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Name ___________________________________Period ________ Date __________


Muscle contraction requires energy. Would an increase in muscular activity create an

increased energy demand on the muscles? If this occurs, would there be a corresponding
increase in the amount of carbon dioxide produced and exhaled? These two questions
will be answered in this investigation.
From your previous experience you know that carbon dioxide can be dissolved in
water by bubbling, when you breathe through it. H2O and CO2 form a weak acid. You
can test for the amount with the indicator, phenolphthalein. This indicator is colorless in
the presence of acid. It turns pink in neutral and basic conditions.
Sodium hydroxide, (NaOH) is a base, which reacts with acid, neutralizing it.
Acid + Base > Salt + water. When sodium hydroxide is added to the acidic water, the
solution will turn pink when the acid is neutralized. The more drops of NaOH that are
required to turn the water pink, the more carbon dioxide there is in the water. You will
use the number of drops of NaOH needed to neutralize the water as an indication of the
amount of CO2 that you exhale. This technique is called titration.


Hypothesis: Write one that reflects the lab activity. You should include three points in
your hypothesis: amount of exercise, amount of CO2, number of NaOH needed.

Each team needs to decide before performing the lab who will be the facilitator,
Recorder, Timer, and Subject to be tested.

Materials (for each team)

Safety goggles NaOH
Graduated cylinder Phenolphthalein
2 Erlenmeyer flasks 1 soda straw
white paper dropping pipette

1. Measure 100 ml of H2O and transfer to the flask. Add 5 drops of the indicator. Hold
it up to the white paper. If it is pink, the water sample contains little or no CO2. Save
this and use it as a control for the "standard pinkness" for the rest of the lab.

If there is no pink color, the water already has CO2 dissolved in it. To find out
how much, add NaOH into the water drop by drop, counting each drop carefully as you
add them. Swirl the flask continuously as you do this. Stop when the water is slightly
pink. for at least 15 sec. Record the number of drops in the data table. Set aside as your

2. Measure 100 ml of H2O into the second flask and again add five drops of phenol.
Have the subject SIT quietly for 2 min. Put a soda straw in the H2O and steadily bubble
air through the water for 10 sec. DO NOT INHALE. Add NaOH drop by drop as you
did till you get the same shade of pink that matches your control. Record the number of
drops. Discard the water, rinse the flask.

3. Set up the flask again with water and 5 drops of phenol. Repeat procedure with
standing for 2 min.

4. Repeat same procedure with new water and mild exercise such as walking for 2 min.

5. Repeat procedure again with 3 minutes of strenuous exercise. (running up and down
the stairs or jumping jacks)

6. Lastly repeat the procedure with sitting quietly for 2 min for the recovery period.


TITLE _______________________________________________

Activity Grou Group Group Group Group Group Total Averag

p #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 drops drops






Analysis: Draw 1 bar graph in the space below representing BOTH your group data and
the class average.
Follow all the rules for graphing: Title, X, Y axis labeled and the two results color coded
with a key for easy reference.
Answer the following in complete sentences. Always quote data when answering the
1. Which condition (sitting etc.) required more drops of NaOH to produce the pink

2. The number of drops needed shows how much CO2 was produced. During which
activity was most CO2 produced? How did the number of drops relate to cellular

3. Was the number of drops of NaOH used the same for the groups for each activity?
Why or why not? Give specific examples when answering this question.

4. Some subjects may have gone into anaerobic respiration during exercising.

a. Which data shows anaerobic respiration and how do you know?

b. Why did they switch?

c. What was produced during anaerobic respiration?

d. What was happening during the recovery phase?

Conclusion: This should be in paragraph form. Restate your hypothesis. Reflect on

your hypothesis using your data to explain. Discuss at least 2 possible sources of error.