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Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Aerial Laser Scanning

Claus Brenner
with contributions from George Vosselman and George Sithole

Institute of Cartography and Geoinformatics


University of Hannover, Appelstr. 9a, 30167 Hannover, Germany
claus.brenner@ikg.uni-hannover.de
www.ikg.uni-hannover.de

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Contents

• Airborne laser scanning principles


• Errors and strip adjustment
• Filtering of ALS data
• Extraction and modelling

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Airborne laser scanning


principles

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Basic components of an ALS system

DGPS Laser
Deflection
INS Ranging
Control & unit
unit
data recording

Ground
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Laser Laser

• Semiconductor lasers or Nd:YAG lasers pumped by semiconductor lasers


• Mostly Nd:YAG = neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet, Nd:Y3Al5O12
• Emits at λ = 1064 nm (near infrared)
• Bathymetric scanners often use λ = 532 nm (green) obtained by frequency doubling
• Others: e.g. 810 nm (ScaLARS), 900 nm (FLI-MAP), 1540 nm (TopoSys)
• Properties exploited: high collimation, high optical power

• Pulsed (time of flight ranging) or continuous wave (CW, sidetone ranging)

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Pulsed laser operation Laser

tp
Signal
amplitude

t Typical characteristics:
trise
• Pulse width
tp = 10 ns (Æ 3 m @ speed of light)
• Pulse rise time
trise = 1 ns (Æ 30 cm @ speed of light)

• Peak power
Ppeak = 2,000 W
3m
• Energy per pulse
E = Ppeak · tp = 20 μJ
• Average power (@ pulse repetition rate F = 10 kHz)
Pav = E · F = 0.2 W
Ground
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Continuous laser operation Laser

Modulation
signal
t

Signal
amplitude
t

Ground

Modulation
signal
Characteristics (ScaLARS):
• Two modulation frequencies
Signal fhigh = 10 MHz, flow = 1 MHz
amplitude Æ λshort = 30 m, λlong = 300 m
• Average power (continuous operation)
Pav = 0.26 W
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Ambiguities (pulse) Laser

• Travelling time:
h=R 2R
ttravel =
c
Ground • Example:
h = R = 1000 m Æ ttravel = 6.7 μs
• tp = 10 ns can be neglected
AT • Maximum pulse frequency (assuming no transmit /
next pulse
receive overlap):
c
AR t f max = 1 / ttravel =
ttravel 2R
• Example:
tp t h = R = 1000 m Æ fmax = 150 kHz

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Ambiguities (CW) Laser

• Maximum unambiguous range determined by λlong :

λlong
Ground Rmax =
2
• Example:
λlong = 300 m Æ Rmax = 150 m
AT

• Range gating:
t Known height, possible range
differences < 150 m
AR
• Range tracking:
If no steps > 150 m are present
t
λ

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Scanning mechanisms & ground patterns Deflection


unit

Oscillating Rotating Nutating mirror Fiber


mirror polygon (Palmer scan) switch

Laser

(same for
receiving
optics)

Z-shaped, Parallel “Elliptical” Parallel


sinusodial lines lines

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Polygon mirror example Deflection


unit

25 cm @
0.5 mrad
beam



divergence
θ/2=20°
h=500 m
0.08° Æ 70 cm
364 m

500 pulses / line



1

cos 2 θ i
0.08° Æ 79 cm
Swath width
⎛θ ⎞ Repetition rate
2h tan⎜ ⎟ = 0.7 h = 364m
⎝ 2⎠ 50 lines / s 83 cm 50 kHz, average
v = 150 km/h pulse rate 25 kHz
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Fiber switch details Deflection


unit

(TopoSys Falcon)
Laser

To ground
and back

Receiver

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Fiber scanner example Deflection


unit

Fiber 128

...
θ/2=7° Fiber 3
h=500 m 0.25h / 127
= 0.002 h spot diameter
≈1m 25 cm

Fiber 2

Swath width Fiber 1


⎛θ ⎞
2h tan⎜ ⎟ = 0.25h = 123m 630 lines/s 11 cm
⎝2⎠ v = 252 km/h

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Palmer scan Deflection


unit

7 deg. nutating 30 deg. nutating Scan pattern with forward


mirror mirror (hypothetical) motion of aircraft (7 deg. nutating mirror)

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Beam divergence

• Laser beam widens with distance


• Beam divergence γ
λ
D, aperture diameter • Theoretical limit by diffraction γ ≥ 2.44
D
• Example:
λ = 1064 nm, D = 10 cm Æ 0.026 mrad
• Typical values for ALS:
h γ = 0.3 – 2 mrad
γ • Ground spot diameter
2
DI = D + 2h tan(γ 2)
≈ 2h tan(γ 2)
≈ hγ
DI, diameter of
illuminated area • Example:
γ = 1 mrad
Ground Æ 1 m diameter @ h = 1 km flying height
(not to scale)

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Power balance

4 - Power received:
Ar
Ar M 2 Ar
Pr = ⋅ M ⋅ ρ ⋅ M ⋅ PT = ρ ⋅ PT
2π R 2 2π R 2

1 - Power transmitted:
R PT • PT = 2000 W

3 - Power reflected, assuming • Atmospheric transmission


Lambertian surface: M = 0.8
ψ • Ar = 80 cm2 (Dr = 10 cm)
⋅ ρ ⋅ M ⋅ PT
2π • R = 1 km
2 - Power received: • Reflectivity ρ = 0.5
M ⋅ PT
Ground
Æ Pr = 4 · 10-10 PT = 800 nW

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Reflectivity
Reflectivity vs. material Range vs. reflectivity

MATERIAL REFLECTIVITY
@ λ = 900 nm
M 2 Ar
Dimension lumber (pine, clean, dry) 94% Pr = ρ ⋅ PT ⇒ R∝ ρ
Snow 80-90% 2π R 2

White masonry 85% 120

Range factor [%] *


Limestone, clay up to 75%
100
Deciduous trees typ. 60%
80
Coniferous trees typ. 30%
Carbonate sand (dry) 57% 60

Carbonate sand (wet) 41% 40


Beach sands, bare areas in desert typ. 50%
20
Rough wood pallet (clean) 25%
Concrete, smooth 24% 0 20 40 60 80 100
Asphalt with pebbles 17% Target reflectivity [%]
Lava 8%
Black rubber tire wall 2%
Source: www.riegl.co.at * Normalized to 100% @ 80% reflectivity
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Interaction with target

AT

AR
first pulse last pulse

5m
t

tp

Pulse width
10 ns Æ 3 m @ speed of light
Æ Δh = 1.5 m
Æ pulses separable
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Interaction with target


AT

t
AR,1
t1

Detection accuracy ≈ 10-15% t


of rise time ≈ 2-5 cm

AR,2
t2

t
7 ns
Measured range will be an intermediate value
(mixed echo)
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Interaction with target

... t
AR

Large area, Small area,


small reflectivity large reflectivity
(same for
sloped terrain)

• Minimum detectable object size depends on reflectivity


• Measured range depends on distribution of reflectivity inside laser ground spot area

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Interaction with target

Canopy penetration gets worse Specular reflection


with increasing scan angles Water, wet surfaces, slate
Æ no return signal
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Ranging
Pulse: CW: Ranging
unit

AT AT λ

AR t AR
t
t φ

t t

• Range • Range
c 1 φ
R= ⋅t R= ⋅ ⋅ λshort
2 2 2π
• Range resolution • Range resolution
c λshort c 1
ΔR = ⋅ Δt ΔR = ⋅ Δφ = ⋅ ⋅ Δφ
2 4π 4π f high
• Range accuracy • Range accuracy
c 1 λshort 1
σR ∝ t rise ⋅ σR ∝ ⋅
2 S/N 4π S/N Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Ranging: Pulse vs. CW Ranging


unit

• In CW ranging, resolution and accuracy can be improved by using higher modulation


frequencies
• Resolution:
CW, λshort = 30 m (10 MHz), Δφ/2π = 1/16384 (14 bit) Æ ΔR = 0.9 mm !
• Cf. required time resolution for pulse ranging:
Δt = 2 ΔR / c = 6.1 ps (164 GHz) !

• For the accuracy, S/N is important


depends on transmitted power, e.g. Pulse Ppeak = 2000 W vs. CW Pav = 1 W
Æ σR,CW / σR, pulse = 85, achieved by 2000 x power [Wehr, Lohr 99]

• Pulse lasers with high power are available


• CW semiconductor lasers with Pav > 2 W, fhigh > 10 MHz scarce
• σR, pulse typically 2-5 cm
• Does not apply to centimetre level measurement in the close range domain!

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Ranging: full waveform analysis Ranging


unit

tree crown
power line

ground
bush
AR

t
First pulse Last pulse
t0 Data
t1 recorder

AR

1 GS/s

t
Data
recorder

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Ranging: full waveform analysis Ranging


unit

Source: Riegl, 2006

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Ranging: full waveform analysis Ranging


unit

• “Unlimited” number of returns per shot


• Multiple target detection down 0.5 metres
• Surface roughness, slope
• Vegetation
• Discontinuities
• User-defined post-processing methods, no need for real time, neighbourhood analysis
• Riegl LMS-Q560, Litemapper 5600, Optech ALTM 3100, TopEye Mark II

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Examples of ALS

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Scanner examples
System Optech ALTM Riegl LMS-Q560 TopoSys
3100EA Falcon II
Laser 1064 nm near IR 1540 nm
Altitude 80 – 3500 m 30 – 1500 m 60 – 1600 m
Range measurements up to 4 full waveform first and last
Scan frequency max. 70 Hz max. 160 Hz max. 630 Hz
Scan angle max. ± 25° max. ± 30° ± 7° (fixed)
Pulse rate max. 100 kHz max. 100 kHz, 83 kHz
50 kHz @ ± 22.5°
Beam divergence 0.3 mrad 0.5 mrad 0.5 mrad
Beam pattern oscillating, rotating polygon, fiber switch,
sawtooth parallel parallel

• Others: FLI-MAP (Fugro-Inpark), LiteMapper (IGI mbH), GeoMapper 3D


(Laseroptronix), ALS series (Leica), TopEye MK II (TopEye AB)

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Optech ALTM 3100

All images taken from www.optech.ca Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Riegl LMS-Q560 / LMS-Q280i

(Scanner & data recorder only)

Images taken from www.riegl.co.at Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

IGI LiteMapper

(uses scanners from Riegl)


Images taken from www.litemapper.com Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

TopoSys

Falcon II, III (fiber)

Harrier (uses scanners from Riegl)


Images taken from www.toposys.de Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

FLI-MAP

FLI-MAP 400

All images taken from www.flimap.com Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Errors and strip adjustment

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Errors and strip adjustment

• Error sources
• Geometrical error budget
• Strip adjustment

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Coordinate systems

tIRFÆECF
tARFÆIRF

DGPS Laser
Deflection
INS Ranging unit
unit

Inertial reference frame Aircraft/ scanner


Moving with aircraft reference frame
Moving with aircraft

Earth centered
reference frame
ECEF, WGS84
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Error sources

• Laser measurement (range, angle: electronics aging & drift)


• DGPS (receiver, satellite constellation, ground reference constellation)
• INS (receiver: frequency, drift)
• Offset / alignment between GPS, INS, laser scanner
• Dynamic bend of IMU / scanner mounting plate
• Time synchronization and interpolation (GPS: 1-10/s, INS 200/s, turbulent flight)
• Transformation to local coordinate system

• Basic geometric configuration

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Error budget (geometry)


Z

κ
Δκ
ϕ
Δϕ
ΔX0, ΔY0, ΔZ0

ω
Δω
Δβ h
Y

ΔR

ΔZ
ΔY
X

ΔX
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

due Error budget (geometry)


to
error Total
β Δω Δϕ Δκ Δβ ΔR ΔX0 ΔY0 ΔZ0 Total @h=1000
in

0 0 22.4 53.0
ΔX 15 0 20.9 7.5 0 0 8 0 0 23.6 56.2
30 16.1 27.6 66.6

0 0 26.4 63.5
ΔY 15 20.9 0 0 14 1.3 0 8 0 26.4 63.5
30 2.5 26.5 63.6

0 0 0 5 9.4 9.4
ΔZ 15 5.6 0 0 4 5 0 0 8 11.7 19.1
30 12.1 8 4 17.0 37.3

Assumptions: h = 400 m (except last col. h = 1000 m), ω = ϕ = κ =0, cm 0 0-5 5-10 10-15 15+
Δω = Δϕ = 0.03°, Δκ = 0.04°, Δβ = 0.02°,
ΔR = 5 cm, ΔX0 = ΔY0 = ΔZ0 = 8 cm Source: [Baltsavias, 1999a]
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Error budget: conclusions


Total
β Δω Δϕ Δκ Δβ ΔR ΔX0 ΔY0 ΔZ0 Total @h=1000

0 0 22.4 53.0
ΔX 15 0 20.9 7.5 0 0 8 0 0 23.6 56.2
30 16.1 27.6 66.6

0 0 26.4 63.5
ΔY 15 20.9 0 0 14 1.3 0 8 0 26.4 63.5
30 2.5 26.5 63.6

0 0 0 5 9.4 9.4
ΔZ 15 5.6 0 0 4 5 0 0 8 11.7 19.1
30 12.1 8 4 17.0 37.3

• ΔY slightly larger than ΔX for small β (due to Δβ error)


Source: [Baltsavias, 1999a]
• changes for larger β (due to Δκ error)
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Error budget: conclusions


Total
β Δω Δϕ Δκ Δβ ΔR ΔX0 ΔY0 ΔZ0 Total @h=1000

0 0 22.4 53.0
ΔX 15 0 20.9 7.5 0 0 8 0 0 23.6 56.2
30 16.1 27.6 66.6

0 0 26.4 63.5
ΔY 15 20.9 0 0 14 1.3 0 8 0 26.4 63.5
30 2.5 26.5 63.6

0 0 0 5 9.4 9.4
ΔZ 15 5.6 0 0 4 5 0 0 8 11.7 19.1
30 12.1 8 4 17.0 37.3

• ΔR has only marginal influence on ΔZ


Source: [Baltsavias, 1999a]
• and almost no influence on ΔX, ΔY.
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Error budget: conclusions


Total
β Δω Δϕ Δκ Δβ ΔR ΔX0 ΔY0 ΔZ0 Total @h=1000

0 0 22.4 53.0
ΔX 15 0 20.9 7.5 0 0 8 0 0 23.6 56.2
30 16.1 27.6 66.6

0 0 26.4 63.5
ΔY 15 20.9 0 0 14 1.3 0 8 0 26.4 63.5
30 2.5 26.5 63.6

0 0 0 5 9.4 9.4
ΔZ 15 5.6 0 0 4 5 0 0 8 11.7 19.1
30 12.1 8 4 17.0 37.3

• ΔZ smaller than ΔX, ΔY and less dependent on h


Reason: ΔR, ΔZ0 dominate and are nearly independent of h
Source: [Baltsavias, 1999a]
• ΔZ mainly depends on ΔZ0 (GPS!) (and ΔR) for small β Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Error budget: conclusions


Total
β Δω Δϕ Δκ Δβ ΔR ΔX0 ΔY0 ΔZ0 Total @h=1000

0 0 22.4 53.0
ΔX 15 0 20.9 7.5 0 0 8 0 0 23.6 56.2
30 16.1 27.6 ΔZ
66.6

0 0 26.4 63.5
ΔY 15 20.9 0 0 14 1.3 0 8 0 26.4
ΔX, ΔY 63.5
30 2.5 26.5 63.6

0 0 0 5 9.4 9.4
ΔZ 15 5.6 0 0 4 5 0 0 8 11.7 19.1
30 12.1 8 4 17.0 37.3

• ΔZ given is too optimistic


Source: [Baltsavias, 1999a]
• especially for sloped terrain, ΔX, ΔY dominate
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Counter measures

• Constructional measures
• Highly stable mechanics, low drift in electronics, highly accurate time sync.,
internal reference measurement …
• Calibration
• Factory calibration of laser scanner, GPS/INS alignment …
• Flight specific measures
• Good satellite constellation, close reference station, little turbulence …

• Still systematic errors will remain, especially visible at strip overlaps


• Æ strip adjustment

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Strip adjustment

Create a seamless data set by


correcting for the systematic errors.

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Strip adjustment

• Analogy to independent model adjustment with self-


calibration parameters
• Modelling of shifts, drifts and other systematic errors
• Measurement of tie points
• Measurement of control points
• Adjust strips such that
– corresponding tie points are transformed to same terrain
point
– misclosures at control points are minimal

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Strip adjustment

Independent strips with tie Strips transformed to reference


points system

(ifp / J. Kilian)

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Strip adjustment

• 1D strip adjustment
• 3D strip adjustment
• Measurement of corresponding
– points in height data
– ditches and ridges in height data
– edges in reflectance data

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

1D adjustment

• only correct the height


• mathematical model for control point in strip s

Δ H = a s + bs X ( −Xs
c
)+ c (Y s
− Ysc
)
as offset in height
bs tilt in flight direction
cs tilt across flight direction
Xsc , Ysc centre of strip s

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

1D adjustment

• mathematical model for tie point between strip s and strip t

Δ H = a s + bs X ( ) + c (Y ) − −Xs
c
s
− Ysc

a − b (X − X ) − c (Y −Y )
t t t
c
t t
c

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Problems
• unmodelled errors lead to large distortions

• case: range offset before adjustment


or scale error in the
scanning angle

possible solutions: after adjustment


– more reference points
– cross strips
tilt

offset

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

3D adjustment

Modelling systematic errors in terrain coordinates:


• Approximation by 1st and 2nd order polynomials.
• Modelling the effect of sensor errors on terrain coordinates.

3D adjustment requires estimation of 3D offsets between


• overlapping strips
• strips and reference data.

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

3D adjustment

Two approaches:

• Take height differences in suitable areas as observations


(cf. area based matching)

• First extract corresponding features, then use those as


observations
(cf. feature based matching)

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Segmentation of overlaps

(Slide provided by George Vosselman)


Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Offset estimation
Planimetric offsets may be estimated from
• sloped surfaces
• reflection data

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Offset estimation

Height differences only are not sufficient

flat roof gable roof

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Measurement of tie points

Area based image matching


Simple mathematical modelling
• “Geometric” transformation

X s = X t + ΔX
Ys = Yt + ΔY
• “Radiometric” transformation

Z s ( X s , Ys ) = Z t ( X t , Yt ) + Δ Z

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Using ditches

Fitting of point clouds to ditch profile


model

• No data interpolation

• Noisy free gradients

• Better accuracy estimates

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Eelde dataset
Point density
1 pts / 3 m2

Strip width
225 m

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Ditch measurements

Pixel
size

(Slide provided by George Vosselman)


2m

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Point clouds

Original data

After fitting

Original data

After fitting

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Using gable roofs

Point density
6 pts/m2

Strip width
90 m

Measurements
6 ridge lines

(Slide provided by George Vosselman)


Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Using gable roofs

(Slide provided by George Vosselman)


Pixel size 1 m Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Using gable roofs

Next strip overlap

Measurements
10 ridge lines

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Using gable roofs

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Point clouds
Original data After fitting

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Offset estimation in reflectance data

Reflection data is noisy

• peak reflection strength,


no integration

• low reflectance strength in case of


multiple heights within footprint

• footprint much smaller than point


distance Æ needs to be modelled

Long edges are preferred

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Conclusions offset estimation

• Offsets estimated in height and reflectance data will be


biased when using standard image matching tools.

• Offset estimations in height data should use continuous


surfaces only.

• Fitting models to height data avoids interpolation errors.

• Modelling edge response in reflectance data allows


unbiased offset estimation, but requires long edges.

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

3D strip adjustment results

Model: 3 shifts, 3 rotations, and 3 rotation drifts

Sensor FLI-MAP Optech


Point density 5-6 pts/m2 0.3 pts/m2
Flying height 110 m 500 m
Number of strips 2 4
Number of tie points 75 46
σ before adjustment 15.2 cm 35.6 cm
σ after adjustment 9.7 cm 20.3 cm
Relative improvement 36% 43%

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

3D strip adjustment results

FLI-MAP σx σy σz
before adjustment 16.4 20.0 5.0
after adjustment 11.2 11.6 4.7
relative improvement 32% 42% 6%

Optech ALTM σx σy σz
before adjustment 48.6 40.5 11.6
after adjustment 26.0 24.5 8.5
relative improvement 47% 40% 27%

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Conclusions strip adjustment

• Many errors may occur.

• Strip adjustment in combination with error models can eliminate most


systematic errors.

• Strip adjustment can be used for data correction or as a quality control


tool.

• Remaining systematic errors may reveal errors that are difficult to


model.

• New errors are still discovered.

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Filtering of ALS data

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Filtering – Introduction
• Digital elevation model (DEM), digital terrain model (DTM): “Ground”
• Digital surface model (DSM): “top surface”
• In open terrain, the separation surface between air and bare earth
• DEM is different from measured laser points due to very different reasons:
• Measurement errors of ALS system (position, orientation, range…)
• Interaction with target (mixed points in vegetation)
• Interpretation (buildings are not part of the DEM by definition)
• Filtering: classification of points into terrain and off-terrain
• Basis for DTM generation, detection of topographic objects

dy
TIN
dx Raster Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Filtering

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Filtering

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Filtering

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Filtering

(Source: George Vosselman)

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Filtering approaches

• Basic approaches
• Mathematic morphology
• Progressive refinement
• Linear prediction
• Segmentation

• Points / local neighbourhood vs. segments

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Filtering of ALS data

• Introduction
• Morphologic operators and slope based filtering
(Vosselman, 2000)
• Linear prediction and hierarchic robust interpolation
(Kraus & Pfeifer 1998, Pfeifer et al. 2001)
• Progressive TIN densification (Axelsson, 2000)
• Segmentation based filtering
(Sithole, Vosselman 2005)
• ISPRS filter test

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Morphologic operators
and
Slope based filtering

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Erosion, dilation, opening, closing

• Erosion and dilation for binary images


• I… Image, s… two-dimensional structure element
• Erosion:

⎧ 1 if ∀(i, j ) ∈ s : I (r + i, c + j ) = 1
( I − s )(r , c) := ⎨
⎩ 0 else
• Dilation:

⎧ 1 if ∃(i, j ) ∈ s : I (r + i, c + j ) = 1
( I + s )(r , c) := ⎨
⎩ 0 else
• Opening:
I o s := ( I − s ) + s

• Closing:
I • s := ( I + s ) − s

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Example: Opening (I)

– =

I s I-s

+ =

I-s s I o s := ( I − s ) + s

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Example: Opening (II)

– =

I s I-s

+ =

I-s s I o s := ( I − s ) + s

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Example: Opening (III)

– =

I s I-s

+ =

I-s s I o s := ( I − s ) + s

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Equivalent definitions using min and max

• Erosion:
⎛ ⎧ 1 if ∀(i, j ) ∈ s : I (r + i, c + j ) = 1⎞
( I − s )(r , c) := min I (r + i, c + j ) ⎜ ( I − s )(r , c) := ⎨ ⎟
⎜ ⎟
( i , j )∈s
⎝ ⎩ 0 else ⎠
• Dilation:

( I + s )(r , c) := max I (r + i, c + j )
( i , j )∈s

• Define kernel function k


k(i)
⎧ 0 (i, j ) ∈ s
k (i, j ) := ⎨
⎩ − 1 else
i

• Then, erosion and dilation are given by:

( I − k )(r , c) := min[I (r + i, c + j ) − k (i, j )]


(i , j )

( I + k )(r , c) := max[I (r + i, c + j ) + k (i, j )]


(i , j )
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Erosion using k(i,j)

I
r
k
( I − k )(r , c) := min[I (r + i, c + j ) − k (i, j )]
(i , j )

k(i)

I-k
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Morphological operators for grey scale images (here, DSM)

DSM
Erosion

k(i)

i
Dilation

DTM

Opening

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Original DSM
(opening)

11x11 m2 15x15 m2 21x21 m2 31x31 m 2


Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Original DSM

(opening)

11x11 m2 15x15 m2 21x21 m2 31x31 m 2


Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Original DSM DTM obtained by opening


Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Modification: dual rank filters

• Minimum / maximum may be problematic if outliers are present


• Use of rank filters is more robust
• Rank function: returns the mth element of sorted values

Rm ({I1 , I 2 ,..., I n }) := ( Sort ({I1 , I 2 ,..., I n }))[m]

• Then, erosion and dilation become

( I − m k )(r , c) := Rm ({I (r + i, c + j ) − k (i, j ) ∀(i, j )})


( I + m k )(r , c) := Rn +1− m ({I (r + i, c + j ) + k (i, j ) ∀(i, j )})

• Note: n = # zeros in k , −1 ≡ −, +1 ≡ +

−m
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Modification: points, irregular data

• Erosion (previously):
e(r , c) = ( I − k )(r , c) = min (I (r + i, c + j ) − k (i, j ) )
pj
pi
(i , j )

• Now:
e( pi ) := min (h( p j ) − k (Δxij , Δyij ) )
p j ∈A

k (Δxij , Δyij )
• Definition of the DEM:

{
DEM := p j h( p j ) ≤ e( p j ) }

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Slope based filtering (Vosselman, 2000)

e( pi ) := min (h( p j ) − k (Δxij , Δyij ) )


p j ∈A

k (Δxij , Δyij )

Δhmax (d )

• Interpretation of k
Δh1
k (Δx, Δy ) := − Δhmax ( Δx 2
)
+ Δy 2 = − Δhmax (d )
d1 d

Points at distance d1
can be lower by Δh1
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Slope based kernel function


Δhmax (d )

{
DEM := p j h( p j ) ≤ e( p j ) }

• Kernel function effectively suppresses slopes larger than its own slope
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Derivation of suitable kernel functions Δhmax

• Idea 1: assume a maximum slope, e.g. 30%

Δhmax (d ) := 0.3d

• Since measurements are noisy, add confidence interval. Allow 5% of terrain


points (with standard deviation σ) may be rejected
Δhmax (d )
Δhmax (d ) := 0.3d + 1.65 2σ

• Arbitrary specification Æ try to obtain from data

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Derivation of suitable kernel functions Δhmax

• Idea 2: derive maximum height differences from data


• Training set with ground points only
• For each distance interval d, compute max(Δh)
• Also compute variance (of the maximum) for each d using cumulative
probability distribution

Fmax (Δh) = F (Δh) N

• Idea 3: minimize classification errors 2


• Effect of type I and type II errors is the same
• Æ search for Δh where 3
1 2’
P( pi ∈ DEM Δh, d , p j ∈ DEM) = 0.5
• Requires training set with ground points and unfiltered data of (Source: George Vosselman)
the same area
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Derivation of suitable kernel functions Δhmax

5m
Δh

d P( pi ∈ DEM Δh, d , p j ∈ DEM)


0m
10 m Black 0.0, white 1.0

-5 m

(Source: George Vosselman)

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Derivation of suitable kernel functions Δhmax

4
Allowed height difference

Maximum
(m)

2
Probabilistic

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Distance between points (m)

(Source: George Vosselman)

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Example results

Maximum filter. Height difference of ditches: 0.5 m.


2 m grid (top), 0.5 m grid (bottom).
Laser point density 5.6 points/m2.
(Source: George Vosselman)
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Example results

Laser point density 5.6 points/m2 (top), reduced to 1 point/16m2 (bottom)


(Source: George Vosselman)
Perspective view.
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Linear prediction
and
Hierarchic robust interpolation

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Interpolation using a summation of kernel functions


z 2.5

1.5

1
(x1,z1) ?
0.5
(xn,zn)
1 2 3 4 5 x
-0.5

• Given: Heights z at positions x:


z = ( z1 z2 L zn )
T

x = ( x1 x2 L xn )
T

• Find an interpolating function:

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Interpolation using a summation of kernel functions


• Idea: describe overall function as a sum of basis functions
n
f ( x ) = ∑ ki ( x)
i =1

• Simpler:
• as a sum of identical basis functions k
• depending only on the distance x-xi
• multiplied by a factor mi

n
f ( x) = ∑ mi ⋅ k ( x − xi )
i =1

1
k(d)
• Example k(d) 0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
d
-2 -1 1 2
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Interpolation using a summation of kernel functions


• Interpolation Æ f has to pass through the given points
! n
z j = f ( x j ) = ∑ mi ⋅ k ( x j − xi )
i =1

• Written in matrix form

⎛ z1 ⎞ ⎛ k (0) k ( x1 − x2 ) k ( x1 − xn ) ⎞ ⎛ m1 ⎞
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎜ z2 ⎟ ⎜ k ( x2 − x1 ) k (0) k ( x2 − xn ) ⎟ ⎜ m2 ⎟
⎜M⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ M ⎟
O M
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎜z ⎟ ⎜ k(x − x ) k(x − x ) L k (0) ⎟⎠ ⎜m ⎟
⎝ n⎠ ⎝ n 1 n 2 ⎝ n⎠

• Or, shorter

z = Km

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Interpolation using a summation of kernel functions

• Solution (note: linear; exact solution)

m = K −1z
• Function f ⎛ m1 ⎞
⎜ ⎟
n
⎜m ⎟
f ( x) = ∑ mi ⋅ k ( x − xi ) = (k ( x − x1 ) k ( x − x2 ) L k ( x − xn ) )⎜ 2 ⎟
M
i =1
⎜ ⎟
⎜m ⎟
⎝ n⎠
• Or, shorter

f ( x) = k T K −1z

• Note:
• x variable
• k depending on x
−1
• K z fixed

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Example using triangular kernel function


2.5 2.5

2 2

1.5 1.5

1 1

0.5 0.5

1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5

-0.5
-0.5

x = (1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4 )
m = K −1z = (1, 2.25, − 0.5, 2.25, 0 )
z = (1, 2, 1.75, 2, 0 )

2.5

f (x) 2

1.5

1 1

k(d) 0.8
0.6 0.5
0.4
0.2 d 1 2 3 4 5
-2 -1 1 2
-0.5

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Example using Gaussian kernel function


2.5 6

2 4

1.5 2

1
1 2 3 4 5

0.5 -2

-4
1 2 3 4 5

-0.5 -6

x = (1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4 ) m = K −1z = (− 0.29, 5.07, − 6.49, 5.76, − 1.53)


z = (1, 2, 1.75, 2, 0 )

2.5
f (x)
2

1.5

k (d ) = e − d
2
1
0.8 1

0.6
0.4 0.5
0.2 d
-2 -1 1 2 1 2 3 4 5

-0.5

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Statistical interpretation of Gaussian kernel function

• Interpretation as covariance of laser points Pi , Pk having distance d

2
⎛d⎞ C(0)
−⎜ ⎟
C ( Pi Pk ) := C (d ) = C (0) e ⎝c⎠ C(d)

• Statistical surface description: close points have high covariance


• Need to determine C(0), c

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Determination of parameters of covariance function

• After removal of trend (see later), zi coordinates contain


• measurement error ri
• systematic error si

zi = si + ri

• Variance of zi :

Vzz =
1
∑ z z
i i =
1
(∑ si si + 2∑ si ri + ∑ ri ri )
n n

1
(∑ si si + ∑ ri ri ) = Vss + Vrr
n

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Determination of parameters of covariance function

• Determination of empirical covariances Cj


• Sort point pairs into buckets, according to their distance
d j − Δd ≤ Pi Pk < d j + Δd
• In each bucket, determine empirical covariances
1 1
Cj =
nj
∑ zi z k →
nj
∑s si k

• Determine C(0)

C (0) = Vss = Vzz − Vrr = Vzz − σ Z2 (using estimate σ Z of height error)

• Determine cj for each bucket from


2
⎛dj ⎞
−⎜ ⎟
⎜ cj ⎟
C j = C ( 0) e ⎝ ⎠
⇒ solve for c j
• Determine c as weighted mean of cj

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Interpolation and filtering


• After having determined Gaussian kernel function, interpolation is just as before:

f ( P ) = c T C −1z

(
c T = C ( PP1 ) C ( PP2 ) L C ( PPn ) ) z T = ( z1 z2 L zn )

⎛ C (0) C ( P1 P2 ) C ( P1 Pn ) ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎜ C ( P2 P1 ) C (0) C ( P2 Pn ) ⎟
C = ⎜ ⎟
⎜ O M ⎟
⎜ C ( P P ) C ( P P ) L C (0) ⎟
⎝ n 1 n 2 ⎠

Vzz
• What happens if we replace C by
Vss = C (0)
⎛ Vzz C ( P1 P2 ) C ( P1 Pn ) ⎞
⎜ ⎟ C(d)
⎜ C ( P2 P1 ) Vzz C ( P2 Pn ) ⎟
C = ⎜ ⎟
⎜ O M ⎟ d
⎜ C(P P ) C(P P ) L Vzz ⎟⎠
⎝ n 1 n 2

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Interpolation and filtering


• Note from earlier:
Vzz = Vss + Vrr = C (0) + σ Z2

⇒ C = C + σ z2 I n

2.5 using C 2.5


using C
2 2

1.5 1.5

1 1

0.5 0.5

1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

-0.5 -0.5

• Interpolation and filtering: considers measurement errors


• Allows weighting of measurements using individual Vzz ,i
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Hierarchic robust interpolation

• Kraus & Pfeifer 1998, Pfeifer et al. 2001


• Before application, remove trend surface, e.g. by estimation of a low-degree polynomial
• After trend removal, 3 stages of refinement:
• Interpolation + filtering
• as just explained
• Robust interpolation
• compute weights for individual points (see next slides)
• Hierarchic robust interpolation
• if gross errors occur in large clusters
• compute data pyramid, use surfaces obtained in coarse level to accept points
within tolerance band in higher resolution level

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Robust interpolation

• Initial interpolation using unit weights σ i2 = σ 02


Outlier, probably vegetation

Interpolation follows
outlier

Result of interpolation +
filtering

(Source: I.P.F. TU Vienna)


Trend surface

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Robust interpolation

• Calculate filter values = oriented distance from surface to measured point


• Compute histogram of filter values
• Usually, asymmetric: many points above surface, few points below surface

(Source: I.P.F. TU Vienna)

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Robust interpolation

• Use asymmetric weight function (a,b different for left & right branch)
1 σ 02
pi = , σ = 2

1 + (a ⋅ f i − g )
b i
pi

• a, b parameters, g shift determined from histogram


• Also remove points which are too far off the surface

cutoff

(Source: I.P.F. TU Vienna) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Robust interpolation

Initial
interpolation

Refined
interpolation

(Source: I.P.F. TU Vienna)

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Filter results in forested area

(Source: I.P.F. TU Vienna) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Progressive TIN densification

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

TIN densification (Axelsson, 2000)

• Start using sparse seed points


• lowest points in a large grid, based on largest structure, e.g. 50-100 m
• Densify iteratively from below
• calculate required thresholds from points currently included in the TIN
• add points to the TIN if they are within thresholds
• Threshold computation based on median values of surface normal angles and
elevation differences. Uses histograms for computation of median.

α β

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

TIN densification

• Add one point at a time in each triangle facet


• Accept based on distance and angle threshold
• Special case for discontinuous surfaces (urban areas)
• threshold values easily exceeded
• use mirroring of point at closest point in TIN triangle to compute deviation

d γ

α d mirror
β

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Segmentation based filtering

Note: the slides of this section were provided by George Sithole / George Vosselman
based on their talk “Filtering of airborne laser scanner data based on segmented point clouds”
given at the laser scanning workshop 2005 in Enschede

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Filter design

Problem analysis
• Smooth surface assumption does not hold
• Lack of context information
– Filter as a local operator
– Point-wise filtering

New filter approach


• Use continuous surface instead of smooth surface
• Filter continuous segments of points instead of points

Slide provided by George Sithole, George Vosselman Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Segment based filtering

• Texture based image segmentation

• Point cloud segmentation into continuous surfaces

Slide provided by George Sithole, George Vosselman Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Profile segmentation

Delaunay
Delaunay Minimum
Minimum
Triangulation
Triangulation Spanning
Spanning Tree
Tree

Proximity
Proximity Remove
Remove
Thresholding
Thresholding Dangling
Dangling Edges
Edges

Slide provided by George Sithole, George Vosselman Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Profile classification

Raised
Raised

Lowered
Lowered

Terraced
Terraced

High
High

Low
Low

Slide provided by George Sithole, George Vosselman Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Combining profiles to segments

Slide provided by George Sithole, George Vosselman Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Combining profiles to segments

Slide provided by George Sithole, George Vosselman Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Segment classification

• Based on majority of
segment profile
classifications

Slide provided by George Sithole, George Vosselman Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Bridge detection

• Select all terrain profiles


• Analyse profile segment classifications

Slide provided by George Sithole, George Vosselman Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Results in urban area


Segment based
filtering

Type I error

Type II error

Alg. 1 Alg. 2 Alg. 3


Three other algorithms of the ISPRS filter test
Slide provided by George Sithole, George Vosselman Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Results in quarry
Segment based
filtering

Type I error

Type II error

Alg. 1 Alg. 2 Alg. 3

Slide provided by George Sithole, George Vosselman Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Quantitative results

Urban sites (error %)


Alg 1 Alg 2 Alg 3 New alg
Average 5.6 7.0 14.0 6.0
Median 4.3 6.7 12.2 4.3

Rural sites (error %)


Alg 1 Alg 2 Alg 3 New alg
Average 3.6 9.5 15.6 5.4
Median 2.9 7.9 17.2 6.2

Slide provided by George Sithole, George Vosselman Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Conclusions for segment based filtering

• Segment-based filtering
– preserves discontinuities
– allows filtering of large objects
– can be combined with other filtering methods
– could be extended with other attributes (shape, size,
colour)
• Segmentation in areas with low vegetation remains difficult
• Bridges can be recognised in bare earth segment
• Segmentation results may support manual editing

Slide provided by George Sithole, George Vosselman Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

ISPRS filter test

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

ISPRS filter test

Comparison of filter algorithms, 2002-2004


• 8 sites, 8 participants
• Qualitative and quantitative evaluation

• All filters do well on smooth terrain with vegetation and buildings.


All filters have problems with rough terrain and complex city
landscapes.
• In general, filters that compare points to locally estimated surfaces
performed best.
• The problems caused by the scene complexities were larger than
those caused by the reduced point density.
• Research on segmentation, quality assessment and usage of
additional knowledge sources is recommended.
• Full report on http://www.geo.tudelft.nl/frs/isprs/filtertest/

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Extraction and modelling


Claus Brenner
with contributions from George Vosselman and Juha Hyyppä

Institute of Cartography and Geoinformatics


University of Hannover, Appelstr. 9a, 30167 Hannover, Germany
claus.brenner@ikg.uni-hannover.de
www.ikg.uni-hannover.de

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Example laser scan data


100

80

60

40

20

0
0 20 40 60 80 100

• Data obtained by aerial laser scanning


• Example: approx. one measurement per m2
• Regularized raster, mesh width 1m x 1m
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Example laser scan data

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Main applications

• Derivation of DEMs
• Forest inventory
• Extraction of man-made objects
• Flood modelling
• Mapping of linear structures: dikes, roads, power line
clearance
• Classification

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Extraction and modelling

• Introduction
• Feature extraction
• Derivatives
• Local polynomial fit and curvature analysis
• Planar faces
• Region growing, scan line grouping, RANSAC, Hough transform
• More complex shapes Æ see terrestrial scanning
• Building extraction
• Examples (data driven, model driven, integration of existing knowledge)
• Future developments: constraints & generalization

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Derivatives

f ( x) • DSM seen as a grayvalue


image
– derivatives can be
used to detect jumps
in the DSM
x – second derivatives
∂ may be used to detect
f ( x) discontinuities in
∂x
slope
• Derivative masks from
digital image processing
can be used
x
• Note: derivative has
metric interpretation

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Derivatives: discrete operators


• Derivative operator based on difference quotient
df f ( x + Δx ) − f ( x )
( x) ≈
dx Δx

– mask: (−1 1)
– even mask length, linear phase
– noise: σ = 2 ⋅ σ f ≈ 1.4 ⋅ σ f

• Derivative operator based on average difference quotient

df 1 ⎛ f ( x ) − f ( x − Δ x ) f ( x + Δx ) − f ( x ) ⎞ f ( x + Δ x ) − f ( x − Δ x )
( x) ≈ ⎜ + ⎟=
dx 2⎝ Δx Δx ⎠ 2 Δx

– mask: 1 2 (−1 0 1) = 1 2 (1 1) ∗ (−1 1)


– odd mask length, zero phase
– noise: σ = 1 σ f ≈ 0.7 ⋅ σ f
2
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Derivatives

1
⎛⎛ ∂ ⎞ ⎛ ∂
2
⎞ ⎞
2 2

Original DSM f ( x, y ) ⎜⎜
⎜ ⎝ ∂x
f ( x, y ) ⎟ + ⎜ f ( x, y ) ⎟ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ∂y ⎠ ⎟⎠
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Derivatives

1
⎛⎛ ∂ ⎞ ⎛ ∂
2
⎞ ⎞
2 2

Original DSM f ( x, y ) ⎜⎜
⎜ ⎝ ∂x
f ( x, y ) ⎟ + ⎜ f ( x, y ) ⎟ ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ∂y ⎠ ⎟⎠
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Morphological operations: opening

300 300

250 250

200 200

150 150

100 100

50 50

0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Original DSM DSM – DTM


Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Morphological operations: opening

DSM – DTM Orthophoto


Height > 5 m and footprint > 50 m2
Height > 5 m Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Local estimation of polynomial functions


• Derivatives (especially second derivatives) are sensitive to noise
• Standard smoothing masks are not motivated geometrically
• Idea:
– for each discrete point, determine locally a best approximating polynomial
function fˆ (u )
– then, derivatives f ′( x) and f ′′( x) can be obtained from the derivatives
of fˆ ′(u ) and fˆ ′′(u )
N f (1)
fˆ (u )

u
−M K 0 1K M
U = {− M , − M + 1,K 0,1,K , M } Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Local estimation of polynomial functions


• Scalar product

f , g := ∑ f (u ) ⋅ g (u )
u∈U

• Polynomial base functions up to second order


ϕ 0 (u ) := 1
ϕ1 (u ) := u
M ( M + 1)
ϕ 2 (u ) := u 2 −
3
• Properties of base functions (orthogonality)

ϕ i , ϕ j = 0 ∀i ≠ j
ϕ 0 , ϕ 0 = 2 M + 1 =: p0
ϕ1 , ϕ1 = 1 3 ⋅ M ( M + 1)(2M + 1) =: p1
ϕ 2 , ϕ 2 = K =: p2
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Local estimation of polynomial functions


• Definition of normalized base functions

bi :=
ϕi ⇒ ϕ i , b j = δ ij (Kronecker)
pi

• Second order approximation for functions of one variable


2
fˆ (u ) = ∑ ai ⋅ ϕ i (u ) with
i =0

ai := f , bi = ∑ f (u ) ⋅ bi (u ) Å trick: no need to invert since functions


u∈U are orthogonal

• Second order approximation for functions in two variables

fˆ (u , v) = ∑a
i + j ≤2
ij ⋅ ϕ i (u ) ϕ j (v) with

aij := ∑ f (u , v) ⋅ bi (u ) b j (v)
( u , v )∈U 2
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Local estimation of polynomial functions


• Derivatives:
fˆ (u, v) = a00
+ a10u + a01v
⎛ M ( M + 1) ⎞ ⎛ 2 M ( M + 1) ⎞
+ a20 ⎜ u 2 − +
⎟ 11a uv + a02 ⎜ v − ⎟
⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠

∂ ∂ ˆ
fˆ (u , v) = a10 + a20 ⋅ 2u + a11 ⋅ v f (0, 0) = a10
∂u ∂u
∂ ∂ ˆ
fˆ (u, v) = a01 + a02 ⋅ 2v + a11 ⋅ u f (0, 0) = a01
∂v ∂v
∂2 ˆ
f (u, v) = 2a20
∂u 2

∂2 ˆ
f (u , v) = a11
∂u ∂v
∂2 ˆ
f (u , v) = 2a02
∂v 2
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Local estimation of polynomial functions


• Example:
M = 3 ⇒ U = {−3,K ,3} , p0 = 7, p1 = 28, p2 = 84
3
1
a0 = f , b0 = ∑
u =−3
f (u ) ⋅
7
⋅1
3
1
a1 = f , b1 = ∑ f (u ) ⋅ u
u =−3 28

(u − 4)
3
1 2
a2 = f , b2 = ∑
u =−3
f (u ) ⋅
84

• From this, the following convolution masks are obtained:


1
d0 = (1 1 1 1 1 1 1)
7
1
d1 = ( − 3 − 2 − 1 0 1 2 3 )
28
1
d2 = ( 5 0 − 3 − 4 − 3 0 5 )
84
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Local estimation of polynomial functions


• Two-dimensional convolution masks are obtained as follows:

Du = d 0T d1 Duu = 2d 0T d 2
Dv = d1T d 0 Dvv = 2d 2T d 0
Duv = d1T d1

• E.g. the second partial derivative with respect to u:

⎡5 0 −3 −4 −3 0 5⎤
⎢5 0 −3 −4 −3 0 5⎥⎥

⎢5 0 −3 −4 −3 0 5⎥
∂ 2
2 ⎢ ⎥
f ≈ D * f , D = 2 d T
d = ⎢ 5 0 −3 − 4 − 3 0 5 ⎥
∂u 7 ⋅ 84
2 uu uu 0 2
⎢5 0 −3 −4 −3 0 5⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢5 0 −3 −4 −3 0 5⎥
⎢5 0 −3 −4 −3 0 5⎥⎦

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Differential geometry

x
v U
p
q

ℜ2 ℜ3
u

• Regular parametrized surface: • Normal vector


x : ℜ 2 ⊃ U → ℜ3 xu × xv
N (q) = (q)
U open, x differentiable, dxq injective xu × xv

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Differential geometry
• First fundamental form in local coordinates
I = E ⋅ (u ′) 2 + 2 F ⋅ u ′v′ + G ⋅ (v′) 2
E = xu , xu , F = xu , xv , G = xv , xv
• Second fundamental form in local coordinates
II = e ⋅ (u ′) 2 + 2 f ⋅ u ′v′ + g ⋅ (v′) 2 xu × xv
N (q) = (q)
e = N , xuu , f = N , xuv , g = N , xvv xu × xv

• Gaussian curvature and mean curvature


eg − f 2
K = κ1 ⋅κ 2 =
EG − F 2
1 eG − 2 fF + gE
H = (κ 1 + κ 2 ) =
2 EG − F 2
κ 1 , κ 2 main curvatures
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Differential geometry
• DSM is given as a graph z = f(u,v)
– From this, the following simplifications are obtained:

z = f (u , v)
⎡ u ⎤ ⎡1⎤ ⎡0⎤
x(u , v) = ⎢⎢ v ⎥⎥ , xu = ⎢⎢ 0 ⎥⎥ , xv = ⎢⎢ 1 ⎥⎥
⎢⎣ f (u , v) ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ fu ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ f v ⎥⎦
E = xu , xu = 1 + f u2 etc.
⎡ − fu ⎤
N= 2
1 ⎢− f ⎥
( fu + f v2 + 1)1 2 ⎢
v⎥

⎢⎣ 1 ⎥⎦
f
e = N , xuu = 2 uu2 etc.
( fu + f v + 1)1 2
⇒ K, H
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Surface types

• Surfaces can be classified depending on the sign of K and H


– Both signs can be coded into a single number (KH sign map)

khs := 3 ⋅ (1 + sgn H ) + 1 + sgn K

– In practice, H=0 or K=0 will not be obtained, thus the following


modified sign function is used:

sgn ε ( x)
⎧ −1 x < −ε

sgn ε ( x) := ⎨ 0 −ε ≤ x ≤ ε
x
⎪ 1 x >ε
⎩ −ε ε

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Surface types
khs K<0 K=0 K>0

H<0

0 1 2

Not
H=0
possible
3 4

H>0

6 7 8
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Application: curvature type classification

Type 0–3
Simple discrete derivative operators
Type 6–8 Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Application: curvature type classification

Type 0–3
Local estimation of polynomial functions Type 6–8 Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Region based segmentation


• Region based segmentation:
– partitioning of a region into disjoint subregions
– subregions evaluate „true“ with respect to a given predicate P (⋅)
– subregions are maximal

• More precisely:
n
1. UR i =R
i =1

2. ∀1 ≤ i ≤ n : Ri is connected
3. ∀i ≠ j : Ri ∩ R j = ∅
4. P ( Ri ) = true
5. ∀i ≠ j : P ( Ri ∪ R j ) = false, if Ri , R j are neighbors
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Region based segmentation

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
R1 = {1, 2,3, 4, 7,8,12}
5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8
R2 = {5, 6,10,11,15,16}
9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12
13 14 15 16 13 14 15 16 R3 = {9,13,14}

• How can the desired subregions be obtained? E.g.:


– cluster analysis
– split-and-merge
– region growing

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Region growing

Start

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8
Search for
seed region 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12

13 14 15 16 13 14 15 16 13 14 15 16
N
Found? End
Y 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8
Grow region as
long as possible 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12

13 14 15 16 13 14 15 16 13 14 15 16

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Region growing

• Predicates for digital surface models


– distance of points from an estimated plane
P : z = ax + by + c
distance: d (i ) = axi + byi + c − zi

– normal vector orientation


cos α = N i , ( − a, −b,1)
T

• Disadvantages:
– the order of selection of seed regions affects the result
– iterative estimation of plane equation is time consuming

• Application: detection of planar regions in DSM, e.g. roof faces

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Region growing: examples

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Scanline grouping (Jiang & Bunke, 1992)

• Subdivide each line into segments (e.g. using Douglas-


Peucker)
• Build seed region using consecutive segments
• Grow seed region by adding segments
• Postprocess

y0+2
y0+1
y0
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Scanline grouping (Jiang & Bunke, 1992)

• Subdivide each line into segments (e.g. using Douglas-


Peucker)
• Build seed region using consecutive segments
• Grow seed region by adding segments
• Postprocess

y0+2
y0+1
y0
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Scanline grouping (Jiang & Bunke, 1992)

• Subdivide each line into segments (e.g. using Douglas-


Peucker)
• Build seed region using consecutive segments
• Grow seed region by adding segments
• Postprocess

y0+3
y0+2
y0+1
y0
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Scanline grouping (Jiang & Bunke, 1992)

• Subdivide each line into segments (e.g. using Douglas-


Peucker)
• Build seed region using consecutive segments
• Grow seed region by adding segments
• Postprocess

y0+3
y0+2
y0+1
y0
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Scanline grouping segmentation: examples

DSM (Stuttgart, 1m) Segmentation

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Scanline grouping segmentation: examples

DSM (Stuttgart, 1m) Segmentation

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus, Fischler & Bolles 1981)

• Algorithm:
– Select minimum number of observations randomly (e.g. 3 points
for a plane, 2 points for a line) = random sample
– Compute parameters based on these observations
– Find out the number N of compatible observations = consensus
– Select solution which has largest N

• There is a formula for minimum number of draws required


• Very powerful algorithm, easy to implement

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

RANSAC example: find linear segments


z

z ε
ε

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

RANSAC example: find linear segments


z

ε
x ε

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

RANSAC for planar segmentation

etc.

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Examples: region growing, RANSAC

Region growing RANSAC

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Examples: region growing, RANSAC

RANSAC

Region growing

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Hough transform (PVC Hough, 1962)


6
c one specific line
y N ⎛ cos α ⎞
N = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
4

α ⎝ sin α ⎠ 2
α
(x0,y0) x cos α + y sin α + c = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
-2

c = −( x0 cos α + y0 sin α ) = c(α ) -4

x Hough space
-6

6
high count
y 4

1 2 3 4 5 6
-2

-4
x
-6

accumulator

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Hough transform

• Can be used for any parameterized object: planes, cylinders,…


• Higher dimensions may become impractical (space, time)
• Sometimes sequential Hough transforms of lower dimension are feasible
• Global 3D Hough transform may be problematic

(source: George Vosselman)


Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Building Reconstruction

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

(Source: Sony press release)

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Non photorealistic rendering (NPR)

Source: Prof. Döllner, Computer Graphics Systems, Hasso-Plattner Institute, Potsdam


Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Augmented reality car navigation

Source: press release, Siemens AG, 30.09.2005 Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Engravings by Merian

Matthäus Merian d. Ä., 1593-1650


Martin Zeiller „Topographia“, 1642ff., 30 Bd., 100 maps, 2150 views
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Partial tasks for building reconstruction


Raw data Result

„building reconstruction“

Geometric Semantic
Detection Structuring Reconstruction Attributation
Gebäude
Gebäude{ {
ID ID==541541
Nutzungsart ==Gewerblich
Gebäude
Gebäude {Nutzungsart
{
Gewerblich
Stockwerke
Stockwerke==55
ID = 541
ID = 541 Stellplätze
Stellplätze ==22
Nutzungsart = Gewerblich
Gebäude
Gebäude {Nutzungsart
{
= Gewerblich
Fassadenmaterial
Fassadenmaterial =={ {
Stockwerke
Stockwerke = 55
ID F1 = =KH315
ID==541 541
Stellplätze F1===22KH315
Stellplätze F2
Nutzungsart
Nutzungsart
Fassadenmaterial F2==KH221
==Gewerblich KH221
Gewerblich =={ {
Stockwerke Fassadenmaterial
F3 = KH315
= 55F3 = KH315
Stockwerke F1 = =KH315
F1===22KH315
F4
Stellplätze
Stellplätze F2 F4==EF951
EF951
Fassadenmaterial F2=}=KH221
KH221 =={ {
Fassadenmaterial
F3 }
F3=Öffentlich
=KH315
KH315
F1 = KH315
F1 = KH315F4 Öffentlich=={ {
F2 = KH221F4==EF951EF951
{ {Artztpraxis, Link @3398472 }
F2 }= KH221 Artztpraxis, Link @3398472 }
} { Restaurant, Link
F3F3=Öffentlich
=KH315
KH315 {=Restaurant, Link@0274832
@0274832} }
F4 Öffentlich
}} ={ {
F4==EF951EF951
{ {Artztpraxis, Link
}} } Artztpraxis, Link @3398472} }
@3398472
}
{ {Restaurant, Link @0274832 }
Öffentlich =Restaurant,
Gebäude
={ {
{ { Link @0274832 }
} } Gebäude
Öffentlich
{ {Artztpraxis, ID ID=Link
542
542@3398472
} Artztpraxis, =Link @3398472} }
}
{ {Restaurant, Nutzungsart
Link =
@0274832Wohn }
Restaurant,
Gebäude {Nutzungsart
Link @0274832= Wohn }
} } Gebäude {
Stockwerke
Stockwerke==22
ID ID==542 542
}} Stellplätze
Stellplätze ==00
Nutzungsart ==Wohn
Gebäude
Gebäude {Nutzungsart
{
}} Wohn
Stockwerke
Stockwerke==22
IDID==542 542
Stellplätze
Stellplätze ==00
Nutzungsart
Nutzungsart ==Wohn
Wohn
}}
Stockwerke
Stockwerke==22
Stellplätze
Stellplätze==00
}}

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Geometric building models

Building Model

Parametric General

Primitive Combined Prismatic Polyhedral Ruled Freeform

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Boundary representation vs. CSG

Topology –
hard

easy

Boundary representation (BREP) Constructive solid geometry (CSG) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Data driven reconstruction

Object contains
straight edges Object contains
rectangles

Object is red

Original image
Object has
minimum size
Edge extraction

Grouping into
rectangles
Filtering using
spectral
signature Filtering using size,
grouping
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Model driven reconstruction

Model database

Explicit
Original
models
image

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Example: data driven

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Data driven approach


Assumptions:
• Roof described by planar faces
• Height jump edges parallel or perpendicular to main building
orientation

Steps:
• Plane detection
• Initial face outlining in TIN
• Reconstruction of building outline
• Reconstruction of roof face edges

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Initial roof faces


Connected components
Height data

Rough face outlines

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Reconstruction of roof outline

Union of faces

Approximation by straight lines


• main building direction
• minimum edge size
• most points
inside
building

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Reconstruction of face edges

• Ridges and valleys


Intersection of planes of adjacent roof faces
• Roof outline
Intersection of planes with adjacent walls
• Height jumps inside roof surface
Straight lines aligned to main building directions

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Reconstruction of 3D building

• Merging edges to faces


– Joining parallel edges
– Intersection of other edges
• Extraction of terrain height

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Example: model driven

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Demo: “ATOP”

Can be downloaded from: http://www.ikg.uni-hannover.de/3d-citymodels Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Integration of existing knowledge:


Using existing 2D ground plans

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Using existing 2D ground plans

• Solves detection problem


• Helps with structuring
– Helps to select model in model driven approach
– (How?)
• Helps with geometric reconstruction
– Boundaries, orientations…

• Problems:
– Inaccurate maps
– Outdated maps
– Reconstruction of structures for which no hint appears in the ground plan

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Idea 1: Canonical reconstruction of


roof based on ground plan

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Roof construction

split event

Medial axis Straight skeleton edge event


(canonical roof)
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Reconstruction based on canonical roof


• Build roof from straight skeleton, assuming equal slopes
• Project into plane (= hypothesise)
• Test for evidence using DSM (= test)
• Set planes for with no evidence Æ upright
• Build skeleton again, using new slopes
• Fit to DSM
• Æ strong dependency on ground plan, limited roof shapes
• 1997 …

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Different roofs raised on the same ground plan & same planes

(canonical roof)
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Idea 2: Subdivide ground plan into


primitives

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Subdivision into primitives

π3 π3
π3
π0 π0 π4 π2 π4 π2 π4 π2 π4 π2
π1 π1 π1

Flat Desk Ridge Hipped

Ground plan subdivision, selection of 3D-primitive,


parameter estimation
Æ more complex roofs, but still strong dependency on ground plan
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Example results

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Idea 3: Subdivide ground plan at


concave vertices (Vosselman)

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Decomposition of ground plans

Ground plan

Decompositions

Building
primitives on partitions

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Combining maps with laser data

Processing steps:
• Detection of planar faces

• Ground plan refinement • Initial 3D model


• Roof face reconstruction • (Model refinement)

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Detection of planar faces

• 3D Hough transform in each ground plan segment


• Growing and merging of initial planar faces

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Refinement of ground plan segmentation

• One plane per segment


• Detection of intersection lines
• Detection of height jump lines
– Constrained to segment orientation
– Not near segment edge

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Reconstruction of roof face outlines

• Best fitting plane per segment


• Merging of segments of same plane

(Slide provided by George Vosselman) Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Analysis

• Starts from ground plan


• Ability to subdivide segments by planar segmentation (3D
Hough transform)
• Ability to merge segments of the same plane
• Æ less dependency on ground plan, stronger role of DSM

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Idea 4: Relate planar patches to


ground plan using a grammar

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Determination of relevant regions

• What criteria can be used?


– General criteria (Size, shape)
– Hints from ground plan
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Labelling of regions

Ground plan

c l r

c – compatible
l – left
r – right n
p
p – previous
n – next
a – opp. previous
b – opp. next
a b
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Example for labels

{ r,n,a } { l,p,b }

{c}
{c}
{ l,p,b }
{c}
{ r,n,a }

{c}
{c}

{ l,p,b } { r,n,a } {c}

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Acceptance rules

Contained pattern Accepted pattern

<p+a+c+ <p+a+

c+b+n+> b+n+>

<p+ * n+> <p+ and n+>

l+r+ l+r+

All remaining c+ are accepted


Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Example

Aerial image All regions of Accepted Roof built from


segmentation regions accepted regions

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

EuroSDR test on building


extraction

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Test Sites
Senaatti

• Senaatti
• Hermanni
• Espoonlahti
• Amiens

Espoonlahti Hermanni Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Hermanni, CyberCity Stuttgart IGN

position accuracy 2m

0m
point deviations in plane Æ
-2 m

IQR’s of point deviations ICC laser+aerial Nebel+Partner C+B Technik

0.9

0.8 IQR Height


0.7 IQR North
IQR East
0.6 ICC laser Aalborg FOI outlines
1 out
0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

Delft Dresden FOI


0.1

0
1 out
N

I
r

ft

es
k
er
i ty

FO
g
t

en
se
ri a
ar

el

ni
IG

or
tn

li n
C

ch
D
tg

sd
la
ae

lb
ar
er

ut
ut

Te

re
C

Aa
r+

+P
yb

Io
St

IC

D
se
C

+B
el

FO
la

eb

C
C

N
IC

Aerial images, low autom.... Laser data, high autom.


(Slide provided by Juha Hyyppä) Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Some Conclusions

• Cybercity can be considered as a reference to others in terms of


quality and detailness
• Fully automatic laser scanning gives 4 times higher errors than
CC, but time spent is 5%, depends on pulse density, building size.
• Errors of laser-based results can be explained by non accurate
determination of building outlines
– Laser good at height and roof inclination determination
– Aerial images good at building outline determination
– Integration of laser and aerial imagery optimal, techniques
relative simple at this moment
– Some more complex laser models extremely good in quality
– Laser pulse density major factor to explain differences
between test sites (within laser based models)
• Level of automation is a key factor to explain the difference of
results.
Slide provided by Juha Hyyppä Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Future developments

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Reconstruction Aspects

• Topological correctness
– Faces are correctly joined, no holes

• Geometric constraints
– Parallelism, rectangularity, surfaces having same
slope, surfaces meeting in one point, …

• Generalization
– Acquisition generalization: which objects / object parts
are to be modeled
– LoD generalization: derive another model from a given
one
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Geometric Constraints
• CSG • B-rep:
– Primitives are constrained – Constraints have to be
implicitly added explicitly
– No implicit constraints
across primitives
– Sometimes: "snap"

α α α β

α α β β

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Example constraint equations (2D)

ax + by + c = 0 d
( x1 − x 2 ) 2 + ( y1 − y 2 ) 2 − d 2 = 0
a2 + b2 −1 = 0

d
ax + by + c = 0 ax + by + c = d

r
a1a2 + b1b2 = 0 ( x − x0 ) 2 + ( y − y 0 ) 2 − r 2 = 0

a1a2 + b1b2 − cos α = 0


a1b2 − a 2 b1 = 0 α
a1b2 − a2b1 − sin α = 0

Logic Metric Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Weak primitives
Fields External
constraint
equations
a
(xc,yc) Internal Points
h Constraint
w Equations Lines
Internal Two lines
representation perpendicular

(x2,y2)
(x3,y3)
Internal Points
(x1,y1)
Constraint Point on
(x0,y0) Equations Lines line
Internal
representation
Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Weak primitives demonstrator

Can be downloaded from: http://www.ikg.uni-hannover.de/3d-citymodels Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Containers

• Form hierarchy
– Objects are primitives Æ they contain geometry or
– Objects are containers Æ they contain other containers or primitives
• Implement layout functionality
– Linear, grid, irregular
• New: induced by formal grammar Container: Grid layout

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Generalization

• CSG • B-rep:
– Implicit generalization – Region sizes?
– Rules?

Æ Generalization during capture

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Level of Detail (Definition according to Sig3D)

LoD 0 LoD 1 LoD 2 LoD 3 LoD 4

Regional City / Site City / Site City / Site Interior

No roofs Flat roofs Roof type & “Real” roof “Real” roof
orientation shape shape

Texture, Block Textured model, Architectural model, Walkable


ortho photo, model differentiated roofs, vegetation, architectural
land use vegetation (trees) street furniture models

>5m / >5m 5m / 5m 2m / 1m 0,5m / 0,5m 0,2m / 0,2m


Pos./Height
See http://www.citygml.org/ Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

In 2D: elementary generalization operations

s n +1
s n -1
sn
s n +2
s n -2

P 5
⎯⎯→
gi P 3

Monika Sester, ikg

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Elementary generalization operations

P ≡ P n ≡ P i0 ⎯⎯→
g0
P i1
⎯⎯→
g1
... ⎯ ⎯⎯
g k −1
→ P ik
≡ P m

or ∅

• Generalization chain
– Maximum representation: P n ≡ P

– Minimum representation: P m m≤n

– Number of polygon edges: i0 = n … ik = m

– Elementary generalization operations: g j


Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Elementary generalization operations

P ≡ P ⎯⎯
m
⎯→ P
g −1
ik i k −1
⎯⎯
g

−1 → ... ⎯ ⎯→
g −1 P ≡ P n i0
k −1 k −2 0

or ∅

• Inverse generalization chain


– Pre-computed
– Can be used for progressive transmission
– Each g −j 1 is associated with a parameter ε j
– Parameters ε j are decreasing (inverse chain)

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Continuous generalization demo

Can be downloaded from: http://www.ikg.uni-hannover.de/3d-citymodels Claus Brenner


International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Generalization in 3D?

Original Cut Fill Final step

Frank Thiemann, ikg

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Generalization by incremental modelling

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Generalization by incremental modelling

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Conclusions

• Methods available for the extraction of discontinuity and continuity


• Availability of 3D information makes relatively simple extraction
processes possible
• Laser scanning good at heights and roof inclination
• Still no fully automatic extraction systems available
– Problem: reliability
– Integration of ground plan information
– Automation will come in the form of small enhancements
• New challenges
– Interoperability requires rich descriptions
– Expression of relations (constraints) between objects
– Automatic generalization

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Literature

• Wehr, A., Lohr, U. (1999): Airborne laser scanning – an introduction and overview. ISPRSJ, Vol. 54, 68-82.
• Baltsavias, E. P. (1999a): Airborne laser scanning: basic relations and formulas. ISPRSJ, Vol. 54, 199-214.
• Baltsavias, E. P. (1999b): Airborne laser scanning: existing systems and firms and other resources. ISPRSJ, Vol.
54, 164-198.
• Hug, C., Ullrich, A., Grimm, A. (2004): Litemapper-5600 – A waveform-Digitizing LIDAR Terrain and Vegetation
Mapping System, Proc. ISPRS WG VIII/2, Freiburg, Germany, Oct. 3-6, 2004. IAPRS Vol. XXXVI, Part 8/W2.
• Vosselman, G. (2000): Slope based filtering of laser altimetry data, IAPRS Vol. 33 Part B3, 935-942.
• Kraus K., Pfeifer, N. (1998): Determination of terrain models in wooded areas with airborne laser scanner data.
ISPRS JPRS Vol. 53, 193-203.
• Pfeiffer, N., Stadler, P., Briese, Chr. (2001): Derivation of digital terrain models in the SCOP++ environment, Proc.
OEEPE Workshop on Airborne Laserscanning and Interferometric SAR for Digital Elevation Models, Stockholm,
March 1-3.
• Axelsson, P. (2000): DEM generation from laser scanner data using adaptive TIN models, IAPRS Vol. 33 Part B4,
110-117.
• Sithole, G., Vosselman, G. (2005): Filtering of airborne laser scanner data based on segmented point clouds. Proc.
ISPRS Workshop Laser scanning 2005, Enschede, IAPRS Vol. 36 Part 3/W19, 66-71.

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006
Commission VI Special Interest Group “Technology Transfer Caravan”

Cited web material

• Riegl LMS (2005): LMS-Q560 Airborne laser scanner for full waveform analysis. Preliminary data sheet,
23.09.2005. www.riegl.co.at.
• Optech (2006): ALTM 3100EA brochure. www.optech.ca/prodaltm.htm.
• Riegl LMS (2006):
http://www.riegl.co.at/airborne_scannerss/airborne_scanners_literature_/downloads/advantages_of_echo_digitizati
on_and_full_waveform_analysis.pdf. Last accessed 22.03.06.

For manufacturer (and other) link lists, see http://www.commission3.isprs.org/wg3/

Claus Brenner
International Summer School “Digital Recording and 3D Modeling”, Aghios Nikolaos, Crete, Greece, 24-29 April 2006