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Ce document et l’information qu’il contient sont la propriété du CEDREM et ne peuvent être reproduits ou communiqués à tout tiers sans son

autorisation préalable écrite.


The information contained in this document shall remain the sole property of CEDREM and shall not be disclosed to any third person without the prior written consent of CEDREM.

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User’s Guide
KTex WovenProperty

User’s Guide
KTex WovenProperty

CEDREM SAS, Ecoparc de Sologne, Domaine de Villemorant 41210 NEUNG SUR BEUVRON
e-mail : secretariat@cedrem.fr / SIRET : 50255228400015 RCS Blois / APE : 7490B / TVA : FR26502552284
Tel : 02 54 94 62 71
KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
The information contained in this document shall remain the sole property of CEDREM and shall not be disclosed to any third person without the prior written consent of CEDREM.

Table of contents
Ce document et l’information qu’il contient sont la propriété du CEDREM et ne peuvent être reproduits ou communiqués à tout tiers sans son autorisation préalable écrite.

1. Introduction 3
2. Setting up and running KTex WovenProperty©™ 4
2.1. Deliverables 4
2.2. Extraction with Windows 4
2.3. Linux extraction 4
2.4. Execution 4
3. Using KTex WovenProperty©™ 6
3.1. Graphic interface 6
3.1.1. Overview ...................................................................................................................... 6
3.1.2. Frame Woven Composite ............................................................................................ 7
3.1.3. Frame Thread densities ............................................................................................. 11
3.1.4. Frame Angles (degrees) ............................................................................................. 12
3.1.5. Frame Warp Thread and Weft Thread ....................................................................... 13
3.1.6. Frame New Ply ........................................................................................................... 14
3.1.7. Frame Output Directory/Run/Close .......................................................................... 15
3.2. Mechanical properties 16
3.3. Output files 17
3.3.1. Output file *.dat ........................................................................................................ 17
3.3.2. Output file *.usr ......................................................................................................... 20
3.3.3. Output file *.out ........................................................................................................ 21
3.3.4. Output file *.inc ......................................................................................................... 22
3.3.5. Output file *_shell.fem .............................................................................................. 23
3.3.6. Output file *_solid.fem .............................................................................................. 24
3.3.7. Multiple plies output strategy ................................................................................... 24
Appendix 1 : Interlacement map and WeavingPattern_KTexWovenProperty.txt file 25

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e-mail : secretariat@cedrem.fr / SIRET : 50255228400015 RCS Blois / APE : 7490B / TVA : FR26502552284
KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
The information contained in this document shall remain the sole property of CEDREM and shall not be disclosed to any third person without the prior written consent of CEDREM.

1. Introduction
Ce document et l’information qu’il contient sont la propriété du CEDREM et ne peuvent être reproduits ou communiqués à tout tiers sans son autorisation préalable écrite.

The aim of this document is to propose a guide for KTex WovenProperty©™ users. This software
calculates the macroscopic mechanical properties of woven composites. It has been developed and is
owned by CEDREM. It is part of the KTex Family.
The software is programmed within the HyperWorks suite. Its goal is to calculate equivalent
mechanical properties (at the macroscale) for a woven composite material of a stacking of woven
composites. Studying the properties of woven composites with complex patterns is also possible.
Optimization is another way to use the software, as well as assessing the impact of different parameters
on the macroscopic mechanical properties.
KTex WovenProperty©™ graphic interface is coded in Tcl/Tk. The calculation of the equivalent
mechanical properties is coded in C language.

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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
The information contained in this document shall remain the sole property of CEDREM and shall not be disclosed to any third person without the prior written consent of CEDREM.

2. Setting up and running KTex WovenProperty©™


Ce document et l’information qu’il contient sont la propriété du CEDREM et ne peuvent être reproduits ou communiqués à tout tiers sans son autorisation préalable écrite.

This chapter is for users and system administrators wanting to install KTex WovenProperty©™ on a
computer.

2.1. Deliverables
KTex WovenProperty©™ deliverables are:
 KtexWovenProperty_Windows_v01_21092015.rar
 KtexWovenProperty_Linux_v01_21092015.tar.gz
 User’s Guide (this document)
Depending on your operating system, you need to extract one archive or the other.

2.2. Extraction with Windows


Extracting the archive under the Windows system is done through a file archiver utility (such as
WinRAR, 7-Zip, WinZip…).

Picture 1 : Windows software extraction

2.3. Linux extraction


Extracting the archive under the Linux system is done through the following line:
-zxvf KTexWovenProperty_Linux_Version_Date.tar.gz (Picture 2).

Picture 2 : Linux command line to extract the software

2.4. Execution
The software is executed as any other *.tcl or *.tbc executable from HyperMesh, clicking on the
Run Tcl/Tk Script icon (Picture 3).

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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
The information contained in this document shall remain the sole property of CEDREM and shall not be disclosed to any third person without the prior written consent of CEDREM.
Ce document et l’information qu’il contient sont la propriété du CEDREM et ne peuvent être reproduits ou communiqués à tout tiers sans son autorisation préalable écrite.

Picture 3 : Running a *.tcl or *.tbc script from HyperMesh

NB: If the Scripting toolbar is not displayed, it needs to be activated from the drop-down menu:
View>Toolbars>Scripting.
Once the user has clicked on the red outlined icon from the previous image, a window opens
allowing him to choose the file KTexWovenProperty_Platform_Version_Date.tbc.

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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
The information contained in this document shall remain the sole property of CEDREM and shall not be disclosed to any third person without the prior written consent of CEDREM.

3. Using KTex WovenProperty©™


Ce document et l’information qu’il contient sont la propriété du CEDREM et ne peuvent être reproduits ou communiqués à tout tiers sans son autorisation préalable écrite.

From the user input data in the graphic interface, twelve output files are automatically created. How
to use the graphic interface and what is written in the output files is described in this chapter.

3.1. Graphic interface


3.1.1. Overview

Picture 4 : Graphic interface

A seven-frame and four-button window opens.


The first frame called Woven Composite gathers the information related to the woven composite
material. This information is the weaving pattern listed as Fabric (taffeta, twill, satin…), the fiber volume
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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
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fraction listed as Vf in % and the matrix material listed as Matrix Material (epoxy, polyester or other).
Ce document et l’information qu’il contient sont la propriété du CEDREM et ne peuvent être reproduits ou communiqués à tout tiers sans son autorisation préalable écrite.

The first frame, called Woven Composite, gathers the information related to the woven composite
material. This information is the weaving pattern listed as Fabric (taffeta, twill, satin…), the fiber volume
fraction listed as Vf in % and the matrix material listed as Matrix Material (epoxy, polyester or other).
The second frame, called Thread densities, is made to set information regarding weft and warp thread
densities (number of threads per cm).
The third frame, called Angles (degrees), offers the possibility to modify two angles in degrees.
These angles are listed A and B and will be defined later in this guide.
The frames number 4 and 5, respectively called Warp thread and Weft thread, allow specifying the
material and the size of the threads. The user can choose the material of the micro-filaments composing
the threads, and the number of micro-filaments in each thread. For all the fields or drop-down menus,
default values are proposed.
The sixth frame, called New Ply, needs to be clicked on in order to define a new ply composing the
composite stacking.
The last frame, called Output Directory/Run/Close, allows browsing through the file to select the
output directory where the output files will be written, running the software and closing the software.

3.1.2. Frame Woven Composite


To set the matrix material and the fabric weaving pattern, the graphic interface offers a drop-down
menu. Picture 5 shows this drop-down menu for the fabric weaving pattern selection.

Picture 5 : Visualization of the fabric weaving pattern drop-down menu.

Once the user chooses a family of patterns, a window pops up to choose more precisely the desired
pattern inside the chosen family.

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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
The information contained in this document shall remain the sole property of CEDREM and shall not be disclosed to any third person without the prior written consent of CEDREM.
Ce document et l’information qu’il contient sont la propriété du CEDREM et ne peuvent être reproduits ou communiqués à tout tiers sans son autorisation préalable écrite.

Picture 6 : Visualisation du menu déroulant « Twill »

A visualization of the drop-down menus for all the weaving pattern families is displayed below.

Picture 7 : Visualization of the drop-down menus for the Satin family and 3 types of interlocks.

The user also has the possibility to define a new weaving pattern different from the ones proposed in
the drop-down menu. To do so, the USER fabric needs to be chosen. This choice is illustrated below.
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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
The information contained in this document shall remain the sole property of CEDREM and shall not be disclosed to any third person without the prior written consent of CEDREM.
Ce document et l’information qu’il contient sont la propriété du CEDREM et ne peuvent être reproduits ou communiqués à tout tiers sans son autorisation préalable écrite.

Picture 8 : Visualization of the USER choice as fabric.

To define a bespoke weaving pattern, the user needs to create its own interlacement map. How to do
so is described in Appendix 1.
Nevertheless, it is important to understand that writing a bespoke input file
Pattern_KTexWovenProperty.txt should remain the initiative of advanced users. A strong knowledge of
interlacement maps for weaving looms is highly recommended (see Appendix 1).
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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
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Another choice is available to the user regarding the pattern. It proposes industrial weaves existing on
the market. It is referred as INDUSTRIAL COMPOSITE WEAVES, as presented below.
Ce document et l’information qu’il contient sont la propriété du CEDREM et ne peuvent être reproduits ou communiqués à tout tiers sans son autorisation préalable écrite.

Picture 9 : Visualization of the INDUSTRIAL COMPOSITE WEAVES type of pattern.

The drop-down menu regarding the matrix choice is displayed below. The user can chose among
Epoxy, Polyester, or USER. The picture below displays the window popping-up when the users choses to
USER as the matrix material.

Picture 10 : Visualization of the User matrix material popping-up window.

The matrix material is considered as linear isotropic.

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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
The information contained in this document shall remain the sole property of CEDREM and shall not be disclosed to any third person without the prior written consent of CEDREM.

3.1.3. Frame Thread densities


Ce document et l’information qu’il contient sont la propriété du CEDREM et ne peuvent être reproduits ou communiqués à tout tiers sans son autorisation préalable écrite.

How the spacing between the yarns is calculated from the user input data is displayed below.

Picture 11 : Spacing between the yarns depending on the yarns densities.

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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
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3.1.4. Frame Angles (degrees)


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The picture below represents the two A and B angles the user needs to set. These angles must be
between 0° and 90°. The A angle is measured between the warp yarns and the first axis of the global skew
in which the homogenized properties will be calculated. The B angle is measured between the warp yarns
and the weft yarns. Most common weaves have a B angle set on 90°.

Picture 12 : Description of the two A and B angles proposed in the graphic interface.

If the two angle values set by the user are not between 0° and 90°, an error message appears and
blocks the execution of the program.

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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
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3.1.5. Frame Warp Thread and Weft Thread


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The user can choose the strand microfilaments material in a drop-down menu displayed below.

Picture 13 : Visualization of the WARP MICRO-FILAMENT MATERIAL drop-down menu.

The user can choose the material among Carbon, Aramid, Glass or USER. The picture below (Picture
14) displays the window popping-up for the USER choice. The material of a microfilament is considered
linear orthotropic. In the left part of the window, the user can set the density, the longitudinal and
transverse Young’s moduli, the longitudinal and transverse Poisson’s ratios, and the longitudinal and
transverse shear moduli of the chosen material. In the right part of the window, new values need to be set.
The choice of the material impacts the dimensions of the threads. As displayed in the picture below, the
dimensions calculation of the assumed elliptical cross-section of a yarn varies with the selected material.

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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
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Ce document et l’information qu’il contient sont la propriété du CEDREM et ne peuvent être reproduits ou communiqués à tout tiers sans son autorisation préalable écrite.

Picture 14 : Calculation of a strand dimensions

The hypothesis chosen in the software are :


 The cross-section of a yarn is assumed elliptic
 The ratio between big and small axis of the elliptic cross-section of a strand is considered as
depending only on its material
The big axis length, noted athread, is calculated according to the red framed formula in the picture
above. It depends on the filaments number NbK already set in the principal interface. It depends on fiber
volume fraction in a strand TVfilaments/thread which is function of the fiber volume fraction in a
representative elementary volume already set in the principal interface. It also depends on a filament
diameter dmicro-filament and the ratio big_axis/small_axis Rab. These two last parameters depend on the
considered material.

3.1.6. Frame New Ply


It is important to notice that additional plies can be defined by clicking on the Add a new ply button.

Picture 15 : Visualization of the Add new ply button


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User’s Guide
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3.1.7. Frame Output Directory/Run/Close


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Picture 16 : Visualization of the Output Directory/Run/Close frame

The Browse button allows selecting a folder to write the output files.
When clicking on Run from the interface displayed Picture 16, KTex-WovenProperty©™ is launched and
twelve output files are then created. When clicking on Close, the software closes.

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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
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3.2. Mechanical properties


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The mechanical properties and the associated parameters are listed below for the five available
materials (3 fibers and 2 matrix).

Carbon fiber
E_longi G_longi v_longi RHO Ratio Rab
231 GPa 35.0 GPa 0.31 1770 kg/m3 10
E_tranverse G_transverse v_transverse d_micro-filament
19.1 GPa 35.0 GPa 0.35 7 µm

Aramid fibers
E_longi G_longi v_longi RHO Ratio Rab
130 GPa 12.0 GPa 0.40 1450 kg/m3 7
E_tranverse G_transverse v_transverse d_micro-filament
13.0 GPa 12.0 GPa 0.40 12 µm

Glass fibers
E_longi G_longi v_longi RHO Ratio Rab
73.5 GPa 30.0 GPa 0.20 2600 kg/m3 9
E_tranverse G_transverse v_transverse d_micro-filament
73.5 GPa 30.0 GPa 0.20 10 µm

Epoxy matrix
E  ν
3.0 GPa 1200 kg/m3 0.40

Polyester matrix
E  ν
3.4 GPa 1200 kg/m3 0.40
Picture 17 : Carbon, aramid and glass fibers and epoxy and polyester matrix properties.

The user can also set manually the mechanical properties of the materials that are to be considered for
the homogenization through the USER choice. A new window then pops-up, displayed in Picture 13.
The user can manually set the density, in kg.m-3. The unit system is important, especially for
exporting the material cards at the end of the homogenization. The user can then set the Young’s moduli
in the longitudinal and transverse directions (E_longi and E_transverse) in MPa. It is the same for the
Poisson’s ratios and the shear moduli. When clicking on Validate, the values set are saved in the software.
This process of setting USER materials can be followed for the warp and/or weft yarns and/or the
matrix.

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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
The information contained in this document shall remain the sole property of CEDREM and shall not be disclosed to any third person without the prior written consent of CEDREM.

3.3. Output files


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Twelve output files are generated when clicking on Run. These files are named KTexWovenProperty.out,
.usr, .dat, _shell.fem, _solid.fem, .inc and USER_CHOICES.out, .usr, .dat, _shell.fem, _solid.fem, .inc.
This is summarized in the picture below.

Picture 18 : Output files from the software

The expression USER_CHOICES refers to the values set by the user in the graphic interface. This is
useful to keep a history of all the homogenization performed instead of always overwriting the same file.
For example, if the user has set a Taffeta weaving pattern, a fiber volume fraction of 55%, a carbon warp
yarn of 3000 filaments, a glass weft yarn of 2000 filaments, an epoxy matrix, a warp density of fibers of
5,5, a weft density of fibers of 2,5, an A angle of 0° and a B angle of 90°, then the expression
USER_CHOICES will be
KWC_Taffeta_Vf55_WarpC3000_WeftG2000_MatrixE_DensityWa5.5_We2.5_AngleA0B90.

3.3.1. Output file *.dat


The first output file KTexWovenProperty.dat summarizes all the values set by the user in the graphic
interface. A visualization of this file, when the different values remain the default ones, is proposed in the
picture below.
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User’s Guide
KTex WovenProperty

CEDREM SAS, Ecoparc de Sologne, Domaine de Villemorant 41210 NEUNG SUR BEUVRON
Picture 19 : Visualization of the output file KTexWovenProperty.dat output file

e-mail : secretariat@cedrem.fr / SIRET : 50255228400015 RCS Blois / APE : 7490B / TVA : FR26502552284
Tel : 02 54 94 62 71
KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
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An example of this file when the user defines 3 woven composite plies in the graphic interface is
presented below.
Ce document et l’information qu’il contient sont la propriété du CEDREM et ne peuvent être reproduits ou communiqués à tout tiers sans son autorisation préalable écrite.

Picture 20 : Visualization of the KTexWovenProperty.dat output file for 3 plies

When the user defines several plies, the number of the ply is consequently incremented and the input
parameters are listed.

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User’s Guide
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3.3.2. Output file *.usr


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The second output file KTexWovenProperty.usr summarizes all the values set by the user in the USER
popping-up windows. If none of the parameters have been set through a USER popping-up window, this
file will be empty. A visualization of this file when the user has set bespoke materials for the matrix and
the warp and weft threads is proposed in the picture below.

Picture 21 : Visualization of the KTexWovenProperty.usr output file

This file is for the user to check and keep a history of the parameters set through the USER popping-up
windows.

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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
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3.3.3. Output file *.out


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The third output file KTexWovenProperty.out gathers the list of the calculated homogenized
mechanical properties of the composite materials, based on the input parameters. A visualization of this
file, when the different values remain the default ones, is proposed in the picture below.

Picture 22 : Visualization of the KTexWovenProperty.out output file

This file provides the results of the homogenization in the global structure skew (O;1;2;3). The first
lines recall the orientation of the warp and weft threads in this global skew depending on the A and B
angle values set by the user. Then, the homogenized Young’s moduli for the three directions are written.
The Poisson’s ratios and the shear moduli are also given in the three directions. On top of that, the
filament volume fraction inside a thread is given, in order to reach the filament volume fraction inside the
final part set by the user as an input parameter. By the way, this value of the filament volume fraction in
the final part set as an objective is recalled. The same data for the warp direction and the weft direction
are detailed. The dimensions of a Representative Elementary Volume (REV) are then displayed. Finally,
the density and the basis weight are given.

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User’s Guide
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3.3.4. Output file *.inc


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The fourth output file KTexWovenProperty.inc is a list of the materials detailed in the previous file,
written in the RADIOSS BLOCK format. A property card in the RADIOSS BLOCK format is also
proposed. These cards can be directly copied in a *_0000.rad file to be used in HyperMesh or a
RADIOSS calculation. An overview of this output file when the default values are used is displayed in the
picture below.

Picture 23 : Visualization of the KTexWovenProperty.inc output file

The material card is written using the /MAT/LAW12 of RADIOSS. The property card is written using
the /PROP/SOL_ORTH.

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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
The information contained in this document shall remain the sole property of CEDREM and shall not be disclosed to any third person without the prior written consent of CEDREM.

3.3.5. Output file *_shell.fem


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The fifth output file KTexWovenProperty_shell.fem proposes the materials detailed in the *.out file,
written in the RADIOSS BULK format. A property card in the RADIOSS BULK format is also proposed.
These cards can be directly imported in a *.fem file to be used in HyperMesh or an Optistruct calculation.
An overview of this output file when the default values are used is displayed in the picture below.

Picture 24 : Visualization of the KTexWovenProperty_shell.fem output file

The material card is written using the /MAT/MAT8 of Optistruct. The property card is written using
the /PROP/PCOMP. As this file is dedicated to shell elements, only the mechanical properties in the shell
plane are written in the material card and the thickness (or the REV height) is written in the property card.
In the example above, the thickness is set to 0.313 mm.

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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
The information contained in this document shall remain the sole property of CEDREM and shall not be disclosed to any third person without the prior written consent of CEDREM.

3.3.6. Output file *_solid.fem


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The sixth output file KTexWovenProperty_solid.fem proposes the materials detailed in the *.out file,
written in the RADIOSS BULK format. A property card in the RADIOSS BULK format is also proposed.
These cards can be directly imported in a *.fem file to be used in HyperMesh or an Optistruct calculation.
An overview of this output file when the default values are used is displayed in the picture below.

Picture 25 : Visualization of the KTexWovenProperty_solid.fem output file

The material card is written using the /MAT/MAT9ORT of Optistruct. The property card is written
using the /PROP/PSOLID. As this file is dedicated to solid elements, all the mechanical properties (in and
out of shell plane) are written in the material card. No thickness needs to be set.

3.3.7. Multiple plies output strategy


When the user defines multiple plies, the results are written for each one, one after the other, in the
six files detailed above. Moreover, separate files are also created for each ply. These files are specifically
named depending on the values set by the user for each input parameter, as explained § 3.3.

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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
The information contained in this document shall remain the sole property of CEDREM and shall not be disclosed to any third person without the prior written consent of CEDREM.

Appendix 1 : Interlacement map and WeavingPattern_KTexWovenProperty.txt


file
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Picture 26 : Example of an input file for a USER weaving pattern

In the example file above, the user needs to set three input parameter (cf. Picture 27) :
 Nwe: the number of yarns in the x direction
 Nwa: the number of yarns in the y direction
 NL: the number of levels (represents the number of yarns in the z direction)

Picture 27 : Visualization of a taffeta weaving pattern, output from the input file presented in Picture 26

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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
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Here is a methodology to write a bespoke interlacement map.


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The file is read line by line. The first digit of the line is the number of the warp thread plane. The
second digit is the number of the level. The following digits describe the criss-cross between the warp and
weft threads. The digits describing the weaving (0 and 1 in the Picture 28 example) indicate whether the
considered warp yarn is over or under the considered weft one. In a one-level weave case, 0 means the
considered warp yarn is under the weft, and 1 means the considered warp yarn is over the weft. In a
multi-level weave case (3D weaves for examples), 0 means the considered warp yarn is under the first
weft yarn, 1 means the considered warp yarn is between the first and the second weft yarns, 3 means the
considered warp yarn is between the third and the fourth weft yarns…

Picture 28 : Interlacement map and visualization

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KTex WovenProperty
User’s Guide
The information contained in this document shall remain the sole property of CEDREM and shall not be disclosed to any third person without the prior written consent of CEDREM.

In this example of a multi-layer weaving pattern (Picture 29), the warp yarn belonging to the first
level gets between second and third weft yarns of the first weft column (digit 2), then gets under the weft
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yarn of the second weft column (digit 0), and finally gets between second and third weft yarns of the third
weft column (digit 2). The warp yarn belonging to the second level gets between third and fourth weft
yarns of the first weft column (digit 3), then gets between first and second weft yarns of the second weft
column (digit 1), and finally gets between third and fourth weft yarns of the third weft column (digit 3).
This is how the file is read.

Picture 29 : Example of a multi-layer interlacement map.

It is important to explain that every yarn of a same warp plane (yarns with a same value of y
coordinate) will have the same number. All the red yarns displayed in Picture 29 have the same first
number. If another plane of warp yarns (with a higher y coordinate) would need to be defined, other lines
beginning with a 2 could be written. For example, in the weave defined in Picture 28, three different warp
planes are defined, each one with only one yarn (first column framed in light blue). The first plane has a
red yarn (first digit 1), the second plane has a green yarn (first digit 2) and the third plane has a blue yarn
(first digit 3).

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