystalization again i.e. Air circulation at rate of 3-5 meter / second cause
evaporation of ice then ice crystals formed again).
2- In offals → Yellow patches on surface of frozen offals → Offals become
inspisiated, tasteless & unpalatable (due to high water content of offals →
dehydration of ice crystals & recrystalization again occur in greater rapidity
than in meat).
* Judgment → Affected carcass or offals should be condemned (because
they are tasteless & unpalatable).
(3) Changes before freezing :-
(a) T.B. & Actinobacillosis :
* Isolated lesion which escaped the attention of inspectors or escaped the
routine inspection of lymph nodes.
-- T.B. → Isolated lesion in popliteal, ischiatic & axillary lymph nodes.
-- Actinobacillosis → Nodules between the muscles.
(b) Haemorrhages, bruising, pus formation :
* Occur in deep parts of carcass (as round of beef).
* Appear during jointing of carcass.
(c) Bone taint :
* Putrefactive changes occur in deeply-seated muscles at pelvic bone of ox,
sometimes at shoulder plate & may occur at femurotibial junction.
* It is know as sour hip in ox & sour spot in pig.
* Cause → Slaughter of animal affected with septic condition or
exhaustion of animal.
-- M.O. in intestine escape to deeply-seated muscles especially around
bones [synovia temperature is not yet lowered (not cold) & PH of media is
still high (7-8)].
* Bone taint occur in emergency slaughtered, imported frozen meat (not
occur in our trade due to rapid cutting).
* Causative M.Os. → Gram (–ve) rods, Gram (+ve) cocci, Diphtheroids &
Anaerobic M.Os.
* Lesion → Affected area has greenish yellow colouration & bad odour as
* Judgment :
1- Localized condition → Condemnation of affected part.
2- Extensive condition → Total condemnation of carcass.
(4) Changes after thawing :-
(a) PH change :
* PH of frozen meat is still constant (6).
* After thawing → PH decrease suddenly to (5.8) then begin to rise up
again (favour the growth & multiplication of M.Os. especially
(b) Dripping (Weeping) :
* Presence of blood-stained watery fluid on thawing of frozen meat.
* Drips → Extractives, protein (sarcoplasm) & some RBCs which give the
drip its red colour.
* After thawing → Part of ice enter muscle cells & the part descend as drip.
* Air thawing is better than water thawing.
* Legal requirement for thawing :
At 0 ْ C → 70 % moisture
At 10 ْ C → 90 % moisture
Air velocity → 1 meter / second
-- by this process → Forequarter consume 65 hours till complete thawing.
→ Hind quarter consume 80 hours till complete thawing.
* Loss of weight due to thawing :
1- Full beef carcass → 1-2 %.
2- Joints (cuts) → 1.5-2.5 %.
[B] Chemical changes
* More detective for durability of frozen meat than microbial changes.
1- Rancidity of fat.
2- Absorption of foreign odour.
(1) Rancidity of fat :
* There are 2 types :
a) Oxidative rancidity.
b) Ketonic rancidity → by lipase enzyme.
* Usually combination of both types.
(2) Absorption of foreign odour :
* Fruit odour – fish odour (due to presence of fat).
[C] Microbial changes [Moulding]
* Frozen meat is mostly affected by moulds because they are able to grow
at several degrees below freezing point of meat, also some types of moulds
can grow at low available water.
(1) Black spots :-
* Cause → Genus Cladosporium, Rhizopes.
* Hyphae of fungus grow about 6-13 mm in diameter, appear as black spots
on surface of meat.
* Mould can grow at (-7.5 → -8 ْ C) but growth is more at (-2.5 ْ C).
* Site of affection :
1- In beef → neck, peritoneum & pleura.
2- In mutton → legs, thoracic & abdominal cavities.
* Affection in most cases accompanied by spoilage due to Achromobacter.
-- To detect bacterial spoilage → Meat appear slimy & soft.
* Judgment :
1- Beef :
a) Trimming of affected part with rapid consumption.
b) If was accompanied by bacterial spoilage → Total condemnation.
2- Mutton → Total condemnation (unmarketable, even if no mycotoxins
are produced).
-- Trimming or whipping by clothes, then second freezing (because mould
growth will be more rapid if no second freezing is done than if it was left
without trimming).
(2) White spots :-
* Cause → Genus Sporotrichum.
* Mould can't grow at (-7 ْ C) but grow mostly around (0 ْ C).
* Appear as white areas on surface of meat & usually accompanied by
black spots.
* Its presence indicate that temperature is (0 ْ C).
(3) Whiskers :-
* Cause → Genus Thamindium elegans & Mucor.
* Appear as while yellow areas projecting 2.5cm from the surface of meat.
(4) Blue spots :-
* Cause → Genus Penicillium.
Judgment of whiskers & blue spots
1- Trimming of affected part.
2- Whipping of affected part by clothes.
3- Soaking in salt solution.
Effect of moulding
1- Give mouldy or muddy odour.
2- Increase alkalinity predisposing for bacterial spoilage.
3- Decrease nutritive value of meat.
4- Some moulds may secrete mycotoxins due to :
a) Fluctuation in temperature & R.H.
b) Exposure of chilling units to dust many times.
Durability of frozen meat
* All types of frozen meat → At (-18 ْ C).
[except pork & offals → at (-20 ْ C)]
Beef At (-18 ْ C) For 1 year (9 months in Egypt)
Mutton At (-18 ْ C) For 8-9 months
Pork At (-20 ْ C) For 6 months
Poultry At (-18 ْ C) For 8 months
Offals At (-20 ْ C) For 4 months (all offal except liver)
At (-20 ْ C) For 7 months (liver)
* Storage period of frozen meat is a limited period due to :-
(1) Some moulds & yeast can grow at different degrees below freezing
points of meat.
(2) Some chemical changes occur as rancidity.
(3) Continuous conversion of water to ice → Salting out of protein →
Decomposed meat, leathery in texture [fibrosis of musculature].
N.B. After thawing, durability of frozen meat becomes lower than that of
chilled meat → So regulations of frozen meat should warn the purchaser
that the durability of thawn frozen meat is less than durability of chilled or
fresh meat.
Disposal of frozen meat [in case of sudden cut of electricity]
[A] Partially thawn meat (still contain ice) →Allowed to be refrozen again.
* This refrozen meat should be regarded as inferior quality meat (due to
loss of drip twice).
[B] Completely thawn meat :-
(1) If thawn below 3.3 ْ
C → Released for immediate consumption with
thorough cooking & regarded as inferior quality meat.
(2) If thawn above 3.3 ْ
C → Organoleptic examination of meat.
a- If meat was not spoiled → Released for immediate consumption with
thorough cooking & regarded as inferior quality meat.
b- If meat was suspected → Total condemnation.
Effect of freezing on parasites & bacteria
[1] Parasites :-
* Freezing could be used if meat was affected with parasitic cyst.
e.g. Beef affected with Cysticercus bovis → Freezing at -10 ْ C for 3 weeks
till temperature of meat reach 3 ْ C for 24 hours → Meat become safe for
human consumption.
[2] Bacteria :-
* Freezing has no great effect on pathogenic bacteria.
1- Tubercle bacilli can survive freezing at -10 ْ C for 9 years.
2- Bacillus anthracis survive freezing at -133 ْ C.
3- Salmonella species survive freezing at -170 ْ C for 3 days.
→ So freezing can't be regarded as a safe method for making affected meat
with bacterial disease safe for human consumption.

Preservation by Dryness
* Dryness → Physical method of preservation depend on evaporation of
surface water.
* It is bacteriostatic method.
* There are some organisms which resist dryness such as moulds. Mould is
the main cause of dry food spoilage.
* Xerophilic moulds can grow at 65-70% available water (aω ).
-- aω below 70 % → moulds can grow for 3 months.
-- aω 85-90 % → moulds can grow for 5-7 weeks.
Types of dryness
[1] Sun (Solar) dryness :-
* Meat sliced into very thin slices then dried in sun light.
* Occur in countries which have hot climate & dry atmosphere.

[2] Mechanical dryness :-

* Passing of hot air on surface of meat or passing of meat through hot air.
* Advantages :
1- Controlled temperature & R.H.
2- Durability of meat is longer than meat preserved by sun dryness.
3- Moisture is lowered to 5 %.
[3] Freeze-drying (Sublimation of water) :-
* Used for drying of frozen meat.
* Frozen meat is put under vacuum while its surface is subjected to high
temperature for evaporation of water [high temperature will cause
evaporation of water by conversion of ice into water vapor which will be
sublimated by vacuum].
* Advantages :
1- Ice changed into vapor without passing liquid stage.
2- Durability of meat is longer than meat preserved by mechanical dryness.
3- aω is lowered to 2 %.
[4] Drying by salting :-
* Addition of salt leads to withdrawal of water from meat causing its
[5] Dryness during smoking :-
* Leads to surface drying & water evaporation.
Durability of dried meat
(1) Raw beef steak → 4 months at 37 ْ C.
(2) Cooked beef steak → 12 months at 37 ْ C.
→ 18 months at 21 ْ C.

Preservation by Curing
(Chemical Preservatives)
Curing Smoking Salting
Using organic Using inorganic Using dry salt or brine
preservative preservative solution (pickling)
* Curing → Addition of salt + Source of nitric oxide [as sodium salt or
potassium salt of nitrite or both].
Types of curing
1- Dry curing.
2- Pickle curing.
[1] Dry curing :-
* Curing agent applied directly into meat.
* According to the ingredient, there are 3 types of dry curing :
1- Dry salting.
2- Dry curing (NaCl+NO2).
3- Dry sweet cure (NaCl+NO2+Sugar).
[2] Pickle curing :-
* There are 3 types of pickle curing :
1- Pickle salting.
2- Pickle curing.
3- Pickle sweet cure.
Ingredients used in curing
1- Curing agent → Salt + Nitric oxide.
2- Curing adjuvant → Sugar – Phosphate – Ascorbates.
Temperature of curing
* Optimum temperature for curing → 2.2-3.3 ْ C.
* Lower temperature → retard both penetration of curing agent & M.O.
* Higher temperature → enhance both penetration of curing agent & M.O.
(as Clostridium botulinum).
Time of curing
* 3 – 7 days.
* Wooden vats + Pickling solution + Layers of meat for 30-40 minutes,
during this period stitch pumping is done (injection of pickling solution in
Meat to be cured
* Curing could be applied to all types of meat.
* It is best to be done for beef intermixed with fat, so brisket & flank of
beef constitutes the best meat to be cured.
* Lean beef or mutton become dry in curing & unpalatable (because cells
lose their water content → intercellular spaces decrease).
Common defects in cured meat
(1) Bruising :- in cooked fresh or cured meat → heating make its colour
(2) Greening (Nitrate burn) :- due o excessive nitrate.
(3) Browning :- conversion of cured meat pigment Nitrosomyoglobin into
brown Metmyoglobin due to excessive nitrate or prolonged exposure to air.
(4) Jelly pockets :- due to injection of brine into connective tissue which it
(5) Fiery red areas on meat surface :- may occur in deep meat cuts due to
miscure or lack of nitrate.
Colour changes in cured meat
+ Oxygen
Myoglobin Oxymyoglobin___
(Purplish-red) - Oxygen (Bright red)
Freshly cut surface Typical fresh oxidation
+ Oxygen - Oxygen
+ Nitric oxide Reduction + Nitrite

Nitrosomyoglobin Metmyoglobin___
(Dark red) Reduction (Brown)
+ Nitric oxide
Heat Heat
Nitrosohemochrome Denaturated
(pink) Reduction Metmyoglobin
Typical cured meat + Nitric oxide
colour (Gray-brown)
Typical cooked fresh
meat colour
Oxidized Prophyrins__
(green, yellow, colourless)

Effect of curing on parasites & bacteria

[A] Effect on parasites :-
* For destruction of Cysticercus bovis → preserve meat for 3-4 weeks in
brine solution (but the meat will be spoiled if brine solution was not
[B] Effect on bacteria :-
* Some bacteria could resist curing.
1- Tubercle bacilli → can survive for 80 days in pickling solution.
2- Salmonella → survive for 10 days in meat immersed in brine solution
12-13 %.
3- Erysipelothrix → survive for 5 months in meat immersed in brine
solution 12-13 %.
So pickling or curing is not used to make meat affected with parasitic or
bacterial disease safe for human consumption → So meat preserved by
curing should be preserved by another method of preservation (as smoking)
e.g. Curing + Smoking → New method of meat preservation.

Preservation by Smoking
* Smoking → Chemical method for preservation of meat by use of
inorganic preservative.
* Aim of smoking → Add particular flavour & aid in preservation.
* Action of smoking :-
(1) Dehydration through evaporation of water, so hinder growth &
multiplication of M.Os.
(2) Incomplete burning of sawdust (wood) → Release of volatile materials
which are bacteriostatic or bactericidal according to their concentration.
Formaldehyde followed by phenol & crysol are the most important volatile
(3) These volatile materials are antioxidants (prevent rancidity).
(4) Deposition of these volatile materials on surface & impregnation into
meat tissue → Improvement of appearance (colour) & tenderization of
* Types of wood used in smoking :-
→ The best one is hickor, followed by beech, birch, oak, mahogany.
→ These woods are used in the form of sawdust.
→ Hard wood is used instead of soft one (because burning of soft wood
produce undesirable materials).
* Volatile materials :-
(1) Formaldehyde followed by phenol & crysol.
(2) Aliphatic acids (formic acid).
(3) Primary & secondary alcohol (acetaldehyde).
(4) Waxes & resin.
Types of smoking
(1) Hot smoking :-
* Heating at 55 ْ C & smoking.
* Gradual rise in temperature :
-- Smoke at 55 ْ C → for 2 hours, then at 60 ْ C → for 3 hours, then at 71 ْ C
→ for 3 hours, then at 76 ْ C → for 6 hours.
* By this method, the temperature of product is not less than 65 ْ C → More
efficient in killing of M.Os. with impregnation of low amount volatile
materials into meat tissue, so appearance of smoked product by hot
smoking is less developed than that smoked by cold smoking.
(2) Cold smoking :-
* Heating at 32 ْ C.
* By this method, the temperature of product is less than 65 ْ C.
* Smoked food by this method should be kept in refrigeration at less than
3.3 ْ C to avoid botulism.
(3) Electrostatic smoking :-
* Ionization of smoke.
a) Food heated before smoking by Infra red oven.
b) Smoke is passed by using wood in the form of beams.
c) Then electric current pass (35,000-45,000 volt) making ionization of
d) Precipitation of specific ions or materials on meat surface which carry
the opposite charge.
* Advantage of this smoke → Well controlled & increase durability of
smoked product.
N.B. Nitrosamine may develop in smoking & curing which is carcinogenic
(due to interaction between nitric oxide & amines liberating nitrosamine
instead of combination of nitric oxide with Myoglobin).
* Benzene in volatile materials is carcinogenic but present within
permissible limit.
* Cured & smoked meat may develop nitrosamine but the level occurred in
smoked meat is below the permissible limit, so examination of smoked
meat should be done from time to time for detection of nitrosamine.
Effect of smoking on pathogens
* Smoking affect only vegetative M.Os.
* Spores, yeast & moulds are not affected by smoking.
→ So meat preserved by smoking should be preserved by other method (as
curing & salting) & should be kept chilled or frozen.

Preservation by Irradiation
* Till now preservation by irradiation is still experimental.
* Electromagnetic radiation :-
(1) Short wave length.
(2) Long wave length.

Short waves Long waves

1- Have high frequency. 1- Have low frequency.
2- Have high quantum of energy. 2- Have low quantum of energy.
3- Used for cold sterilization of food. 3- Used for hot sterilization of food.
4- Not associated with heat production. 4- Associated with heat production.
5- Action : 5- Action :
Ionization of certain organic molecules Thermal agitation of food particles
particularly water (food of M.Os.) together which produce heat → Rise
causing mutation or death of M.Os. of food temperature → Destruction
[Cold sterilization]. of M.Os. [Hot sterilization].
6- Examples : 6- Examples :
U.V. rays Infra red rays
γ ( Gamma) rays Microwaves

[1] Electric current

* Not used in heating of food as it cause severe electrolytic changes.
[2] Infra red rays & Microwaves
* Uses :-
1- Heating of food (as vending machine).
2- Defrosting (thawing) of frozen food.
3- Freeze-drying of food.
* Action :-
Thermal agitation of food particles together which produce heat → Rise of
food temperature → Destruction of M.Os. [Hot sterilization].
* Disadvantages :-
1- Don't inhibit enzymes of food.
2- Danger of irradiation.
3- Uneven heating (due to low penetration power).
-- To overcome problem of uneven heating → Dithermal heating is used &
source of heating must be from both sides.
[3] Ultraviolet rays [U.V. rays]
* Action :-
Ionization of certain organic molecules particularly water (food of M.Os.)
causing mutation or death of M.Os. [Cold sterilization].
* Wave length :-
-- It is a visible light occur between 136 – 3900 A (A=angstrom=0.1
millimicrone) → Erythemic range (which cause redness & inflammation).
-- The most germicidal effect → 1500 – 2800 A.
-- The most powerful range → 2550 – 2650 A.
* Source of U.V. rays :-
1- Natural source → Sunlight.
2- Artificial source → Quartz mercury vapor lamp (near 2550 A).
* Factors affecting the effectiveness of U.V. rays :-
1- Time of exposure :
-- There is direct relationship between time of exposure & germicidal
power of U.V. rays.
2- Intensity of U.V. rays when reaching the object :
a) Distance between lamp & object :
-- U.V. rays is 100 times powerful when they are in 5 inch distance than
when they are in 8 feet distance.
-- Suitable distance → not more than 12 inch.
b) Angstrom power of the lamp :
-- Higher power of lamp → Higher germicidal power but by repeated uses
of lamp to U.V. rays, germicidal power decrease → So lamp should be
changed from time to time.
c) Presence of obstacles :
-- Dust & too high R.H. retard or decrease effectiveness of U.V. rays.
3- Penetration :
-- U.V. rays have no penetration power, so presence of thin layer of fat or
meat cut off the rays.
-- Clear water decrease effectiveness of U.V. rays.
→ So U.V. rays not used in sterilization of food.
* Uses of U.V. rays :-
1- Sterilization of atmosphere (in packing room, surgical room)
2- Surface sterilization of food.
* Effect of U.V. rays on pathogens :-
1- Bacterial spores are more resistant than vegetative bacteria by about 2-
2.5 times.
2- Mould is more resistant than bacteria by 10-50 times.
3- Yeast is more resistant than bacteria by about 255 times.
[4] Ionizing radiation
* Free radicals make ionization of organic particles & include → X-rays –
γ ( Gamma) rays – protons – neutrons – α -particles – β -particles –
cathode rays.
-- X-rays → Uneconomic & not used.
-- Neutrons → Leave remnants of radiation in food, so not used.
-- α -particles, protons → of no penetration power.
-- Cathode rays, γ ( Gamma) rays → used.
Item Gamma rays Cathode rays
1- Source Nuclear reactors Cathode rays particles
(accelerated by electricity,
resulted from acceleration
of heavy metal particle)
2- Penetration 5.5 inch 0.25 inch
3- Efficiency 10 – 25 % (lower than that of 40 – 80 %
cathode rays because gamma
rays are non-directional rays)
4- Safety More health problems & Less health problems than
decayed by time (because gamma rays (because they
they are non-directional rays) are directional rays)
* Factors affecting effectiveness of ionizing radiation on M.Os. :-
(1) Type of M.Os. :
--- Spore former M.O. is more resistant than non spore former M.O.
--- Gram (+ve) M.O. is more resistant than Gram (–ve) M.O.
--- Mould & yeast are more resistant than bacteria.
--- Resistance of M.O. to ionizing radiation → Resistance of M.O. to
temperature is parallel to it resistance to ionization except :
a) Clostridium botulinum → less resistant to temperature than flat sours but
more resistant to ionization.
b) Micrococcus → non spore former but more resistant to ionization.
(2) Number of M.Os. :
--- High number of M.Os. → Lower effect of ionizing radiation.
(3) Composition of food :
--- Presence of reducing substance (as sulphahydral compounds, sulphid,
nitrite) decrease effect of ionizing radiation.
--- Compounds combined with [-SH] group increase effect of ionizing
(4) Presence of O2 :
--- Varies from no effect to sensitize the M.O. against ionizing radiation.
* Effect of ionizing radiation on food :-
→ The use of ionizing radiation result in organoleptic or chemical changes
as :
(1) Rise of PH value of food.
(2) Destruction of natural antioxidants in food.
(3) Destruction of most food enzymes & vitamins (except niacin &
riboflavin which are more stable than other vitamins).
(4) Increase level of H2S & carbonyl compounds.
→ So ionizing radiation is recommended not to be used for sterilization of
-- Irradiation is used successfully in pork nut not used up till now in beef or
-- To overcome these changes to be used in pork :
1- Irradiation of pork in frozen state.
2- Removal of O2.
3- Dehydration.
Uses of Irradiation
1- Destruction of insects or their eggs in food.
2- Killing of Trichinae.
3- Destruction of liver fluke.
4- Surface sterilization of food.
5- Used with other types of preservation to prolong shelf life.
6- Inactivation of certain non spore forming M.Os. in food (radicidation)
→ destroy Salmonella & Campylobacter.
7- Sterilization of packaging materials especially if they are not eaten.

Other methods of preservation

(1) Mechanical preservation (Autoclave)
* It is expensive & complicated.
(2) Addition of antibiotics
* Recommended only in fish preservation.
* e.g. Oxytetracycline – Nisin (the most common).

Water activity or water availability (aw)

[It is the ratio between water vapour pressure of food & that of water]
* Water vapor pressure of pure water → 1.
* Each food has its (aw) & each M.O. has optimum, maximum & minimum
* Preservation of food by decreasing (aw) → Salting – Drying – Freezing.
* Preservation of food by increasing (aw) to be optimum for growth of
certain M.Os. → Zabady – Fermented meat product.