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Proceedings Eighth Uorkshop Gwthernal Reservoir Engineering

w Stanford Univermity. Stanford, Calffornir. December 19.982


SGP-TU-60

WELL TEST ANALYSIS FOR NATURALLY FRACrmRED RESERVOIRS


1

Giwanni Da Prat

INTEVEP,S .A.
Apartado 76343
CARACAS VENEZUELA 1070

ABSTRACT
pressure transient solutions for constant rate caused by approximations in the mathematical
production and transient rate analysis for con model-nevertheless, the pollard method is still
stant pressure production are presented for a used. The most complete study of two-porosity
naturally fractured reservoir. The results 02 systems appears to be the Mavor and Cinco- Ley
tained for a finite no-flow outer boundary -- Study in 1979. This study considers wellbore
are surprising. Initially, the flow rate storage and skin effect, and also considers prz
shows a rapid decline, then it becomes nearly duction, both at constant rate and at constant
constant for a certain period, and finally it pressure. However, little information is pre-
falls to zero. Ignoring the presence of a c o ~ sented concerning the effect of the size of the
stant flowrate period in a type-curve match can system on pressure build-up behavior.
lead to erroneous estimates of the dimension1 In this paper a literature review is presented
ess matrix pressure and fracture pressure dis- bn the basic solutions which can be applied in
tributions are presented for both the constant dealing with pressure transient analysis natural
rate and constant pressure production cases.1: ly fractured reservoirs.
terference test for-constant rate productioncan
be interpreted for long times by means of the PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
line-source solution. For the constant pres
sure production case, the pressure awayfrmthe The basic partial differential equations for flu
wellbore does not correlate well with the line id flow in a two-porosity system were presented
source solution. by Warren and Root in 1963. The model has been
extended by Mavor and Cinco Ley (1979) toinclude
INTRODUCTION wellbore storage and skin effect. Da Prat (1981)
extended the model and developed a method todg
Naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs termine the permeability thicknes product.Kh.
with double porosity behavior as they are corn_ Deruyck et all(1982) applied with success the
monly referred consist of heterogeneous porous karren and Root model to study interference data
media where the opening (fissures andfractures) from a geothermal field.
vary considerably in size. Fractures and open The basic partial differential equations are:Da
ings of large size form vugs and interconnected Prat (19_31).
channels, whereas the fine cracks form blocksy5
tems which are the main body of the reservoir.
The porous blocks store most of the fluid in
the reservoir and are often of low permeability, and
whereas the fractures have a low storagecapacity
and high permeability. Most of the fluid flow (1 - w ,ap,
= UPDf- P*)
will occur through the fissures with the blocks a tD
acting as fluid sources. and t aie defined in the nomenclature.
f' D D
These systems have been studied extensively in
the petroleum literature. One of the firstsuch
studies was published by Pirson(1.953).In1959
Pollard presented one of the first pressuretran
sient models available for interpretationofwell where w is the dimensionaless fracture storage
test data from two-porosity systems. The mostcorn_ parameter :
plete analysis of transient flow in two-porosity (W e
I systems was presented by Barenblatt and Zheltap w (3)
-
(1960) The Warren m a d Root (1963) study is + ccq
.. widely considered to be the forerunner of modern
interpretation of two-porosity systems. The be and con&ols the interporosity flow and is
havior of fractured systems has long been a toe given by
ic of contrwersy. Warren and Root and mzemi 2 (4)
(1969) have indicated that the graphical techni bu- k m rw
que proposed by ~ollardis susceptible to error

-119-

,
A complete mathematical definition requires a9 outer boundary system have appeared in several
ditional equations which represent the appro - places in the literature (see Mavor and Cinco-
piate initial and boundary conditions. Ley (1979) and Da Prat (1981). Fig. 1 showsthe
-The initial boundary conditions is: solution for p
two values of &%nd
for an infinite system for
several values of 1 (Ci,= o
and skineffect = 0 ) . At early times, pfvD de-
pends on $ and W. For a given value of l , as
time increases a period is reached whereinthe
For a well producing at a constant pressurethe pressure tries to stabilize due to flow from
inner boundary condition is: the matrix. After this transition period, the
solution becomes the same as that for a homog=
(6I neous system. Fig. 2 shows the solution fprthe
dimensionless wellbore pressure for a well lo-
cated in a closed outer boundary system. At
Where S is the skin factor early times the
For a well producing at a constant flow rate (assuming skin effect = o and
the condition is: . value of A.Then
sition period to finally meet the solution for
a homogeneous system. Fig. 3 shows the wellbare
storage ehect on the Horner plot for a
where : u
rosity system where (IF 0.01 and 1 = 5.10 .
is seen that low values of CD have a large im-
It

pact on the initial straight line making impo-


ssible the evazuation of 0 . For large valuesof

' 1
The skin effect con ition s: C , not only the initial straight line,butalso
'fVD 'fD - [2 I rD=l
&e transition zone is obscured by wellbore
storage.
-
Two outer boundary conditions are considerated The analysis of interference tests in two pore
in this study: an infinitely large reservoir sity - systems has been the subject of study
and a closed outer boundary. For an infinitely for many years. These tests can be used to pro
large reservoir, we have: vide information such as-mobility thicknesspro
lim pfD (rD, t,) = 0 (10) duct, k h , and the porosity-compressibility -
FI
r +W thickness product, @Cth. Kazemi (1969), based
D
For the closed outer boundary, the conditionis on the two-porosity model of Warren and Root,
presented results for the fracture-pressuredis-
-apD
=o
(11)
tribution in the reservoir. In Kazemi's work,
arD I rD ZreD the wellbore response to an interference test
The dimensionless flow-rate into the wellbore is dependent on the pressure variations in the
fractures, rather than in the matrix. Hence, -
this study is limited to the case where the
wells used in the tests are completed in the
fractures. Streltswa-Adams (1976) considered
both fracture and matrix pressure distribution
and pointed out the importance of differencing
,.141.2 q y B
kfh (pi pwf)- (13)
matrix flow and fracture flow in the analysis
of test m d e on fractured formations.Recently
METHOD OF SOLUTION Deruyck et a1 (1982) presented a systematic
approach for analyzing interference tests in
A common method for solving Eqs. 1 and 2 is to reservoir with double porosity behavior and
use the Laplace transformation. The equations
are transformed into a system of ordinary di - field tests conducted in a geothermal reser
voir are discussed to illustrate the method.
-
fferential equations which can be solved analy Fig. 4 shows the solution for the dimensionless
tically. The resulting solution in the trans-
formed space is a function of the Laplace va - fracture pressure us t& for several values
of W and 8. The parame er e is equal to 1 r2D.
riable s, and the space variable,rD. To obtain It was found to be a correlating group. Fig. 5
the solution in real time and space the inver- shows the solution for the dimensionless matrix
se Laplace tranform is used. In the present
work, the inverse was found by using an algo - pressure for several values of the parameters
8 ( = 1%~) and 0 .
rithm for approximate numerical inversion of
the Laplace space solution; This algorithm was TRANSIENT RATE SOLUTIONS-CONSTANT PRESSURE PRO-
presented by Stehfest (1970). DUCTION
Although decline curve analysis is widely used,
TRANSIENT PRESSURE SOLUTIONS-CONSTANT FLOWRATE methods specific to naturally fractured reser-
PRODUCTION voirs do not appear to be available. Fig. 6
shows the dimensionless flowrate functions for
The solutions for the dimensionless wellbore a well produced at a constant pressure from a
pressure from either an infinite or a closed two-porosity system where (I)c 0.01 and A= 10-5.

-120-
Fetkovich (1980) observed t h a t for hanogeneous F r a u W n 1 and the total s t o r a t i v i t y , the frac-
systems a t the onset of depletion (a type of ture s t o r a t i v i t y is:
:iJ pseudosteady state) a l l solutions*for various
values of t develop exponential r a t e decline,
ana convergg t o a single curve. This statement
is not t r u e f o r two-porosity systems a s ashown
i n Fig. 6. It can be seen t h a t the solutionsdo
not converge t o a single line. Log-log type -
curve matching t o analize rate-time data canbe e
applied t o naturally fractured systems. Howe - -A = 10
-6
ver, the relationship between and t is K
controlled by o and A, a s w e l l % by othep pa- also fran the relation o = a 2 r2 =
rameters. Thus more than one type-- may be kf .
necessary. Figs. 7 to 20 show the solutionsfor
different values of o and A. e kf
C(kmm- =
In the case of hanogeneous systems, interfere; r2
ce t e s t s have been used with success in many
.,
cases, Earlougher (1977) For wells producing
a t constant inner pressure, Ehlig-Econanides
(1979) observed that, unlike t h e constant r a t e
solution, the pressure distribution f o r cons - Thus, i f Inn can be obtained from core analysis,
then the shape f a c t o r a i s equal to:
t a n t inner pressure does not correlate withthe
line-source solution. A different solution re-
s u l t s for each value of rD. Considering the ho
mogeneous reservoir solutxon, a particular ca-
se of the naturally fractured reservoir solu
tion, it can be expected t h a t the same depen
dence on r applies f o r two-porosity systems.
-- The shape factor a can provide information
about the effective block size i n the system.
-
D
Fig. 2 1 shows p v s t /r 2 for the case of DISCUSSION AND CCNCLUSIONS
r = 1000, and %eralDvafues of w and 1. Fig.
29 shows the Solution for the dimensionless ma_ This work presents basic solutions t h a t can be
t r i x pressure p vs tp
2, f o r a well produ- used t o analyse pressure or flawrate transient
cea a t a consta- inner Dpressure. data fran a naturally fractured reservoir. The
model used assumes pseudo steady s t a t e flow -
INTERFERENCE EXAMPLE fran matrix t o fractures. According t o the li-

The Jse of type-curve matchhg w i l l be i l l u s


t r a t e d w i t h a simulated injection t e s t . ~ u r i n g
- terature the solutions assuming transient flow
have been presented by many authors: Raghavan
and Ohaeri(1981) presented declining r a t e type
an interference test, water was injected i n t o
a w e l l for 400 hours. The pressure response in
curves f o r a constant producing pressure De
ruyck e t a1 (1982) presented solutions f o r t h e
-
a w e l l 250 f t away was observed during the in- pressure distribution throughout a reservoir
jection process. Reservoir properties and the with double porosity behavior consideringboths
observed pressure data are given in table 1. - pseudo-steady state flow and transient interpg
The pressure change was graphed as a function rosity flow. The ahthors concluded based on
of time on tracing paper and then placed over f i e l d examples t h a t the pseudo-steady stateand
Fig. 4 (see Fig. 23). FrCnn the match, 0 and 8
can be obtained as parameters. Frcm Fig. 23,
e= 1 and (P 0.01- The fracture permeability is
- the transient interporosity flow models are
shown t o yield consistent interpretations.

given by: Fran the solution presented i n this work t h e f z


llowing conclusions can be derived:
141.2 qB p (3)
E141.2(-100) ( 1 ) (1) 0.4
1) The i n i t i a l decline i n flawrate is often
kf = h Ar? 480 (-10)
not representative of the f i n a l state of
= 1.2 ma depletion.

Fran the time - tDhg match, the t o t a l stor= 2) The fracture permeability
tivity,
kf; t o t a l stora
t i v i t y is obtained:
{ (I@) + (4 c) 1; and the shape factor
m f
aancan be obtained fran type curve m a t -
c
ching .
= 0.000264 (1.2) 100 3) Both dimensionless matrix pressure and f r a c
i‘ c
(- 1
(250) 1.5 t u r e pressure are necessary f o r proper and
l y s i s of interference t e s t s .
= 3.38 psi-’ 4) For constant-rate production interference

L,
-121-
t e s t s can te -1ised:at long-tiaei w i i g 0= Ax 2, correlating group, dimensialess.
D
the line-source a o l u t i a ~ .

5) ~n analyzing interference t e s t s f o r cons - AQWOWLEDMENT

tant-inner-pressure production, a d i f f e r e n t My sincere thanks t o Henry Ramey J r . of S t a n -


solution f o r the pressure distribution re
s u l t s f o r each value of r a d i a l distance,rD.
- ford university f o r h i s guidance during t h i s
study and INTEVEP, S.A. f o r permission t o pu-
The pressure function does not correlate b l i s h this paper.
with t h e line-source solution. REFERENCES

NOMENCLATURE Barenblatt, G.I. and P l e l t w , IU. P.: (1960) -


A= mainage area, f t 2
"on the Basic low -ations
=.
of Homogeneous Li
quids i n Fissured &ksn (in Russian),
-
B= formation volume factor, RB/STB Akad. Nauk SSSR.
C= canpressibility, psi"
h= formation thickness, f t Da P r a t , G.: (1981) "Well T e s t Analysis f o r N&
k- permeability, md
pws= wellbore pressure during the build-up pe-
t u r a l l y Fractured Fksser~oirs~, Ph.D Disserts -
tion, Stanford University.
riod, psi
-
p= average reservoir pressure, psi
Deruyck, B., Bourdet, D., ~a mat, G., m y , -
H. (1982) "Interpretation of interference t e s e
pD= dimensionless wellbore pressure
in reservoirs w i t h double porosity Bhavior -
k- h Theory and f i e l d examples", paper SpE 11025prg

141.2 qm
S
(Pi - Pw' sented at the 1982 annual f a l l meeting, SPE of
Aime, New Orleans, LA, Sept. 26-29.
= dimensionless fracture pressure
'fD Earlougher, R.C. ,Jr. (1977) "Advances i n Well
pa- dimensionless matrix pressure T e s t Analysis, xonograph Series, SPE of AIME,
q= volumetric rate, B/D Dallas, 5.
9 ~ ' ; dimensionless flawrate
FetkOVich, M.J.: (1980) "Decline Curve Analy -
sis Using Type-Curves", J. Pet. Tech. 1065.

r= radius, f t
Kazemi, H.: (1969) APressure Transient m l y
sis of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs", , .T
-
-
r n wellbore radius, f t
W
AIME. 256, 451-461.
r = dimensionless radius , rfiw
D MVW, M.J., and ChCO-Ley, E.: (1979) "Tran -
r 5 reservoir outer boundary radius, f t s i e n t Pressure Behavior of Naturally Fractured
e Reservoirsn, Paper SPE 7977, presented a t the
r dimensionless outer boundary radius ,rehw 1979 California Regional Meeting, SPE of AIME,
eD"
Ventura, California, Apr. 18-20.
S= skin e f f e c t
t= time, hours
dimensionless t i m e Pirson, J. Silvan: (1953) "Performance of Frac
tD= tured O i l Reservoirs", Bull. h e r . Assn. Pe-5.
-7
a01. (21, 232-244.

Pollard, P.: (1959) nEvaluation of Acid Trat -


tn =$, dimensionless ments from Pressure Build-Up Analysis", Trans.,
tAD A AIME, 216, 38.
&= s h u b i n time, h r
Raghavan, R., and Ohaeri, C.U.: (1981) "unstea-
dy Flow t o a W e l l Produced a t constant Pressure
Subscripts
in a Fractured Reservoir", paper SPE 9902 pre
sented a t the SPE 1981 California Regional we-
-
fa fracture
m= matrix ting, Bakersfield, California, March 25-26.
De dimensionless
Streltsova-Adams , T.D. : (1976) nHydrodynamics
of Groundwater Flow i n a Fractured Formation*,
Greek
Water Resources Research, z,No. 13, 405.
p= viscosity, cp
I$= porosity, fraction Stehfest, H.: (1970) "Algorithm 368, Numerical
a= interporosity, flow shape factor, f t ' l Inversion of Laplace hansforms", D-5, Ccmmuni- I .

cations of the ACM, 2, No. 1, 47-49.


akm rw2 , dimensionless
A= Warren, J.E. , and Root, P.J.: (1963) "The Behc
kf vior of Naturally Fractured Fksservoirs" @E J , .
w= (44 f , dimensionless 245-255.

-122-
Ehlig-Econddes, C.A. t (1979) "Well T e s t Ana-
l y s i s f o r Wells Produced a t a Constant Pressu-
re", Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University.

I
, -
TABLE I

t p, ' AP = Pi-Pw
hours (psis) (psi 1
0 0 -
4.7 11 -11
6.1 11 -1 1
115
16.5
12
12.5
-12
-12.5
-t +AI
AI
26 5 13.5 -13.5 Fis. 3. Wellbore storage e f f e c t i n horner build-
46 155 -1% 5.
65
98
135
17
195
22
-17
-19.5
-22
(W O . O l , X = 5.10 -',
up, i n f i n i t e two porosity system
S = 0)

200 26 -26
265 29 -29
400 33.5 -33.5

I -
.1 1.-

! ?

%r
Fig. 4. v s t /r 2 f o r a w e l l producing a t
k s t a n t D f l g w r a t e from an i n f i n i t e l y
I n . . ! ' " ! " ' large two-porosity system.
,kl too m4 IO'

Fig. 1. 'fD
tD
vs tD f o r a w e l l produced a t cons -
t a n t flowrate f r a n an i n f i n i t e l y large

Fig.5. -
, , , , ,p v s t /r 2 f o r a w e l l producing at a
canstantDflawrate
D f r a n a naturally fraz
tured reservoir.
10

~ i g 2.. pfD v s tDfor a w e l l produced at cons-


tant flowrate fran a bounded, two-porl!
s i t y system (reD= 5 0 )

-123-
1

101
I.r,p-al*

Fig. 6.
Dimensionless flowrate functions far a
well produced at a constant pressure
fran a two-porosity system (UP 0.01,
A= loe5).
E

10"

16'

Id'

16'

I 1 !
102
' !'''I1
10'
I !
10'
' 10.
' '
c

10-1

*D
I
10-2

10' m' 10. 10'


lo
Fig. 19. qD vs tD W = 0.1, x = 10- 5

-125-
10-3 10-2 10-1 ioo 10’ 102
L C -
‘0
‘02
102 10. 108 108
tD
Fig. 20. qD vs tD -9 FS.23. Type-curve matching for interference
w = 0.1, h = 10 example.

lo-’
10-2 100 10’
.
Fig. 21. pf D v s tD/r 2 for a w e l l produced a t
c a s t a n t d e r pressure fran an i n f i -
n i t e l y large, two porosity system.

Fig. 22. pm vs t /r 2
D D for a w e l l producing a t
at constant flowrate fran a naturally
fractured reservoir.

-126-