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Please see the following formulae Standard inverse charectristic is t = TMS x 0.14 Divided
by [ ( M to the power 0.02 )-1 ] Where TMS - Time Multiplier Setting (0.01- 1), M is current
mutiple [ arrived by Fault Current for which time to be arrived divided Actual(Effective ) CT
ratio] Effective CT ratio can be arrived by Adopted Ct ratio x PSM (Plug Setting Mutiplier
adopted in the relay) For example if you have feeder relay connected to a CT Ratio 400/1A
with PSM adopted as 50%, the Effective CT Ratio will become 200/1 Suppose the Fault
current is 2000 A, for which the time of operation is to be calculated for a TMS of 1,the
value of M will arrive as 10 . on subtituting this you will get a time of 2.97 which is
approximatly equal to 3. Or other wise above formulae is intended for 10/ 3 Sec graph of
IDMT relay For other graphs also similar formulaes are available From the above formulae
you can calculate time graph for intermediate current mutiple other than those specifically
mentioned in the Relay name plate itself

This algorithm is derived from the IEC Standards (IEC 60255). It gives the algorithm for
various curves such as Normally Inverse 3 sec., Normally Inverse 1.3 sec., Very Inverse and
Extremely Inverse.

The formula is:

t(I) = {(A) / [(I/Is)a -1]} x TMS


t (I) = trip time at the actual current 'I'

A = Constant (varies for different curves)

I = Actual current through the relay

Is = Set current

a = another constant (varies for different curves)

TMS = Time Multiplier Setting

For example for NI 3 Curve, 'A' is 0.1414 & 'a' is 0.02.

"A" and "a" are constants that set the extend of "inversity" of the curve, i.e. how fast the
operating time drops as current increase (in actality be it is "how fast the slope of dt/dt
drops with an increase in current") . The values of these constants are:

For a normal(i.e. moderate) inverse curve: (A,a) = (0.14,0.02)

For a very inverse curve: (A,a) = (13.5,1)

For an extremely inverse: (A,a) = (80,2)

For a long-time inverse:(A,a) =(120,1)

I think normally they use the Greek letter "beta" instead of A used here, and the Greek
letter "alpha" instead of the "a". So I think it would be better to call them (beta,alpha) or
(B,a) instead of (A,a).

An approximate equation (IEC extremely inverse curve)

t = 80 x k / [((I-fault/I-set)^2)-1]

t = time in seconds
k = time multiplier
I-fault = Fault current
I-set = Current setting

Failure seldom stops us, it is the fear for failure that stops us - Jack Lemmon

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