, \
/
MANUAL ON SUBS'TATION
. !
. t,
Chapter on
DESIG1~ OF EARTHING MAT FOR HIGH VOLTAGE SUBSTATION
(
PUBLICATION No. 223
,
CENTRAL BOARD OF IRRIGATION AND POWER
Malcha Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhill002l.
N~...., Ddhi
JQflunry /992
, '~r
CONTENTS
I. Earthing
Page 1
2. Purpose of Substation Earthing System
1
3. Eanhing System
1
4. Parameters Affecting the Design of Eanhing Mat
1
5. Design Procedure
2
6. Construction and Installation of Earthing Mat
15
7. Earthing Mat and Perimeter Fence Connection
15
Annexure A: Estimation of Mesh and Step Potentials by Graphical Method
25
Annexure B Example Showing Division of Fault .Current Between the Overhead Eanhwire and Earthing Grid
28
.r
 
Design of Earthing Mat for High Voltage Substations
1. Earthing
Provision of adequaLe eanhing in I subs&atiou is utmnely important lor the safety of operating personnel as well as (or proper·system operation. By earthing we mean conncctil"lg the electrkal equipment to the genem mass of the earth which has a very low resistance.
2. Purpose of Substation Earthing Syskla
The object of an earthing system in II substation isla provide under and around the subst.ation a surface which shall beat a uniform potential and near zero or absolute earth potential as possible. The provision of such a surface of uniform potential under and around !.he subsu.tion mSU£eS Ih.u no human being in the subSt.alion is subject to shock or injury on the occurrence ora short circct or development of other abnormal conditions in the equipment installed in the yard. The primary requirements of a good earthing system in a substauon are:
(i) It should stabilise circuit potentials with respect 10 ground and limit the overall potential rue. (ii) It should protect life andpropeny from overvolt.age.
(iii) It should provide low impedance palhlO fault currentS to ensure prompt and consistent operation of protective devices during ground faults.
(iv) It. should keep the maximum voltage gradient along the surface inside and around the substation within safe
limits during ground faults.
J. Earthing System
3.1 The earthing system meeting the above requirements comprises an earthing mal buried horizontally at a depth of
about halfa metre below the surface of the ground and ground rods at. suitable points. All me noncurrent carrying parts of me electrical equipment in substation are coonected to the earthing mal. Under the normal conditions, the ground rods contribute liule towards lowering the ground resistance. However, these are helpful In lowering mesh potentials and maintaining low values of resistance under all weather conditions.
3.2 The earth mal is connected to the following in a substation:
(a) The neutral point of each system through its own independent earth. (b) Equipment framework and other noncurrent carrying pans.
(c) All extraneous metallic framework not associated with equipment.
(d) The earth point of Lightning Arresters. Capactive Voltage Transformers, Voltage Transformers, Coupling Capacitors and jhe Jighlning down conductors in the substation through their permanent independent earth electrode.
(e) Substation fence.
3.3 The earthing system installation shall strictl), comply with the requirements of latest edition of Indian Electricity Rules, relevant Indian Standards and Appiicable Codes of Practices.
Parameters Arrecting the Design of Earthing Mat
Several variable factors are involved in the design of earthing mal conductor. Therefore. eanhing '!lat for each substation has 10 be designed individually usually. The earthing mat has to be designed for the site conditions to have a low overall impedance and a current carrying capacit)' consistent with the Iauh current magnitude. The parameters listed belowinnuence the design of earthing mat
(a) Magnitude or fault current (b) Duration or fault;
(c) Soil resistivity;
(d) Resistivity of surface material;
4.
(e) (0 (g)
Shock duration;
Material of earthing mal conductor and Earth i ng m a rgeornetry,
5. Design Procedure
The following steps are involved in the design of earthing mat
(i) The substation layout plan should be finalised before the design of earthing mat is taken up. From the proposed layout of the substation, determine the area to be covered by ihe earthing mal.
(ii) Determine the soil resisti vity at the...substat..ion site. The resistivity of the earth varies with in ex tremely wide limits, between I and IO,COO ohmmetres. The resistivity of the soil at many station sites has been found to be nonuniform. Variation of the resistivity of the soil with depth is more predominant as compared to the variation with horizontal distances. Wide variation of resistivity with depth is due to stratification of earth layers. In some sites, the resistivity variation may be gradual, where stratification is not abrupt Highly refined techniques for the determination of resistivity of homogeneous soil is available. To design the most economical and technically sound grounding system for large stations, it is necessary to obtain accurate data on the soil resistivity and on its variation at the station site. Resistivity measurements at the site will reveal whether the soil is homogeneous or nonuniform. In case the soil is found uniform, conventional methods are applicable for the computation of earth resistivity, When the soil is found nonuniform, either a gradual variation or a twolayer model may be adopted for the computation of earth resi~tivity.
The resistivity of earth varies over.a wide range depending on its moisture con ten I. It is, therefore. advisable to conduct earth resistivity tests during the ifrY season in order to gel conservative results.
Measurement or Earth Resistivity te« Locations
In the evaluation of earth resistivity for substations and generating stations. at least eight test directions shall be chosen from the centre of the station to cover the whole site. This number shall be increased for very large station sites of it, the test results obtained at various locations show a significant difference, indicating variations in soil formation.
Principl« 0/ Tests
Wenner's four electrode method is recommended for these types of field investigations. In this method, four electrodes arc driven into the earth along a slIaighl line at equal intervals. A current 1 is passed through the two outer electrodes and the earth as shown In Figure I and the voltage difference v, observed between the two inner electrodes. The current I flowing into the cunh produces an electric field proportional to Its density and to the resistivity of the soil. The voltage V measured between the inner electrodes is, therefore, proportional to the field. Consequcn tty, the res isti vity will be proportional to the r.uio of the voltage to current, i.c .. R. The following equation holds for:
~ S .r R
p =
s
er
~
............. ( 1)
when:
p =
S =
R =
c = resistivity of soil in ohmmetre. distance between two successive electrodes in metres,
Rauo of voltage to current or electrode resistance in ohms, and depth of burial of electrode ill mClICS.
If the depth of burial of tbc electrodes in I s
the ground is negligible compared to the spacing
between the electrodes, then
+ S l
p=2n:SR
................... (2)
Figure 1: Connections fOr a Four Terminal Hegger
Te.H Procedure
At thc selected Lest sue. in the chosen direction, four electrodes arc uri vcn into the earth along a straight line at equal intervals, S. The depth of the electrodes in (he ground shall be of the order of 10 to 15 ern. The rncggcr is placed on a steady and approximaldy level base, the link. between terminals PI and CI opened and the four electrodes connected
2
·
10 the ins:rrument lk:mIinah as sbown·in Figwe I. An apprupriale range OQ &he instrument is thus Idcc1cd 10 obWn cleas
R8dings avoiding &be tvo'O ends of the scale as far as possible. The Jeadings are taken while turning the crank at .bout 135 rev/min. Resistivity is calculated by substituting the value of R Ibus oblaincd in the equatiOn (2). In case where depth of burial is more than ItlOth of spacing, Equation (1) shouJd be I15Cd insltad of (2).
Corr~crion for Pol~lJJiaI El~ctrtxk Ruistan«
In case where the resistance of the potentia] elcdrodes (Cbc t'NO inner electrodes) is comparatively IUgh a correction of Ihe tesl rcsulls would be necessary depending on ~ \'al~ For Ibis pwpose. the instrument is connecled 10 lhe electrodes as shown in Figure 2. Tbe readings are caken as before.. 'The correction is shen effected as follows:
Let Ihe readings of the megger be Rp with the CX)IIIICCtions as shown in Figure 2 and the dcctrodc spacing in metreS..
If Ibe I1DCOI'J'eCted value of soil resistivity is pi and tbe rcsisl.ance of the voltage circuit of the instJumenl used 10 obtain R (85 indicalCd inside the scak cover of the mda) is Ity. the c:om:ct.ed value of the eanb rcsiJajvil)' would be:
p = pi • (Rv + Rp),IRv
(I) T~stu.r of Soil Uniformity
During &he course of above tests, it would be ~Ie CO ,et information about the borizonW and. YCtlicaJ variations in earth resistivity over the site under consideralion for the correct computation of the resistivity CO be used in the design calculations. The vertical variations may be detccled by rqJC&ling the IeSlS at a given location in • cbooSen direction with a number or diffcmll electrode spacings increasing from 21D 250 metres or more, prclcnbly in the ~ 2.5,10,15,25 and SO metres or more. If the resistivity variations are wilhin 20 to 30 percent. the soil in the vicinity of the \est location may be considered unifonn. Otherwise a curve of resisOvity versus elecUode spacing shall be ploucd and chis curve funhet anaJ~ 10 deduce stratification of soil into two or more layers of appropriate thickness or a soil of gradual resistivity variation. The horizontaJ variations are studied by taking measurements iQ various directions from the centre of the station.
(ii) Col7lpwtUion of Earth Rtsislivity of Uni/orm Soil
When the eaith resistivity readings for different electrode spacings in I. direction are within 20 to 30 percent, the soil is considered to be uniform.
P,
?
Hegger
~ 1/
'" /
~ ~ r, V fX' V
17 '" V \
[\ '" 1/ )
I V ~ V'
~ 1/ ~ )
\2' r, _. V v'" r
[7 '"""<;;
<,
V t, r~S ..·11 S ·+1 .....  S I
Figure 2: T es t (onnee tion to Heasure the Sum of The Potential Electrode Resistances
Figure 3: Polar Curve
3
When the spacing is increased gradually from low values, at a stage, it may be found Ihat the resistivity readings is more or less constant irrespective of the increase in the electrode spacing. The resistivity for this spacing is noted and taken as the resistivity for that direction. In a similar manner. resistivities foc at least eight equally spaced directions from tile centre of the site are measured. These resistivities are plotted on a grapb sheet in the appropriate directions choosing a scale. A closed curve is ploned on Ihe graph sheets jointing all th~ resistivity points plotted to get the polar resistivity curve.The area inside the polar resistivity curve i~ measured and equivalent circle of the same area is found out, The radius of th is eq ui valen t circle is the average resistivity of the site under consideration. The average resisti vi ty thus obtained may be used for Ihe design of the earthing grid and other compuLations and the results will be reasonably accurate when the soil is homogeneous (see Figure 3),
, .
The methodology for non homogeneous soil is dealt with in '6.(Aiii).
(iii) Determin« 1M MarimW1t GrolUtd Fault Current
Fault current at the substation is dctennined from the system studies. A correction factor is applied to the fault current thus determined to take care of the future growth of the system. Value or this COfTeCtion factor is usually of the order of 1.2 to 1.5. However, in practice 40 KA for 400 tV system and 3l.5 KA for 2201132 tv systems are genera11y adopted for design purposes,
(iv) Duration. of Fault .
For the design of eanhing mat. the practices regarding assumption of duration of fault differ from country to country, Thus in the USSR, the duration of fault is assumed as 0.2 second. In me USA. it is assumed as 4.0 seconds which is equal to the duration on which the short time rating of the switchgear is based. In India. the short time rating of most of the equipment is based on 1.0 second duration of fautL:ThereCore, 1.0 second may be adopted as the duration of fault in the calculations to determine the size of conductor for earthing mat, For the purpose of determining the safe step and mesh potentials a duration of 0.5 second may be adopted. However, it may be ensured on the basis of the protective gear and protective schemes provided in each case that fault is cleared in the period not exceeding of 0,5 seconds. Where the fault clearing time exceeds 0.5 seconds. tllis duration may be taken equal to faull clearing time."
(v) Determine tM size of Conductor for Earthing Mal
(a) Size of conductor based on Thermal Stability: The size of conductor for earthing mat based on thermal stability is determined with the help of the approximate formula as per IEEE 8019a6 given below:
:./ ( TC.~. io" ) In
te 10. r P r
(KO +"Tm )
Ko + Ta
Where. A
= Conductor cross = section in mm 1
= rms value of current in kilo amps. (KA)
~ r = thermal coefficient of resistivity at reference temperature Tr
pr = resistivity of earthing mat conductor at reference temperatcre Tr, in iJA/cm'
ar
 T
•
t = time of current flow. in second
•
T
..
= maximum allowable temperature in degrees celcius (0) ::: ambient temperature in degrees celcius (CO)
= reference temperature for material constants in degrees ce1cius (C") = Thermal capacity ractor in j/cm'/"C
= 4.184 SH. SW
T
•
T
•
TCAP
oJ
Where SH is specific heat in caVgmtc. and SW is specific weight in gm/cm' or conductor material
4
I
I
I
\,
The values of lhe various constents in the above equation applicable to steel are given below.
cr :: 0.((1423 at 2if'C C./,j1h .
f· a ~ je'V 3t1
I. :: 1.0 second'
K
•
"'
 20:: 216
0.00423
Sll '" 0.114
SW '" 7.86
TCAP = 3.749
:: 15 microohm/cm)
= 620°C for welded joints = noc for bolted joims
r..... b T,. "'r the4°OCOOL I' .. ~ bo f lded .. . .. ........a.~ t .... v.a su sutuuon a a ve va ue In lhe equaOOI1 lIVen ave A or we. joints ......,. ..... ee ....
Ix 12.30~· .
•
or 12.30 I mml'
p,e T ..
7,.", : I 08 If
and A for bolted joints worksout as
I"x 15.13~ (W" 15.13 I mm1
Mechanica! Ruggedness of Conductor
From theconsideration of mechanical ruggedness.. and easy installation. The maximum wi<lth to thickness ratio of steel Oats for ground mat conductor should be 7.3 such' that thickness of the nat is not less than 3 mm. Ground mal conductor comprising steel rod having a diameter nOC less than 5 mm. The standard sizesof.oonducLOr as per IS : 1730· 1989 are as follows:
(i) 10 x 6 mm? (ii) 20 x 6 mml
(iv) 40 x 6 mmi (vi) 60 x 6 rnrn? (viii) 65 x 8 mm?
(iii) 30 x 6 rnm? (v) 50 X 6 rnm? (vii) 50 x 8 rnrn? (ix) 75 x, 12 mm1
(e) Corrosion: On an averag~ steelco.rrodes about six time as fast as copper when placed in soil. The extent of corrosion depends upon the properuesof soil. Many a time. soils have conflicting properties, some of which indicate that the soil is corrosi ve and others indicate !.he oppos i ts. Despite this. a very fair deg ree of correlation ha! been found between electrical resistivity of soil and _corrosion. The generally accepted correlation between the electrical resistivity ·of soil and its corrosivity is as indicated in the Table below:
TABLE
Soil Resistivity and Corrosion
Range of soil resistivity (Ohmmetre)
~CI.ass of soil)
Less than 25 25·50
50100 Above 100
Severely corrosive Moderately' corrosive t.liIdly corrosive
Very mildJy corrosive
5
The following methods are available to safeguard conductor against excessive corrcsion.(a) Provide cathodic protection.
(b) Use current conducting. corrosion resistant coating on steel (e.g. rinc coating). (c) Use steel conductor with large crosssection having allowance for corrosion.
The first two methods are expensive and find application in special CUes. The third method is much simpler and relatively less costly and therefore rl1lds wide application. Based on the "results of the field studies on rates of corrosion. the foHowing allowances in crosssectional area of the eanhingccnductor are retommanded (Refer CBl&? Publication Technical Report no 5) to take the effect. of corrosion into account
(3) In the case of conductors to be laid in soils having resistivity grealer than 100 Ohmmetre=No allowance. (b) In the case of conductors to be laid in soils having resistivity from 25 to 100 Ohmmette15 percent aJlowance. (c) In the case of conductors to be laid in soils having resistivity lower than 25 Ohmmetre or where treatment of
soil around electrodes is carried out 30 percent allowance.
. .
For the purpose of determining the allowance to be made for coerosien, the minimum resistivity of the soil encountered at the location of grounding electrodes should be considered. The resistivity will be the minimum in wet and hot weather. Thus. for very mildly corrosive soils. steel conductees meeting thethennal stability and mechanical requirements are adequate. However, the steel conductors in the soils of other types, should be atJeast6 mm thick if steel nat and have a diameter of atleast 16 mm if in Ihe form of steel round.
(vi) Determine Ih~ Maximum Grid Currou
The design value of the maximum grid current (10) is given by the following equation:
10 =: C,.Dr I,
Where 10 = Maximum grid current in Amperes
Of =: Decrement factor" fot the entire duration of fault Typical values of Dr are given in the following table.
Fault duration (S)
Decrement factor Of
0.008 0.1 0.25
0.5 or more
1.65 1.25 l.lO 1.0
I
•
Corrective projection factor for the relative increase of f<illit currents during the station life span. For zero future_growth of the system, C, =1' An example showing the method for determining the value of
10 as a ratio of the maximern fault current is given in AnnexureS .
Sf ( 3 10)
tms value of the symmetrical grid current in Amp.
C
p
Where r = I
S ::
I
Current division factor relating to the magnitude of fault eurrenr to that of its portion nowinll: between the earthing mat and surrounding earth.
Sf is dependent on the following parameters;
(i) Location of fault,
(ii) Magnitude of station earthing mat resistance.
(iii) Bwied pipes and cables in the vicinity of or directly connected. or both. to the station earthing system. (iv) Ovechead ground wires or neutral conductors.
Sr . is computed by deriving an equivalent representation of theov~ ground wires. neutrals. etc .• connected to the earthing mat and then solving the equivalent to determine the fractions of the total fault current which now between
6
the mal and eanh and through the ground wire: or neutrals. For calculating Sr lhe foOowing formula is used:
Sf = Combined eq. resistance of overhead static w~ DClwort as seen from fault point
Combined eq, resistance of overhead static ground wire network(as seerr from fault point) + Sl8tionpuund
resistance ~ remote eanh, .
10 = Zem sequence {auil current
For line (0 line ground and line 10 ground (nults. the yalues 011 are given by lhe relations given below.
.  .
I. fIX line CO lineground Cault =
E
J for line to ground fault
. ,
=
Where E :::: phase to neutral voltage in volts,
The values of XI' Xl' "a, the sequence reactances are computed looking into the system from the point of faulL (vii) Resistivity of Su.rjace Layer (p)
Crushed rock is used as a surface layer in substations fIX &he following reasons: (a) It provides high resistivity surface layer.
(b) It serves as impedmcnt to the movement of reptiles and thereby' helps in minimising the hazards which can be caused by them,
(e) It prevents me formation of pools of oil in the event of leakage of oil from oil insula led and oil cooled electrical equipment.
(d) It discourages the growth of weeds,
(e) II helps retention of moisture in the underlying soil and thus helps in maintaining the resistivity of the subsoil at lower value.
(i) It discourages running of persons In the switchyard and saves them from we risk of being subjected 10 possible high step potcruials.
In tropical countries like India. where the population of reptiles is large. it is advantageous to surround theele.:trical equipment and the structures supporting conductors by a surface layer of about I.,O em of crushed rock up 10 8 distance of about two metres in all directions, SUC!.l surface layer around lhe metallic equipment and structures. besides minimising the hazards caused by reptiles, provides a high resistivity layer below the feel of human beings approaching the equipment/ structures and enables ~em to withstand higher touch pot.enlials. If step potential without crushed rock is well within safe limits, it is not necessary to spread crushed rock over the complete switchyard area, However. if it exceeds the safe limits crushed rock of 15 to 20 mm size may be spread to cover the earth in the entire switchyard area.
The resistivity of rock depends on the types of rocks, as will be seen from the table (Refer CBI&P Publication Review No.1) given below:
Type of rock
Range of resistivity (Ohmmetre)
Average v aulue of' resistivity (Ohmmetre)
1(0) 1.0 10 ,000 3000 0030,000
3.000 15,00) 5,(0) 25.(0)
Morain .gravel Boulder gravel Lime Slone
Primary Rock (Griess, Granite etc.)
IO,CQO co 50,roJ
7
I
If the type oC rock to be used is known the lower value of resistivity for that type oC rock may be adopted in lhe design. Otherwise. in conformity with tho design practices followed by most of the electric utilities, an average re!istivily yalue of 3,000 Ohmmetre may be adopted Cor the purpose of earthing mat design,
(viii) Determine the Tolerable To'uclt, and Step Potentials '"
The values of these potentials depend on.the body/weights, thickness and resistivity of surface Iaycr . .and duration of shock current. The relations between the above factors for persons with average weight of SOig arc given below.
E touch ::z uooo + I.S C, (hI' K) p) 0.116
0:
E . ::I (1000 + 6C (h. K) p. '
~ I I r
0.116
~
Where C ::I 1 Cor crushed rock having resistivity equal to that of soil. If crushed rock resistivity does not equal that·ot soil, refe:e.nce may be made to Figure 4 Cor obtaining !he value of C ..
PI ::I resistivitY of sprface layer in Ohmmetre. P = resistivity of soil in Ohmmetre,
K ::I P  PI .
P + PI'
t. ::I Duration of shock current now in seconds.
h. = Swfaco layer thickness in metre.
k.O
tD
D.I
u
0."
C,
OJ .;
0
0 1.11 0." 0.20 0.2,.
1'1, tH.ttrs) Figure 4 : Reduction fixtor C. as a FWlCtiofi 0/ Reduction Factor K and CrtuMd Rock ~r TlUcbus II .
I
. where C. "" redlKlioll faclOr for derati"g tM IWnnal value of SIU"j'au layu resisti'lilJ ckurmin.ed as follows
C. ,. 1 for crushed Sl01l4 remtiviry equ.aJ to soil resisti"iIJ
8
.e .y
:k
:it
(ix} Develop Preliminary ItrrangerrICfU 0/ Wtlainl Mat
A prdimjrwy earthing mal arnngemeot: is devdopcd on the basis of an assumed spaciDg betwcC'n two parallel conductors. In this arrangement a continuous conductor should be assumed as surrounding the: swilc:hyud and the condcctoe within it should be located at reasonably _uniform spacing paralkllO each other along the rows of &he suuctures. equ ipments etc. From Ihe arrangement so arrived at the pum~ of parallel and cross conductors and the IOUl length Df condoctof constituting the c.anhing mat are determined for use in the further design calculations.
(x) DelcrmiM 1M Likely Mesh and Step P_lllials
1be values of the expected maximum mesh and Ilep potentials are calculated with the bdp m Ihe following formulae given below. Several simplifying assumptioas are made in derivation of Ihese formulae. 1bese assumptions may resuh in incom:ct results rex comparison with the results obtained by computer analysis. for some cascs. For dctennining the inaccuracies for practical perposes.uese fonnulae may be used with the foUowing limits for square grids or for rectangu!ar grids having the same number of conducuxs in both directions:
(i) n s 25
(iii) d < 0.25h
(ii) 0.25 m s h s 2.5 m (iv) 0 > 2.5 m
These symbols are defined below
Mesh potentia) on the earth's surface above Ihe cenae of a corner mesh: p. K •. K,. 10
E =
•
volts
Where. K. =
.
=
Io =
K =

K._ =
u L
Corrective factor which accounts for the increase in current density in the grid extremnies. 0.656 + 0.172 n
Maximum grid current in Amperes.
(d+2h)1 h S D.d
 K.. ~ J ]
4 d ) +j(h • x (2nl)
21t
1 for grids with earthing rods along the perimeter or for rods in the mat comers as well as along the parimeter and throughout the grid area.
=
for grids without earthing rods or for grids with only a few eanhing rods. none located on the perimeter or in the comers.
: (2n) v.
Kh \/' ++
•
p = Soil resistivity in ohmmetre.
h = ) metre (reference depth of earthing mat)
..
0 = Spacing between parallel conductors. in me ires _
n = ~ for calculating E.
nA = The number of parallel conduclOf"S in transverse direction
nB = The number of parallel conductors in longitudinal direction 9
1 I
and K, == 7 [Th
h == depth of earthing mat conductor in metres.
d == diameter of earthing mat conductor in metres
L = L. + L, for earthing mat without earthing rods or with only a few rods located within the mat.
but away from the perimeter.
== L~ + 1.15 L, for earthing mat withground rods predominantly along the perimeter.
L< = Total earthing mat conductor length, in mattes; and
L, = Total earthing rod length. in metres.
Step potential E'Lep = p. Ks. K,. IJL volts Where K, = 0.656 + 0.172 n
L, h and 0 being I.he same as defined earlier and n being larger of nA and nB for calculating E,.
The value of expected mesh voltage and step vol'!l:le should be determined for the following conditions in the order
indicated below: '
• without ground rods
· with unifonnly distributedground rods
· with ground rods only in me perimeter
If the computed value of mesh voltage is less man the tolerable touch voltage. the design oC earthing mat is completed.
However, if the computed mesh voltage is found to exceed the tolerable touch voltage the design will require inclusion of ground rods or revision .. Similarly .• the computed step voltage should also be less than the tolerable step voltage. IC either me Slep or touch voltage are found to exceed the tolerable voltages. the earthing mat design will have to be revised by including additional earthing rods, mat depth reducing spacing. etc, Additional earthing rods should be provided at
the base of light.ning arresters and transformers neutrals.
In order to facilitate checking of the mesh and step potential the graphical method for estimation of mesh and step potential is given in Appendix 'A'.
(xi) Determine the Station Ground Resistance
For ground mal depths less than 0.25 metres: The value of me substation grounding resistance in uniform soil can be estimated by means of the following formula,
Rg= ~ J"=f+ 7
where R = station ground resistance in Ohm (n) p = average earth resistivity in n·m
A = area under earthing mat in square metres (mI)
L = the total length of buried conductors in metre (m) R = Station ground resistance in ohm (0)
I
Rg == P
I
}] l+h~
.. For groJUtd mal depths'berwUfI 0.25 and 25 mares: The station ground reststance lOr ground mal with lioulmd rods is determined with the use of Schwarz formula given below
10
r
R :r: •
R, ~  R2 12 R, + ~  2Rll
Where
Rl = resistance of ground mat conductors ~ = resistance of a1l ground rods.
Rn :0 mutual resistance between the group or grid conductors and group of ground rods.
'The value of RIo RIo and Rn can be delaminOd with beJp of the formulae given in (xiii) with the assumption thaI for the uniform soil P • P
I • 
(xii) DeltntliM 1M GrolUld POltllliaJ Rise
The value of the lilc:eJy ground potential rise is liven by the product of the maximum grid earrent, 10 (see uem 5 (vi) and the estimated station ground res.iSWlCe. R • If Ihe value of this product is below the solerable touch voltage. no further analysis is necessary and only the additi~ cooductor required 10 connect the mat to equipment grounds has to be provided. Otherwise the earthing rna, arrangement will require revision till the above condition is rnet.
(xiii) Dt!sign Philosophy far NOII·lwmogtMOUS Sod
The methodology covered under Clause Xo xi and xii penains 10 unifonn ~il conditions. Normally the apparent resistivity values obtained by Wenner's 4 probe method wilh a probe spacing of 10 m is sumcicnt for earthing system design but in cases where a multilayer earth is clearly indicated, two layer model system can be 1'CSOued 10. The resistance of such a model can be evaluated as explained below.
However, for potential (sa.ep & louCh) calculations, solution can be obtained by solving Laplace's equations for a point curter source. Since this involves infinite series of terms, computer usage is inevitable. Alternatively the earthing grid (from potentials point of view) can be designed based on the resistivity of the upper layer where the grid is laid. Inaccuracies can sometime creep up with this assumption but the same can be verified by making a few measurements of gradients after installation of the grid. In case of unsatisfactory results. special meshes etc, can be buried, arou nd SlTUcture.slequipmcnt normally accessible to persons standing on the ground or by providing adequate layer thickness of crushed rock/gravel,
Evaluation of Resistance
figun 5
The resistance for a nonuniform soil strata (two layer) can be evaluated as under:
R R, Rz  RI21
I
R, + Rz  2R 11
where
11
1
( ( I H») where Rod's top is flushed with earth surface.
p. _ '1 (PI' PI) P1• H + PI 1
P. _ I} (PI' PI) (p} (Hh) + PI (11 + h  H) where Rod top is in the same depth as the grid.
The various parameters are as given below:
PI = soil resistivity encountered by grid conductors bwied at depth h in nom
P. = apparent soil resistivity as seen by a ground rod in nm
thickness of the upper layer soil in m
soil resistivity from depth H downward nom total length o'f grid conductors in m
average length of a ground rod in m
depth of grid burial in m
~ for conductors buried ~t depth h, or O.S 4a for conductors at h = 0 (on earth's surface)
area covered by a grid of dimensions a.b in ml number of ground rods placed in area A
constants related to the geometry of the system (Figures 6 (a) and (b» diameter of grid conductor in m
diameter of ground rods in m
shortside grid length in m
longside length in m
H =
PI =
II =
11 =
h =
hi =
A =
n :::
K" Kl =
ctl :::
d1 :::
a :::
b = (xiv) Lowering or Earthing Impedance
The solution to the other problem of achieving low impedance earthing in smaller area can be achieved by employing anyone or combination of the following methods. These methods can also be employed to coventional substations where
soil resistivity is high .
1. Connection of substation grid with remote ground grids and adjacent grounding facilities if available.
2. Use of deep driven ground rods or use of longer ground rods and more number of such rods along the perimeter of the grid.
3. Use of foundation rods where feasible as auxiliary grids,
4_ Wherever practical, a nearby deposit of low resistivity material of sufficient value is available, it is ideal to form an extra grid at such locations and connect it to the substation grid. such extra grids are also known as satellite grids.
5. The maximum touch (mesh) potential occurs in the comer mesh of the grid. Nonnally no equipment are placed in this area. In such cases, the touch (mesh) potential even if greater than permissible values can be accepted. if step potential in the comer mesh are within permissible limits.
When equipment are placed near the comer mesh, it may not be necessary to change the entire grid design to reduce the corner mesh potentials within the maximum permissible values. Instead it would be economical to form auxiliary grids in the comer mesh to reduce the touch (mesh) potentials. Figure7 shows a grid without any conductors in the comer mesh. FigureS shows grid with auxiliary grid in comer mesh. It has been observed
12
140
US
uo
US
UG
... t15
'"
~ t10
~
 US
i
......
tOO

I"N
1.95
•. to
I.IS r,
<, r,
" N
r,
r, r....
<, <, t::::..
r, ""'8
<, r, .'"
...... <,
.... 1
2
:3
..   5
,
7
lC1tM3t11tovtdth r~no Cur'll A • tOf ~th hO
1'A •• 0.04,.11.1
Cur .. 8· for depttl h1IH1 ,ft.<fr.f!j
7, • o.05'.l.rn
(urfe C  fOf .....,'" I'tV' {lJ(Qf!J
~c • G.05x.tn
1.1 (CHlr ndcnt I( 1
7.0
6.S
U
... 5.S
)C

i 5.0
~

• 4.5
0
.....
.4.0
15
).0 •

~ ~ ~
.
~ ~
B 

c 1
,
7
•
2
)
5
lln9thto vfdth title
(urn A  for6Qpth h.o 6" .O.15x.S.sO
Curn 8  'or dQpttl ttV1O " Inl Ie .0.'101.4."
(~.,. (  'Of ~th tw116 {ifiI rc ., 0.05 •• ".40
fbI C.ottfidtnt 1(2
Figure 6; Coefficients K1 and K2 of Schwart's For"""'.
that addition of auxiliary grid as shown in Figure 2 reduces the comer mesh potentials to about 2!3 of the value of comer mesh potential without auxiliary grid.
1.9 U tI. t1 t.2 U. 1.6 19
U 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 11 t2 16
tr. 1.1 1.1 to to 11 1.1 1.4
t2 11 to to to to 1.1 1.2
1.2 1.~ to to to to 1.1 ~2
U. t1 \,1 ' 1.0 1.0 t1 t1 tr.
1.6 t2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 U
U U U 1.1 1.2 tr. 1.6 1.9 Figure 1.
1.3 U 1.D 1.D D,9~.9 to to O.9~.9 1.D 1.0 1.3 1.3
1.3 1.3 to to 0·'10·9 1.0 to 0.910.9 to 1.01,) 1.3
to ~ 1.0 to 1.1 to to
 1.1 1.1 t1 1.0 1.0
to ~:O to to
~.9 0.9 D.9 0.9
~ G.i 1.1 1.1 to to 1.1 t1 ~.9
0.'
to to 1.1 to to to 1.0 1.1 1.0 to
to to 1.1 to to to to 1.1 to to
~.9 D.9 11 ~.9 ~.9
I  1.1 to to 1.1' 1.1 ~ ~
~.9 0.' ~.' 0.9
11.0 to 11 1.0 1.0
I  1.0 1.0 ·1.1 11 11 to to
1.0 to 1.0 1.0
13 1.3 to 1.0 0.910.9 1.0 to 0.9 )0.9 1.0 10 1.3 1.3
1.3 1.3 1.0 to 0.'10.' 1.0 to 10.910•9 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.3 Figure 8
(xv) Check u" for Transferred Potential
Where a possibility of the places outside the earthing mat area being subjected to th.e earthing mat potential exists. the communication and signal circuits, low voltage wiring, conduits, pipes, rails. metallic fences etc. should be checked for transferred potential and adequate protection against transferred potential should be provided where necessary. If this is not conveniently possible. the resistance of the earthing system should be further lowered by increasing the earthing conductor lengths or by increasing the substation area under the earthing mat till the desired voltage is attained.
For funher information Transferred Potentials and Solutions. CBl&:P Technical Report No .. 49 on "Earthing Parameters of HV, EHV and UHV SubStations" may be referred.
(xvi) Earthing of Gas Insulated Su bstations
GIS is a compact. multicomponent. assembly enclosed in a earthed metallic housing in which the primary insulating medium is a compressed gas and it normally consists of buses. switchgear and associated equipment. GIS are subjected 10 same magnitude of (auhcurren! and require low impedance earthing as in case of coventional substation. But GIS installation require only about 25% of land area of conventional S/S.thus making design of system more difficult. Another area required auention iIi' GIS stations is earthing of metallic ,enclosures. The metallic enclosure of GIS have induced currents and specially during an internal earths fault the inductive voltage drop occurring with the GIS assembly must be taken iruo account for design to touch potential in GIS station. The touch voltages criteria of GIS Station is
_; (F.Y + (Eel < E, (max.)
Where F" = The actual calculated touch voltage (Calculated in a manner similar to conventional SIS).
Eo = Maximum value of metal to metal voltage di iference on and between GIS enclosures or between GIS enclosure and the supporting structures. Refer Annexure for sample calculation,
E,. (max) = Maximum permissible touch voltage.
The metallic enclosure of GiS may be continuous or noncontinuous. In both theseenclosures providing frequent earth bonds is the best solution to minimize hazards of touch voltage in the GIS area. Additional measures such as earthing of GIS structures and service platforms at frequent intervals. prevention of induced current establishing loops via other station equipment such as transformers. switchgears etc.
14
,
6. Construdioa and Installation or Earthing Mat
All joints in the steel earthing s)'Sl.em should be made by welding except tbese where eanhing mat may have to be separated (rom equipment. cable shealh eIC •• for IeSting. These joints shook! be .ccessible and frcqucnLJy supervised. AU exposed steel coodeciors should be protected with bituminous paint For pcoc.ection agains:r. rusting, Ihe welds should be lTeated with Berium chromate. Welded surfaces should Ihea be painted with red bd and aluminium paint in tum and afterwards coated with bituminous painL The joints in the earthing conduc:.or between the cwilChgear units and cable sheaths and such other points which may rcquite_1O be opened wbsc:quc:ndy (Of" &esting should be boiled.
7. Earthing Mat and Prrimtl~r Fence Coaaedioa •
Whe,lher the earthing mat and perimeter fence should be conneacd or DO( ~Id be decided OIl &he basis of studyl analysis of individual cases as indicated below:
(a) If the design of earthing mal permits lermmatioo of lhe mat more Ihan l.s metres inside !he perimeter (ence and electrical isolation between the fence and earthing mat can be ensured. the unclimbab~ renee should be kept isolated from Ihe earthing mat and the fence should be independently and effectively earthed by running on earthing conductor under the boundary and connecting il 10 Ihe fence 11 frequent intervals.
(b) If the design of earthing mat requires extension of the mat UplD Ihe perimeter fence Of where dcctrical isolation between the earthing mat and fence cannot be ensured, bUI the design c.akulations reveal that the values of touch potentials both within and outside the fenced _ in area are within safe limits, the fence should be connected 10 the c:anhing mat at frequent intervals.
(c) If the design of earthing mal requires ulenSion of the mal upto dle fence and calculation tevea1 that &ouch potential at the fence exceeds the tolerable limit. the earthing mal should be terminated about l.S mecre or more within the boundary line of the fence and the fence electrically isolated and independently earthed by running earthing conductor under the fence and bounded with the fence at frequent intuvals or by means of adequate number of earthing electrodes. Example (or the design of Earthing Mat for a substation with high resistivity
Let a 132 kV line AB feed a substation B al a distance of32 krn. Let the fault level at Bus A be 975 M V A and the resistivity of the soil of the switchyard at B be 250 ohm metre. At substation 8, a 15 MVA. 132/66 kV, YIY steps down the received power to 66 kV level from where it is funher stepped down by 3x2.5 MVA. 66rn K,,6. IY transformers 10 33 kV as shown in Figure 2.
Calculation of fault currt!fII
Fault level al 132 IcV Bus A = 975 MY A
Xpu at Bus A on 100 MVA base
=
100 975
Length of 132 kV line AB
0.1026 pu 32 km
0.422x32 J74.24
= 0.0775 po
=
=
XI = Xl for the 132 rv line
=
1.47x32 174.24 0,26997 pu
0.1026 + 0.0175 + 0.0775 + 0.26997 :: 0.5276
3xl00xlCOO
I:: 2487.11 Amp . ../)X 132xO.s276
Impedance of 15 MVA, 132AS6 KV transformer I:: 1.5%
"0 for the 132 kV line
::
=
X,.. at bus B
::
Phase 10 ground fault current at 132 ev Bus B
XI I:: Xl for transformer
7.5xloo looxl5
:: 0.5 pu
::
15
.,
X, = .o+8xO.5 = 044 pu
As this transformer is Y/y connected
X at 66 k.V bus at station B ;:; O.S276+0.S+Q.S+OA ;:; 1.9276 pu
Phase to ground fault current at 66 k. V bus at station B
ldOOxIOOO
:;;; ;:; 1361 Amp
~ 66 x 1.9276
Impedance of 3x2.5 MV A, 66133 kV transformer @8% per transformer
8xl00
XI ::: Xl for the transformers = 3x2.5xlOO = 1.067 pu
As these transformers are MY connected, zero sequence reactance will not come in the circuit Therefore X at 33 kV
bus at station B = 1.9276+ 1.067+ 1.067'
= 4.0616 pu
Phase 10 ground fault CUITCnt at 33 kV bus
,
lxHXbtllXlO = ~ 33.x 4.0616
= 1292 Amp.
From the above, it is seen that the fault current is !he maximum Oft 132 tV Bus B. However. it is less than the short time current fating of the switchgear. Therefore the earthing mat will be designed on the basis of fault currents of 20 kA.
A re a, of t'arthing mal conductor
Area of steel conductor = 12.30 I _12.30:t2lXXXl
_ 100}
= 246 mml
Resistivity of soil of station 8=250 ohm melle. Since the resistivity of soil is higher than 100 ohm metre, no allowance is necessary for corrosion.
The nearest standard steel section in the form of mild steel flat that can be used will be 6 mmx50 mrn giving on area of 300 mmL
MaximlU7l Grid Current IG = Cpo 0,1,
. As expansion factor has been taken as 1.5.
C = 1.0
"
 For the duration 0 f flow of fault currem equaJ LO 1.0 sec.
Dr = 1.0
I, = Sf () I)
3 I = 2()(XX) Amp.
o In the absence of full details regarding exact system configUl'3.tion of which the substation fonn a card, at the design; stage. it will befairly accurate to adopt • value of 0.5 for Sr 10 detcrn1ine the rault current tha.t flows through the grid  I 10 remote earth, .
Thus 10 = 0.5 :t 1.0 x 20000 = I(XXX) Amps
Sur face UJytr
In conformity with the normaJ design practice. it will be assumed that a to em thick layer of stones with an average resistivity, of 3000 ohm melle wiU be pro',idcd around aJlthe metallic struct:.1rC3..
. Tolerable ValUt's of Touch and SfLP PoltllliaU
F touch = [UX)O + 1.5 C. (h" K) P J 0.116 It
•
16
) .
.I
t )
e
a
K h
•
250 • 3(0) • 2150
_..:=~....;;..;;_ a::::   0.&462
250 + 3000 32S0
= 20 em
= 0.2 mette
I :j
I
,
C. from figure I '" O. n _:::::'
I. = 0.5 ~ ( 0.116
F lOuCh = [1000 + 1~ • 0.11 •. 30(0) ~
..., 0.5
0.116
F step = [1000 + 6C (h, K) p. ~
•• !..., O~
2 732 YotlS
0.116
= (1000 + 6 x 0.71 x 3000] ~= 2438 VollS O.S
Am:Ulg~melll of EartlWtg Mal
Let L = Length of Eanhing mal conduclOf in mcucs
. 4 69+36
FfTlffi Figure 3, L :::: 8 • 100 + 7 x 16 7 1 x 69+ 8 • + 9 1 22
2
+ 2 x 38.5 + 14 1 S3.5+14 + IS 114 2
= 4513 metre 38+73
= 104 x 24 .. 80 x 18.5 .. 73 xtS .. 20.5). 2
A
= 2496 + 1480 + 1095+ 1137.75 = 6208 m1
F mesh
Estimated Vafu.Ls of Muh and Sup Potentials p.km. kj 10
L + 1.15 L
< r
YOllS
K.
,
Where n
K.
,
J(m
Let D
;3 h
id
Kh
Kii
d
Where, W =
= 0.656 + 0.172 n
..../n A . n B = .../'30). 40 = 34.64 = 35
=
= 0.656 + 0.112 x 3S = 6.676
"1 [ [)2 (B+2h?
= In ( +
2J1t 16 hd' 8 Dd
Kii
JIt (~l) ]
h
4 d ) t
In
Kh
= 2.5 m :: 0.5 m
:./1 + h = ~ c v'tS '" 1.2247
ho LO
: 1.0 (Assuming thai: the c.an.hing mat wiU be provided wilh ground rods along 1he parirnetct). = Equivalent DiamelCr of earthing mal condoc lOr , in metres
For earthing mat conductor coosiAing of rectanguler fiat d = VI fl "" width of flat
0.050
z: 2  = 0.025 metres
17
=
L =
,
F =

::
E ::
.~
K, ::
Where n ::
K, :: K
,
F
.""
k.m
1 21t
(1.5)1 (2.5+2x0.5)1 0.5
+. 
16xO. SxO.015 8x2.5xO.25 4xO.025
[ In
8.0
I
I
j
!
+
In
It (2.x351)]
::
1.1247 t
2n: 11 n (31.25 + 24.5  5) + 0.8 t 653 1 n 0.0369054 J
0.15915 (3.92692.694) :: 0.1962 4513 ·m Lr :: 136 x 1m:: 136 m
2SO x 0.1962 x 6.676 x 10000
4513 + 136 .x 1.15
701.) voi whktl is less than E _of nz V
,
p. 10, K,. Ki L + US L
c .•
0.656 + 0.172 R 40
Volts
0.656 + 0.172 x 40 = 7.536
t 1 I I (10.5 .... ')]
:: [,....; +. + 
11: 2 h O+h 0
I I
=  [ 2io.5 + 2.5+0.5 + ... (1 O.5('~ 1
11: 2.5
.V", = 1t ( 1 + 0.3334 + 0.4 (I)]
 0.55176
250 x t(XX)() x 0.55176 x 7.536
=
4513 +136 :d.15
= 2226.2 valls which is less than the permissible value of E *p of 2438 V
Thus the values ofmesh and step potentials lik.ely to be experienced are less than those of the tolerable touch and
step potentials. . .
R
•
Growui Resistance
R, ~ Rill R,+~2 Ru
, ,
,
d, = .. conductor . dia = ~ :: 19..54 mm = 0.01954 m.
h = 0 .. 5 melle
hi ::.~ =0.09885 A = 6208 m1
18
c,
I
for k =
1
0.1
  gh = 0.0012 78.79
L : W ratio
0:: 102 : 76 0:: 134 : 1
but h = 0.5 m > 0.(X1l2
1 0.167
for k = = b :: 0.0021
6.fA 78.79
but h = 0.5 > 0.0021.
K. &. K~' have 10 be taken rrom curves raDing below 'c' since such curves are not available using curve c.
K. = 1.07, K~ = 4.5
=
4513
~
4..5
250 (1 2 1"513 + 1.01 ,_
•
Jt x 4513 0.09885
= 0,017633 (In 9'1310 + 61288  .. ..5) = 0.017633 (11.422 + 61.2884.5) ± 0.0176 6. 68.21 = 1.20
•
let pa = PI = 250 ohm metre II = 1 metre
d1 = 0.0254 m
n ::: 136
R
•
250
[1 8xl
• 0.0254
:::
2x136 1t x l
= 0.2925 [1. 314.96  1 + 3.0875] = 0.2925 (5.7524  I + 3.0875)
= 2.2937
pa 1t I,
~50 [ 2 x 4513.
. I + 1.07
Jt x 4513' 1
= 0.01763 (9.1079 + 61.288  3.5) = 0.01763 x 66.896 = l.I796
4513. 78.79
=
.. 4.5 + 11
Rg
R, ~  R./·
R.+~  2Rll
1.2x2.3222  1.17961 1.2+2.3222  2 I. 1.1796
=
=
=
2.70756  1.3914
=
1.39524
3.5222  2.3592 1.163
= 1.1997 ': 1.2 ohms
19
  
Rise in groU/ld pol~rtliQl
1.2 x H)(XXl "" 12000 Volu
This is very high, obviously on account of the high S(til~istivity. Addition of more conductor or rods is nO( helpful
in this case. In such cases, chemical treatment of soil is called fot.
Shtioon 'A'
•
,
1lnv bus 'A'
r
I 1
I 15 HV A. 1l1/ 6A:V
I tunsrorMt
I
I 3x2~5 HVA.
I "n~V :
1 tunsr..... )3kY bus :
I I
L ~
SflUOft'l'
Y/Y
Figure 9: Line Oiagnll
20.
~ I . j
'\
,
, '
, ,
:
... .. 0 ... t...:':...)6". + U ... .....j.[
,.. ,.. .. t+ ........ ___t~. r •. ,.._....... • ..,.... ........ . ........ ...... ........ ,,.._...r ...... +ri!'  .. .. +++'  I . ~     ~+_++___t__1+_+++t__+.   .
.'___ . I '_ '1 . _. _,.
H  . ..    .~'"f_~ .
t+. r' , _ ._.  'r· .. , . .,_C
_ r. I
rIrt' '!  rr .  . II l++++++++f.J.I:T,+'t::,f+++1t
+;~I'h • " " "
_ ".,' '1""'++++++ !++r+++ih"'f" ;0.++11 ...
_J }  ., •  1' .
·I++~~~+i.

r 'M., ' .......
~I _ .+IF'. _.. ..  _  _ .. ' 1  .,    t ....
...... ,
. +: .  ': ..
  ,  _. '"  . 
,
~~++'++t_'r~
'"""1 rr'""'1
   t++1'";:' .... __ ''0 II I f_
., 1 __     •   ",",f" I __ ~,"",4 
: ~
2~M
_._
c· ~
 H
o ~ 2'"
  .... L
 r ~
0

•  J T
1 c.,... .. _
' ..
. .  ....... , ....
_ .. _. _.......... .
L:...o 
, .. 4 ...... . . ...
••  l02f11' .. ____,.,
Figure 10 : Substation Area
Determination of Potential rise in GIS enclosures under short circuit current.
h· TR
t
GCB
Structura
('
e VI ...:
• .#
N
1~'
Strvdun
Figure n: 24SkV GIS Grounding Systa
The short circuit current flows in GIS enclosure and structures from a earth fault p>int of the enclosure 10 the
grounding points, the potential rise at fault point can be calculated from the following formula; '
V = I Z I . I, (1)
I, = Short circuit current (A)
Ze + Zs Where Ze impedance of enclosure (0)
Z. : impedance of sU'Ucture(O)
I Z I =
Ze =
Re
~
Zs
Rs
~
Re
Here p Rc+jxy
Resistance of enclosure (0) Inductive reactance of enclosure (0) Rs+jxy
Resistance of suucture(O) Inductive reactance of sU'Ucture(O)
..£..1 A
.1
........... (2)
Resistivity (nm)
Mild steel 14.51.10' Q·m
Aluminimum : 2.91.10'" Om
A Cross sectional area (m2) A = Jt (rJr.2)
r, Inner radius in m
r 1 Outer radius in m
22
Rs
~ =
Where f
... L
~ Le
~
Mild steel
Aluminium
LS length in m
Depends on lhe type of Hbeam and Owacteristics have 10 be obulined !or this purpose.
2 K f LI •.. _.(3)
Frequency in HZ
Inductance in HIm
SpecifIC penneability 600
Inductance of structure in HIm. Depends on Ihe type of Hbeam 3M ctwac.aislic have 10 be obtained for this purpose.
Example:
Refer Fig A,IIIc' 2A5 kV GIS potential rise for fault at PI and P2 can be calculated as follows:
A. For earthfault point "PI"
1. GCB
Enclosure Mild steel r.= 0.30 m, '2 = 0.306 m, 1 =LSm. r = 30 Hz S true ture Four (4) pillars I :: 1.3 m
From formula (2) and (3).
Re (CB) = 1.9xlO' (0)
XU (CB) = 3.69xlQ"'(O)
Rs and Ls
Rs = (390 ~ ,. 1.3 m)/4 pillars = 1.27x 10"' 0
Ls :: 65OnH/m. X Ls = 211: fx 650 x 1~xl.314=6.64xlO' 0
: 2. GIS(expcct GCB)
Enclosure Aluminium 'I :: 0.1675 m, '1 = 0.1742m. I '" 3.5 m From formula (2) and (3).
Re (GIS) = UhIO'(O)
XU (GIS)2.83xlo"'(O)
Z=Ze (C!3)+Zs(CB)+Ze(GIS)
= 1.6:d 0 + j4. 38x 10"'· 0
I Z I :: 4.66xIO"' 0
EG= V= I Z I J= 18.6V
B. For eanhIault point "n"
"1. GIS
Enclosure Aluminium 'I ;:; O.l67Sm, 'I = O.1742m. I = S.5 + O.4=S.9m Structure Two (2) pillars I = 2.4m
From formula (2) and (3)
Re (GIS) = 2.38x Ht' (0)
XLe(GIS) :: ".76xlQ4 (0)
. 
_.
23
Rs and Ls
Rs :;: (39O,J!l1m " 2.4m)!2 pillars = 4.68 x l 0'" 0
Ls == 650 mnH/m. XLs == 2 r x 65OxlO ,,2.4!2=2.45xlO"'" 0.
Z :: Zc(GIS) ... Zs(GIS)
== 4.91xlO·4+j2.5xlO"'" 0 1 Z 1 =: 5.52xlO·4 0
Eo :;: V =: 1 Z 1 J = 22.lV
.,.
24
,
"
ANNEXURE A
Estimation of Mesh and Step Potentials by Graphical Method .
. The calculated values of mesh and step potentials f«the design sq~. ground nUll without ground rods in .uniform
soils can be given a quick check with the help or graphs developed by Ihe Georgia lnsuunc of Technology as:'d U1c~uded in the EPRI Final Report EL 2682. VoLl. The graphs applicable to square grids without ground rods and wIth uniform conductor spacings in both directions are incorporated in lhis chapter.
The tenns applicable in the usc of these graphs and method of Iile using the graphs are explained below to facilitate checking of the values of mesh and.step YOltages.
Corner Mesh Voltage
The comer mesh voltages (Ern) is calculated by multiplying the ground potential rise (GPR) by the corner Mesh Voltage percentage obtained (rom Figure 13_ Thus, the Comer Mesh Voltage: .
percentage value of Comer Mesh VolLage as per graph
Em = GPR x
100
Figure 13 gives the Comer Mesh Voltage percentage of GPR for a grid depth of 0.5 metre and conductor diameter of 0.01 metre. The grid depth and conductor diameter have been found to have negligible effect on Em for grid depths from 0.25 metre \0 0.5 metre and for diameter from 2.5 mm to 10.0 mm.
Corner Step Voltage
The Comer Step Voltage (Es) is determined by multiplying the ground potential rise (GPR) by Corner Step Voltage percentage obtained from Figures 14 to 16 which gives the percentage values for three grid depths viz. 0.25 rn, 0.5 m and 1.0 m.
The conductor diameter has been found 10 have negligible influence on step voltage for conductor diameters from 2.5 mm to 10.0 mm.
percentage value of Comer Step Voltage as per graph
ES = GPR x
100
Grid Resistance
The value of grid resistance (Rg) is given by Figure 12 as follows:
Soil resistivity (Ohm metre) value as per graph
Rg =
Ohm
1000
The graph for grid resistance (Figure 12) is also for grid depth of 0.5 m and conductor diameter of \0 rnrn. It has been found that grid depth between 0.25 metre and 0.5 metre and conductor diameter between 2.5 rom and 10 mm have negligible effects on value of grid rcsiscance.
Ground Potential Rise
The Ground Potential Rise (GPR) is given by the current 10 injected into the grid and the grid resistance Rg. GPR = 10, Rg volts.
Application or the Graphtca. Method
For applying the Graphical method. the length of the side of square grid in metres. number of meshes on the side of square, the value; of soil resistivity in ohm metres, and the magnitude fault current injected into grid in Amperes should be known.
25

; G,.id d'pth: 0·:1",
g (12 Orld ,1&,.

"0 10,.. 10m
» /I{
" lO ... " lam
;: '"' 30m " 30m
CI ",Om /I{ ",0",
...
0 '0 ... " 50m
e ",0 (1O ... " (10 ...
I 70", /I{ 70",
e 100 ... ,,100m
• 150 .. ".I5Om
"
L 3D
e
A.
j
.. 30
i
t:: 1
~
·f 22,
!
... , ..
0
U
(I
t 3 10 30
NUI"IIb,,. of M .. h,. on 0 "d. Fig. 12: a r id r es is tonce for a squa ... e a r id in depth O·5m and I em conducto ... diamat ....
00
G,.ld d'pth ;0·5", Grid ,Iu. 10,., .. 10m 20 .... lO", 30 .. .II; 30",
.. 0 .. " .. A",
50", .. ~'" 00", " Clam 70 .. .II 70 .. 100l1li ,,'00111
150 .. .II ;150 ...
I. e ..
'i
11'1 .....
! Q
• "
i
:;
.. e ..
" ..
~
.. a a a
3
150",,, 150 '" Grid:;~
3
10
lL_ __ J__LL~~~ __ ~~._~~ I
30
F ig.13: Corne r Mesh vol toge fa ... a squa ... e Grid in deptry 0·5 rn ond I cm conducto r diameter
30r~
C~ndu,tor dio",.,.,.I·Oc.
G,.ld depth 0·25.
G,.idll&,.
10",1 /I{ ICIwI
20m· " 20.. JOm " )0l1li 40m /I{ ..a .. '0 III /I{ :10. 00/111 " eo.. 70m " 70...
lOa", /I{ 100... ':10 ... "I~,.
e go
~ .~~
o »
...
L 0 ..
.... o
e go
e
c 3
L e A.
.2 "

e
·e
i
II.
!
• 10
..
l
o u
I:K) "''' 1!l0 '"
N,,~.,. 0' 101"",. on 0 ,ia..
Fig. 14: Co r ner Step volta g. for a square Grid in depth O·2!5m and I cm conductor diam.t ....
, ,
. .a 1 _jj
.'
..
,
30 ConductM lfialllthr 1.0elll
grid .dlpth 0,5 ..
Grid .Iltl
; '10.. • 10111
ICII' 15
.. 20 .. X 20 ..
....
'0 30M X )0111
"
:'!! 40", J 40111
~ 50 .. It 50M
... 60", " 60111
•
• 20 7011 X 7O",
'" 100 ... 100",
..
.... 150 .. x150",
Ii
..
"
!I.
fo..,) 1 15
..J

Iii
....
0
...
t
....
.. 10
~
~
u
1S0.. • 150.. grid
5
1 3 10 30
ltul'!b~ of IIIlshu on I side
Figurl 1S: St!p Volhgi Outside ~ Squar.e
Grid in Ol!pth of 1m and 1cm
Conductor Diameter .. ! 2S '0
..
... o
• 20 .,.
..
i
...
" ~
..
." ,..
30r~~Conductor dl.mlhr tOe ..
grid dlpth 0.5 ..
Grid Ilul 1k • 10 .. 20 ...• 20111 )0111 • )OM 40111 • 40. 50,. J 50,. 60", • 60111 70111 • 70111
100 ... 100,. 150. .150.
;c 1S
:.0:::
c:
..
....
0 10", I 10111 grid
Q.
~
~
... 10
..
~
...
0
u Numblr of lI\uhll on I sl~1
30
FigUfl 16: Corner Huh Voltage for 31 SquuI Grid In Ol!pth 100m and 1cm Conductor
Diameter
I
J
ANNEXURE  B
Example showing Division of Fault current Between the Overhead Earthwire and Earthing Grid
' ..
Let t ..... o 132 leV Ole lines feed substation B from substation A. Let length of the line AB be 77 krn with an average Ipan between tower of 250 m and tower footing resistance of 10 ohms. At substation B. there are. four 15 MV A. 132/66 kV transformers to step down the received power which is further stepped down to 11 kV by 6 X 5 MVA. 661
11 IcV tnnsformers: The maximum SLG fault current of 10 kA is at 132 tV bus. The ground resistance of station B • is assumed as 0.9 ohm. For a typical 132 IcV O/C tower with one ground wire.
l. Mut.uaI impedance between phase cond.uclOr1 and the ground wire (Zgm) = 0.294 L8(JJ ohms/km.
2. SeJr Impedance of ground wire with ground return (Zg) = 2.30 bo.S)' ohmSJ\.m.
Calculation or Division of Current
The fault current supplied by the four circuits of 132 IcV line (i.e., 10 KA) will not completely flow into the ground as part of the current will be diverted by ground wires due to induction and conduction.
DiverslOil or current due to induction
Fault current flowing in a line conductor (I) will induce current in the overhead ground wires (I) of the same
line.
,
I = Imlle
, 0.294 Lso
Zgm
wbere, m  =
Zg 2.3 L 20.8)
Iml = 0.128 That is 12.8% of fault current flowing in the line will be induced in its earth wire. The fault current It supplied by both double circuit line together is 10 KA.
Therefore current induced in both earth wire
0) = 0.128 x 10 = 1.28 KA
Diversion or Current due to conduction
Overhead ground wires and tower footing resistance form a ladder network. As the number of towers is more than 20, the length of lice can be considered as infinite for purpose of determining the admittance M of the ladder network which is given by
Z span ~ Z span x 1\ 2
Where. Z span :: Self impedance of one span of ground wire with ground retum in ohmSJ\.m
R, = Average tower footing resistance for rust 20 towers in onms.
Span between towers = 250 m
y=
'Z span =
250x2.3 1000
= 0.575 ohms
y =
0.575 +VO.575x 10 2
=
1 2.685
= O.3n mho.
28
 _ ..
,
Z = Impedance of ladder network = I/Y = 2.685 ohms
Z' = Resultant impedance of ground win's due to two double 0::( lines (i.c .• Z/l) = 1.34 ohms
The current discharged 10 Ihe ground from the station will be given by
I == G
z·
Rg + Z'
..
Where 10' = Total fault current minus lhe current diverted by me ground wires due 1O induction = If I,
= 101.28 = 8.72 KA
Zl
= Resultant impeod.ano: of ground w1.rcs due U) two doubk ckt lines = 1.34 ohrns
== Groundl resistance = 0.9 ohm
Rg
= 8.72 x
1.34
1.34 + 0.9
= 8.72 J.
1.34 2.24
= &.72 x 0.598
=,5.51 KA
Thus our of a IOLaI of 10 KA supplied by the two lines only 5.21 KA flows into the ground, i.e .• only 52.1% of the total faull current flows to the ground.
. .
References
(1) "Guide for Safety in Alternating Current SubStation Grounding" ANSI·IEEE Standard 801986 .
(2) Iridian Standards : IS : 17301989 Steel Plates, Sheets and flats for Structural and General Engineering Purposes  Dimensions"
l'
(3) "Review on Corrosion in Earthing Equipment" Review No.1, Central Board of Irrigation and Power, 1973 ..
(4) "Steel Grounding Systems. Where Grounding Mat is nOI Needed'  Technical Report No.5. Central Board of Irrigation and Power, July 1976. Reprinted March. 1985.
(5) Indian Standards, IS 30431987 "Code of Practice for Earthing First Revision.
(6) Current for Design of Grounding Systems  B.Thapar ~ Sunil K. Madan IEEE Trans. on PAS, Vol  103 No.9
September, 1984. 1
I
I
29
~
Bien plus que des documents.
Découvrez tout ce que Scribd a à offrir, dont les livres et les livres audio des principaux éditeurs.
Annulez à tout moment.