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Chapter 4 - OSI Transport Layer

CCNA Exploration version 4.0


Overview

• Explain the role of Transport Layer protocols and


services in supporting communications across data
networks
• Analyze the application and operation of TCP
mechanisms that support reliability
• Analyze the application and operation of TCP
mechanisms that support reassembly and manage
data loss.
• Analyze the operation of UDP to support
communicate between two processes on end devices

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Transport Layer Role and Services

• Explain the purpose of the Transport layer


• Enables multiple applications
to communicate over the
network at the same time on a
single device
• Ensures that, if required, all
the data is received reliably
and in order by the correct
application.
• Employs error handling
mechanisms.

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Transport Layer Role and Services

• Major functions of the transport layer and the role it plays in data
networks
– Tracking the individual communication between applications on
the source and destination hosts.
– Segmenting data and managing each piece.
– Reassembling the segments into streams of application data.
– Identifying the different applications.

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Separating Multiple Communications
• Computer connected
to a network that is
simultaneously
receiving and sending
e-mail and instant
messages, viewing
websites, and
conducting a VoIP
phone call. Each of
these applications is
sending and receiving
data over the network
at the same time.
However, data from
the phone call is not
directed to the web
browser, and text from
an instant message
does not appear in an
e-mail.

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Segmentation

• Without
segmentation, only
one application, the
streaming video for
example, would be
able to receive data.
You could not
receive e-mails,
chat on instant
messenger, or view
web pages while
also viewing the
video.

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Controlling the Conversation
• Segmentation • Conversation
and Reassembly - Multiplexing -
Most networks There may be
have a limitation on many applications
the amount of data or services running
that can be on each host in the
included in a single network. Each of
PDU. The these applications
Transport layer or services is
divides application assigned an
data into blocks of address known as
data that are an a port so that the
appropriate size. At Transport layer can
the destination, the determine with
Transport layer which application
reassembles the or service the data
data before is identified.
sending it to the
destination
application or
service.

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Controlling the Conversation

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Transport Layer Role and Services

• At the Transport layer the three basic operations of reliability are:


– Tracking transmitted data
– Acknowledging received data
– Retransmitting any unacknowledged data
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Transport Layer Role and Services
• Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP)
– TCP is a connection-oriented
protocol, described in RFC
793. TCP incurs additional
overhead to gain functions.
Additional functions specified
by TCP are the same order
delivery, reliable delivery, and
Web, email, file transfer flow control. Each TCP
segment has 20 bytes of
overhead in the header
encapsulating the Application
layer data, whereas each UDP
segment only has 8 bytes of
DNS, Video streaming, VoIP
overhead

• UDP is a simple, connectionless protocol,


described in RFC 768. It has the advantage of
providing for low overhead data delivery,
datagrams are sent as "best effort" by this
Transport layer protocol.
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TCP Header format:

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TCP Header format: Port number

• Source Port 16 bits.


• Destination Port 16 bits.

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TCP Header format: Sequence

• Sequence Number: 32 bits


– The sequence number of the
first data octet in this segment
(except when SYN is present).

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TCP Header format: Acknowledgment

• Acknowledgment Number: 32 bits


– This field contains the value of the
next sequence number the sender of
the segment is expecting to receive.

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TCP Header format: Code bits

• Control Bits: 8 bits


– ACK: Acknowledgment field significant
– RST: Reset the connection
– SYN: Synchronize sequence numbers
– FIN: No more data from sender
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TCP Header format: Window

• Window: 16 bits
– The number of data octets beginning
with the one indicated in the
acknowledgment field which the sender
of this segment is willing to accept.

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User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

• UDP is a simple protocol that exchanges datagrams, without


acknowledgments or guaranteed delivery. Error processing and
retransmission must be handled by higher layer protocols
• UDP is designed for applications that do not need to put
sequences of segments together

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UDP header fields

• Source port – Number of the calling port


• Destination port – Number of the called port
• Length – Number of bytes including header and data
• Checksum – Calculated checksum of the header and data fields
• Data – Upper-layer protocol data
• The protocols that use UDP include:
- TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol).

- SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol).

- DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol).

- DNS (Domain Name System).

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Transport Layer Role and Services

• Identify how a port number is represented and


describe the role port numbers play in the TCP and
UDP protocols.

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Port and TCP port

• Reserved for services and applications. They are commonly used for
applications such as HTTP (web server) POP3/SMTP (e-mail server)
and Telnet
• These port numbers are assigned to user processes or applications.
When not used for a server resource, these ports may also be used
dynamically selected by a client as its source port.
• These are usually assigned dynamically to client applications when
initiating a connection. It is not very common for a client to connect to a
service using a Dynamic or Private Port
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UDP port

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TCP and UDP Common Port

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TCP and UDP port numbers

• Both TCP and UDP use port (socket) numbers to pass information
to the upper layers. Port numbers are used to keep track of
different conversations crossing the network at the same time.

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Netstat command

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Transport Layer Role and Services

• Describe the role of segments in the transport layer


and the two principle ways segments can be marked
for reassembly.

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Application and Operation of TCP Mechanisms

• Trace the steps that show how the TCP reliability


mechanism works as part of a session

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Application and Operation of TCP Mechanisms

• Describe the role of port numbers in establishing TCP


sessions and directing segments to server process

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3 way hand shake

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Application and Operation of TCP Mechanisms

• Trace the steps in the handshake in the establishment


of TCP sessions

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Application and Operation of TCP Mechanisms

• Trace the steps in the handshake in the termination of


TCP sessions

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Managing TCP Sessions

• TCP uses sequence numbers to reconstruct the data stream with


segments placed in the correct order.
• Sequence number incremented by the number of bytes that have
been transmitted.

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Managing TCP Sessions

• Trace the steps used by the TCP protocol in which


sequence numbers and acknowledgement numbers
are used to manage exchanges in a conversation

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Managing TCP Sessions

• Describe the retransmission remedy for lost data


employed by TCP (refer to 4.3.3.1)

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Managing TCP Sessions

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Managing TCP Sessions

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Managing TCP Sessions

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Managing TCP Sessions

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Managing TCP Sessions

• TCP uses window size and acknowledgement to manage


data loss and congestion during a session.

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Managing TCP Sessions

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Flow Control

When datagrams arrive too


quickly for a host or gateway
to process and the transport
function can issue a “not
ready” indicator to the
sender to stop sending data.
When the receiver can
handle additional data, the
receiver sends a “ready”
transport indicator. When
this indicator is received, the
sender can resume the
segment transmission.

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UDP Protocol

• UDP is a simple protocol that provides the basic Transport layer


functions. It much lower overhead than TCP, does not provide the
sophisticated retransmission, sequencing, and flow control
mechanisms.
• Some UDP applications:
• Domain Name System (DNS)
• Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
• Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
• Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
• Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
• Online games

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UDP Protocol

• Describe in detail the process specified by the UDP


protocol to reassemble PDUs at the destination device

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UDP Protocol

• Trace the steps as the UDP protocol and port numbers


are utilized in client-server communication.

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Labs

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Summary

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