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Jordan Sutton 1

March 30, 2011


921-933
Chapter 33: Imperialism and WWI
I. Intro
A. After 1870, Europe had influence throughout the world
1. North and South America, Australia and New Zealand part of Europe
world
2. Asia and Africa were in control last half of century
3. Every part of the world was in one global economy
B. Expected to lead prosperity and good fortune
1. Fostered competition and hostility
2. Peace w/out victors, treated Germany bad failed to stop German revenge
3. Withdraw of US, destroyed peace which France and Britain wanted
4. Imperial expansion destroyed Europe’s peace
II. Expansion of European Power and the “New Imperialism”
A. New developments provided Europe power
1. Made sure that few Europeans could impose their force on others
a. National states that needed loyalty allowed European responses
b. Also had egocentricity, gave them confidence
2. Expansion not new, but by mid-19th century, only Britain held their
colonies
a. First half of century hostile to expansion
b. Free trade was dominate, and opposed political interference in other
lands
3. Europeans spread their control, called New Imperialism
B. The New Imperialism
1. “The policy of extending a nation’s authority by territorial acquisition or
by the establishment of economic and political hegemony over other
nations”
a. Usual New Imperialism, Europeans investing in “backwards” nations
b. They transformed their economy and culture, and then rule with locals
i) If government arrangements didn’t work, Europeans make
different ones
ii) Full annexation to local rulers completely dominated by
Europe
2. Also where Europe state received special commercial and legal rights
C. Motives for the New Imperialism: Economic Interpretation
1. Many different motives, but economic is most widespread
a. Start by J. A. Hobson, adopted by Lenin, “monopoly stage of
capitalism”
b. Competition leads to the end of insufficient capitalists
i) Powerful industries run out of own land, push for new land
investment
ii) Higher profits, new market, and safer raw materials
2. Didn’t support this, Europeans did invest, but not in that model
a. Britain made big investments before 1875, small percent went
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overseas
b. Investments in new areas not always put into colonies
3. Discouraging for new markets and raw materials
a. Colonies not important markets, and were forced to rely on Europe
b. Not clear if colonies profitable, some companies were, but not
nationally
c. Economic motives were a part, but New Imperialism had more
motives
D. Culture, Religious, and Social Interpretations
1. Advocates of imperialism had many justifications
a. Some said European nations had a responsibility to bring culture
b. Religious groups show Christianity, politicians argue tool of social
policy
i) Germany said, deflect public interest from domestic problems
ii) Another was that it would be where surplus population would
settle
2. Most European emigrants went to the Americas
E. Strategic and Political Interpretations: The Scramble for Africa
1. Strategic and political considerations were most important
a. Scramble for Africa, ex, Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt important, trading
b. Britain bought interest in 1875, in 1880s, they made protectorate
c. Then moved into Sudan
2. France in North Africa in 1830, naval expedition to Algeria
a. Established colony, 1882, full control
i) Then, lesser countries also looked for land, 1890s, Britain
south
ii) Britain had reason to protect Suez, trade with India, others
didn’t
b. Motive economic + political, equated more power, wanted to show
power
3. Bismarck only imperial policy, political motives
a. 1884-1885, claimed most territories in Africa none were important
b. Only to improve German diplomatic position in Europe
i) Turn France from hostility to Germany, colonial interests
ii) Colonies also used to persuade British to be reasonable
F. The Irrational Element
1. Germany’s annexation started scramble to claim what is left
a. 1890 continent was pieced out, great powers had land that wasn’t
helpful
b. “Its reward was power or the sense of power”
i) Motives not new, recorded even as far back as 416 B.C.E.
ii) Asia, Japan with claims in Korea and China, frightened others
• Russians building a railroad across Siberia, were afraid
• With France and Germany, forced Japan out of many
Ports
⇒ Fear of China would close, “Open Door Policy”
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⇒ Opposed foreign annexation, Britain support by


all, not Russia
2. US just came as a force internationally, win in Spanish America War
1898
a. Protectorate of Cuba, annexed Puerto Rico, Spain out of Western
Hemi
b. Bought Philippines, Guam, Germany got other islands
i) Samoa were divided by Germany and America
ii) Hawaii, annexed in 1898, US imperial and Pacific power
c. 1900 under control of West, Ottoman Empire vulnerable
III.Emergence of the German Empire
A. Formation of the Triple Alliance (1873-1890)
1. Prussia win over Austria and France, German Empire 1871, new
diplomacy
2. New state that brought German people to form great nation
3. Balance of power made in Congress of Vienna changed
a. Britain and Russia kept position, even though weakened by Crimean
War
b. Austria, lost ground, threatened by Austro-Hungarian Empire
c. French damaged by Franco-Prussian War and German Alsace-
Lorraine
d. French afraid of powerful Germany, resentful by defeats and loses
B. Bismarck’s Leadership (1873-1890)
1. Bismarck guided Germany, after 1871, satisfied, no more territorial
gains
a. Wanted to avoid war to ruin what he had
b. Tried to calm France, friendly relations with them, but prepared for
worst
i) If not calmed, must be isolated, wanted to prevent alliance
ii) Especially Austria/Russia, threaten Germany with a war on two
fronts
2. War in the Balkans
a. Bismarck’s first move, Three Emperors’ League 1873
i) Germany Austria Russia together, ended when Russia w/
Turkey 1877
• Ottoman empire persevered by competing powers waiting
• Encourage Serbia + Montenegro help Slavs, Bosnia +
Herzegovina
• Bulgaria followed
ii) Russia entered, wanted to expand at Ottoman expense
• Wanted control of Constantinople and Dardanelles
• Intervention showed Pan-Slavic movement
• Brought Slavs under Russian protection
b. Ottomans forced to ask peace, Treaty of San Stefano 1878
i) Short, Slavic states in Balkan free from Ottomans, Russia
gained land
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• Austria feared new Slavs, and powerful Russian increase


• Britain alarmed by damage of power balance
ii) Disraeli wanted to resist, Britain supported him
c. New word for super patriotism, jingoism
3. Congress of Berlin
a. Disraeli sent fleet to Constantinople, Russia’s appetite known
worldwide
i) Russia agreed to international conference, San Stefano
reviewed
ii) Met in June/July 1878, under Bismarck, decision bad for
Russia
• Bulgaria lost 2/3 of land, no sea access
• Austria-Hungary given Bosnia and Herzegovina,
“occupy”
• Britain got Cyprus, France occupy Tunisia
• Germany nothing, Russia disappointed, 3 Emperors
League dead
b. Major problem south Slavic, Serbia and Montenegro
i) Resented Austrian occupation, as did many natives
ii) South Slavic question threat to peace in Europe
4. German Alliances with Russia and Austria
a. Bismarck ignore Balkans, but not alliance system, Russia alienated
i) Secret treaty with Austria 1879, Dual Alliance
• If one attacked by Russia, other helped, friendly with
Britain
• France isolated, Triple Alliance, Italy, Austria, Germany
• Renewed another 5 years, 1887, restore German/Russian
affairs
⇒ Reinsurance Treaty look over, both remain
neutral if attacked
⇒ All good, until German monarchy overturned
system
ii) 1888 William II, German throne, filled with German destiny
feeling
• “A place in the sun”, wanted to be like Britain
• Ran counter to Bismarck, limited policy
• 1890, William II used domestic policy to dismiss him
b. Germany force for European peace, made possible with strong army
c. Also needed leadership, exercise restraint, estimate what country
needed
C. Forging the Triple Entente (1890-1907)
1. Franco-Russian Alliance
a. After Bismarck retired, alliances collapsed
i) Successor Leo von Caprivi, refused Russian Reinsurance
renewal
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ii) Not allowed with Austrian one, politics drove Russia towards
France
b. France invest in Russia, against Germany, 1894 Franco-Russian
Alliance
2. Britain and Germany
a. Britain key to international affairs, colonies were against Russia +
France
i) Opposed Russian Constantinople and French Low Country
control
ii) Germany became enemy in British eyes, foreign and naval
policies
• Germany tried to win, Britain “splendid isolation” did
work
• Show worthiness, withdrawing support and causing
trouble
b. Germans exert pressure against African Britain, stopping railways to
Cairo
i) Sympathized w/ Boers of South Africa, 1896 William insulted
Britain
ii) 1898, navy dream began, naval law, nineteen battleships
allowed
• 1900, second law doubled it, architect Alfred von Tirpitz
• Navy against Britain, “risk” theory was not to build
bigger navy
⇒ Enough damage to British one to make it
inferior to others
⇒ Did more to antagonize British views
⇒ Britain alarmed, dropped old policies and
attitudes
3. Entente Cordiale
a. Breach British isolation, 1902, Japanese alliance to defend Britain Far
East
i) 1904, agreements with French, Entente Cordiale
ii) Settled all outstanding colonial differences between the two
nations
b. Long step towards aligning Britain with fighting against Germany
4. First Moroccan Crisis
a. Wanted to test Entente, and press for colonial gains
i) 1905 William II, Tangier, against French, likes Morocco
independence
ii) Asserted Germany’s rights to help, wanted to show how weak
France
• Could have succeeded, but demanded international
conference
• 1906, Spain, Austria with Germany, U.S. with
France/Britain
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⇒ German mistake, French confirmed in Morocco


⇒ Drove Britain and France close, conversation by
general staffs
⇒ Became morally binding, done by Sir Edward
Grey
b. 1914, naval + military plans dependent on each other, became allies
5. British Agreement with Russia
a. New French relationship surprising, but no one thought Britain and
Russia
i) Russo-Japanese war 1904-05, even less likely, Britain with
Japan
ii) Britain restrained, Russia humiliated, Russian Revolution of
1905
• Russia weak, reduced to Britain, scared Russian German
alliance
• French support, helped settle Central Asia and Persia
quarrels 1907
⇒ Triple Entente Britain, France, Russia, against
Triple Alliance
⇒ Italy unreliable, Germany Austria-Hungary
stood alone
b. William II had turned Bismarck’s nightmare of two front war reality
i) Even worse with addition of Britain, before just France and
Russia
ii) Wanted to maintain peace, but new one increased chance of
war
• Austrian and Russian conflicts, in Balkans
• Bismarck, France isolated, new stuff, France w/ European
powers
• Germany rely on Austria, troubles made their help needed
IV.WWI
A. The Road to War (1908-1914)
1. Balkans complicated, weak Ottomans controlled land strip
a. North and south were countries independent, but still part of Empire
b. Austro-Hungarian Empire included Croatia and B and H in 1878
i) Greeks + Romanians didn’t speak Slavic language, and in
Balkans
ii) Felt cultural and historic kinship with each other and Russia
• While ruled, nationalism occurred, many eager for
liberation
• Radical wanted union of south, Yugoslav, peoples single
nation
⇒ Look to Serbia, hoped to dethatch Slavic land
from Austria
⇒ Serbia untied at Austrian expense
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c. 1908, group Young Turks overthrew Ottomans


i) Threaten revive empire, interfere w/ Europe takeover of
Ottoman
ii) First series of Balkan crises that lead to world war
2. The Bosnian Crisis
a. 1908, Austrian Russian governments act before Turkey strong enough
to resist
i) Agreed to international conference, would support each other
ii) Russia agree to annex B + H, Austria agree to Russian
Dardanelles
b. Austria called annexation unilaterally, before conference
i) British rejected Russians, wanted Med position, Russia
betrayed
ii) “Little brothers” Serbs, mad by loss of Bosnia, Russia too weak
• Germans not warned, unhappy, ruin relation w/ Russia
• Germany needed on Dual Alliance, assured Austrian
support
• German policies made in Austria, Triple Entente strained
• Harder to oppose Russian interests, if still want to be
friends
3. Second Moroccan Crisis
a. 1911, show French British need, France sent army to put down rebels
i) German protected interests, extracted concessions in French
Congo
ii) More force, sent gunboat Panther to port, to protect citizens
• Went too far, Panther alarmed Britain
• Anglo-German relations bad, naval race, new ones failed
• William II and Tirpitz wanted to win naval race
b. Britain heard of Panther, thought Germans turn port into naval base
i) Crisis passed, France yielded some parts of Congo, Germany
left
ii) Result increase British fear of hostility, France and them closer
• Specific plans now made, help defend France against
Germany
• Navies agreed to cooperate, tied up with each other’s
security
4. The Balkan Wars
a. Italy feared French move into Libya, 1911, Italy attacked Ottomans
i) Defeated Turks, obtained Libya and Dodecanese Islands
ii) Italy win, Balkan states try now, 1912, attacked Ottomans and
won
• Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Serbia, First Balkan War
• Serbs + Bulgaria wanted Macedonia, 1913 Second
Balkan War
⇒ Turkey + Romania joined Greece, Serbs, against
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Bulgaria
⇒ Lost most of new gains
b. Austrians, limit Serbs gains, wanted to prevent port on Adriatic
i) International conference, Britain 1913 resolved things, for
Austria
ii) Independent Albania, Austrian humiliated by Serbs
• Serbs against Albania, under Austrian pressure withdrew
• After 2nd War, reoccupied, Austria gave Serbs ultimatum
⇒ Withdrew again, many Austrians wanted war
against Serbs
⇒ Russia, Nicholas II stand, let Austria have its
way again
c. Lesson influenced final crisis in 1914, Russians embarrassed in 1908
i) Allies more reluctant after passive, Austria embarrassed by
results
ii) Had better results, them + Germany wouldn’t settle bad ones
again
B. Sarajevo and the Outbreak of War (June-August 1914)
1. The Assassination
a. June 28th, 1914, Austrian Archduke Ferdinand, heir, + wife killed
i) Assassin member, Union or Death, but political terrorists,
Black Hand
ii) Chief Serbian intelligence helped, thought that officials were
involved
b. Serbian jubilation showed, helped this thought
2. Germany and Austria’s Response
a. Condemned throughout Europe, opportunity to attack Serbia was now
i) Nor easy, Dual Monarchy, Hotzendorf, head general staff,
wanted war
ii) Tisza, speaking for Hungary, didn’t want one
• Berchtold, foreign minister, German support for Russian
protection
• Nothing done w/out Tisza approval, q about war answer
in Berlin
b. William II + Bethmann-Hollweg, Chancellor, German support not
Serbia
i) Wanted Austrian support while others angry at Serbs
• If they didn’t, showed their weakness, and uselessness as
ally
• Austrians agreed, hoped limited war, no general Europe
conflict
• Germans also knew of general war, wanted to keep
fighting local
ii) Chancellor wanted fast Austrian attack, with fait accompli
• Wanted Russian non-involvement, if failed, ready
continent war
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• Fast wins over France, full scale against Russia, who


were slow
• Policy need British neutrality, and Germany convinced
they would
c. Austrians slow to react, didn’t give Serbian ultimatum until July 24th
i) General hostility subsided, Serbia embarrassed Austria, soft
answer
ii) German emperor no reason for war, Austrians didn’t turn back
iii) July 28th, declared war on Serbia, no army until mid-August
3. The Triple Entente Response
a. Russians angry to Austrians, most conservatives thought war bring rev
i) Nationalists, Pan-Slavs, wanted action, government, and partial
mobilization
• Against Austria, militarily impossible, but diplomatic
• Pressure to hold back against Serbia, mobilization
dangerous
⇒ An act of war, alarming to Moltke, head
German staff
⇒ Possibility of mobilization before German
move, upset timing
a. Schlieffen Plan, French
attack first, endanger
Germany
b. Pressure of military necessity
rose, became irresistible
ii) Western European powers didn’t want war, France leaders
away
• Came back, July 24th, Austrians had ultimatum planned
perfectly
⇒ Two men at sea, if in France, would have helped
⇒ Ambassador to Russia gave same assurance,
like Germany
a. Britain wanted to avoid, had
conference
b. Austria still mad about other
bad meeting, wouldn’t go
• Germans privately supported Austria, but publicly,
British neutral
b. Bethmann-Hollweg realized that if France attacked, Britain would
follow
i) July 30th, public Austrian appeals sham, after, tried to avoid big
war
ii) Too late, Moltke also pressing for action, couldn’t retreat
iii) Didn’t know who as in charge, but retreat showed weakness
c. July 30th, Austria ordered mobilization against Russia
i) Bethmann-Hollweg resisted pressure to mobilize, wanted
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Russia first
• Russia would aggressors, then win support, by Social
Democrats
• Russian mobilization minutes before German, Schlieffen
Plan on
ii) Germans invaded Luxembourg August 1st, Belgium 3rd
• Belgium invasion, against treaty in 1839, British
neutrality over
• Undermined sentiment in Britain, united them against
Germany
• Germany then invaded France, Britain declared war
August 4th
d. WWI began, Europe would never be the same