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QQM1023: Managerial Mathematics

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO
FUNCTION

1.1 Introduction

In the 17th century, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz,


one of the inventors of calculus, introduced the
term function into the mathematical
vocabulary. The concept of a function is one
of the most basic in all of mathematics, and it
is essential to the study of calculus.

1.2 Function

Briefly, a function is a special type of relation


that expresses how one quantity (the output)
depends on another quantity (the input). For
example, when money is invested at some
interest rate, the interest I (output) depends on
the length of time t (input) that the money is
invested. To express this dependence, we say
that I is a “function of” t. Functional relations
like this are usually specified by a formula that
shows what must be done to the input to find
the output.

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QQM1023: Managerial Mathematics

Definition

A function is a rule that assigns to each input


number exactly one-output number. The set of
all input numbers to which the rule applies is
called the domain of the function. The set of
all output numbers is called the range.

A variable that represents input numbers for a


function is called an independent variable. A
variable that represents output numbers is
called a dependent variable because its value
depends on the value of the independent
variable. We say that the dependent variable is
a function of the independent variable. That is,
output is a function of input.

For example, the equation


y=x–1

defines y as a function of x. This rule assigns


to each input x exactly one output x – 1, which
is y. If x = 4, then y = 3; if x = -4, then y = -5.
The independent variable is x and the
dependent variable is y.

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QQM1023: Managerial Mathematics

Not all equations in x and y define y as a


function of x. For example, let
y2 = x

If x is 4, then
y 2 =4
y =± 4 =±2

Hence, to the input 4, there are assigned not


one, but two, output numbers: 2 and – 2 . This
violates the definition of a function, so y is not
a function of x.

Usually, the letters f, g, h, F, G and so on are


used to represent function rules. For example,
y = x + 2, we may write y = f(x) = x + 2, or
simply,
f(x) = x + 2

As another example, the equation p = 2q – 1,


we write p(q) = 2q – 1.

1.3 Function Values

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QQM1023: Managerial Mathematics

Generally, f(x), which is read “f of x”, means


the output number in the range of f that
corresponds to the input number x in the
domain. Therefore
i
npu
t

f ( x)


o
ut
put

Output numbers such as f(-4) are called


function values. Keep in mind that they are in
the range of f.

Example
1:

Find the function values for each function.

a) f ( x ) = 2 x − 1 f ( 3)
;
u +4
b) h( u ) = h( 5 ) , h( − 4 )
; , and h( u − 4)
u

c) f ( x ) = x 2 +1 ; f ( x + h)
 1 
d) f ( x) = 4 ; f ( 4), f  
100 

1.4 Domain and Range

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QQM1023: Managerial Mathematics

Let’s be specific about the domain of a


function. Unless otherwise stated, the domain
consist of all real numbers for which the rule
of the function makes sense; that is, the rule
gives function values that are real numbers.

For example,
1
h( x ) =
x −6

Here any real number can be used for x except


6, because the denominator is 0 when x is
6(undefined). So the domain of h is understood
to be all real numbers except 6.

As another example, let the equation g (t ) = 2t −1

The function g(t) is defined or is a real number


if 2t − 1 ≥ 0 . If 2t − 1 < 0 or negative, then the function
is undefined (It is an imaginary number). Since
function values must be real numbers, we must
assume that
2t −1 ≥0
2t ≥1
t ≥1 / 2

Thus the domain is the interval [1/2, ∞)

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QQM1023: Managerial Mathematics

However, figure below shows the domain and


 x, i f 0 ≤ x < 3

range of f (x) =  x − 1 i f 3 ≤ x ≤ 5
 4 i f 5< x≤ 7

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Range: 0 ≤ y ≤ 4

x
3 7

Example Domain: 0 ≤ x ≤ 7
2:

1. Find the domain for each function.


x
a) f ( x) = 2
x − x −2
b) g ( x) = 3x 2 − x + 5

2. Find the range for each graph.

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QQM1023: Managerial Mathematics

a) y

-3

b) y

c) y

1
x

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QQM1023: Managerial Mathematics

d) y

y=1

2 x

1.5 Types of Functions and Graphs


1.5.1 Constant Function

A function of the form y = c, where c is a


constant, is called a constant function.

For example,
y =3 y

y=3

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QQM1023: Managerial Mathematics

0 x

As another example,
1
y = −1, f ( x) = , h(x + 3) = 2
2

1.5.2 Polynomial function

In general, a function of the form


f ( x) = an x n + an −1x n −1 + ... + a1x + a0

where n is a nonnegative integer and an , an −1,..., a0


are constant with an ≠ 0 , is called a polynomial
function(in x)

Linear Function
a) f ( x ) = x + 1 b) y =4 −x
1
c) y = 3x d) f ( x) =
4
x

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QQM1023: Managerial Mathematics

is linear function with leading coefficient a) 1,


b) –1, c) 3 and, d) ¼

Quadratic Function
a) y = x − 3x + 3
2
b) f ( x ) = 2x 2

is a polynomial function of degree 2(quadratic)


with leading coefficient a)1, b) 2

Cubic Function
a) y = 2 x +1
3
b) f ( x ) = x 3 + 2 x 2 −1

is a polynomial function of degree 3(cubic)


with leading coefficient a)2, b) 1

1.5.3 Rational function


p( x )
A function of the form y = q( x ) that is a quotient
of polynomial functions is called a rational
function.

For example,
x2 −6x
f ( x) =
x +5
is a rational function, since the
numerator and denominator are each
polynomials.

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QQM1023: Managerial Mathematics

But is also a rational function, since


g ( x) = 2 x + 3
2x + 3
2x + 3 = . In fact, every polynomial function is
1
also a rational function.

As another example,
2 1 3x
( )
x +1, x −3,
y= y = f x =
2x 2 −1

1.5.4 Root function


A function of the form y = f ( x) = n g ( x) is called a
root function (n = 2,3…).

For example,
y = x −1 , y = x + 2 , f(x) = (x – 10)1/3

1.5.5 Exponential function

The function f defined by


f(x) = bx,

Where b > 0, b ≠ 1, and the exponent x is any


real number, is called an exponential function
with base b.

1.5.6 Logarithmic function

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QQM1023: Managerial Mathematics

The logarithmic function with base b, where


b > 0 and, b ≠ 1, is denoted by logb and is
defined by
y = logb x if and only if by = x

1.5.7 Composite function

Definition

If f and g are functions, the composition of f


with g is the function f  g defined by
( f  g )( x) = f ( g ( x)) .

For example,
F(x) = (3x – 1)9, y = ( x − x + 6) ,
3 2 5

h(x) = (x2 + 1)3

1.5.7 Compound Function

Let
 1, i f− 1 ≤ s < 1,

F (s) =  0, i 1f ≤ s ≤ 2,
 s − 3 i f2 < s ≤ 8

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QQM1023: Managerial Mathematics

This is called a compound function because


the rule for specifying it is given by more than
one expression.

1.5.8 Absolute-Value Function

 x, i xf ≥ 0,
The function f (x) =  is called the absolute-
 − x, i xf < 0.
value function.

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