Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 50

1BC0046 – Microprocessor

February 2011
Bachelor of Computer Application (BCA) –

Semester 3 BC0046 –
Microprocessor – 4 Credits
(Book ID: B0807)

Assignment Set – 1

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


2BC0046 – Microprocessor

1. Convert the decimal number 321.145 to octal and


hexadecimal.
Ans. 125 / 8^2 = 1
125 − ((8^2)*1) = 61
61 / 8^1 = 7
61 − ((8^1)*7) = 5

Therefore, 12510 = 1758.

321.145 = 321/8^

2. Write an assembly language program to find the smallest


among two numbers.
Ans. Program

MVI B, 30H

MVI C, 40H

MOV A, B

CMP C

JZ EQU

JC SML

OUT PORT1

HLT

EQU: MVI A, 01H

OUT PORT1

HLT

SML: MOV A, C

OUT PORT1

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


3BC0046 – Microprocessor

HLT

OR

.model small
.stack 64
.data

n1 db 08h,02h
res db ?
.code

mov ax,@data
mov ds,ax
mov cx,02
lea si,n1
mov bl,0ffh

mine:mov al,[si]
cmp al,bl
jne loop1
jmp loop2

loop1:jnc loop2
mov bl,al
inc si
loop mine
jmp exit

loop2:inc si
loop mine

exit:mov res,bl
hlt
end

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


4BC0046 – Microprocessor

3. Draw and explain the internal architecture of 8085.


Ans.

Figure 3: Internal Architecture of 8085

8085 System Bus


Typical system uses a number of busses, collection of wires, which
transmit binary numbers, one bit per wire. A typical microprocessor
communicates with memory and other devices (input and output)
using three busses: Address Bus, Data Bus and Control Bus.

Address Bus
One wire for each bit, therefore 16 bits = 16 wires. Binary number
carried alerts memory to ‘open’ the designated box. Data (binary) can
then be put in or taken out. The Address Bus consists of 16 wires,
therefore 16 bits. Its “width” is 16 bits. A 16 bit binary number allows
216 different numbers, or 32000 different numbers, ie
0000000000000000 up to 1111111111111111. Because memory
consists of boxes, each with a unique address, the size of the address
bus determines the size of memory, which can be used. To
communicate with memory the microprocessor sends an address on
the address bus, eg 0000000000000011 (3 in decimal), to the
memory. The memory selects box number 3 for reading or writing

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


5BC0046 – Microprocessor

data. Address bus is unidirectional, i.e numbers only sent from


microprocessor to memory, not other way.
Data Bus
Data Bus: carries ‘data’, in binary form, between microprocessor and
other external units, such as memory. Typical size is 8 or 16 bits. The
Data Bus typically consists of 8 wires. Therefore, 28 combinations of
binary digits. Data bus used to transmit “data”, ie information, results
of arithmetic, etc, between memory and the microprocessor. Bus is bi-
directional. Size of the data bus determines what arithmetic can be
done. If only 8 bits wide then largest number is 11111111 (255 in
decimal). Therefore, larger number have to be broken down into
chunks of 255. This slows microprocessor. Data Bus also carries
instructions from memory to the microprocessor. Size of the bus
therefore limits the number of possible instructions to 256, each
specified by a separate number.

Control Bus
Control Bus are various lines which have specific functions for
coordinating and controlling microprocessor operations. Eg:
Read/NotWrite line, single binary digit. controls whether memory is
being ‘written to’ (data stored in mem) or ‘read from’ (data taken out
of mem) 1 = Read, 0 = Write. May also include clock line(s) for
timing/synchronising, ‘interrupts’, ‘reset’ etc. Typically microprocessor
has 10 control lines. Cannot function correctly without these vital
control signals.

CPU Architecture
Control Unit
Generates signals within microprocessor to carry out the instruction,
which has been decoded. In reality causes certain connections
between blocks of the microprocessor to be opened or closed, so that
data goes where it is required, and so that ALU operations occur.

Arithmetic Logic Unit


The ALU performs the actual numerical and logic operation such as
‘add’, ’subtract’, ‘AND’, ‘OR’, etc. Uses data from memory and from
Accumulator to perform arithmetic. Always stores result of operation in
Accumulator.

Registers
The 8085/8080A-programming model includes six registers, one
accumulator, and one flag register, as shown in Fig. 2.1 In addition, it
has two 16-bit registers: the stack pointer and the program counter.
They are described briefly as follows.
The 8085/8080A has six general-purpose registers to store 8-bit data;
these are identified as B,C,D,E,H and L as shown in the figure. They

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


6BC0046 – Microprocessor

can be combined as register pairs – BC, DE, and HL – to perform some


16-bit operations. The programmer can use these registers to store or
copy data into the registers by using data copy instructions.

Accumulator
The accumulator is an 8-bit register that is a part of arithmetic/logic
unit (ALU). This register is used to store 8-bit data and to perform
arithmetic and logical operations. The result of an operation is stored
in the accumulator. The accumulator is also identified as register A.

Temporary Register: It is used to hold the data during the arithmetic


and logical operations.

Flags
The ALU includes five flip-flops, which are set or reset after an
operation according to data conditions of the result in the accumulator
and other registers. They are called Zero(Z), Carry (CY), Sign (S), Parity
(P), and Auxiliary Carry (AC) flags. The most commonly used flags are
Zero, Carry, and Sign. The microprocessor uses these flags to test data
conditions. For example, after an addition of two numbers, if the sum
in the accumulator is larger than eight bits, the flip-flop uses to
indicate a carry — called the Carry flag (CY) – is set to one. When an
arithmetic operation results in zero, the flip-flop called the Zero(Z) flag
is set to one. The Fig. 2.1 shows an 8-bit register, called the flag
register, adjacent to the accumulator. However, it is not used as a
register; five bit positions out of eight are used to store the outputs of
the five flip-flops. The flags are stored in the 8-bit register so that the
programmer can examine these flags (data conditions) by accessing
the register through an instruction.
These flags have critical importance in the decision-making process of
the micro- processor. The conditions (set or reset) of the flags are
tested through the software instructions. For example, the instruction
JC (Jump on Carry) is implemented to change the sequence of a
program when CY flag is set. The thorough understanding of flag is
essential in writing assembly language programs.

Program Counter (PC)


This 16-bit register deals with sequencing the execution of instructions.
This register is a memory pointer. Memory locations have 16-bit
addresses, and that is why this is a 16-bit register. The microprocessor
uses this register to sequence the execution of the instructions. The
function of the program counter is to point to the memory address
from which the next byte is to be fetched. When a byte (machine code)

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


7BC0046 – Microprocessor

is being fetched, the program counter is incremented by one to point


to the next memory location

Stack Pointer (SP)


The stack pointer is also a 16-bit register used as a memory pointer. It
points to a memory location in R/W memory, called the stack. The
beginning of the stack is defined by loading 16-bit address in the stack
pointer.

Instruction Register/Decoder
Temporary store for the current instruction of a program. Latest
instruction sent here from memory prior to execution. Decoder then
takes instruction and ‘decodes’ or interprets the instruction. Decoded
instruction then passed to next stage.

Memory Address Register


Holds address, received from PC, of next program instruction. Feeds
the address bus with addresses of location of the program under
execution.

Control Generator
Generates signals within microprocessor to carry out the instruction
which has been decoded. In reality causes certain connections
between blocks of the microprocessor to be opened or closed, so that
data goes where it is required, and so that ALU operations occur.

Register Selector
This block controls the use of the register stack in the example. Just a
logic circuit which switches between different registers in the set will
receive instructions from Control Unit.

General Purpose Registers


Microprocessor requires extra registers for versatility. Can be used to
store additional data during a program. More complex processors may
have a variety of differently named registers.

Timing and Control unit:


• It has three control signals ALE, RD (Active low) and WR (Active
low) and three status signals IO/M(Active low), S0 and S1.
• ALE is used for provide control signal to synchronize the
components of microprocessor and timing for instruction to
perform the operation.
• RD (Active low) and WR (Active low) are used to indicate whether
the operation is reading the data from memory or writing the
data into memory respectively.

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


8BC0046 – Microprocessor

• IO/M(Active low) is used to indicate whether the operation is


belongs to the memory or peripherals.
• If,

Interrupt Control Unit:


It receives hardware interrupt signals and sends an acknowledgement
for receiving the interrupt signal.

4. Draw and explain the internal architecture of 8086.


Ans. CPU Architecture of 8086
Figure 4 shows the internal architecture of the 8086. Except for the
instruction register, which is actually a 6-byte queue, the control unit
and working registers are divided into three groups according to their
functions. There is a data group, which is essentially the set of
arithmetic registers; the pointer group, which includes base and index
registers, but also contains the program counter and stack pointer; and
the segment group, which is a set of special purpose base registers. All
of the registers are 16 bits wide.

The data group consists of the AX, BX, CX and DX registers. These
registers can be used to store both operands and results and each of
them can be accessed as a whole, or the upper and lower bytes can be
accessed separately. For example, either the 2 bytes in BX can be used
together, or the upper byte BH or the lower byte BL can be used by
itself by specifying BH or BL, respectively.

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


9BC0046 – Microprocessor

Fig 4: Internal Architecture of 8086

In addition to serving as arithmetic registers, the BX, CX and DX


registers play special addressing, counting, and I/O roles:
BX may be used as a base register in address calculations.
CX is used as an implied counter by certain instructions.
DX is used to hold the I/O address during certain I/O operations.

The pointer and index group consists of the IP, SP, BP, SI, and DI
registers. The instruction pointer IP and SP registers are essentially the
program counter and stack pointer registers, but the complete
instruction and stack addresses are formed by adding the contents of
these registers to the contents of the code segment (CS) and stack
segment (SS) registers. BP is a base register for accessing the stack
and may be used with other registers and/or a displacement that is
part of the instruction. The SI and DI registers are for indexing.
Although they may be used by themselves, they are often used with
the BX or BP registers and/or a displacement. Except for the IP, a
pointer can be used to hold an operand, but must be accessed as a
whole.

To provide flexible base addressing and indexing, a data address may


be formed by adding together a combination of the BX or BP register
contents, SI or DI register contents, and a displacement. The result of
such an address computation is called an effective address (EA) or
offset. The word “displacement” is used to indicate a quantity that is
added to the contents ‘of a register(s) to form an EA. The final data
address, however, is determined by the EA and the appropriate data
segment (DS), extra segment (ES), or stack segment (SS) register.

The segment group consists of the CS, SS, DS, and ES registers. As
indicated above, the registers that can be used for addressing, the BX,

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


10BC0046 – Microprocessor

IP, SP, BP, SI, and DI registers, are only 16 bits wide and, therefore, an
effective address has only 16 bits. On the other hand, the address put
on the address bus, called the physical address, must contain 20 bits.
The extra 4 bits are obtained by adding the effective address to the
contents of one of the segment registers as shown in Fig. 4.1. The
addition is carried out by appending four 0 bits to the right of the
number in the segment register before the addition is made; thus a 20-
bit result is produced. As an example, if (CS) = 1234 and (IP) = 0002,
then the next instruction will be fetched from
0002 Effective address
+ 12340 beginning segment address
12342 Physical address of instruction

[It is standard notation for parentheses around an entity to mean


"contents of," e.g., (IP) means the contents of IP. Also, all addresses
are given in hexadecimal.]

Fig. 4.1 Generation of physical Address

The utilization of the segment registers essentially divide the memory


space into overlapping segments, with each segment being 64K bytes
long and beginning at a 16-byte, or paragraph, boundary, i.e.,
beginning at an address that is divisible by 16. We will hereafter refer
to the contents of a segment register as the segment address, and the
segment address multiplied by 16 as the beginning physical segment
address, or simply, the beginning segment address. An illustration of
the example above is given in Fig.4.1(a) and the overall segmentation
of memory is shown in Fig. 4.2(b).

The advantages of using segment registers are that they:

1. Allow the memory capacity to be 1 MB even though the addresses


associated with the individual instructions are only 16 bits wide.
2. Allows the instruction, data, or stack portion of a program to be
more than 64K bytes long by using more than one code, data, or
stack segment.

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


11BC0046 – Microprocessor

3. Facilitate the use of separate memory areas for a program, its data,
and the stack.Permit a program and/or its data to be put into
different areas of memory each time the program is executed.

Fig 4.2 Memory segmentation

The 8086’s PSW contains 16 bits, but 7 of them are not used. Each bit
in the PSW is called a flag. The 8086 flags are divided into the
conditional flags,
which reflect the result of the previous operation involving the ALU,
and the control
flags, which control the execution of special functions. The flags are
summarized in Fig. 4.3

The condition flags are:

SF (Sign FIag)-Is equal to the MSB of the result. Since in 2’s


complement negative numbers have a 1 in the MSB and for
nonnegative numbers this bit is 0, this flag indicates whether the
previous result was negative’ or nonnegative.

ZF (Zero Flag)-Is set to 1 if the result is zero and 0 if the result is


nonzero.

PF (Parity Flag)-Is set to 1 if the low-order 8 bits of the result


contains an even number of 1’s; otherwise it is cleared.

CF (Carry Flag)-An addition causes this flag to be set if there is a


carry out of the MSB, and a subtraction causes it to be set if a borrow
is needed. Other instructions also affect this flag and its value will be
discussed when these instructions are defined.

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


12BC0046 – Microprocessor

AF (Auxiliary Carry Flag)-Is set if there is a carry out of bit 3 during


an addition or a borrow by bit 3 during a subtraction. This flag is used
exclusively for BCD arithmetic.

OF (Overflow Flag)-Is set if an overflow occurs, i.e., a result is out of


range. More specifically, for addition this flag is set when there is a
carry into the MSB and no carry out of the MSB or vice versa. For
subtraction, it is set when the MSB needs a borrow and there is no
borrow from the MSB or vice versa.

As an example, if the previous instruction performed the addition

0010 0011 0100 1101

+ 0011 0010 0001 0001

0101 0101 0101 1110

then following the instruction:

SF=0 ZF=0 PF=0 CF=0 AF=0 OF=0

Fig 4.3: PSW register of 8086

If the previous instruction performed the addition

0101 0100 0011 1001

+ 0100 0101 0110 1010

1001 1001 1010 0011

then the flags would be:

SF = 1 ZF = 0 PF = 1 CF = 0 AF = 1 CF = 1

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


13BC0046 – Microprocessor

The control flags are:

DF (Direction Flag)-Used by string manipulation instructions. If zero,


the string is processed from its beginning with the first element having
the lowest address. Otherwise, the string is processed from the high
address towards the low address.

IF (Interrupt Enable Flag)-If


set, a certain type of interrupt (a maskable interrupt) can be recognized by the CPU;
otherwise, these interrupts are ignored.

TF (Trap Flag)-If
set, a trap is executed after each instruction

5. Write a sequence of instructions to reverse a two digit


hexadecimal number available in the register AX using shift
and rotate instructions
Ans. Shift and rotate instructions
The shift and rotate instructions for the 8086 are defined in Fig. 5.
These instructions shift all of the bits in the operand to the left or right
by the specified count, CNT. For the shift left instructions, zeroes are
shifted into the right end of the operand and the MSBs are shifted out
the left end and lost, except that the least significant bit of these MSBs
is retained in the CF flag. The shift right instructions similarly shift bits
to the right; however, SAR (shift arithmetic right) does not
automatically insert zeroes from the left; it extends the sign of the
operand by repeatedly inserting the MSB. The rotate instructions differ
from the
shift instructions in that the operand is treated like a circle in which the
bits shifted out of one end are shifted into the other end. The RCL and
RCR instructions include the carry flag in the circle and the ROL and
ROR do not, although the carry flag is affected in all cases

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


14BC0046 – Microprocessor

Figure 5: Shift and rotate instructions.

6. Explain the concept of Linking and Relocation.


Ans. Linking and Relocation

In constructing a program some program modules may be put in the


same source
module and assembled together; others may be in different source
modules and assembled separately. If they are assembled separately,
then the main module, which has the first instruction to be executed,
must be terminated by an END statement with the entry point
specified, and each of the other modules must be terminated by an
END statement with no operand. In any event, the resulting object
modules, some of which may be grouped into libraries, must be linked
together to form a load module before the program can be executed.
In addition to outputting the load module, normally the linker prints a
memory map that indicates where the linked object modules will be
loaded into memory. After the load module has been created it is
loaded into the memory of the computer by the loader and execution
begins. Although the I/O can be performed by modules within the
program, normally the I/O is done by I/O drivers that are part of the
operating system. All that appears in the user’s program are

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


15BC0046 – Microprocessor

references to the I/O drivers that cause the operating system to


execute them.

The general process for creating and executing a program is illustrated


in Fig 6. The process for a particular system may not correspond
exactly to the one diagrammed in the figure, but the general concepts
are the same. The arrows
indicate that corrections may be made after anyone of the major
stages.

Fig. 6: Creation and Execution of a program

7. Differentiate macros and procedures.


Ans.

Macro Procedures
Macro is a group of instruction. Procedures are a group of
The macro assembler generates instructions stored as a separate
the code in the program each program in memory and it is
time where the macro is called. called
Macros are defined by MACRO & from the main program whenever
ENDM directives. Creating required. The type of procedure
macro is similar to creating new depends on where the
opcodes that can be used in the procedures are stored in memory.
program If it is in the same code segment
INIT MACRO as that of the main program

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


16BC0046 – Microprocessor

MOV AX, data


MOV DS then it is a near procedure
MOV ES, AX otherwise it is a far procedure

ENDM
Accessed during assembly with Accessed by CALL & RET
name given to macro when instruction during program
defined execution
Machine code is generated for Machine code for instruction is put
instruction each time when macro only once in the memory
is called
With Macro more memory is With procedures less memory is
required required
Parameters passed as part of Parameters can be passed in
statement which calls macro registers, memory locations or
stack

8. What is the operational difference between the IRET and


RET instructions
Ans. It is sometimes necessary to have the computer automatically
execute one of a collection of special routines whenever certain
conditions exist within a program or the computer system. The action
that prompts the execution of one of these routines is called an
interrupt and the routine that is executed is called an interrupt routine.
There are two general classes of interrupts and associated routines.
There are the internal interrupts that are initiated by the state of the
CPU or by an instruction, and the external interrupts that are caused
by a signal being sent to the CPU from elsewhere in the computer
system. Typical internal interrupts are those caused by a division by
zero or a special instruction and typical external interrupts are caused
by the need of an I/O device to be serviced by the CPU.

An interrupt routine is similar to a procedure in that it may be


branched to from any other program and a return branch is made to
that program after the
interrupt routine has executed. The interrupt routine must be written
so that, except for the lapse in time, the interrupted program will
proceed just as if nothing had happened. This means that the PSW and
the registers used by the routine must be saved and restored and the
return must be made to the instruction following the last instruction
executed before the interrupt. An interrupt routine is unlike a
procedure in that, instead of being linked to a particular-program, it is
sometimes put in a fixed place (absolutely located) in memory.
Because it is not linked to other segments, it can use only common
areas that are absolutely located to communicate with other programs.

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


17BC0046 – Microprocessor

Because some kinds of interrupts -are initiated by external events,


they occur at random points in the interrupted program. For such
interrupts, no parameters or parameter addresses can be passed to
the interrupt routine. Instead, data communication must be made
through variables that are directly accessible by both routines.

Regardless of the type of interrupt, the actions that result from an


interrupt are the same and are known as the interrupt sequence. The
interrupt sequence for the 8086 is shown in Fig. 5.8. Some kinds of
interrupts are controlled by the IF and TF flags and in those cases
these flags must be properly set or the interrupt action is blocked. If
the conditions for an interrupt are met and the necessary flags are set,
the instruction that is currently executing is completed and the
interrupt sequence proceeds by pushing the current contents of the
PSW, CS, and IP onto the stack, inputting the new contents of IP and CS
from a double word whose address is determined by the type of
interrupt, and clearing the If and TF flags. The new contents of the IP
and CS determine the beginning address of the interrupt routine to be
executed. After the interrupt has been executed the return is made to
the interrupted program by an instruction that pops the IP, CS, and
PSW from the stack.

The double word containing the new contents of IP and CS is called an


interrupt pointer (or vector). Each interrupt type is given a number
between 0 and 255, inclusive, and the address of the interrupt pointer
is found by multiplying the type by 4. If the type is 9, then the interrupt
pointer will be in bytes 00024 through 00027. Since it takes 4 bytes to
store a double word, the interrupt pointers may occupy the first 1024
bytes of memory and these bytes should never be used for other
purposes. Some of the 256 interrupt types may be reserved by the
operating system and may be initialized when the computer system is

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


18BC0046 – Microprocessor

first brought up. Users may tailor the other interrupt types according to
their particular applications.

The kinds of interrupts and their designated types summarized in Fig.


8., by illustrating the layout of their pointers within memory. Only the
first five types have explicit definitions the other types may be used by
interrupt instructions or external interrupts.

Fig. 8: Layout of interrupt pointers

Instructions that initiate interrupts are sometimes called software


interrupts. Also, given in the figure is the definition of the instruction
IRET which is used to return from an interrupt routine. It is similar to
the RET instruction except that it pops the original

9. Describe about each flag of a 8086 flag register.


Ans. The 8086’s PSW contains 16 bits, but 7 of them are not used.
Each bit in the PSW is called a flag. The 8086 flags are divided into the
conditional flags, which reflect the result of the previous operation
involving the ALU, and the control flags, which control the execution of
special functions. The flags are summarized in Fig. 9

The condition flags are:

SF (Sign FIag)-Is equal to the MSB of the result. Since in 2’s


complement negative numbers have a 1 in the MSB and for
nonnegative numbers this bit is 0, this flag indicates whether the
previous result was negative’ or nonnegative.

ZF (Zero Flag)-Is set to 1 if the result is zero and 0 if the result is


nonzero.

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


19BC0046 – Microprocessor

PF (Parity Flag)-Is set to 1 if the low-order 8 bits of the result


contains an even number of 1’s; otherwise it is cleared.

CF (Carry Flag)-An addition causes this flag to be set if there is a


carry out of the MSB, and a subtraction causes it to be set if a borrow
is needed. Other instructions also affect this flag and its value will be
discussed when these instructions are defined.

AF (Auxiliary Carry Flag)-Is set if there is a carry out of bit 3 during


an addition or a borrow by bit 3 during a subtraction. This flag is used
exclusively for BCD arithmetic.

OF (Overflow Flag)-Is set if an overflow occurs, i.e., a result is out of


range. More specifically, for addition this flag is set when there is a
carry into the MSB and no carry out of the MSB or vice versa. For
subtraction, it is set when the MSB needs a borrow and there is no
borrow from the MSB or vice versa. As an example, if the previous
instruction performed the addition

0010 0011 0100 1101

+ 0011 0010 0001 0001

0101 0101 0101 1110

then following the instruction:

SF=0 ZF=0 PF=0 CF=0 AF=0 OF=0

or

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


20BC0046 – Microprocessor

Fig 9: PSW register of 8086

If the previous instruction performed the addition

0101 0100 0011 1001

+ 0100 0101 0110 1010

1001 1001 1010 0011

then the flags would be:

SF = 1 ZF = 0 PF = 1 CF = 0 AF = 1 CF = 1

The control flags are:

DF (Direction Flag)-Used by string manipulation instructions. If zero,


the string is processed from its beginning with the first element having
the lowest address. Otherwise, the string is processed from the high
address towards the low address.

IF (Interrupt Enable Flag)-If


set, a certain type of interrupt (a maskable interrupt) can be
recognized by the CPU; otherwise, these interrupts are ignored.

TF (Trap Flag)-If
set, a trap is executed after each instruction.

10. Write an assembly program to add and display two


numbers.

Ans. Program:

To add two 16-bit numbers

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


21BC0046 – Microprocessor

; PROGRAM TO ADD TWO 16 – BIT DATA

DATA SEGMENT ;Assembler directive

ORG 1100H ; Assembler directive


DATA1 DW 0 ; Assembler directive

DATA 2 DW 0 ; Assembler directive


SUM DW 0 ; Assembler directive
CARRY 0 ; Assembler directive

DATA ENDS

CODE SEGMENT

ASSUME CS : CODE ; Assembler directive


ASSUME DS: DATA ; Assembler directive
ORG 1000 H ; Assembler directive

MOV AX, DATA1 ; Load the first data in AX register


MOV CL, 00H ; Clear the CL register for
carry
ADD AX, DATA2 ;Add 2nd data to AX, sum will be in
AX
MOV SUM, AX ;Store sum in memory
location (1104H)
JNC AHEAD ;Check the status of carry flag
INC CL ;If carry is set, increment CL
by one
AHEAD: MOV CARRY, CL ;Store carry in memory location
(1106H)
HLT

CODE ENDS :Assembler directive


END ;Assembler directive

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


22BC0046 – Microprocessor

February 2011
Bachelor of Computer Application (BCA) –

Semester 3 BC0046 –
Microprocessor – 4 Credits
(Book ID: B0807)

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


23BC0046 – Microprocessor

Assignment Set – 2

1. What is the value of SI after the execution of following


block of code? Explain how?
CLD
MOV CX, 0
MOV SI, 1
REP LODSB
Ans. The CLD Instruction reset the designation flag to zero. This
instruction has no effect on the registers or other flags. When the
direction flag is cleared / reset SI and DI will automatically be
incremented when one of the string instruction such as MOVS, CMPS,
SCAS, MOVSB and STOSB executes.
Examples:
CLD ; Set Auto-Increment mode

Mnemonic Meaning Format Operation Flags


Affected.
CLD Clear DF CLD (DF) → 0 df

The MOV instruction copies a word or a byte of byte of data from a


specified source to specified destination.
MOVS moves a byte (or a word) from DS:[si] to ES:[di], and increments
(or decrements) SI and DI, depending on the setting of DF, the
direction flag
(by 1 for bytes and by 2 for words). You may use CS:[si], SS:[si] or ES:
[si], but
you MAY NOT OVERRIDE ES:[di]. Though the following is not a legal
instruction, it

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


24BC0046 – Microprocessor

signifies the equivalent action to MOVS (not including changing DI and


SI):

mov WORD PTR ES:[DI], DS:[SI] ; or BYTE PTR for bytes

CLD ; Set Auto-Increment mode


MOV CX, 0 ; MOV 0 into the CX.
MOV SI,1 ; MOV 1 in to the SI

Mnemonic Meaning Format Operation Flags


Affected.
MOV Move MOV D,S (S) →(D) None

Rep Instruction: Repeat string instruction until specified condition


exist.
The string instructions may be prefixed by REP/REPE/REPNE which will
repeat the
instructions according to the following conditions:

rep decrement cx ; repeat if cx is not zero


repe decrement cx ; repeat if cx not zero AND zf = 1
repz decrement cx ; repeat if cx not zero AND zf = 1
repne decrement cx ; repeat if cx not zero AND zf = 0
repnz decrement cx ; repeat if cx not zero AND zf = 0

Here, 'e' stands for equal, 'z' is zero and 'n' is not. These repeat
instructions should NEVER be used with a segment override, since the
8086 will forget the override if hardware interrupt occurs in the middle
of the REP loop.

REP LODSB ; Repeat and move one byte at a time.

LODSB : The Load String Byte transfers the byte pointed to by DS:SI
into AL register and increments or decrements SI (depending on the
state of the Direction Flag) to point to the next byte of the string
Logic: al <- (ds:si)
if df = 0 si <- si+1
else si <- si-1

Therefore the Answer is 2

2. When working with strings, what are the advantages of the


MOVS and CMPS instructions over the MOV and CMP
instructions?

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


25BC0046 – Microprocessor

Ans. When working with strings, the advantages of the MOVS and
CMPS instructions over the MOV and CMP instructions are:

1. They are only 1 byte long.


2. Both operands are memory operands.
3. Their auto-indexing obviates the need for separate incrementing
or decrementing instructions, thus decreasing overall processing time.

As an example consider the problem of moving the contents of a block


of memory to another area in memory. A solution that uses only the
MOV instruction, which cannot perform a memory-to-memory transfer,
is shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2: Program sequences for moving a block of data

A solution that employs the MOVS instruction is given in Fig. 2. Note


that the second program sequence may move either bytes or words,
depending on the type of STRING1 and STRING2.

3. Explain the working of DMA.


Ans. If the data transfer rate to or from an I/O device is relatively low,
then the communication can be performed using either programmed
or interrupt I/O. Some devices, such as magnetic tape and disk units
and analog to-digital converters, may operate at data rates that are
too high to be handled by byte or word transfers. Data rates for I/O and
mass storage devices are often determined by the devices, not the
CPU, and the computer must be capable of executing I/O according to
the maximum speed of the device. For a disk unit the data rate is

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


26BC0046 – Microprocessor

determined by the speed with which data pass under the read/write
head and quite often this rate exceeds 200,000 bytes per second.
Thus, there is less than 5 microseconds to transfer each byte to or
from memory. For data rates of this magnitude, block transfers, which
use DMA controllers to communicate directly with memory, are
required.

During any given bus cycle, one of the system components connected
to the system bus is given control of the bus. This component is said to
be the master during that cycle and the component it is
communicating with is said to be the slave. The CPU with its bus
control logic is normally the master, but other specially designed
components can gain control of the bus by sending a bus request to
the CPU. After the current bus cycle is completed the CPU will return a
bus grant signal and the component sending the request will become
the master. Taking control of the bus for a bus cycle is called cycle
stealing. Just like the bus control logic, a master must be capable of
placing addresses on the address bus and directing the bus activity
during a bus cycle. The components capable of becoming masters are
processors (and their bus control logic) and DMA controllers.
Sometimes a DMA controller is associated with a single interface, but
they are often designed to accommodate more than one interface.

The 8086 receives bus requests through its HOLD pin and issues grants
from its hold acknowledge (HLDA) pin. A request is made when a
potential master sends a 1 to the HOLD pin. Normally, after the current
bus cycle is complete the 8086 will respond by putting a 1 on the HLDA
pin. When the requesting device receives this grant signal it becomes
the master. It will remain master until it drops the signal to the HOLD
pin, at which time the 8086 will drop the grant on the HLDA pin. One
exception to the normal sequence is that if a word which begins at an
odd address is being accessed, then two bus cycles are required to
complete the transfer and a grant will not be issued until after the
second bus cycle

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


27BC0046 – Microprocessor

Fig.3A: Minimal DMA interface configuration

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


28BC0046 – Microprocessor

Fig. 3B: Minimal DMA interface configuration

A block transfer is a succession of the datum transfers described


above. Each successive DMA uses the next consecutive memory
location. Although DMA controllers could be designed around a variety
of configurations, all of these configurations must satisfy certain
requirements. Since the DMA controller must supply the address when
it is master, it must be capable of storing the next memory address
that is to be accessed. It must also be able to know when to stop the
block transfer. The sequence of actions taken during a single output
DMA is illustrated in Fig. 3A. A minimal DMA controller/interface design
is shown in Fig. 3B.

The controller design contains two registers in addition to whatever


status and control registers are required, one for holding the address
of the next memory location and one for noting the number of bytes
yet to be transferred. These registers are I/O ports, so that they can be
initialized before the block transfer begins. After each datum is moved
the address register is incremented (or perhaps decremented,
depending on the design) and the byte count register is decremented.
The incrementing and decrementing are by 1 for byte transfers, and by
2 for word transfers. During a block input byte transfer, the following
sequence occurs as the datum is sent from the interface to the
memory:’

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


29BC0046 – Microprocessor

1. The interface sends the controller a request for DMA service.


2. The controller gains control of the bus.
3. The contents of the address register are put on the address bus.
4. The controller sends the interface a DMA acknowledgment which
tells the interface
to put data on the data bus. (For an output it signals the interface
to latch the next
data placed on the bus.)
5. The data byte is transferred to the memory location indicated by
the address bus.
6. The controller relinquishes the bus.
7. The address register is incremented by 1.
8. The byte count register is decremented by 1.
9. If the byte count register in nonzero, return to step1; otherwise,
stop.

4. Write short notes on (i) programmed I/O and (ii) Interrupt


I/O

ANS. Programmed I/O: It consists of continually examining the status of an interface and
performing an I/O operation with the interface when its status indicates that it has data to
be input or its data-out buffer register is ready to receive data from the CPU. A typical
programmed input operation is flowcharted in Fig.4A.

As a more complete example, suppose that a line of characters is to be input from a


terminal to an 82-byte array beginning at BUFFER until a carriage return is encountered
or more than 80 characters are input. If a carriage return is not found in the first 81
characters then the message “BUFFER OVERFLOW” is to be output to the terminal;
otherwise, a line feed is to be automatically appended to the carriage return

The program for solving the above problem is given in Fig. 4B. The interface for
Programmed IO is shown in Fig. 4C.

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


30BC0046 – Microprocessor

Fig. 4A: Programmed IO Example

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


31BC0046 – Microprocessor

Fig. 4B: Programmed IO Example

Fig. 4C: Interface for the Programmed IO Example

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


32BC0046 – Microprocessor

Program instructions are controlling the transfer of data during the IN


and OUT operations. The software therefore initiates, as well as, controls
the process of data transfer. The hardware’s responsibilities are
confined to merely performing the necessary operations. The
appropriate device is first checked in the device interface to determine
whether it is ready. Device readiness must be tested because the CPU is
much faster than peripheral devices. The test is followed by a
conditional skip instruction. If the ready flag is '1' (device ready), the
program proceeds to the next step. If the Ready Flag is '0', the program
loops back to the test instruction. The CPU, therefore, waits for a slow
device by continually testing the readiness of the device, until it reports
ready. When the I/O device is ready, the data transfer operation takes
place. Immediately after the transfer of one character, the CPU reset the
ready Flag to 0. The device then sets the Flag back to 1, when it is again
ready to receive the data.

Programmed data transfer has the advantage that it allows simple


hardware interfaces, because most of the management of the I/O
operations is performed by software. The disadvantage of this
technique is that valuable CPU time is wasted while the CPU waits for
the peripheral device to get ready.

Interrupt I/O
When interfacing a peripheral to a microprocessor, the microprocessor
is not knowing when the peripheral is ready. That is, the peripheral
operates asynchronously with respect to the microprocessor. One
solution is to programme the CPU to repeatedly check the peripheral's
READY flag. However, this has a built-in disadvantage in that all the
resources of the processor are devoted to waiting for this flag. No
other task can be performed. If the peripheral is READY once in every
10,000µsec, the CPU will spend most of its time idling. A more logical
approach would be to have the peripheral "tell the CPU" when it is
ready. This is the purpose of the microprocessor'sin terrup t input. An
interrupt is used to cause a temporary halt in the execution of a
program. The microprocessor responds to the interrupt with an
Interrupt Service Sub-routine (ISS) which is a short programme or a
subroutine that instructs the microprocessor on how to handle the
interrupt.

Fig. 4D diagrams the CPU's response to an interrupt. During time 1 the


processor is assumed to be executing its main task. At time 2 the
peripheral's READY flag causes an interrupt to occur. After finishing the
current instruction at time 3, the CS, IP and flag

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


33BC0046 – Microprocessor

registers are pushed on to the stack at time 4. Control then transfers to


the ISS at time 5. During time 6, the ISS is executed, terminating with
the instruction IRET (interrupt return). The CS, IP and flag registers are
recovered from the stack during time 7 and the original task is
resumed at time 8.

Figure 4D: Execution Process of Interrupt Service Routine.

If we assume that 100µs is required to respond to the interrupt and


supply the
peripheral with data, then in the case of a 10,000µs per character
printer, 9900µs will be
available to the processor for its main task.

The 8086 has two interrupt pins labeled INTER and NM1. NM1 is a
nonmaskable interrupt, which means that it requires an immediate
response from the processor and it cannot be blocked. INTR is
maskable via the IF flag. Only when this flag is set will interrupts on
this input be accepted. Interrupts can be generated by both hardware
and software. Interrupts are also prioritized to allow for the case when
more than one interfere

Because the NMI input is nonmaskable, care must be taken when using
this interrupt. This is because there may be some programs which we
do not want to interrupt- reading or writing data to a disk drive, for
example. For this reason, NMI input is normally reserved for
catastrophic events like memory error or impending power failure.

5. Explain about the semaphore operations.


Ans. In multiprogramming systems, processes are allowed to share
common software and data resources as well as hardware resources.
In many situations, a common resource may be accessed and updated

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


34BC0046 – Microprocessor

by only one process at a time and other processes must wait until the
one currently using the shared resource is finished with it. A resource
of this type, which is commonly referred to as a serially reusable
resource, must be protected from being simultaneously accessed and
modified by two or more processes. A serially reusable resource may
be a hardware resource (such as a printer, card reader, or tape drive),
a file of data, or a shared memory area.

For example, let us consider a personnel file that is shared by


processes 1 and 2. Suppose that process 1 performs insertions,
deletions, and changes, and process 2 puts the file in alphabetical
order according to last names. If accessed sequentially, this file would
either be updated by process 1 and then sorted by process 2, or vice
versa. However, if both processes were allowed to access the file at
the same time, the results would be unpredictable and almost certainly
incorrect. The solution to this problem is to allow only one process at a
time to enter its critical section of code, i.e., that section of code that
accesses the serially reusable resource.

Preventing two or more processes from simultaneously entering their


critical sections for accessing a shared resource is called mutual
exclusion. One way to attain mutual exclusion is to use flags to
indicate when the shared resource is already in use. To examine how
this is done and some of the problems associated with this approach
let us consider the possibility of using only one flag. If there is only one
flag and FLAG = 1 indicates that the resource is free and FLAG = 0
indicates it is busy, then two processes that access the resource might
be implemented as follows:

Process 1

P1 :

TRYAGAIN1 : TEST FLAG,1

JZ TRYAGAIN1

MOV FLAG,0

} Critical section in process 1

MOV FLAG, 1

Process 2

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


35BC0046 – Microprocessor

P2:

TRYAGAIN2:

TEST FLAG,1

JZ TRYAGAIN2

MOV FLAG, 0

} Critical section in process 2

MOV FLAG, 1

where the first MOV instructions set the flag to 0 in an attempt to


prevent the other process from entering the resource. The last MOV
instructions are to reset; the FLAG to 1 after the access is complete so
that the other process can once again’ enter the resource.

The problem with the above approach is that it is possible for both
processes to enter their critical sections. To see how this can happen,
suppose that FLAG = 1 and that the following sequence occurs:
1. The TEST instruction in process 1 is executed.
2. A switch is made to process 2 before the JZ instruction in process 1
is executed.
3. The TEST instruction in process 2 is executed.

At this point both processes are free to enter their critical sections of
code.

To avoid the above problem two flags can be employed, one which
indicates that process 1 is in its critical section and one for indicating
that process 2 is in its critical section. Before either process can enter
its critical section it would first clear its flag to indicate its intention and
then repeatedly test the flag associated with the other process until it
becomes 1. This could be implemented by coding both processes as
follows:

P1 :

MOV FLAG 1, 0

CHECK1 : TEST FLAG2,1

JZ CHECK1

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


36BC0046 – Microprocessor

} Critical section

MOV FLAG1, 1

While this solution does guarantee mutual exclusion, it introduces yet


another problem, called mutual blocking. If a switch from, say,
process 1 to process 2 occurs between the MOV and TEST instructions,
then process 2 might clear FLAG2, causing both flags to be 0. Since
neither TEST has been performed at that time, neither process will be
able to enter its critical section. Both processes will be hung up in their
waiting loops.

For a solution to the critical section problem that both provides mutual
exclusion and avoids mutual blocking, a third flag is needed that
indicates which process has the higher priority when the mutual
blocking occurs. This concept was first proposed by Dekker and was
discussed by Dijkstra. Dijkstra has also extended this solution to the n-
process case.

When using an 8086 or 8088, a simple solution to the problem is


provided by the presence of the XCHG instruction. The required access
control can be obtained by using a single flag and structuring the
processes as indicated below:

P1 :

MOV AL, 0

TRYAGAIN1 : XCHG AL, FLAG

TEST AL.AL

JZ TRYAGAIN1

} Critical section

MOV FLAG,1

If FLAG = 1 when the XCHG instruction is executed, FLAG is cleared


and AL is set to 1. Even if the system switches processes after the
XCHG instruction, the new process cannot enter its critical section
because FLAG has already been cleared. This solution is attributed to
the capability of loading and setting an operand with a single
instruction (i.e., the XCHG instruction), and can be applied to any
number of processes.

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


37BC0046 – Microprocessor

A flag used to reserve a shared resource is called a semaphore and the


operations of requesting and releasing the resource are commonly
known as the P and V semaphore operators. As shown above, the P
operator can be easily implemented with the MOV, XCHG, TEST, and JZ
instructions, and the V operator with a MOV instruction. However, for
this implementation, when one process is in its critical section, other
processes that are presently competing for the same resource will be
idling in the wait loops associated with their P operators. This may
cause a significant amount of CPU time to be wasted. To better utilize
the CPU time, the P operator could be modified as follows:

AGAIN: MOV AL,O

XCHG AL,SEMAPHORE

TEST AL.AL

JNZ NEXT

Call the monitor in such a way that it

will put the current process into the blocked state

JMP SHORT AGAIN

NEXT:

} Critical section

Therefore, if the semaphore is cleared, instead of repeating the wait


loop, the monitor changes the state of the current process to blocked
and switches a ready process to running. Similarly, the V operator
should be modified to be:

MOV SEMAPHORE,1

Call the monitor in such a way that it will unblock


those processes that were blocked due to the semaphore

This sets the semaphore to 1 and allows the monitor to move those
processes which were blocked because the shared resource was
unavailable from the blocked list to the ready list. The first of these
processes that resumes its execution will be able to enter its critical
section.

6. Explain what a virtual memory is?

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


38BC0046 – Microprocessor

Ans. Virtual Memory


The more sophisticated memory management scheme can be
achieved by the hardware dynamic address translation design
illustrated in Fig.6. For each memory reference, the logical address
output by the CPU is translated into the physical address, which is the
address sent to the memory by the memory management hardware.
Logical addresses are the addresses that are generated by the
instructions according to the addressing modes.

Memory Logical M
C Logical Address management logic
for mapping logical
Address
E
P Control Lines
addresses into
physical addresses Control
M
Lines O
U R
Y
DATA

Fig.6: Dynamic Address Translation

Because the logical addresses may be different from the physical


addresses, the user can design a program in a logical space, also
called a virtual space, without consideration for the limitations imposed
by the real memory. This provides two major advantages. First,
dividing a program into several pieces with each mapped into an area
in real memory, a program need not occupy a contiguous memory
section. Therefore, memory fragmentation is reduced and less memory
space is wasted. Second, it is not necessary to store the entire
program in memory while it is executing. Whenever a portion of the
program that is not currently in memory is referenced, the operating
system can suspend the program, load in the required section of code,
and then resume the program’s execution. This allows a program’s size
to be larger than the actual memory available. In
other words, a user “virtually” has more memory to work with than
actually exists.
With address translation hardware, the program is divided into
segments according to the logical structure of the program and the
resulting memory management scheme is called segmentation. When
using segmentation, each logical address consists of two fields, the
segment number and the offset within the segment. The number of
bits representing the segment number governs the maximum number
of segments allowed in a program, and the number of bits allocated to
the offset specifies the maximum segment size. For example, if the
segment number and offset have m and n bits, respectively, a program
may have up to 2m segments, with each segment having a maximum

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


39BC0046 – Microprocessor

size of 2n bytes, thus providing each user with a virtual storage of 2m+n
bytes.

Fig. 6A illustrates the mapping of logical addresses into physical


addresses.

Fig. 6A: Segmentation Scheme

The segment number S in a logical address is used as an index into the


segment table, which returns the beginning physical address X of the
referenced segment. This address added to the offset L to form the
physical address of the memory location. Because each job may be
assigned a separate area in the segment table, the base address of
that section of the segment table that is associated with the currently
executing job is stored in a register called the segment table register.
The index S is made relative to the segment table register. When the
system switches from one job to another, the segment table register is
updated to point to a new section of the segment table. Because the
address translation must be performed for every memory reference,
either the entire segment table or that portion of the table containing
the beginning addresses of the segments that are currently in use
must be stored in registers which are part of the memory management
hardware.

Each entry in the segment table is referred to as a segment descriptor.


Depending on ,the particular implementation, a segment descriptor
may include attributes in addition to the beginning segment address.
The most common of these additional attributes are the.:

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


40BC0046 – Microprocessor

Status Field - Indicates whether or not the referenced segment is in


the memory.
Segment Length Field - Indicates the size of the segment.
Protection Field - Provides protection against unauthorized reading,
writing, or execution.
Reference Field - Provides useful information in determining which
segment is to be replaced.
Change field - Indicates whether or not the segment has been
modified since being brought into memory .

7. Differentiate between minimum mode and maximum mode


of configuration in microprocessor.
Ans.
• In Minimum mode, all control signals are self generated by
8086/8088 microprocessor such as RD' and WR'.
• In maximum mode, the control signals are generated by external
chip such as MRDC' (memory read) and MWTC' (memory write) by
8288 chip.
• In Minimum mode the 8086 processor works in a single processor
environment.
All control signals for memory and I/O are generated by the
microprocessor.
• In Maximum mode is designed to be used when a coprocessor exists
in the system.
8086 works in a multiprocessor environment. Control signals for
memory and
I/O are generated by an external BUS Controller.

• The pin#33 selects the mode. If connected to +5vcc => minimum


mode & if grounded => maximum mode. Both have different
functions because changing the mode changes the functionality of
some others pins too.
• INTEL's pre release 8085A, to support its features, minimum mode
was there while to support the modern design journey of
microprocessors, maximum mode was available.
• Minimum mode operation is least expensive way to operate the
8086/8088 because all the control signals were generated, for the
IO or and Memory, by the processor and allowed the 8085A without
any special consideration
• Maximum mode ; some of the control signals must be generated
externally, requires an addition of an external bus controler 8288.
maximum mode had the ability to control the external buses and
was used only when coprocessors were attached with the processor

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


41BC0046 – Microprocessor

• In Minimum mode mn/mx- is connected to vcc .here now mn will be


one and in Min Mode one processor is present without any co
processor and in min mode only one processor is present without
any co processor
• 8086 microprocessors can be configured to work in either of the two
modes: the minimum mode and the maximum mode
• Minimum mode:
Pull MN/MX to logic 1
Typically smaller systems and contains a single microprocessor
• Maximum mode
Pull MN/MX logic 0
Larger systems with more than one processor

8088 Minimum- Mode Block Diagram

System Bus Timing

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


42BC0046 – Microprocessor

The length of a bus cycle in an 8086 system is four clock cycles,


denoted T1 through T4, plus an indeterminate number of wait state
clock cycles, denoted Tw. If the bus is to be inactive after the
completion of a bus cycle, then the gap between successive cycles is
filled with idle state clock cycles represented by T1. Wait states are
inserted between T3 and T4 when a memory or I/O interface is not able
to respond quickly enough during a transfer. A typical succession of
bus cycles is given in Fig. 9.9.

The timing diagrams for 8086 minimum mode input and output transfers that require no
wait states are shown in Fig. 7B. When the state of the processor is such that it is ready to
initiate a bus cycle it applies a pulse to the ALE pin during Tl. Before the trailing edge of
the ALE signal the address, BHE, M/IO, DEN, and DT/R signals should be stable, with
DEN= 1 and DT/R = 0 for an input and DT/R = 1 for an output. At the trailing edge of
the ALE signal the 8282s latch the address. During T2 the address is dropped and S3
through S7 are output on AD16/S3-AD19/S6 and BHE/S7, and DEN, is lowered to
enable the 8286 transceivers. If an input is being conducted, RD is activated low during
T2 and AD15-AD0 enter a high-impedance state in preparation for input. If the memory
or I/O interface can perform the transfer immediately, there are no wait states and the
data are put on the bus during T3. After the input data are accepted by the processor, RD
is raised to 1 at the beginning of T4 and, upon detecting this transition, the memory or
I/O interface will drop its data signals. For an output, the processor applies the WR = 0
signal and then the data during T2, and in T4 WR is raised and the data signals are
dropped. For either an input or output, DENis raised during T4 to disable the transceivers
and the M/IO, signal is set according to the next transfer at this time or during a
subsequent T1 state.

Fig. 7A: Typical sequence of bus cycles

The timing diagrams for input and input and output transfers on a maximum mode system
are given in Fig. 7B. The S0, S1 and S2 bits are set just prior to the beginning of the bus
cycle. Upon detecting a change from the passive S0 = S1 = S2 = 1 state, the 8288 bus
controller will output a pulse on its ALE pin and apply the appropriate signal to its DT/R
pin during Tl. In T2, the 8288 will set DEN= 1, thus enabling the transceivers, and, for an
input, will activate either MRDC or IORC. These signals will be maintained until T4′.
For an output, the AMWC or AIOWC is activated from T2 to T4 and the MWTC or
IOWC is activated from T3 to T4. The status bits S0 and S2 will remain active until T3
and will become passive (all 1s) during T3 and T4. As with the minimum mode, if the

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


43BC0046 – Microprocessor

READY input is not activated before the beginning of T3, wait states will be inserted
between T3 and T4.

1. Input

(b) Output

Fig. 7B: 8086 minimum mode bus timing diagrams

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


44BC0046 – Microprocessor

1. Input

(b) Output

Fig. 7C: Timing diagrams for maximum mode system

8. Explain the 8288 Bus controller.


Ans. An expanded view of a maximum mode system which shows only
the connections to an 8288 is given in Fig.8. The s0, s1and s2 pins are
for receiving the corresponding status bits from the processor. The
ALE, DT/R and DEN pins provide the same outputs that are sent by the
processor when it is in minimum mode.The CLK input permits the bus
controller activity to be synchronized with that of the processor. The
AEN, IOB, and CEN pins are for multiprocessor systems. In a single-

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


45BC0046 – Microprocessor

processor system AEN, IOB are normally grounded and a 1 is applied to


CEN. The meaning of the MCE/PDEN output depends on the mode,
which is determined by the signal applied to IOB. When IOB is
grounded it assumes its master cascade enable (MCE) meaning and
can be used to control cascaded 8259. As In the event that +5 V is
connected to IOB, the peripheral data enable (PDEN) meaning, which is
used in multiple-bus configurations, is assumed.
The remaining pins given in Fig.8 have the following definitions:

INTA- Issues the two interrupt acknowledgment pulses to a priority


interrupt controller or an interrupting device when S0 = S1 = S2 =0
IORC - (I/O Read Command)- Instructs an I/O interface to put the data
contained in the addressed port on the data bus.
IOWC - (I/O Write Command)-Instructs an I/O interface to accept the
data on the data bus and put the data into the addressed port.
MRDC - (Memory Read Command)-Instructs the memory to put the
contents of the
addressed location on the data bus.
MWTC - (Memory Write Command)-Instructs the memory to accept the
data on the data bus and put the data into the addressed memory
location.

These signals are active low and are output during the middle portion
of a bus cycle. Clearly, only one of them will be issued during any
given bus cycle.

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


46BC0046 – Microprocessor

Fig. 8: Connection to an 8288 bus controller.

9. Draw the block diagram of 8087


Ans.

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


47BC0046 – Microprocessor

Block Diagram of 8087

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


48BC0046 – Microprocessor

10. Explain why the processor utilization rate can be improved


in a multiprocessor system by an instruction queue.

Ans. Because the 8086 has a 6-byte instruction queue, the instruction
that has just been fetched may not be executed immediately. In order
to allow external logic to monitor the execution sequence, a maximum
mode 8086 outputs the queue status through its QSl and QS0 pins.
During each clock cycle the queue status is examined and the QSl and
QS0 bits are encoded as follows:

00-No instruction was taken from the queue.

0l-The first byte of the current instruction was taken from the queue.

10-The queue was flushed because of ‘a transfer instruction.

11-A byte other than the first byte of an instruction was taken from the
queue.

By monitoring the bus and the queue status, external logic can
simulate the CPU’s instruction execution sequence and determine
which instruction is currently being executed. This facility is necessary
so that the 8086 can indicate when an instruction is to be executed by
a coprocessor.

It is necessary to control the accesses to the shared resources in a


multiprogramming environment. Normally, semaphores, are used to
ensure that at any given time only one may enter its critical section of
code in which a shared resource is accessed.

Let us now reconsider the semaphore implementation:

MOV AL, 0
TRYAGAIN : XCHG SEMAPHORE,AL
TEST AL, AL
JZ TRYAGAIN
{Critical section in which a process accesses a shared resource}
MOV SEMAPHORE, 1

This implementation works fine for a system in which all of the


processes an executed by the same processor, because the processor
cannot switch from one process to another in the middle of an
instruction. However, if competing processes are running on different
processors, the situation is more complex.

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


49BC0046 – Microprocessor

Suppose that processor A is concurrently ready to update a record in


memory while processor B is ready to sort the same record. Since both
processors are running independently, they might test the semaphore
at the same time. Note that the XCHG instruction requires two bus
cycles, one which inputs the old semaphore and one which outputs the
new semaphore. It is possible that after processor A fetches the
semaphore, processor B gains control of the next bus cycle and fetches
the same semaphore.

Suppose that the location SEMAPHORE contains a 1 and both


processors A and B are executing

TRY AGAIN: XCHG SEMAPHORE,AL and


1. Processor A uses the first available bus cycle to get the contents of
SEMAPHORE.
2. Processor B uses the next bus cycle to get the contents of
SEMAPHORE
3. Processor A clears SEMAPHORE during the next bus cycle, thus
completing its XCHG
instruction.
4. Processor B clears SEMAPHORE during the next bus cycle, thus
completing its XCHG
instruction.

After this sequence is through, the AL registers in both processors will


contain 1 and the
TEST AL,AL

instruction will cause the JZ instructions to fail. Therefore both


processors will enter their critical sections of code.

To avoid this problem, the processor that starts executing its XCHG
instruction first (which in this example is processor A) must have
exclusive use of the bus until the XCHG instruction is completed. On
the 8086 this exclusive use is guaranteed by a LOCK prefix:

1111100001

which for a maximum mode CPU, activates the LOCK output pin during
the execution of the instruction that follows the prefix. The LOCK signal
indicates to the bus control logic that no other processors may gain
control of the system bus until the locked instruction is completed. To
get around the problem encountered in the above example the XCHG
instructions could be replaced with:

TRYAGAIN: LOCK XCHG SEMAPHORE, AL

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919


50BC0046 – Microprocessor

This would ensure that each exchange will be completed in two


consecutive bus cycles.

Physically, in a loosely coupled system each processing module


includes a bus arbiter and the bus arbiters are connected together by
special control lines in the system bus. One of these lines is a busy line
which is active whenever the bus is in use. When a processing
module’s arbiter is given control of the bus it will activate the busy
line, which will prevent other arbiters from seizing the bus until after
the next bus cycle. If a signal is sent to the arbiter controlling the bus,
then that arbiter will retain control of the system by holding the busy
line active until the signal is dropped. Thus, if a processor applies a
signal throughout the execution of an entire instruction, its arbiter will
not relinquish the system bus until the instruction is complete.

In a module including a coprocessor or closely coupled configuration, if


a bus request is made through one of the 8086’s / pins while the pin is
active, then the request will be held until the signal is dropped. Then
the 8086 will respond to the request by returning a grant. In addition to
being activated by a prefix, an interrupt request on a CPU’s INTR pin
will cause the pin to be held low from the beginning of the first pulse
until after the second pulse. This guarantees availability of the bus
until the completion of an interrupt cycle.

Another possible application of the bus lock capability is to allow fast


execution of an instruction which requires several bus cycles. For
example, in a multiprocessor system a block of data can be
transferred at a higher speed by using the LOCK prefix as follows:

LOCK REP MOVS DEST, SRC

During the execution of this instruction the system bus will be reserved
for the sole use of the processor executing the instruction.

Assignment by: Paramjeet Singh Virdi, Roll number: 521022919