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Altair

Engineering

HyperMesh Tutorials
Version 3.1
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Copyright (c) 2000 Altair Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved.

Trademark Acknowledgments:
HyperMesh is a registered trademark of Altair Engineering, Inc.
ACIS is a registered trademark of SPATIAL TECHNOLOGY, INC.
ACIS Geometric Modeler is a registered trademark of SPATIAL TECHNOLOGY, INC.
ACIS Kernel is the registered trademark of SPATIAL TECHNOLOGY, INC.
ACIS Parametric Surfaces is the registered trademark of SPATIAL TECHNOLOGY, INC.
MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T.
MSC/NASTRAN is a registered trademark of MSC.
ABAQUS is a registered trademark of Hibbitt, Karlsson, & Sorensen, Inc.
ANSYS is a registered trademark of Ansys, Inc.
PATRAN is a registered trademark of MSC.
LS-DYNA is a registered trademark of LSTC.
MARC is a registered trademark of MARC Analysis Research Corporation.
PAMCRASH is a registered trademark of Engineering Systems International.
FLUENT is a registered trademark of Fluent, Incorporated.
I-DEAS is a registered trademark of Structural Dynamics Corporation.
Spaceball is a registered trademark of Spacetec IMC Corporation.
The Location of the HyperMesh Tutorial Files
All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Structuring the HyperMesh Database - HM-100


In this tutorial, you use the collectors panel to create, update, and assign dictionaries to collectors.
You also update existing cards by using the card panel. You start with a HyperMesh database file
that does not have any dictionaries assigned.

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Creating and Editing Dictionaries and Editing Cards


To retrieve the database file:

1. Select the files panel.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Double-click file = and select HM100-plate.hm30.

4. Click retrieve.

To specify solver:

1. Select the template subpanel.

2. Double-click template file = and select nastran/general.

3. Click return.

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To update the element types to the NASTRAN format:

1. Select the 1D page.

2. Select the elem types panel.

3. Click quad4= and select CQUAD4 as the quad element type.

4. Click tria = and select CTRIA3 as the tria element type.

5. Click elems to access the extended entity selection menu.

6. Select all.

7. Click update.

8. Click return to exit the elem types panel.

To update the load types:

1. Select the BCs page.

2. Select the load types panel.

3. Click force = and select FORCE.

4. Click constraint = and select SPC.

5. Click loads to access the extended entity selection menu.

6. Select all.

7. Click update.

8. Click return to exit the load types panel.

To create a material collector:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type and select mats.

4. Click name = and enter Plate_mat.

5. Click the switch under creation method and select card image.

6. Click card image = and select MAT1.

7. Click create/edit.

A pop-up card is displayed.

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8. Click E, click the data entry field, and enter 2e+5.

9. Click NU, click the data entry field, and enter .3.

10. Click return to accept the values.

To create an element collector:

1. Click the switch after collector type and select comps.

2. Click name = and enter Plate.

3. Click the switch under creation method and select card image.

4. Click card image = and select PSHELL.

5. Click material = and select Plate_mat.

6. Click color and select color 8.

7. Click create/edit.

8. Click T, click the data entry field, and enter .25.

9. Click return.

To update a load collector:

1. Select the update subpanel.

2. Click the switch after collector type and select loadcols.

3. Click the highlighted loadcols.

4. Activate the AUTO1 checkbox.

5. Click return.

6. Click color and select color 15.

7. Click update.

8. Activate the color checkbox.

9. Click update.

10. Click return to exit the collectors panel.

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To change the name of existing collectors:

1. Select the rename panel.

2. Select the individually subpanel.

3. Click the switch and select loadcols.

4. Click collector = and select AUTO1.

5. Click newname = and enter load1.

6. Click rename.

7. Click return to exit the rename panel.

To move existing elements into a different collector:

1. Select the organize panel.

2. Click the input collector switch and select elems.

3. Click elems and select all.

4. Click destination = and select Plate.

5. Click move.

6. Click return to exit the organize panel.

To view and edit a collector card:

1. Click card in the permanent menu.

2. Click the input collector switch and select comps.

3. Click comps.

4. To select the component, pick one of the elements in the model.

The element temporarily turns white.

5. Click edit.

The card appears and the thickness may be edited.

6. Click return to accept any changes and exit the card.

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Introduction to HyperMesh - HM-110
This tutorial introduces HyperMesh to new users. The following sections are included:

• The HyperMesh Environment

•Using HyperMesh

Each section contains links to lessons in the HyperMesh User’s Guide On-line Help. These lessons
explain the HyperMesh interface, terminology, and how to use the HyperMesh panels.

All files referenced in this tutorial are located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/demos/hm.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

The HyperMesh Environment


This section explains the HyperMesh environment. The HyperMesh window has four main menu
areas: graphics, the header bar, the main menu, and the permanent menu. The header bar divides
the screen into two areas. The graphics area of the screen is above the bar and the menu area is
below the bar. The menu area is further divided into the main menu and the permanent menu. A
secondary menu can be accessed by using keyboard keys. The secondary menu allows you to use
panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active menu panel. The topics
below are linked to lessons in the HyperMesh User’s Guide On-line Help.

Starting HyperMesh.

The HyperMesh Environment

The Header Bar

The Main Menu

The Permanent Menu

The Graphics Area

The Secondary Menu

The Mouse

The Keyboard

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Using HyperMesh
This section explains how to use a typical HyperMesh panel by description and example. The first
topic explains how to retrieve a HyperMesh database. Use this file to complete the remaining
tutorials. Follow the topics below in the order that they are listed to complete this section.

• Retrieving a HyperMesh Database

• Using Input Collectors

• Picking Entities on the Screen

• Extended Entity Selection

• Using Plane and Vector Collectors

• Viewing Models

• Using the Display Panel

• Graphics Modes

• Setting Global Parameters

• Saving a File

• Printing Screen Images

• Importing and Exporting Data

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User Interface Changes - HM-112
This tutorial introduces the major changes to the HyperMesh 3.0 graphical user interface (GUI). It
includes a list of the panels by page and alphabetically.

Similar in structure to HyperMesh 2.1, HyperMesh 3.0 consists of three menu systems: the main,
secondary, and permanent menus. Tutorials on the following topics are included:

• The Main Menu

• The Permanent Menu

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

The Main Menu


Due to the addition of functions and options, the main menu is expanded from five to seven pages.
The page names, Geom, 1-D, 2-D, 3-D, BCs, Tool, and Post, are given by the functionality of the
page panels. Some of the panels on each page contain functionality that applies to multiple pages.
These panels appear on all pages applicable to that panel’s functionality. Also, the more frequently
used panels appear on multiple pages, allowing you to complete a process without changing pages.

To display the common panels between all menu pages:

1. Click Geom through Post.

The common panels in all pages are files, collectors, assemblies, organize, color, rename,
and reorder.

2. Click Geom, 1-D, and BCs.

The common panels in these pages are vectors and systems.

3. Click 1-D, 2-D, 3-D.

The common panels, edit element, split, replace, detach, order change, config edit and
elem types, are located in the right most column of these pages.

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New Panels
HyperMesh 3.0 includes ten new panels:

• geom cleanup (Geom)

• beam xsect, joints, line mesh (1-D)

• elem offset (2-D, 3-D)

• equations, solver, vectors (Geom, 1-D and BCs)

• penetration, convert (Tool)

A summary of the new pages and panels is as follows:

Page Name Description New Panels

Geom Geometry creation and editing geom cleanup


functions

vectors

1-D 1-D elements creation and editing line mesh


functions

beam xsect

joints

vectors

2-D 2-D elements creation and editing elem offset


functions

3-D 3-D elements creation and editing elem offset


functions

BCs Loads and boundary creation, output equations


requests

solver

vectors

Tool Utility, model checking, and editing convert and information


functions functions

penetration

Post Post-Processing functions

The stitch panel, as well as the line from surface edges and split surface edge options in the
surface edit panel, are no longer included in the menu. The new geom cleanup panel now covers

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these functions. Please refer to Version 2.1 vs. 3.0 Panel Location for detailed information on the
differences between panels in HyperMesh 2.1 and 3.0.

files

Panels related to file management are grouped into an integrated files panel. This panel allows you
to save and retrieve HyperMesh binary databases, import CAD generated geometry or finite element
model information, export CAD geometry or finite element information for specific analysis codes,
specify a template file, specify a result file, and execute a HyperMesh command file. These
subpanels include the following enhancements:
hm files

• Space between the save and retrieve buttons in order to prevent accidental selection.

• A new option, save in compact.

By default, a file saved in a non-compact format includes surface facets and line/surface
drawing information. Choosing the save in compact format reduces the size of any saved hm
binary database by suppressing faceted surfaces created during the visual options-shaded
surface toggle under the geom cleanup and automesh panel. Non-compact databases save
these facets in the binary database, allowing an increase in speed during surface shading and
automeshing.

import

• A new option, offset ids.

An offset ids toggle is included which allows you to assign id values to imported bulk data deck
entities such as nodes, elems, comps, etc. This improves the assembly process of building full
models from many individual files.

• Supports direct CAD import.

For UG, CATIA, STL, HyperMesh versions before 3.0 did not support direct import of UG and
CATIA files. Consequently, all CAD data had to be in IGES format before import to HyperMesh.
In HyperMesh 3.0, you can import not only geometry data in IGES format but also geometry data

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directly from these newly added CAD readers. In addition, HyperMesh 3.0 supports UG version
13. When running on a UNIX workstation, the UG reader does not consume a UG license. To
use the UG reader, rlogin to the machine that UG is installed on and run HyperMesh on this
machine in order to use the UG library. If you are using a machine on the same network where
UG is installed and your machine platform is the same as the machine that has UG installed on it,
setup the following environment variables in your cshrc file:

UGII_BASE_DIR=/home/apps/eds130

UGII_ROOT_DIR=/home/apps/eds130/bin/

On a PC, a UG license is required to run the UG feinput translator; the UG feinput translator in
HyperMesh requires an entire UG 13 environment.

• options for IGES import is renamed.

Since direct CAD import is available in this version, the name is changed to options for CAD
import. options for CAD import includes the geometry tolerance and cleanup tolerance. A
geometry tolerance can be set to use file geom tolerance, or geom tol =, a user-specified
value. The cleanup tolerance can be set to use automatic cleanup tol, don’t cleanup
topology, or cleanup tol =, a user-specified value.
export

• Retains the same function as the export data panel in versions before HyperMesh 3.0.

command

• Retains the same function as the command panel in versions before HyperMesh 3.0.

template

• Links with the field in the global panel.

To load a template, you can either choose the template in the file/template sub-panel or in the
global/template sub-panel.

results

• Links with the field in the global panel.

To load a result file, you can either type the file name in the file/results sub-panel or in the
result file field in the global panel.

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The Permanent Menu
HyperMesh 3.0 includes the following new additions to the permanent menu: sliding zoom (s),
clockwise rotation , counter-clockwise rotation , back (b), and on-line Help (help). The
following functions are enhanced: window (w), dynamic rotation (r), and user options (options).

The permanent menu.

New Functions

s Slide zoom: zooms the model in and out by dragging the mouse in a vertical direction.

Counterclockwise rotation: rotates the model counterclockwise by the angle set in the
options panel.

Clockwise rotation: rotates the model clockwise by the angle set in the options panel.

b Back function: returns the model to the initial orientation after a rotation (r) or arc
dynamic motion (a).

help Context sensitive on-line Help: accesses the HyperMesh on-line Help.

To use the HyperMesh on-line Help:

1. Click help on the permanent menu.

The table of contents is displayed.

2. Double-click a Help topic.

The Help topic is displayed. How do I’s are listed in green.

3. Click a How do I.

A step by step example procedure appears.

NOTE HyperMesh 3.0 on-line Help is context sensitive. When working within a
panel, click help to display the Help topic available for that panel. The main
Help contents tab appears if you are not within a panel.

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HyperMesh Tutorials 12 Altair Engineering
w Enhancement in the window manager: two new functions are added to this panel:
display legend and display simulation title. These functions allow you to control the
contour plot’s legend and simulation title display. On by default, these functions can be
turned off in the post-processing panels.

r Enhancement in the rotation function: the rotation function now allows you to select a
node or point as a rotation center using the middle mouse button. If a middle mouse
button is not available, press the alt key and the left mouse button to pick the center.

a Enhancement in the arc dynamic motion function: the arc dynamic motion function now
allows you to select a node or point as a rotation center using the middle mouse button.
If a middle mouse button is not available, press the alt key and the left mouse button
to pick the center.

options Integrates the modeling, graphics, fonts, colors, page name, postscript, and
spaceball subpanels.
The Modeling Subpanel

This panel contains most of the entities previously located in the options panel as well as new
options including the cleanup and geometry tolerance fields, fixed points, and coincident node
picking.

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node tol Used when finding line intersections and determining duplicate
nodes. The node tolerance also affects the generation of elements in
the automesher. When quads are created and the side of a quad is
less than the node tolerance, HyperMesh tries to create a tria
element instead of a quad. If you create a model with characteristic
dimensions less than the node tolerance, reduce the default node
tolerance.

geom tol The geometry tolerance specifies the mathematical accuracy of lines
and surfaces in the model. Lines and surfaces are guaranteed
geometrically accurate to within the distance specified by geom tol.
The geometry tolerance influences the speed of file i/o and geometric
operations in HyperMesh. Very small geometry tolerances can
increase file read times and increase the length of time required to
perform geometric operations. For typical automotive components in
millimeters, a geom tol of 1.000e-04 is usually accurate.

cleanup tol The cleanup tolerance specifies the maximum gap distance allowed
between two edges or points while performing geometry cleanup
operations. When a cleanup operation is performed, if two entities
are separated by a distance greater than the cleanup tol at any point
along their length, they are left unaltered.

fixed points A toggle to turn on or off the display of fixed points.

coincident node This is a new option for selecting coincident nodes. If the option is
picking on, coincident nodes are displayed evenly on a circle when the
mouse moves close.

shrink This option allows you to set shrink element sizes. In HyperMesh
3.0, you can specify the size of element by entering a shrink factor
between 0 and 1.
The graphics Subpanel

This is the new location for the graphics panel. New options are included. In addition, the hidden
lines field and resize box were moved here from the original option panel. Lighting tools for shaded
elements are also included in this subpanel. The performance graphic engine now contains bitmap
animation tools, view acceleration tools, and the result color type options.

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bitmap animation Allows you to control the way a bitmap animation is created. Three
options are given: none, simple and compressed. When none is
chosen, the animation is created in the same way as in previous
versions. If simple or compressed is chosen, a bitmap is created
based on the pixel number instead of the number of elements.
These two options are recommended for larger models. Use the
compressed option with the simple, or none option if the
computer swaps disk space during bitmap animation.

view acceleration Allows you to increase the rotation speed while viewing a model.
This option is especially useful if you work on a large model with a
slow machine. Three options (none, automatic, and Ctrl-Shift)
with four different simplification styles (feature line, bounding box,
node cloud, and element centroid) are available in this subpanel.
For example, if the Ctrl-Shift and feature line options are chosen
during the rotation process (clicking a or s on the permanent
menu), the model changes to a feature line based representation
by pressing both the Ctrl and Shift function keys. When
automatic and feature line are both chosen, the model is displayed
in feature lines whenever it is rotated.

AVI file option Gives you three window sizes in making an AVI file: ¼ screen, 1/9
screen, and full screen. You can also choose an 8 or 24 bit color
display. When 8 bit is chosen, the color shown in the AVI file is
discrete contour type. If 24 bit color is chosen, the color displayed
in the AVI file is blended contour type.

result color type Allows you to choose either blended or discrete contours when
viewing a contour plot. discrete contours gives a clear definition
of contour boundaries similar to centroidal or zbuffer mode in the
previous version, providing no gradual transition of colors.

fonts Retains the same functions the original font panel plus a new
cursor size: function. You can change the cursor size from
standard to large. This option is especially useful during a
demonstration or teleconferencing.

colors Retains the same function as the original background panel with
more options introduced. In this panel, you can customize the
color of the background, global axis, axis label and the
topological edge. In addition, you can also change the menu
background color. For the UNIX platform, two options are given:
dark and light. For PC, you can select classic or windows, the
desktop colors specified in the Windows Control Panel.

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page names Retains the same function as the original page name panel.

postscript Retains the same function as the original PostScript panel.

spaceball Retains the same function as the original Spaceball panel.

The display/vis Subpanels

The display and vis subpanels now contain an improved navigation tool to help you when working
with multiple pages. You can tab through a single page at a time, or go directly to a specified page
number. You can also display components by name, id, or both name and id. In the vis panel, the
default color of the mesh line is black.

Version 2.1 vs. 3.0 Panel Location


The following tables provide a list of the new page locations relative to the HyperMesh version 2.1
page order:

Page 1

Page 2

Page 3

Page 4

Page 5

A second table lists the HyperMesh panels alphabetically and gives the page on which the panel is
located.

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Page 1
Panel Name HyperMesh 2.1 Location HyperMesh 3.0 Location

files 1,2,3,4,5 Geom, 1-D, 2-D, 3-D, BCs, Tool,


Post

collectors 1,2,3,4 Geom, 1-D, 2-D, 3-D, BCs, Tool,


Post

organize 1,2,3,4 Geom, 1-D, 2-D, 3-D, BCs, Tool,


Post

color 1,2,3,4 Geom, 1-D, 2-D, 3-D, BCs, Tool,


Post

temp nodes 1,2,3,4 Geom, 1-D, 2-D, 3-D, BCs, Tool,


Post

import data 1,5 Moved to files panel (all seven


pages)

create nodes 1 Geom

node edit 1 Geom

align node 1 Geom

distance 1 Geom

remap 1 Geom

lines 1 Geom

line edit 1 Geom

intersect 1 Geom

section cut 1 Geom

length 1 Geom

circles 1 Geom

tangents 1 Geom

fillets 1 Geom

reparam 1 Geom

reorder 1 Geom

surface edit 1 Geom

surf lines 1 Geom

stitch 1 Merged to geom cleanup

cntl cards 1 BCs

graphics 1 Permanent/option

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Page 2
Panel Name HyperMesh 2.1 Location HyperMesh 3.0 Location

config edit 2 1-D, 2-D, 3-D

elem types 2 1-D, 2-D, 3-D

ruled 2 2-D

spline 2 2-D

drag 2 2-D, 3-D

spin 2 2-D, 3-D

line drag 2 2-D, 3-D

skin 2 2-D

automesh 2 2-D

planes 2 2-D

cones 2 2-D

spheres 2 2-D

torus 2 2-D

edit element 2 1-D, 2-D, 3-D

split 2 1-D, 2-D, 3-D

order change 2 1-D, 2-D, 3-D

replace 2 1-D, 2-D, 3-D

detach 2 1-D, 2-D, 3-D

smooth 2 2-D, 3-D

solid map 2 3-D

solid mesh 2 3-D

linear solid 2 3-D

solid offset 2 Renamed to elem offset (2-D, 3-D)

tetramesh 2 3-D

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Page 3
Panel Name HyperMesh 2.1 Location HyperMesh 3.0 Location

linear 1d 3 1-D

masses 3 1-D

bars 3 1-D

rods 3 1-D

rigids 3 1-D

welds 3 1-D

springs 3 1-D

gaps 3 1-D

rbe3 3 1-D

translate 3 Tool

rotate 3 Tool

scale 3 Tool

reflect 3 Tool

project 3 Tool

position 3 Tool

permute 3 Tool

check elems 3 Tool

edges 3 Tool

faces 3 Tool

features 3 Tool

normals 3 Tool

dependency 3 Tool

mass 3 Tool

find 3 Tool

mask 3 Tool

delete 3 Tool

rename 3 Geom, 1-D, 2-D, 3-D, BCs, Tool,


Post

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Page 4
Panel Name HyperMesh 2.1 Location HyperMesh 3.0 Location

systems 4 Geom, 1-D, BCs

load types 4 BCs

constraints 4 BCs

forces 4 BCs

moments 4 BCs

pressures 4 BCs

velocity 4 BCs

accels 4 BCs

temperatures 4 BCs

flux 4 BCs

load steps 4 BCs

interfaces 4 BCs

rigid wall 4 BCs

entity sets 4 BCs

super elems 4 BCs

assemblies 4 Geom, 1-D, 2-D, 3-D, BCs, Tool,


Post

output block 4 BCs

numbers 4 Tool

renumber 4 Tool

summary 4 Tool

count 4 Tool

optimization 4 Renamed to design vars

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Page 5
Panel Name HyperMesh 2.1 Location HyperMesh 3.0 Location

import data 1,5 Moved to files panel (all seven


pages)

export data 5 Moved to files panel (all seven


pages)

command 5 Moved to files panel (all seven


pages)

T convert 5 Enhanced and renamed to


convert (Tool)

hidden line 5 Post

contour 5 Post

vector plot 5 Post

titles 5 Post

deformed 5 Post

transient 5 Post

replay 5 Post

apply result 5 Post

xy plotting 5 Post

fd blocks 5 3-D

spaceball 5 Permanent/option

postscript 5 Permanent/option

background 5 Permanent/option

page names 5 Permanent/option

fonts 5 Permanent/option

build menu 5 Tool

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Alphabetic Listing of Panels
Panel Name HyperMesh 3.0 Location

accels BCs

align node Geom

apply result Post

assemblies Geom, 1-D, 2-D, 3-D, BCs, Tool, Post

automesh 2-D

background Permanent/option

bars 1-D

build menu Tool

check elems Tool

circles Geom

cntl cards BCs

collectors Geom, 1-D, 2-D, 3-D, BCs, Tool, Post

color Geom, 1-D, 2-D, 3-D, BCs, Tool, Post

command Moved to files panel in all seven pages

cones 2-D

config edit 1-D, 2-D,3-D

constraints BCs

contour Post

count Tool

create nodes Geom

deformed Post

delete Tool

dependency Tool

detach 1-D, 2-D,3-D

distance Geom

drag 2-D, 3-D

edges Tool

edit element 1-D, 2-D,3-D

elem types 1-D, 2-D,3-D

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entity sets BCs

export data Moved to files panel in all seven pages

faces Tool

fd blocks 3-D

features Tool

files Geom, 1-D, 2-D, 3-D, BCs, Tool, Post

fillets Geom

find Tool

flux BCs

fonts Permanent/option

forces BCs

gaps 1-D

hidden line Post

import data Moved to files panel in all seven pages

interfaces BCs

intersect Geom

length Geom

line drag 2-D, 3-D

line edit Geom

linear 1D 1-D

linear solid 3-D

lines Geom

load steps BCs

load types BCs

mask Tool

mass Tool

masses 1-D

moments BCs

node edit Geom

normals Tool

numbers Tool

optimization Renamed to design vars (BCs)

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order change 1-D, 2-D,3-D

organize Geom, 1-D, 2-D, 3-D, BCs, Tool, Post

output block BCs

page names Permanent/option

permute Tool

planes 2-D

position Tool

postscript Permanent/option

pressures BCs

project Tool

rbe3 1-D

reflect Tool

remap Geom

rename Geom, 1-D, 2-D, 3-D, BCs, Tool, Post

renumber Tool

reorder Geom

reparam Geom

replace 1-D, 2-D,3-D

replay Post

rigid wall BCs

rigids 1-D

rods 1-D

rotate Tool

ruled 2-D

scale Tool

section cut Geom

skin 2-D

smooth 2-D, 3-D

solid map 3-D

solid mesh 3-D

solid offset Renamed to elem offset (2-D, 3-D)

spaceball Permanent/option

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spheres 2-D

spin 2-D, 3-D

spline 2-D

split 1-D, 2-D,3-D

springs 1-D

stitch Merged in geom cleanup panel

summary Tool

super elem BCs

surf lines Geom

surface edit Geom

system Geom, 1-D, BCs

T convert Enhanced and renamed to convert (Tool)

tangents Geom

temp nodes Geom, 1-D, 2-D, 3-D, BCs, Tool, Post

temperatures BCs

tetramesh 3-D

titles Post

torus 2-D

transient Post

translate Tool

vector plot Post

velocity BCs

welds 1-D

xy plotting Post

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Geometry Creating and Editing - HM-120
This tutorial explains how to create lines and surfaces with the geometry creation panels found on the
Geom page. The lines, line edit, circles, fillet, and translate panels are included. There are also
instructions about using the spline panel to create a surface. The completed geometry of this
exercise is illustrated below.

Completed geometry.

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Creating a Component Collector and Nodes for


Geometry

To create a component collector for geometry:

HyperMesh Tutorials 26 Altair Engineering


1. Select the collectors panel.

2.Select the create subpanel.

3. Click name = and enter geometry.

4. Click the switch under creation method and select no card image.

5. Click color and select color 12.

6. Click create.

7. Click return to exit the collectors panel.

To create nodes:

1. Select the view panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click right.

3. Select the Geom page.

4. Select the create nodes panel.

5. Select the type in subpanel.

6. To create the nodes, enter the X, Y, and Z coordinates found in the following table and click
create after entering each set of coordinates.

node X Y Z

1 0 5 0

2 5 5 0

3 5 5 -1

4 7 5 -1

5 5.5 5 0.5

6 2 5 -5

7. Click return to exit the create nodes panel after you finish creating all six nodes.

To display the node IDs:

1. Select the tools page.

2. Select the numbers panel.

3. Click the input collector switch and select nodes.

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4. Click nodes to display the extended entity selection menu.

5. Click all.

6. Click on to display all the node IDs.

Positions of the first 6 nodes.

HyperMesh Tutorials 28 Altair Engineering


Creating Lines and Fillets
To create lines:

1. Select the Geom page.

2. Select the lines panel.

3. Pick node 1 and node 2.

4. Click create to create a line between nodes 1 and 2.

5. Pick node 3 and node 4.

6. Click create to create a line between nodes 3 and 4.

7. Click return to exit the lines panel.

To create a circle:

1. Select the circles panel.

2. Select the center and radius subpanel.

3. Pick node 6 as the node list at which the circle is to be created.

4. Click the plane and vector collector switch and select N1, N2, N3.

5. Pick any four nodes to define the plane and the base for the axis of rotation.

6. Click radius and enter 5.0.

7. Click create.

8. Click return to exit the circles panel.

To edit lines by splitting at a line:

1. Select the line edit panel.

2. Select the split at line subpanel.

3. Click lines and pick the upper horizontal line.

4. Click cut line and pick the circle.

5. Click split.

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To edit lines by splitting at a plane:

1. Select the split at plane subpanel.

2. Click lines and pick the circle.

3. Click the plane and vector collector switch and select x-axis.

4. Click base and pick node 6 to define the base.

5. Click split.

6. Click return to exit the line edit panel.

To create a fillet and delete a line segment:

1. Select the fillets panel.

2. Click radius and enter 1.5.

3. Click the toggle and select trim.

4. Click 1st line. and pick the line between nodes 3 and 4.

5. Click 2nd line and pick the circle.

Two X’s are displayed to allow you to specify the quadrant in which you want the fillet created.

6. Select the upper quadrant for the fillet.

7. Press the F2 function key to access the delete panel.

8. Click the input collector switch and select lines.

9. Pick the line segment attached to node 2.

10. Pick the right half of the circle.

11. Click delete.

12. Click return to exit the delete panel.

13. Click return again to exit the fillets panel.

To combine and smooth lines:

1. Select the line edit panel.

2. Select the combine subpanel.

3. Pick the adjacent lines until all the segments are combined.

4. Select the split at joints subpanel.

HyperMesh Tutorials 30 Altair Engineering


5. Pick the line to view the joints in the line.

The joints are displayed as red ‘V’s. Do not split the line.

6. Select the smooth line subpanel.

7. Pick the line.

8. Click smooth.

9. Select the split at joint subpanel.

10. Pick the line.

A message is displayed that states, “The line does not contain any joints.” If there are still
joints in the line, repeat the smooth function.

11. Click return to exit the line edit panel.

To duplicate and translate lines:

1. Select the translate panel on the tools page.

2. Click the input collector switch and select lines.

3. Pick the line.

4. Click lines again to display the extended entity selection menu.

5. Click duplicate.

6. Click current comp to copy the new line into the current component.

7. Click view.

8. Click iso1.

9. Click the plane and vector collector switch and select y-axis.

10. Click magnitude = and enter 5.0.

11. Click translate -.

12. Click p on the permanent menu.

13. Click return to exit the translate panel.

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To create additional lines:

1. Select the Geom page.

2. Select the lines panel.

3. Pick node 1.

4. Click and hold down the left mouse button over the new line until a box cursor appears and lift
when the line is highlighted.

5. Pick the right end of the line to create a temporary node.

6. Click create.

7. Pick node 4.

8. Click and hold down the left mouse button over the new line until a box cursor appears and lift
when the line is highlighted.

9. Pick the left end of the line to create a temporary node.

10. Click create.

11. Click return.

To create additional nodes:

1. Select the create nodes panel.

2. Select the type in subpanel.

3. To create the nodes, enter the X, Y, and Z coordinates found in the following table and click
create after entering each set of coordinates.

node X Y Z

9 2 5 1

10 2 2 1

11 2 5 0

12 2 2 0

13 2 5 4

4. Click return.

HyperMesh Tutorials 32 Altair Engineering


To display the node IDs:

1. Select the Tool page.

2. Select the numbers panel.

3. Click the input collector switch and select nodes.

4. Click nodes to display the extended entity selection menu.

5. Click all.

6. Click return.

To create a circle and an arc:

1. Select the Geom page.

2. Select the circles panel.

3. Select the center & radius subpanel.

4. Pick node 13.

5. Click the plane and vector collector switch and select x-axis.

6. Click radius and enter 3.0.

7. Make sure the toggle is set to circle.

8. Click create.

9. Click the toggle to change to arc.

10. Pick node 13.

11. Click angle = and enter 180.

12. Click radius = and enter 1.0.

13. Click create.

14. Click return to exit the circles panel.

To create a tangent line:

1. Select the tangents panel.

2. Click the input collector switch and select node list.

3. Pick node 10 or 12.

4. Click line.

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5. Pick the circle that was created.

6. Click find tangent.

Two potential tangent lines are displayed.

7. Pick the vertical line.

The tangent line is created.

8. Click return to exit the tangents panel.

To edit the lines:

1. Select the line edit panel.

2. Select the split at plane subpanel.

3. Pick the circle as the line to be split.

4. Click the plane and vector switch and select y-axis.

5. Click base and pick node 1.

6. Click split.

7. Pick the left half of the circle.

8. Click the plane and vector switch and select x-axis.

9. Click base and pick node 13.

10. Click split.

11. Click return to exit the line edit panel.

To delete designated line segments:

1. Select the delete panel.

2. Click the input collector switch and select lines.

3. Pick any lines in your model that do not appear in the following illustration.

HyperMesh Tutorials 34 Altair Engineering


Rear view of lines created for the hitch model.

4. Click delete.

5. Click return to exit the delete panel.

To create additional lines:

1. Select the Geom page.

2. Select the lines panel.

3. Pick nodes 10 and 12.

4. Click create.

5. Click and hold the left mouse button until the box cursor appears and the center arc is
highlighted.

6. Pick each end of the arc to create a temporary node at each end.

7. Click and hold the left mouse button until the box appears and the outer arc is highlighted.

8. Pick at the end of that arc to place a temporary node there.

9. Use the arrow keys on the permanent menu to rotate the model as necessary to create the line
segments that define the bracket and the remainder of the hitch geometry.

10. Create a line between nodes 9 and 10.

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11. Create a line between nodes 11 and 12.

Completed geometry of the hitch model.

12. Click return.

Clearing Temp Nodes and Creating Surfaces


To clear all temp nodes:

1. Select the Geom page.

2. Select the temp nodes panel.

3. Click clear all.

4. Click return to exit the temp nodes panel.

To create a surface from lines:

HyperMesh Tutorials 36 Altair Engineering


1. Select the 2D page.

2. Select the spline panel.

3. Pick the four lines on the plate portion of the model.

4. Click the center switch and select surface only.

5. Click spline.

The surface appears as illustrated below. (Only the surface is displayed in this illustration.)

Surface created by using the spline panel.

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Geometry Clean Up - HyperMesh-130
This lesson introduces the geom cleanup panel. This panel is used to prepare surface geometry for
meshing. The gaps, overlaps and misalignments that occur when surfaces are imported into
HyperMesh can prevent the automesher from creating quality meshes. By eliminating misalignments
and holes and by suppressing the boundaries between adjacent surfaces, you can automesh across
larger, more logical regions of the model and improve overall meshing speed and quality.

The following topics are included:

• HyperMesh 3.0 terminology

• Geom cleanup panel features

• Surface edit/filler surface subpanel

• Using the geom cleanup and surface edit panels

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

HyperMesh 3.0 Terminology

New HyperMesh terminology

face A single NURB; the smallest area entity.

HyperMesh Tutorials 38 Altair Engineering


surface A collection of one or more adjacent faces whose common edges are
suppressed. HyperMesh meshes on surfaces.

free edge The edge is owned by one surface. In the geom cleanup panel, the
default color is red.

shared edge The edge is owned by two adjacent surfaces. In the geom cleanup
panel, the default color is green.

suppressed edge The edge is owned, or shared, by two adjacent surfaces. It is


transparent to the meshing routine. In the geom cleanup panel, the
default color is blue.

non-manifold edge The edge is owned by three or more surfaces. In the geom cleanup
panel, the default color is yellow.

fixed point A point associated with a surface. A fixed point is displayed as a small
circle (o) and is the same color as the surface to which it is associated.
The automesher places a finite element node at fixed points.

free point A point in space not associated with a surface. A free point is
displayed as a small x, (x), and is the same color as the geometry
collector to which it belongs.

Geom Cleanup Panel Features

geom cleanup, edges subpanel menu

cleanup tol = The tolerance used to determine if two surface edges or two surface
vertices should be considered as one.

NOTE:

Values for cleanup tol= can be specified in two locations. The global
value for cleanup tol= is in the options/modeling subpanel. The
local value for cleanup tol =, which is used for a specific cleanup
operation, is in the geom cleanup panel. Sometimes, operations
performed by the local cleanup tolerance can be lost by a global
cleanup tolerance overriding it.

An example of this is splitting a surface which was created by utilizing


a local cleanup tolerance. Since the surface edit panel uses the global
cleanup tolerance, all of the edges of the new surfaces will be
reevaluated by HyperMesh to determine their cleaned up status.

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It is recommended that a large value (reasonable with respect to the
element size) be used for the cleanup tol= in the options/modeling
subpanel. For example, for an element edge length of 10, a cleanup
tol of 0.1 (10/100) or .05 (10/500) should be used.

visual options Enables user to control display mode of surfaces and edges. View
surfaces in wire frame or shaded mode. Display on/off surface edge
types.

edges subpanel Used to remove gaps and overlaps between surfaces and to merge
surfaces together by modifying the edges of the surfaces.

toggle Convert individual surface edges from one edge type to another with
single mouse clicks. Free edge ⇒ shared edge ⇔ suppressed edge
(red ⇒ green ⇔ dotted blue).

replace Combine two free edges into a shared edge. Free edge ⇒ shared
edge (red ⇒ green).

(un)suppress Suppress or unsuppress a number of edges simultaneously. Shared


edge ⇔ suppressed edge (green ⇔ dotted blue).

equivalence Convert free edges between adjacent surfaces to shared edges. Free
edge ⇒ shared edge. (red ⇒ green).

geom cleanup, surfaces subpanel

surfaces subpanel Used to delete duplicate surfaces, remove surface holes, organize
surfaces.

find duplicates Find and delete duplicate surfaces. Non-manifold edge ⇒ shared or
free edge (yellow ⇒ green or red).

find holes Find and delete interior surface holes. Free edge ⇒ shared edge or
no edge (red ⇒ green or no color).

organize by feature Combine surfaces based on fillets. Shared edge ⇔ suppressed


edge (green ⇔ dotted blue).

move faces Stitch faces to an existing surface or stitch faces to create a new
surface. Shared edge ⇔ suppressed edge (green ⇔ dotted blue).

HyperMesh Tutorials 40 Altair Engineering


geom cleanup, fixed points subpanel

fixed points subpanel Used to add, replace, and suppress fixed points.

add Create fixed points from existing free points or nodes.

replace Delete point to be moved and relocate associated geometry to


retained point.

suppress Delete unnecessary fixed points or convert fixed points to free points.

Surface Edit/Filler Surface Subpanel


filler surface Fill in a hole in CAD data by selecting lines, nodes, or points. Similar to the
spline panel, with the exception that points cannot be selected in the
spline panel.

NOTE In the surface edit panel, the lines from surface edge subpanel no longer
exists. In most panels, surface edges can be used as lines.

Using the Geom Cleanup and Surface Edit Panels


In this exercise, you use the geom cleanup panel and the filler surface subpanel of the surface edit
panel to import surface geometry and prepare it for meshing.

To import surface geometry data file:

1. Select the files panel.

2. Select the import subpanel.

3. Double-click translator =.

4. Select iges, or if you are using a Windows version, select iges.exe.

5. Double-click file name =.

6. Select raw_iges_data.iges.

7. Click import.

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8. Click return.

9. Review the iges.msg message file.

In the iges.msg file, there are zero error and zero warning messages.

The message file has an .msg extension and is created in the directory in which HyperMesh
was invoked. After you import any file, it is good practice to review the message file for import
errors.

In the files / import subpanel, use file geom tolerance and use automatic cleanup tol are
default settings. It is recommended that these settings be used when you import CAD data files
into HyperMesh for the first time. Experienced users may want to override the default settings
based on prior knowledge with similar files. These options can be toggled to geom tol = and
cleanup tol =. For information about these tolerances and how to use them, see HyperMesh
Help.

The file geometry tolerance for this file is 1.E-06. File geometry tolerance is recorded in iges
files at the top of the files. For this exercise, the iges file’s top section follows:

HyperMesh Iges Preprocessor S0000001

1H,,1H;,15HHypermesh Model,9Htas2.iges,17HHyperMesh v3.0b10,4Hv1.0,32, G0000001

38,6,308,15,15HHypermesh Model,1.,2,2HYPERMESHM,1,0.,13H980709.084600,1.E-06,, G0000002

5HYPERMESHr. X,1HX,10,0,13H980709.084600; G0000003

116 1 0 0 1 0 0 000000000D0000001

116 0 0 1 0 0 0D0000002

To display surface IDs:

1. Select the Tool page.

2. Select the numbers panel.

3. Click the input collector switch and select surfs.

4. Click surfs and select all on the extended entity selection pop-up window.

5. Click on.

The IDs for the displayed surfaces are displayed.

6. Click return.

HyperMesh Tutorials 42 Altair Engineering


To renumber surfaces:

1. Select the Tool page.

2. Select the renumber panel.

3. Click the input collector switch and select surfs.

4. Click surfs and select all on the extended entity selection pop-up window.

5. Click renumber.

The header bar displays the message, “12 surfs ranging from 1 to 12. Completed Through ID:
0”.

6. Click return.

7. Click p on the permanent menu.

The new surface IDs are displayed in the graphics area.

Renumbered and displayed surface IDs

To save this work session as a HyperMesh database file:

1. Select the files panel.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = and enter geomcleanup.hm.

Altair Engineering 43 HyperMesh Tutorials


4. Click save.

The header bar displays the message, “The file has been saved.”

5. Click return.

To create non-solver specific component collectors:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Click the switch after collector type: and select comps.

3. Click name = and enter top.

4. Click the switch under creation method and select no card image.

5. If there is a name in the field following material =:

- Click material =.

- Click return.

The input field is now clear of that name.

6. Click color.

7. Select Color 5.

8. Click create.

A component collector named top, with a default material collector named top, is created.

9. Repeat steps 3-9 to create three more component collectors named middle1, with Color 4,
middle2, with Color 10, and bottom, with Color 9.

10. Click return.

To organize surfaces into component collectors:

1. Select the organize panel.

2. Move surfaces to the bottom component collector:

- Click the input collector switch and select surfs.

- Pick surfaces 10, 11, and 12.

- Click destination =.

- Select bottom.

- Click move.

3. Use the above procedure to move surfaces 3, 6, 8, and 9 to the middle1 component collector.

HyperMesh Tutorials 44 Altair Engineering


Surface 3 is hidden beneath surface 8.

4. Use the same procedure to move surfaces 4, 5, and 7 to the middle2 component collector.

5. Use the same procedure to move surfaces 1 and 2 to the top component collector.

6. Click return.

To save this work session:

1. Select the files panel.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

geomcleanup.HyperMesh. is displayed after file =.

3. Click save.

A dialog box displays the message “geomcleanup.HyperMesh exists. Overwrite? (y/n)”.

4. Click Yes.

5. Click return.

To change surface edges from free to shared using edges/equivalence subpanel:

1. Select the Geom page.

2. Select the geom cleanup panel.

3. Select the edges subpanel.

4. Click the equivalence radio button.

5. Click surfs and select displayed.

6. Click cleanup tol = and enter .05.

7. Click equivalence.

The message, “All surface edges within tolerance combined,” is displayed in the header bar.
Some free surface edges (red) became shared edges (green).

To identify and delete duplicate surfaces:

1. Select the surfaces subpanel.

2. Click the find duplicates radio button.

3. Click faces and select displayed from the extended entity selection pop-up window.

4. Click find.

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The message, “One face is duplicated,” is displayed in the header bar.

5. Click delete.

The message, “One face was deleted,” is displayed in the header bar.

To locate problem areas in geometry:

1. Click visual options.

2. Click the toggle to change from wireframe to shaded.

3. Click r on the permanent menu to rotate and view model.

The most obvious problems are a non-manifold edge, a missing surface between surfaces 10
and 11, and in the corner where surfaces 1, 3, 5, and 7 meet.

4. Click visual options.

5. Click the toggle to change from shaded to wireframe.

To delete interior surface holes:

1. Measure the hole diameter:

- Press the F4 function key to access the distance panel.

- Select the two nodes subpanel.

- Select any one of the three circles on surface 2:

- Press and hold left mouse button in the graphics area until the cursor changes into a
white square with a dot in the middle of it.

- Pick the circle and release the left mouse button.

- Pick a point on the highlighted circle.

- A green node is placed on the circle.

- Pick a point on the same circle that is across from the green node .

- A blue node is displayed on the circle.

- The number in the input field following distance = is a value less than 3.

- Click return.

- The geom cleanup panel is still displayed.

2. Select the find holes radio button.

3. Click surfs and select displayed from the extended entity selection pop-up window.

4. Click diameter < and enter 3.

5. Click find.

HyperMesh Tutorials 46 Altair Engineering


There is a P in the center of the four circles in the graphics area. The smallest diameter for
each of the circles is less than 3.

6. Click P in graphics area in the two circles on surface 2 that aren’t centered on surface 2.

The two Ps are highlighted white.

7. Click delete.

The two circles are deleted from the database.

NOTE HyperMesh finds circular and non-circular shaped holes; the holes don’t
need to be perfect circles. The diameter is treated as a characteristic
dimension.

To combine two free edges into a shared edge using surfaces / replace subpanel:

1. Select the edges subpanel.

2. Click replace on left side of menu panel.

3. Pick the surface 10 edge that is parallel and closest to a surface 11 edge.

4. Pick the surface 11 edge that is parallel and closest to the surface 10 edge just selected.

5. Click replace on the right side of the menu panel.

The header bar displays the message, “Gap distance (0.602170) is larger than specified
tolerance”.

6. Click cleanup tol = and enter 0.61.

7. Repeat steps 3 - 5.

NOTE Do not set the cleanup tolerance to unreasonably high values. New edges are
generated based on the cleanup tolerance. The cleanup tolerance not only
affects the selected entities, but it affects the edges that touch the selected
entities at vertices. The generated edges are accurate only to within the set
cleanup tolerance. As a result, if unreasonably high tolerances are used,
small gaps can increase in distance up to the set tolerance.

The geom cleanup edges / toggle subpanel can also be used to combine the
surface 10 and 11 edges.

If the shortest distance between two surface edges is greater than the
intended element size, do not use this function. Instead, use the surface filler
subpanel on the surface edit panel. Create a filler surface and toggle surface
edges to suppressed edges accordingly. Another panel that can be used is
the drag geoms subpanel in the drag panel.

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To replace a fixed point:

1. Select the fixed points subpanel.

2. Click the replace radio button.

3. Zoom into the corner of surface 9 which borders surface 1 and is on the perimeter of model.

4. Pick the surface 1 corner node.

5. Pick the surface 9 corner node.

6. Click replace.

The surface 9 corner node is replaced with the surface 1 corner node.

To combine free edges to create shared edges using the edges/toggle subpanel:

1. Select the edges subpanel.

2. Select the toggle radio button.

3. Click f on the permanent menu to fit displayed components to the graphics area.

4. Pick surface 3 free edge adjacent to surface 1.

The surface edge becomes green. The surface edge selected in the edges/toggle subpanel is
the retained edge. The other edge, which is found automatically, is the edge which is moved.

5. Pick the surface 9 free edge adjacent to surface 1.

6. Pick the surface 3 free edge adjacent to surface 11.

7. Pick the surface 3 free edge adjacent to surface 5.

8. Pick any other interior free edges.

9. Click visual options.

10. Deactivate the shared edges check box to turn the display of these edges off.

11. Deactivate the fixed points to turn the display of these points off.

Only the free edges that define the model perimeter and the interior holes remain.

12. Click visual options.

13. Activate the shared edges check box to turn display of the edges on.

14. Activate the fixed points check box to turn display of the points on.

HyperMesh Tutorials 48 Altair Engineering


To stitch surfaces:

1. Click (un)suppress.

2. Pick the line between surfaces 4 and 6.

3. Pick the line between surfaces 3 and 5.

4. Pick the two linear lines between surfaces 3 and 9.

5. Click suppress.

The selected lines change from shared (green) to suppressed (blue) edges.

6. Click return.

The suppressed surface edges are not displayed in the graphics area. They still exist in the
model and can be toggled back to shared edges in the geom cleanup panel.

NOTE The resulting stitched surface is located in the component collector of the
stitched surface having the lowest id. As a result of surfaces 4 and 6 being
stitched together, the stitched surface is located in middle2 component
collector where surface 4 was originally located. As a result of surfaces 3, 5,
and 9 being stitched together, the stitched surface is located in middle1
component collector where surface 3 was originally located.

In the geom cleanup panel, HyperMesh treats lines and surface edges the
same. It is recommended that lines be displayed off or masked so that
surface edges can be selected more easily.

To use the surface edit / filler surface subpanel:

1. Select surface edit.

2. Click filler surface.

3. Zoom into the corner in which surfaces 1, 3, and 7 meet.

4. Click the three lines in the graphics area. Each line is between two fixed points.

The selected lines are highlighted white.

5. Click create.

Question dialog box pops-up stating “Lines appear planar, project to plane? (y/n)”.

6. Click Yes.

A surface was created using the selected three lines.

7. Click return.

8. Click geom cleanup.

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9. Click edges.

10. Click toggle.

11. Of the three lines selected in surface edit / filler surface subpanel, pick the line closest to the
center of the model. The shared (green) edges are suppressed (blue).

HyperMesh Tutorials 50 Altair Engineering


The Automeshing Module - HM-135
The automeshing module allows you to create meshes interactively on one surface, or even without
a surface present. You can use the subpanels in the automeshing module to automatically mesh
specified surfaces by providing an element edge length. You can also interactively select and mesh
multiple surfaces. You can adjust the biasing, density, mesh parameters for chordal deviation and
tria-transition, and element types before accepting the mesh. After creating the mesh, you can use
the remesh option to remesh the surfaces.

The following exercises are included:

• Automesh Panel Features

• Using the Automeshing Module and the Remesh Function

• Surface Cleanup in the Automesh Panel

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Automesh Panel Features


The automesh panel includes six subpanels: interactive, automatic, mesh params, cleanup, add
points, and remove points.

Figure 1 - automesh, interactive subpanel menu

interactive subpanel Allows you to mesh surfaces in an interactive mode. You can set
single or multiple meshing parameters before you create the mesh
and you can remesh surfaces.

NOTE:

After the initial mesh is created, the automeshing module is


displayed so that you can adjust and check the mesh before you
accept it.

Once a surface has been prepared for the automeshing module,


that information is retained and updated by any changes you make
to the meshing parameters while in the automeshing module. The
next time the surface is brought into the automeshing module, the

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saved data is used as the starting point for the mesh parameters
unless the remesh mesh params to: item is selected, in which
case, the old information is discarded and new values computed.

reset mesh prarms to: Resets the meshing parameters. If you bring a saved surface into
the automeshing module and you select reset mesh prarms to:,
the new values are used and the old information is discarded.

elem size = Allows you to specify the element edge size to use to pre-calculate
default element densities along the edges of the surface.

NOTE:

This tutorial uses the element size = option.

use mesh params Allows you to specify additional meshing controls, such as chordal
deviation meshing or tria transition meshing.

elements to current comp Saves the elements that are created within the current component,
regardless of their original component.

elements to surface’s comp Saves the elements that are created within the component to which
the surface belongs.

remesh Allows you to remesh surfaces with poor element quality. The
existing mesh is deleted before the surface is remeshed.

highlight surfs HyperMesh scans the displayed surfaces for defined mesh and
highlights those surfaces which failed to create a mesh in the last
attempt.

automatic subpanel Allows you to mesh surfaces automatically. You can set meshing
parameters before you create the mesh and you can remesh
surfaces. It has the same features as the interactive subpanel,
except that it creates elements on a surface without invoking the
automeshing module.

Figure 2 - automatic, mesh params subpanel menu, tria transition option

HyperMesh Tutorials 52 Altair Engineering


Figure 3 - automatic, mesh params subpanel menu, chordal deviation option

mesh params subpanel The mesh params subpanel allows you to set specific meshing
parameters before meshing the selected surface(s). You can
choose to use size and biasing, described in tutorial HM-140, or
specify chordal deviation values, described in tutorial HM-141.

Figure 4 - automatic, cleanup subpanel menu

cleanup subpanel Allows you to modify surface topology by splitting a surface from
node to node, replacing points, and toggling edges.

split surf After selecting two nodes, HyperMesh splits the surface from the
location of the first node to the location of the second node along
the normal projection of the straight line between the selected
points. The line that HyperMesh creates is temporary. Split surf
mirrors the trim with two nodes function on the surface edit
panel.

unsplit surf Removes a surface split line from associated surfaces, and deletes
them from the model. You can use this function to remove
pinholes, for example. Unsplit surf mirrors the remove interior
trim lines function on the surface edit panel.

replace points Deletes the point to be moved and relocates the associated
geometry to the retained point. Replace points mirrors the
replace points function on the geom cleanup panel.

toggle Converts individual surface edges from one edge type to another
with single mouse clicks. For instance, if you use toggle, you can
click once on a free edge that has a neighboring free edge within
tolerance to combine the two free edges into a single shared edge.
You can also use this function to suppress and unsuppress edges.

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Toggle mirrors the toggle function on the geom cleanup
panel/edges subpanel.

add points subpanel Allows you to add fixed points to a surface from existing free
points or nodes. It mirrors the add points subpanel on the geom
cleanup panel.

remove points subpanel Allows you to suppress fixed points by deleting the selected points
or converting them to free points. It mirrors the suppress points
subpanel on the geom cleanup panel.

Using the Automeshing Module and the Remesh


Function
In this tutorial, mesh selected surfaces using the automeshing module, remesh selected surfaces,
and delete elements using the remesh option.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the clean_up_geom.hm31 file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
clean_up_geom.hm31 file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

To display surface IDs:

1. Select the numbers panel on Tool page.

2. Click the input collector switch and select surfs.

3. Click surfs and select all from the extended entity selection menu.

4. Click on.

5. Click return.

HyperMesh Tutorials 54 Altair Engineering


Figure 5

To automesh surfaces using the automeshing module:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click component = and select bottom.

3. Click element size = and enter 2.0.

4. Click return.

The element type default setting, quad, is retained.

6. Select the automesh panel on the 2-D or 3-D page.

7. Select the interactive subpanel.

8. Click the lowest toggle and select elements to surface’s comp.

9. Click surfs and pick surfaces 6 and 7 from the model.

10. Click mesh.

HyperMesh goes to the automesh module.

11. Click mesh and review the temporary mesh.

To change the meshing algorithm:

1. Select the algorithm subpanel.

2. Click mesh and review the temporary mesh settings.

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NOTE The blue squares on surfaces 6 and 7 indicate that HyperMesh will create the
mesh using the mapped as rectangle meshing algorithm.

3. Click the switch below meshing algorithm: and select advancing front.

4. Pick the square at the center of surface 6. The square changes to reflect the advancing front
algorithm.

5. Click mesh.

Notice that the mesh changes

6. Click the switch below meshing algorithm: and select map as triangle.

7. Pick the square at the center of surface 6. The square changes to a triangle to reflect the map
as triangle algorithm.

8. Click mesh.

The header bar displays the following message: “Unable to recognize triangular shape.”

NOTE Apply the map as triangle algorithm to a surface with three sides only. Apply
the map as pentagon algorithm to a surface with five sides only.

9. Click the switch below meshing algorithm: and select advancing front.

10. Pick the square at the center of surface 6. The square changes to reflect the advancing front
algorithm.

11. Click mesh.

To change the smoothing algorithm:

1. Click the switch below smoothing algorithm and select shape corrected.

2. Click set all next to shape corrected to apply the algorithm to the selected surfaces.

3. Click mesh.

Notice how the mesh changes.

4. Click the switch below smoothing algorithm and select no smoothing.

5. Click set all next to no smoothing to apply the algorithm to the selected surfaces.

6. Click mesh.

Notice how the mesh changes.

7. Click the switch below smoothing algorithm and select autodecide.

8. Click the switch below meshing algorithm and select autodecide.

9. Click set all next to autodecide to apply the algorithm to the selected surfaces.

HyperMesh Tutorials 56 Altair Engineering


10. Click mesh.

To change the meshing element type:

1. Select the type subpanel.

2. Click the switch under element type: and select mixed:

3. Click set all.

4. Click mesh.

Notice how the mesh changes.

5. Click on the switch under element type: and select quads.

6. Click set all.

7. Click mesh.

Notice how the mesh changes.

To change the mapping parameters:

1. Select the details subpanel.

2. Pick the diamond-shaped icon on surface 6.

3. Click size control.

4. Click mesh.

Notice how the mesh changes.

5. Deactivate size control.

6. Activate skew control.

7. Click mesh.

Notice how the mesh changes.

8. Activate size control.

Both skew control and size control should be activated.

9. Click mesh.

Notice how the mesh changes.

10. Deactivate size control and skew control.

NOTE The mesh generated by either type of element shape is influenced by the size
control and the skew control.

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To change the element density on selected edges:

1. Select the density subpanel.

2. Click elem density = and enter 10.

3. Click set edge to.

4. Pick the density numbers on the top and bottom edges of surfaces 6 and 7 (see Figure 6).

The density numbers on those edges change to 10.

5. Click elem density = and enter 3.

6. Click set edge to.

7. Pick the density numbers on the three short edges of surfaces 6 and 7 (see Figure 6).

The density numbers on those edges change to 3.

Figure 6

To change the element biasing on selected edges:

1. Select the biasing subpanel.

2. Click bias intensity = and enter -4.00.

3. Click set edge next to bias intensity.

4. Click the bias intensity numbers on the shared edges between surfaces 4, 6 and 7 (see Figure
7).

HyperMesh Tutorials 58 Altair Engineering


5. Click mesh.

To check the element quality:

1. Select the checks subpanel.

2. Click the data entry field next to jacobian and enter 0.85.

3. Click jacobian.

Any element on the model that fails to meet the minimum jacobian value is highlighted in red.
The minimum jacobian value is displayed in the header bar.

4. Click skew.

The maximum skew angle is displayed in the header bar.

5. Click the return to accept the mesh.

Figure 7

To mesh surface 4:

1. Select the interactive subpanel.

2. Pick surface 4 from the graphics area (see Figure 7).

3. Click mesh.

Review the temporary node and element placements.

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NOTE Make sure not to activate reset the mesh parameters to:.
The densities will automatically match the previously meshed
bottom surfaces and have coincident nodes. The default node
densities set in the global panel are assigned elsewhere
around the surfaces. Activating reset meshing parameters
to: causes HyperMesh to use the default mesh parameters
and as a result, the meshes will not coincide.

4. Click mesh.

5. Click return.

NOTE The mesh on surfaces 6 and 7 is assigned to the component bottom, and
the elements on surface 4 are assigned to the component middle, the same
component of their associate surfaces.

Figure 8

To remesh the meshed surfaces with new parameters:

1. Select the interactive subpanel.

2. Make sure surfs is highlighted and select surfaces 4,6, and 7.

3. Click remesh.

4. Change the node densities as shown in Figure 9.

- Click elem density = and enter the new value.

- Click set edge to.

- Pick the density number on the model.

- Repeat these steps for the remaining new density values.

5. Select the biasing subpanel.

HyperMesh Tutorials 60 Altair Engineering


6. Click bias intensity = and enter 0.00.

7. Click the upper set all.

8. Click mesh.

9. Click return to accept the new mesh.

Figure 9

To delete elements using the remesh button:

1. Select the interactive subpanel.

2. Make sure surfs is highlighted and select surfaces 4,6, and 7.

3. Click remesh.

4. Click return.

The elements of the surfaces are deleted. This is a way to delete elements without leaving the
automesh panel.

Surface Cleanup in the Automesh Panel


In this tutorial, use the cleanup, add points, and remove points subpanels to create a mesh.
These subpanels allow you to cleanup surfaces without leaving the automesh panel.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

Altair Engineering 61 HyperMesh Tutorials


1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the clean_up_geom.hm31 file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
clean_up_geom.hm31 file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

To display surface IDs:

1. Select the numbers panel on Tool page.

2. Click the input collector switch and select surfs.

3. Click surfs and select all from the extended entity selection menu.

4. Click on.

5. Click return.

To remove pinholes from selected surfaces:

1. Select the options panel on the permanent menu.

2. Select the modeling subpanel.

3. Click cleanup tol = and enter 0.2.

4. Click return.

5. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

6. Click elem size and enter 2.0.

7. Click return.

8. Select the automesh panel on the 2-D or 3-D page.

9. Select the cleanup subpanel.

10. Click line below unsplit surf:.

HyperMesh Tutorials 62 Altair Engineering


11. Pick the pinhole on the circle of surface 1 and the pinhole on the middle circle of surface 3.

The selected pinholes and the trim lines are removed (see Figure 10).

12. Click p to refresh the screen.

To suppress and unsuppress a surface edge:

1. While still in the cleanup subpanel, click line below toggle:.

The cleanup tolerance of 0.200 is automatically displayed in the cleanup tol = data entry field.

2. Pick the green shared edge between surfaces 6 and 7 (see Figure 10).

Surface 7 is not shown in Figure 10 because the shared edge is suppressed.

3. Click p to refresh the screen.

The edge is removed.

Figure 10

To mesh surfaces 4 and 6:

1. Select the interactive subpanel.

2. Make sure surfs is highlighted and select surfaces 4 and 6 (see Figure 10).

3. Click the lower toggle and select elements to surface’s comp.

NOTE The elem size = data entry field displays 2.0, due to the change made in the
global panel in the previous procedure.

4. Click mesh.

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HyperMesh goes to the automeshing module.

5. Click mesh and review the default edge densities.

6. Select the checks subpanel.

7. Click the data entry field after jacobian and enter 0.6.

8. Click jacobian.

The temporary elements with jacobian values less than 0.6 are highlighted. The minimum
jacobian value is displayed in the header bar.

9. Select the density subpanel.

10. Set the element densities as shown in Figure 11.

NOTE While in the density subpanel, left click on a density number to increase it,
and right click on a density number to decrease it.

11. Repeat steps 6-8.

12. Click return to accept the mesh.

NOTE The newly created elements are placed in the same component collectors as
their associated surfaces.

Figure 11

To add fixed points to surfaces 5 and 8:

1. Select the add points subpanel

2. Pick surface 5 from the graphics area (see Figure 10).

HyperMesh Tutorials 64 Altair Engineering


3. Click the switch and select points.

4. Click points and select by comps from the extended entity selection menu.

5. Select Points.

6. Click select.

7. The seven points, displayed as x’s and offset from surface 5, are highlighted.

8. A value of 0.200 is displayed in the cleanup tol = data entry field.

9. Click add to create fixed points on surface 5. These are displayed as o’s.

NOTE Fixed points are associated with the middle component.

To mesh surfaces 5 and 8:

1. Select the interactive subpanel.

2. Make sure surfs is highlighted and pick surfaces 5 and 8.

3. Click mesh.

HyperMesh goes to the density subpanel.

4. Click mesh.

5. Select the checks subpanel to review element quality.

6. Select the density subpanel.

7. Set the element densities as shown in Figure 12.

NOTE While in the density subpanel, left click on a density number to increase it,
and right click on a density number to decrease it.

8. Select the biasing subpanel.

9. Right click the biasing number on the edge between surfaces 5 and 8 to set its value to –1.0.

10. Click return to accept the mesh.

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Figure 12 - Observe the mesh on surface 5 and how the fixed points affect the placement of the nodes.

To trim the selected surfaces:

1. Select the cleanup subpanel.

2. Click the upper node below split surf:.

3. Pick the shared edge between surfaces 2 and 3.

A node is created at that location.

NOTE A node can be created by clicking anywhere along the edge. You don’t have to
highlight the edge or wait until the cursor becomes a box.

4. After the first node is selected, the lower node below split surf: is highlighted automatically.
Click the vertex of surface 3 opposite the node you created in step 3.

As shown in Figure 13, a line connecting these two nodes is used to trim surface 3 at the
normal direction.

5. Repeat steps 1 - 4 to trim surface 1 and surface 2 as shown in Figure 13.

HyperMesh Tutorials 66 Altair Engineering


Figure 13

To add fixed points to the edge between surfaces 2 and 3:

1. Select the add points subpanel.

2. Make sure surfs is highlighted and pick surface 2.

3. Click the upper switch and select nodes.

4. While node list is highlighted, pick the edge between surfaces 2 and 3.

5. Wait until the edge is highlighted and the cursor changes from + to a square. Click the left
mouse button to assign a fixed point.

6. Click add.

7. Repeat steps 1 - 6 to add fixed points to the edge between surfaces 9 and 10.

NOTE Place these two nodes so that they break the edge into sections similar to the edge
between surfaces 2, 5, and 11, and the edge between surface 10, 1, and 4 (see
Figure 13).

To mesh the remaining surfaces:

1. Select the interactive subpanel.

2. Make sure surfs is highlighted and pick surfaces 1, 2, 3, 9, 10, and 11 (see Figure 13).

3. Set the element densities as shown in Figure 14.

NOTE While in the density subpanel, left click on a density number to increase it,
and right click on a density number to decrease it.

4. Click mesh and review the mesh.

Altair Engineering 67 HyperMesh Tutorials


5. Click return to accept the mesh.

The complete model is displayed in Figure 15.

6. Click return to exit the automesh panel.

Figure 14

Figure 15

HyperMesh Tutorials 68 Altair Engineering


To check the element quality:

1. Select the check elems panel on the Tool page.

2. Select the 2-d subpanel.

3. Click assign plot.

4. Select jacobian to review the element quality.

5. Repeat these steps to perform additional element quality checks.

6. Click return to access the main menu.

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Automeshing Tria Transition Features - HM-140
In this tutorial, create 2-D finite elements to demonstrate the mesh quality produced using the options
on the mesh params subpanel and automeshing module

Perform the exercises in the following order:

• Using the Quads Mapped Mesh Element Type and the Smoothing Controls

• Using the Mixed Mapped Mesh Element Type and the Smoothing Controls

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Using the Quads Mapped Mesh Element Type and


the Smoothing Controls

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the tria_trans.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
tria_trans.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

To display the surface IDs:

1. Select the numbers panel on the Tools page.

2. Click the input collector switch and select surfs.

3. Click surfs and select all from the extended entity selection menu.

4. Click display

HyperMesh Tutorials 70 Altair Engineering


5. Click return to access the main menu.

To select the collector type:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click component = and select quads_size_only.

3. Click return to exit the global panel.

4. Click return to exit the numbers panel.

To set the mesh parameters:

1. Select the automesh panel on the 2-D or 3-D page.

2. Select the mesh params subpanel.

3. Click the leftmost toggle and select use size and biasing.

4. Click elem size = and enter 1.000.

5. Click the switch under mapped mesh elem type and select quads.

6. Activate size control and deactivate skew control, if necessary.

To mesh the surface and create elements:

1. Select the interactive subpanel.

2. Click surfs and select all from the extended entity selection menu.

3. Click mesh.

4. Review the densities and click mesh to preview the elements.

5. Click return.

Note that some of the elements may need to be modified.

• Repeat the steps using the quads_skew_only component and the skew option activated.

• Repeat the steps using the quads_size_skew component and the skew and size options
activated.

• Compare the elements created with each of the options:

Altair Engineering 71 HyperMesh Tutorials


Quads Size Only

Quads Skew Only

HyperMesh Tutorials 72 Altair Engineering


Quads Size and Skew

Using the Mixed Mapped Mesh Element Type and


the Smoothing Controls

To set the collector type:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click component = and select mixed_size_only.

3. Click return to exit the global panel.

To set the mesh parameters:

1. Select the automesh panel on the 2-D or 3-D page.

2. Select the mesh params subpanel.

3. Click the leftmost toggle and select use size and biasing.

4. Click elem size = and enter 1.000.

5. Click the switch under mapped mesh elem type and select mixed.

6. Activate size control and deactivate skew control, if necessary.

Altair Engineering 73 HyperMesh Tutorials


To mesh the surface and create elements:

1. Select the interactive subpanel.

2. Click surfs and select all from the extended entity selection menu.

3. Click mesh.

4. Review the densities and click mesh to preview the elements.

5. Click return.

Note that some of the elements may need to be modified.

• Repeat the steps using the mixed_skew_only component and the skew option activated.

• Repeat the steps using the mixed_size_skew component and the skew and size options
activated.

• Compare the elements created with each of the options:

Mixed Size Only

HyperMesh Tutorials 74 Altair Engineering


Mixed Skew Only

Mixed Size and Skew

Altair Engineering 75 HyperMesh Tutorials


Chordal Deviation Meshing - HM-141
This tutorial explains the effects of the chordal deviation parameters in the automesh panel. Chordal
deviation is a meshing algorithm that allows HyperMesh to automatically vary node densities and
biasing along curved surface edges to gain a more accurate representation of the surface being
meshed.

Since each procedure builds on the preceding section, you should start with the first exercise and
continue doing the exercises in the following order:

• The Chordal Deviation Options

• Creating a Mesh Based Only on Element Size

• The Maximum Deviation Parameter

• The Maximum Angle Parameter

• The Maximum Element Size Parameter

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

The Chordal Deviation Options


The chordal deviation options are located on the mesh params subpanel of the automesh panel. By
default, meshing a surface from the interactive and automatic subpanels ignores all settings in the
mesh params subpanel. To include the mesh parameter settings, set the element size = toggle to
use mesh params in the interactive or automatic subpanels of the automesh panel.

The mesh params subpanel is divided into two halves. The left half contains the options for chordal
deviation meshing. The right half contains options for the tria transition meshing algorithm described
in tutorial HM-140-L.

use size and biasing / use chordal deviation Used to activate or deactivate chordal
toggle deviation meshing.

use size and biasing arranges the nodes


that lie on the surface edges equidistant
from each other and at a spacing
approximately equal to the specified
element size.

use chordal deviation automatically


adjusts the surface edge densities and

HyperMesh Tutorials 76 Altair Engineering


biasing values based on the specified
chordal deviation criteria discussed below.

For more information on using the


automesh panel with the use size and
biasing option, please see tutorial HM-
135-L

min elem size and max elem size Controls the nodal densities along surface
edges.

The largest distance between two nodes is


the max elem size.

The smallest distance between two nodes


is the min elem size.

The element size parameters take


precedence over all other chordal deviation
parameters.

max deviation Defines the maximum allowable distance


between an edge of the surface being
meshed and an element edge.

max angle Defines the maximum allowable angle


between two element edges.

The chordal deviation parameters are also available in the density subpanel of the automeshing
module.

Creating a Mesh Based Only on Element Size


In this tutorial, create a mesh using only element size, not the chordal deviation meshing parameters.

Altair Engineering 77 HyperMesh Tutorials


Compare the mesh created in this tutorial with those created in the following tutorials, which use the
chordal deviation mesh parameters:

• The Maximum Deviation Parameter

• The Maximum Angle Parameter

• The Maximum Element Size Parameter

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the chordal_dev.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
chordal_dev.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

To set the mesh parameters and create the mesh:

1. Select the automesh panel on the 2-D page.

2. Select the automatic subpanel.

3. Activate reset meshing parameters to:.

4. Click elem size = and enter 15.000.

5. Click the lowest toggle and select elements to surface’s comp.

6. Click surfs and select by comps from the extended entity selection menu.

HyperMesh goes to the display panel.

7. Select use size from the component list.

8. Click select.

9. Click mesh to create the mesh.

10. Click return.

HyperMesh Tutorials 78 Altair Engineering


View of the completed mesh for this exercise.

The Maximum Deviation Parameter


In this tutorial, mesh a set of surfaces using the maximum deviation parameter to control the element
densities and biasing.

To set the chordal deviation parameters:

1. Select the automesh panel on the 2-D page.

2. Click the upper toggle and select use mesh params.

HyperMesh now uses the settings in the mesh params subpanel.

3. Select the mesh params subpanel.

4. Click the leftmost toggle and select use chordal deviation.

5. Click min elem size = and enter 1.000.

NOTE You can cycle through the parameter settings by pressing


the TAB key after typing in a value.

6. Set max elem size = to 15.000.

7. Set max deviation = to 0.500.

8. Set max angle = to 90.000 for the maximum angle parameter to be neglected.

To create the mesh:

1. Select the automatic subpanel.

2. Click surfs and select by comps from the extended entity selection menu.

Altair Engineering 79 HyperMesh Tutorials


HyperMesh goes to the display panel.

3. Select deviation ctrl from the component list.

4. Click select.

5. Click mesh to create the mesh.

6. Click return to access the automesh subpanel.

View of the completed mesh for this exercise.

The Maximum Angle Parameter


In this tutorial, use the same chordal deviation settings from the previous tutorial, but reduce the
maximum angle parameter to compare the effects.

To set the chordal deviation parameters:

1. Select the mesh params subpanel.

2. Click the leftmost toggle and select use chordal deviation.

3. Click min elem size = and enter 1.000

NOTE You can cycle through the parameter settings by


pressing the TAB key after typing in a value.

4. Set max elem size = to 15.000

5. Set max deviation = to 0.500

6. Set max angle = to 20.000

To create the mesh:

1. Select the automatic subpanel.

2. Click surfs and select by comps from the extended entity selection menu.

HyperMesh Tutorials 80 Altair Engineering


HyperMesh goes to the display panel.

3. Select angle ctrl from the component list.

4. Click select.

5. Click mesh to create the mesh.

View of the completed mesh for this exercise.

The Maximum Element Size Parameter


In this tutorial, use the same chordal deviation parameters from the previous exercise except for the
maximum element size parameter. The maximum element size parameter is increased to allow the
algorithm to create larger and fewer elements along planer and less curved surface edges.

To set the chordal deviation parameters:

1. Select the mesh params subpanel.

2. Click the leftmost toggle and select use chordal deviation.

3. Click min elem size = and enter 1.000.

NOTE You can cycle through the parameter settings by


pressing the TAB key after typing in a value.
4. Set max elem size = to 30.000.

5. Set max deviation = to 0.500.

6. Set max angle = to 20.000.

To create the mesh:

1. Select the automatic subpanel.

2. Click surfs and select by comps from the extended entity selection menu.

Altair Engineering 81 HyperMesh Tutorials


HyperMesh goes to the display panel.

3. Select max size ctrl from the component list.

4. Click select.

5. Click mesh to create the mesh.

View of the completed mesh for this exercise.

HyperMesh Tutorials 82 Altair Engineering


Connecting Components - HM - 200
This tutorial demonstrates how to connect components using the following panels:

rigids panel Create single and multi-node MPC’s

welds panel Create weld elements

rbe3 panel Create RBE3’s

springs panel Define and create springs

equations panel Constrain a model using equations

The following exercises are included:

• Using rigids and rigidlinks to join elements and components

• Using welds to join element and components

• Using RBE3s and spring elements to model a rubber grommet

• Using equations to simulate a basic contact constraint between components

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Using Rigids and Rigidlinks


In this tutorial, use rigids and rigidlinks to join elements and components.

The rigids menu panel allows you to create rigid or rigid link elements. A rigid element is an
element created in a space between two nodes of a model where a rigid connection is desired.

Rigid elements are displayed as a line between two nodes with the letter R written at the centroid of
the element.

Rigid link elements are displayed as lines between the independent node and the dependent
node(s) with RL displayed at the independent node of the element.

Rigids can translate to RBE2 in NASTRAN or *MPC in ABAQUS.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

Altair Engineering 83 HyperMesh Tutorials


HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the connect1.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
connect1.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

To create nodes at the center of the holes in parts 1 and 2:

1. Select distance panel on the Tool page.

2. Select the three nodes subpanel.

3. Select any three nodes (N1/N2/N3) on the perimeter of the large hole in part 1.

4. Click circle center.

A circle is created in the center of the three nodes you selected on part 1.

5. Select any three nodes (N1/N2/N3) on the perimeter of the large hole in part 2.

6. Click circle center.

A circle is created in the center of the three nodes you selected on part 2.

7. Select any three nodes (N1/N2/N3) on the perimeter of the small hole in component A.

8. Click circle center

A circle is created in the center of the three nodes you selected on component A.

9. Select any three nodes (N1/N2/N3) on the perimeter of the small hole in component B.

10. Click circle center

A circle is created in the center of the three nodes you selected on component B.

11. Click return to access the main menu.

To change the current component to rigids:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click component = and select rigids.

3. Click return.

HyperMesh Tutorials 84 Altair Engineering


To create rigidlinks at the large holes:

1. Select the rigids panel on the 1-D page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch next to dependent: and select multiple nodes.

4. Pick a node at the center of the large hole on part 1 to be the independent node:.

5. Pick nodes on the perimeter of the hole on part 1 to be the dependent node.

6. Click create

7. Pick a node at the center of the large hole on part 2 to be the independent node:.

8. Pick nodes on the perimeter of the hole on part 2 to be the dependent node.

9. Click create

You model should look like the figure below.

10. Click return to access the main menu.

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To create a node at the mid-point between the two rigidlinks:

1. Select the distance panel on the Tool page.

2. Select the two nodes subpanel.

3. Select two nodes (N1/N2) at the center of each rigid link.

4. Click nodes between = and enter 1.

5. Click nodes between to create the mid-point node.

6. Click return.

To join the rigidlinks with two rigid elements:

1. Select the rigids panel on the1-D page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch next to dependent: and select single node.

4. Pick the mid-point node created in the previous exercise to be the independent: node:.

5. Pick a node at the center of one of the rigid links on part 1 to be the dependent node.

6. Repeat steps 4 & 5 for the mid-point node and the other rigid link.

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Using Welds
In this tutorial, use welds to join elements and components.

The welds panel allows you to create normally aligned rigid elements between two plate elements.
Place weld elements between the sections of your model that are to be welded.

Weld elements are displayed as a line between two nodes with the letter W written at the centroid of
the element.

Welds can translate to RBAR in NASTRAN or *mpc in ABAQUS.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the connect2.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under

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/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
connect2.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

To change the current component to welds:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click component = and select welds.

3. Click return.

To create spot welds joining part1 and part2:

1. Select the welds panel on the 1-D page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click length = and enter 0.000.

4. Click the toggle and select without systems.

5. Deactivate move node.

6. Pick the node on component A and the adjacent node on part 1.

7. Pick the node on component B and the adjacent node on part 2.

8. Click return.

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Using RBE3s
In this tutorial, use RBE3s to join elements and components.

The rbe3 panel allows you to create, review, and update RBE3 elements. The update subpanel
allows you to edit the connectivity, dofs, and weight for each node of the element.

RBE3 elements are displayed as lines between the dependent node and the independent node(s)
with RBE3 displayed at the dependent node of the element.

RBE3’s define the motion at a reference grid point -the dependent node- as the weighted average
of the motions at a set of other grid points -the independent nodes. RBE3 is used in NASTRAN.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

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4. Select the connect3.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
connect3.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

To change the current component to rigids:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click component = and select rigids.

3. Click return.

To create RBE3’s at the small holes:

1. Select the rbe3 panel on the 1-D page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Pick a node at the center of the small hole on component A to be the dependent node.

4. Pick nodes on the perimeter of component A to be the independent nodes.

5. Click create.

6. Pick a node at the center of the small hole on component B to be the dependent node.

7. Pick nodes on the perimeter of component B to be the independent nodes.

8. Click create.

9. Click return.

HyperMesh Tutorials 90 Altair Engineering


Using Springs
In this tutorial, use springs to join elements and components.

The springs panel allows you to create spring elements. A spring element is an element created in
a space between two nodes of a model where a spring connection is desired. Spring elements
store a property and a degree of freedom (dof).

Spring elements are displayed as a line between two nodes with the letter K written at the centroid
of the element.

Springs can translate to CELAS2 in NASTRAN or *spring in ABAQUS. Springs require a property
definition.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

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HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the connect4.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
connect4.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

To select the NASTRAN analysis template:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click template file = twice.

3. Select the nastran/ directory.

4. Select general.

5. Click return.

To change the current component to springs:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click component = and select springs.

3. Click return.

To create a spring property definition:

1. Select the collectors panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type: and select props.

4. Click name = and enter k1.

5. Click card image = and select PELAS.

6. Click create/edit.

HyperMesh goes to the card image subpanel.

This allows you to enter the NASTRAN card data.

7. Click the data entry field under K1 and enter 1.0 as the spring constant.

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8. Click return twice to access to the main menu.

To create a spring element joining the RBE3’s:

1. Select the springs panel on the 1-D page.

2. Click property = and select k1.

3. Select dof2.

4. Click the toggle and select no vector.

The other options are off by default.

5. Pick a node at the center of one of the RBE3 elements.

6. Pick a node at the center of the other RBE3 element.

The spring element is created and represented by a K.

7. Click return.

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Using Equations
In this tutorial, use equations to simulate a basic contact constraint between components.

The equations panel allows you to create, review, and update equations.

Equations are displayed as lines between the dependent node and the independent node(s) with
the letters EQ displayed at the dependent node of the equation.

Equations are used in NASTRAN as MPC or in ABAQUS as *equation.

Place an equation in a load collector.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the connect5.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
connect5.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

To create a load collector:

1. Select the collectors panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type: and select loadcols.

4. Click name = and enter the name equations.

5. Click color and select color 12.

6. Click create.

The collector was created.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

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To set up the constraint equations:

1. Select the equations panel on the BCs page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch and select dof2 as the dependent node degree of freedom.

4. Activate dof2 as the independent node degree of freedom. Deactivate any other degree of
freedom options selected.

5. Ensure w has a value of 1.0.

6. Click constant and enter 0.

To create the constraint equations:

1. Pick a node on the edge of part 1 as the dependent node.

2. Pick the corresponding node on part 2 as the independent node.

3. Click create.

4. Repeat this for all nodes along the edge.

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Building 1-D Elements - HM-210
This tutorial demonstrates how to use the Bar, Line mesh and Features functions available on the 1-
D and Tool pages of HyperMesh. These functions allow you to build 1-D elements.

Since each procedure builds on the preceding section, you should start with
the first exercise and continue doing the exercises in the following order:

• Creating a Bar Element

• Creating 1-D Elements Using the Line Mesh Panel

• Creating 1-D Elements Using the Features Panel

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Creating a Bar Element


This tutorial explains how to create 1-D bar elements using the bars panel. The bars panel allows
you to create, review or update 2-noded and 3-noded bar elements.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the 1D_elements.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
1D_elements.hm file.

5. Click retrieve.

6. Click return to access the main menu.

HyperMesh Tutorials 96 Altair Engineering


The 1D_elements.hm file.

To create a bar element:

1. Select the bars panel on the 1-D page.

2. Select the bar2 subpanel.

3. Click ax = and enter the value 0.

4. Click ay = and enter the value 0.

5. Click az = and enter the value 0.

These are the values for the bar offset.

6. Click property = and select property1.

A property is now assigned to the element.

7. Click pins a = and enter the value 0.

8. Click pins b = and enter the value 0.

These are the values for the degrees of freedom.

9. Click the switch below update and select components from the pop-up menu.

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10. After x comp =, enter the value 1.

11. After y comp =, enter the value 1.

12. After z comp =, enter the value 1.

The local y axis is now specified.

13. Click node A and select the lower node in the graphics area.

14. Click node B and select the upper node in the graphics area.

The 2 noded bar element is created.

15. Click return to access the main menu.

Bar 2 element created.

HyperMesh Tutorials 98 Altair Engineering


Creating 1-D Elements Using the Line Mesh Panel
This tutorial explains how to create 1-D elements along a line.

To create 1-D elements along a line:

1. Select the line mesh panel on the 1-D page.

2. Click the upper left switch and select lines from the pop-up menu.

3. Select a line on the model.

4. Click the toggle and select segment is whole line.

5. Click the switch after element config: and select rigid from the pop-up menu.

6. Click mesh.

The secondary panel now appears.

7. Click set segment to highlight the box with the blue input cursor.

8. After elem density =, enter the value 20.

9. Click set all.

10. Click return twice to access the main menu.

Rigids created in the line mesh panel.

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Creating 1-D Elements Using the Features Panel
This tutorial explains how to create a 1-D element from the features in the model.

To create a 1-D element from the features in the model:

1. Select the display panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click the toggle and select elems.

3. Click none.

4. Select feature_elements.

Only the elements needed for this exercise are displayed.

5. Click return to access the main menu.

6. Select the features panel on the Tool page.

7. Click Comps.

8. Select feature_elements.

9. Click return.

10. After feature angle =, enter the value 30.

11. Select ignore normals.

12. Click the toggle after create: and select plot elements.

13. Click features.

The plot elements are created.

HyperMesh Tutorials 100 Altair Engineering


14. Click return.

15. Select the display panel on the permanent menu.

16. Click the right toggle and select elems.

17. Click none.

18. Select ^feature.

The plot elements in the green ^feature component are displayed.

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Calculating Beam Cross Section - HM-220
This tutorial demonstrates how to use the beam xsect panel. The beam cross section panel
calculates the cross sectional plane for a beam element and creates a beam element. It allows you
to create a summary file with the results of the calculations performed. The beam cross section
panel has two subpanels, offset lines and pick geom. After you use the pick geom subpanel to
calculate the cross-sectional plane, a secondary panel is displayed. The secondary panel allows you
to apply the results to the previously created HyperMesh property and create the beam element and
summary file. The offset lines subpanel allows you to create welds on the cross section of the
element. The beam cross-section post-processing subpanel allows you to apply the results to the
previously created HyperMesh property solver and create the beam element and a summary file. The
Center of Gravity (purple +) and Shear Center (yellow +) are displayed in the graphics area.

In this tutorial, use the PBEAM card for the Nastran solver as the example to create 2 models; one
with a solid section and another with a shell section. The following procedures are included:

• Creating a property and material collector

• Creating a beam element for a solver

• Creating a summary file to view and save the calculated element properties

• Apply the details to the property card to the beam element

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/. The beam_solid.hm file contains line segments and nodes.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

NOTE You must load a template and create material and property collector before you can
assign beam properties. A material collector must also be created to calculate the
correct characteristics for the bar or beam elements for the summary.

Using the Beam Cross Section Panel


To retrieve the beam_solid.hm file:

1. Select the files panel.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Double-click file =.

4. Select the beam_solid.hm file.

5. Click retrieve.

6. Click return.

HyperMesh Tutorials 102 Altair Engineering


To load the NASTRAN template in the global template:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Double-click template file = and select nastran/general template.

3. Click return.

To set view angles:

1. Click t on the permanent menu.

2. Click thetax = and enter 10.

3. Click thetay = and enter -30.

4. Click thetaz = and enter 1.

5. Click set angles.

6. Click return.

To create a material collector for the nastran PBEAM element:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type and select mats.

4. Click name = and enter beam_mat.

5. Click the switch under creation method and select card image.

6. Click card image = and select MAT1.

7. Click create/edit.

8. Click E, click the data entry field under E, and enter 1.

9. Click NU, click the data entry field under NU, and enter 1.

10. Click RHO, click the data entry field under RHO, and enter 1.

11. Click return.

To create a property collector for the beam element:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

Altair Engineering 103 HyperMesh Tutorials


3. Click the switch after collector type and select props.

4. Click name = and enter beam_prop.

5. Click the switch under creation method and select card image.

6. Click card image = and select PBEAM .

7. Click material = and select beam_mat.

8. Click create.

9. Click return.

Beam Section Property: Define Section

Creating a Solid Section

To define a section and calculate the cross sectional property for a specified area:

1. Select the beam xsect panel on the 1D page.

2. Select the pick geom subpanel.

3. Click the switch under define using and select lines.

4. Click lines and select displayed.

5. Activate the save elements checkbox.

6. Click the toggle under cross section plane to fit to entities.

7. Click the toggle under plane base node to section centroid.

8. Click the toggle under analysis type to first order.

HyperMesh Tutorials 104 Altair Engineering


9. Click solve.

Beam Section Property: Post Process

To assign a FEA solver and update the property card:

1. Click the switch under FEA solver and select nastran/opti-struct.

2. Double-click props.

3. Activate the beam_prop check box.

4. Click select.

5. Click the toggle after prop type to PBEAM.

6. Click update props.

The message, “Property prop1 has a card image loaded for Nastran. Do you wish to clear the
current card image and load a new one?” is displayed.

7. Click Yes.

The property called beam_prop has now been updated with the Area, Moment of Inertia, and
other calculated values added to the property card.

To create a bar2 element for the defined cross section:

1. Click the toggle under bar2 element to specify end A and end B.

2. Leave end A at the centroid and click pick node under end B:

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3. Pick node 145.

4. Click the toggle under elem orientation to none.

5. Click create elem.

The element is displayed with the label BAR2.

To create a summary file:

1. Click the toggle in the lower left to summary file.

2. Click summary file and enter BEAM_summary.

3. Activate the display check box.

4. Click summary.

The summary information is displayed on the screen. An example of a summary file is shown at
the end of this tutorial.

5. Click the left mouse button to advance to the next page of the summary file.

6. Click return.

To review the card:

1. Click card on the permanent menu.

2. Click the input collector switch and select props.

3. Click props.

4. Activate the beam_prop check box.

5. Click select.

6. Click edit.

The card image is displayed. The values can be edited by clicking in the field you wish to edit
and entering the new values.

7. Click return.

8. Click return.

HyperMesh Tutorials 106 Altair Engineering


Beam Section Property: Post Process (with bar element)

To clear this session of HyperMesh:

1. Select the delete panel on the Tool page.

2. Click delete model.

A pop-up window displays the message, “Do you wish to delete the current model?”

3. Click Yes.

The HyperMesh session is cleared for the next steps.

4. Click return.

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Creating a Thin-walled Section

Offset Geometry for Thin-walled Section

To retrieve the xsect_welds.hm file:

1. Select the files panel.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Double-click file =.

4. Select the xsect_welds.hm file.

5. Click retrieve.

6. Click return.

To define the cross section of an element that has a weld:

1. Select the beam xsect panel on the 1D page.

2. Select the offset lines subpanel.

3. Pick the two yellow lines.

4. Click nominal t = and enter 0.5.

5. Click the toggle next to cross section plane to fit to entities.

6. Click the toggle next to plane base node to section centroid.

7. Click define.

8. Click graphical toggles.

HyperMesh Tutorials 108 Altair Engineering


Geographical Toggles for thickness of thin-walled section

NOTE: You can click the graphical representation of the thickness arrow to toggle
the side of the line where the thickness is to be applied. Each click changes
the location of the thickness of the line from top to bottom or centered. In this
case, place the thickness over the center of the lines.

9. Select the weld pts subpanel.

10. Click lines and pick both yellow lines.

11. Click distance = and enter 1.0.

12. Click diameter = and enter 0.25.

13. Click draw size = and enter 2.

14. Click add weld pt.

15. Pick the leftmost pointer on the top line.

16. Click solve.

The Center of Gravity (purple +) and Shear Center (Yellow +) are displayed.

To assign an FEA solver and update the property card:

1. Click the switch under FEA solver and select nastran.

2. Double-click props.

3. Activate the weld_prop checkbox.

4. Click select.

5. Click the toggle after prop type to PBEAM.

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6. Click update props.

The message, “Property prop1 has a card image loaded for Nastran. Do you wish to clear the
current card image and load a new one?” is displayed.

7. Click Yes.

The weld_prop property has been updated with the Area, Moment of Inertia, and other
calculated values.

8. Click return.

Create Weld Point

To update the property and view the card in the card previewer:

1. Select card on the permanent menu.

2. Click the input collector switch and select props.

3. Click props.

4. Activate the weld_prop checkbox.

5. Click select.

6. Click edit.

The NASTRAN PBEAM card image is displayed. The values can be edited by clicking the field
you want to edit and entering the desired values.

7. Click return to exit the card panel.

8. Click return to exit the beam xsect panel.

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Beam Cross-Section Property Computation Results
Cross-Section Plane Data

• Global base coordinate (0.000000, -1.136364, 0.000000)

• Global normal vector (0.000000, 0.000000, -1.000000)

Area

• A = 220

Centroid

wrt. User Axes YC = 0

ZC = 0

wrt. Global Axes global Xc = 0

global Yc = -1.13636

global Zc = 0
Principal Moments of Intertia

• IYYP = 16549.2

• IZZP = 3693.33

Angle Of Principal Bending Axes

• ANGB = 0

Bending

Moments Of Inertia wrt. User Axes IYY = 16549.2

IZZ = 3693.33

IYZ = 0

Moments Of Inertia wrt. Centroid IYYC = 16549.2

IZZC = 3693.33

IYZC = 0

Elastic Section Modulus EMYP = 369.333

EMZP = 1259.8

Plastic Section Modulus PMYP = 680

PMZP = 1715.04

Radius Of Gyration RG = 4.0973

Maximum Coordinate Extension YMAXC =


13.1364

ZMAXC = 10

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Shear

Shear Center wrt. Centroid YS = 1.01881

ZS = 0

wrt. Global Axes Xsc = 0

Ysc = -2.15517

Zsc = 0

Shear Deformation Coefficients AYY = 1.75931

AZZ = 1.84491

AYZ = 0

Principal Shear Coefficients AYYP = 1.75931

AZZP = 1.84491

Angle Of Principal Shear Axes ANGS = 0

Shear Stiffness Factors KYY = 0.568404

KZZ = 0.542033

KYZ = 0
Torsion

Torsional Constant J = 1754.85

Elastic Torsion Modulus EMT = 221.591

Plastic Torsion Modulus PMT = 744.425

Warping Constant wrt. Shear Center GAMMA = 362403

Torsion/Shear Coefficients AXY = 0

AXZ = 0
Results in Terms of NASTRAN Input

$PBA PID MID Area I1 I2 J NSM


R

PBAR 1 1 219.99 16549. 3693.3 1754.8 0.0000


9 2 3 4 0

$ C1 C2 D1 D2 E1 E2 F1 F2

0.00000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000


0 0 0 0 0 0 0

$ K1 K2 I12

0.56840 0.5420 0.0000


3 0

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$ PID MID Area I1 I2 I12 J NSM

PBEA 1 1 219.99 16549. 3693.3 0.0000 1754.8 0.0000


M 9 2 3 0 4 0

$ C1 C2 D1 D2 E1 E2 F1 F2

0.00000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000


0 0 0 0 0 0 0

$ K1 K2 S1 S2 NSI(A) NSI(B) CW(A) CW(B)

0.56840 0.5420 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 362403 0.0000


3 0 0 0 0 . 0

$ M1(A) M2(A) M1(B) M2(B) N1(A) N2(A) N1(B) N2(B)

0.00000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 - 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000


0 0 0 1.0188 0 0 0

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Building Surfaces and Shell Meshes - HM-300L
This tutorial demonstrates how to build surfaces and shell meshes using the panels listed below.
These panels are located on the 2-D page.

ruled panel Allows you to create a surface and/or mesh from nodes or lines
that are unconnected.

spline panel Allows you to create a 3-D mesh and/or surface with lines.

skin panel Allows you to create a surface and/or mesh skin across a set of
lines.

drag panel Allows you to create a surface and/or mesh by dragging nodes,
lines, or elements.

line drag panel Allows you to create a surface and/or mesh by dragging nodes,
lines, or elements along a line.

The following exercises are included:

• Creating Surfaces and Meshes Using the ruled panel.

• Creating Surfaces and Meshes Using the spline panel

• Creating Surfaces and Meshes Using the skin panel.

• Dragging Lines to Create Surfaces and/or Shell Meshes

• Dragging Nodes to Create Surfaces and/or Shell Meshes

• Creating Surfaces and/or Shell Meshes with Lines

• Creating Surfaces and/or Shell Meshes with Nodes

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Creating Surfaces and Meshes using the ruled panel


In this tutorial, use the ruled panel to create surfaces and shell meshes from a combination of nodes,
lines, and/or line segments.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory

HyperMesh Tutorials 114 Altair Engineering


names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the simple300.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
simple300.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

The simple300.hm file

To build a ruled surface using lines:

1. Select the ruled panel on the 2-D page.

2. Click the upper input collector switch and select lines.

3. Pick line L1 from the graphics area.

4. Click the lower input collector switch and select lines.

5. Pick line L2 from the graphics area.

6. Click the rightmost switch and select mesh, keep surf.

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7. Click create.

8. HyperMesh goes to the automesh module panel. Nodal densities are displayed on each edge
of the new surface.

- To change the density, click the number in the graphics area with the mouse button. The left mouse
button increases the density; the right mouse button decreases it.

9. Click mesh to create a shell mesh of elements on the new surface.

- To undo, click reject immediately after you create the mesh.

- If the surface is unacceptable, click abort to exit immediately the automeshing module panel without
saving the surface that you created.

- If the surface and mesh are acceptable, click return. HyperMesh returns to the ruled panel.

10. To create other types of surfaces and meshes, repeat these steps and select one of the following
mesh and surface options in step 6:

- mesh, dele surf

- mesh, w/o surf

- surface only

11. Click return to access the main menu.

To build a ruled surface using nodes:

1. Select the ruled panel on the 2-D page.

2. Click the upper input collector switch and select nodes.

3. Pick nodes 1 and 4 in the graphics area.

4. Click the lower input collector switch and select nodes.

5. Pick nodes 17 and 19 in the graphics area.

6. Click the rightmost collector switch and select mesh, keep surf.

7. Click create.

8. HyperMesh goes to the automesh module panel. Nodal densities are displayed on each edge
of the new surface.

- To change the density, click the number in the graphics area with the mouse button. The left mouse
button increases the density; the right mouse button decreases it.

9. Click mesh to create a shell mesh of elements on the new surface.

- To undo, click reject immediately after you create the mesh.

- If the surface is unacceptable, click abort to exit immediately the automeshing module panel
without saving the surface that you created.

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- If the surface and mesh are acceptable, click return. HyperMesh returns to the ruled panel.

10. To create other types of surfaces and meshes, repeat these steps and select one of the following
mesh and surface options in step 6:

- mesh, dele surf

- mesh, w/o surf

- surface only

11. For practice, select a combination of node list and line list entity selection methods to create
surfaces or meshes.

Creating Surfaces and Meshes using the spline


panel
In this tutorial, use the spline panel to create 3-D surfaces and meshes from a combination of nodes
and lines.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the simple300.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
simple300.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

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The simple300.hm file.

To build two surface construction lines:

1. Select the lines panel on the Geom page.

2. Pick nodes 1 and 17 in the graphics area.

3. Select the rightmost switch and select linear.

4. Click create.

The line is displayed.

5. Pick nodes 4 and 20.

6. Repeat steps 3 and 4 to create a new line.

7. Click return.

To build a spline surface using lines:

1. Select the spline panel on the 2-D page.

2. Click the leftmost switch and select lines.

3. Pick lines L1, L2, and the lines that you created in the previous procedure.

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4. Click the rightmost switch and select mesh, keep surf.

5. Click the toggle and select do not smooth lines.

6. Click create.

7. HyperMesh goes to the automesh module panel. Nodal densities are displayed on each edge
of the new surface.

- To change the density, click the number in the graphics area with the mouse button. The left mouse
button increases the density; the right mouse button decreases it.

8. Click mesh to create a shell mesh of elements on the new surface.

- To undo, click reject immediately after you create the mesh.

- If the surface is unacceptable, click abort to exit immediately the automeshing module panel
without saving the surface that you created.

- If the surface and mesh are acceptable, click return. HyperMesh returns to the ruled panel.

9. To create other types of surfaces and meshes, repeat these steps and select one of the following
mesh and surface options in step 4:

- mesh, dele surf

- mesh, w/o surf

- surface only

To build a spline surface using nodes:

1. Select the spline panel on the 2-D page.

2. Click the leftmost switch and select nodes.

NOTE Spline surfaces are created with either three or four nodes selected.
This does not mean, however, that the spline surface must be planar.

3. Pick nodes 19, 2, 25, and 27 on the model, in that order.

4. Click the rightmost switch and select mesh, keep surf.

5. Click the toggle and select do not smooth lines.

6. Click create.

7. HyperMesh goes to the automesh module panel. Nodal densities are displayed on each edge
of the new surface.

- To change the density, click the number in the graphics area with the mouse button. The left mouse

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button increases the density; the right mouse button decreases it.

8. Click mesh to create a shell mesh of elements on the new surface.

- To undo, click reject immediately after you create the mesh.

- If the surface is unacceptable, click abort to exit immediately the automeshing module panel
without saving the surface that you created.

- If the surface and mesh are acceptable, click return. HyperMesh returns to the ruled panel.

9. To create other types of surfaces and meshes, repeat these steps and select one of the following
mesh and surface options in step 4:

- mesh, dele surf

- mesh, w/o surf

- surface only

Creating Surfaces and Meshes using the skin panel


In this tutorial, use the skin panel to create a skin surface and mesh from a set of lines.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the skin.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the skin.hm
file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

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The skin.hm file.

To create a skin surface with lines:

1. Select the skin panel on the 2-D page.

2. Click line list.

3. Pick lines L1, L2, L3, and L4 in that order.

4. Select the rightmost switch and select mesh, keep surf.

5. Click create.

6. HyperMesh goes to the automesh module panel. Nodal densities are displayed on each edge
of the new surface.

- To change the density, click the number in the graphics area with the mouse button. The left mouse
button increases the density; the right mouse button decreases it.

7. Click mesh to create a shell mesh of elements on the new surface.

- To undo, click reject immediately after you create the mesh.

- If the surface is unacceptable, click abort to exit immediately the automeshing module panel without
saving the surface that you created.

- If the surface and mesh are acceptable, click return. HyperMesh returns to the ruled panel.

8. To create other types of surfaces and meshes, repeat these steps and select one of the following
and surface options in step 4:

- mesh, dele surf

- mesh, w/o surf

- surface only

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Dragging Lines to Create Surfaces and Shell
Meshes
The drag panel allows you to take selected entities, either lines or nodes, and drag them along a
specified vector to create a shell mesh and/or a surface along that vector direction.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the dragdemo.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
dragdemo.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

The dragdemo.hm file.

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To create a surface by dragging lines:

1. Select the drag panel on the 2-D page.

2. Select the drag geoms subpanel.

3. Click the upper input collector switch and select lines.

4. Pick line L1.

5. Click the lower right switch and select mesh, keep surf.

6. To specify the direction along which to drag the line, use the plane and vector collector switch, or
select three nodes. The three nodes specify a plane, and the drag direction is assumed
perpendicular to this plane.

7. Click the plane and vector collector switch and select z-axis as the direction along which to drag
the nodes.

8. Click the distance toggle switch and select distance =.

9. Click distance = and enter 50.0.

10. Click drag+.


The line is dragged 50 positive units in the z-axis direction and the new surface is displayed.

11. HyperMesh goes to the automesh module panel. Nodal densities are displayed on each edge
of the new surface.

- To change the density, click the number in the graphics area with the mouse button. The left mouse
button increases the density; the right mouse button decreases it.

12. Click mesh to create a shell mesh of elements on the new surface.

- To undo, click reject immediately after you create the mesh.

- If the surface is unacceptable, click abort to exit immediately the automeshing module panel without
saving the surface that you created.

- If the surface and mesh are acceptable, click return. HyperMesh returns to the ruled panel.

13. To create other types of surfaces and meshes, repeat these steps and select one of the following
mesh and surface options in step 5:

- mesh, dele surf

- mesh, w/o surf

- surface only

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Dragging Nodes to Create Surfaces and Shell
Meshes
The drag panel allows you to take selected entities, either lines or nodes, and drag them along a
specified vector to create a shell mesh and/or a surface along that vector direction.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the simple300.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
simple300.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

The simple300.hm file.

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To build a surface using node selections:

1. Select the drag panel on the 2-D page.

2. Select the drag geoms subpanel.

3. Click the upper input collector switch and select nodes.

4. Pick nodes 9, 10, and 11 in the graphics area.

5. Click the lower right switch and select mesh, keep surf.

6. Click the plane and vector collector switch and select y-axis as the direction along which to drag
the nodes.

7. Click the distance toggle switch and select distance =.

8. Click distance = and enter 50.0.

9. Click drag-.

The new surface is displayed.

10. HyperMesh goes to the automesh module panel. Nodal densities are displayed on each edge
of the new surface.

- To change the density, click the number in the graphics area with the mouse button. The left mouse
button increases the density; the right mouse button decreases it.

11. Click mesh to create a shell mesh of elements on the new surface.

- To undo, click reject immediately after you create the mesh.

- If the surface is unacceptable, click abort to exit immediately the automeshing module panel
without saving the surface that you created.

- If the surface and mesh are acceptable, click return. HyperMesh returns to the ruled panel.

12. To create other types of surfaces and meshes, repeat these steps and select one of the following
mesh and surface options in step 5:

- mesh, dele surf

- mesh, w/o surf

- surface only

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Creating Surfaces and Shell Meshes with Lines
In this tutorial, use the line drag panel to create surfaces and shell meshes by dragging a line, line
segments, or nodes along a selected curve path.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the dragdemo.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
dragdemo.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

The dragdemo.hm file.

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To create a surface by dragging lines:

1. Select the line drag panel on the 2-D page.

2. Select the drag geoms subpanel.

3. Click the input collector switch after drag: and select lines.

4. Pick line L1.

5. Click the lower right switch and select mesh, keep surf.

6. Click the toggle and select use default vector.

7. Click line list to the right of along: and pick line L2 in the graphics area as the guide line along
which to drag the entities.

8. Click drag.

The new surface is displayed.

9. HyperMesh goes to the automesh module panel. Nodal densities are displayed on each edge
of the new surface.

- To change the density, click the number in the graphics area with the mouse button. The left mouse
button increases the density; the right mouse button decreases it.

10. Click mesh to create a shell mesh of elements on the new surface.

- To undo, click reject immediately after you create the mesh.

- If the surface is unacceptable, click abort to exit immediately the automeshing module panel
without saving the surface that you created.

- f the surface and mesh are acceptable, click return. HyperMesh returns to the ruled panel.

11. To create other types of surfaces and meshes, repeat these steps and select one of the following
mesh and surface options in step 5:

- mesh, dele surf

- mesh, w/o surf

- surface only

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Creating Surfaces and Shell Meshes with Nodes
In this tutorial, use the line drag panel to create surfaces and shell meshes from a combination of
node picks and a 3-D line, which serves as the path curve along which the nodes are dragged.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the skin.hm file located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the skin.hm
file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

The skin.hm file.

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To create temporary nodes:

1. Select the create nodes panel on the Geom page.

2. Select the on line subpanel.

3. Pick line L1 in the graphics area.

4. Click the data entry field after number of nodes = and enter 6.

5. Click the switch after bias style: and select linear.

6. Click the data entry field after bias intensity = and enter 0.

7. Click create.

Six evenly spaced nodes are displayed in the graphics area.

8. Click return.

To create a mesh of shell elements using the line drag panel:

1. Select the line drag panel on the 2-D page.

2. Select the drag geoms subpanel.

3. Click the input collector switch after drag: and select nodes.

4. Select the six nodes (in order from 1–6) created previously along line L1.

5. Click line list to the right of along: and pick line L2 in the graphics area as the guide line along
which to drag the entities.

6. Click the lower right switch and select mesh, keep surf.

7. Click the toggle and select use default vector.

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8. Click drag.

The new surface is displayed in the graphics area.

9. HyperMesh goes to the automesh module panel. Nodal densities are displayed on each edge
of the new surface.

- To change the density, click the number in the graphics area with the mouse button. The left mouse
button increases the density; the right mouse button decreases it.

10. Click mesh to create a shell mesh of elements on the new surface.

- To undo, click reject immediately after you create the mesh.

- If the surface is unacceptable, click abort to exit immediately the automeshing module panel
without saving the surface that you created.

- If the surface and mesh are acceptable, click return. HyperMesh returns to the ruled panel.

11. To create other types of surfaces and meshes, repeat these steps and select one of the following
mesh and surface options in step 6:

- mesh, dele surf

- mesh, w/o surf

- surface only

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Building Solid Elements - HM-400
This tutorial demonstrates how to build solid elements using the following panels:

• The solid map panel

• The elem offset panel

• The drag panel

• The line drag panel

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Solid Map Panel


In this tutorial, use the solid map panel to create solid elements by first extruding an existing 2-D
element mesh, then mapping the extruded mesh into a volume.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash, /.

4. Select the solidmap.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
solidmap.hm file.

6. Click cleanup topology.

7. Click retrieve.

8. Click return to exit the files panel.

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The solidmap.hm file

To create a new collector for the new solid elements:

1. Select the collectors panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type: and select comps as the type of collector you want to
create.

4. Click name = and type sldelems (or a name of your choice).

Collector names are limited to 32 characters.

5. Click color to display the pop-up menu of color choices.

6. Select Color 5.

7. Click create.

8. Click return.

To create solid elements using the solid map panel:

1. Select the solid map panel on the 3-D page.

2. Select the both subpanel.

3. Click the input collector switch by source: and select surfs.

This specifies the source surface.

4. Pick surface A in the graphics area.

The surface is highlighted when selected.

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5. Click the input collector switch by end: and select surfs.

This specifies the end surface.

6. Pick surface B in the graphics area.

The surface is highlighted when selected.

7. Click the input collector switch by along: and select surfs.

The input collector displays surf list. This specifies the “along” surface.

8. Pick the three surfaces between the source and end surfaces in the graphics area.

Hold the left mouse button and move the cursor in the graphics area to highlight the surfaces.
Release the left mouse button to select the highlighted surface.

9. Click surf list.

The “along” surfaces you selected are highlighted in sequence.

10. Click elems and select displayed from the extended entity selection menu.

This specifies which elements to drag. The plate elements on surface A are displayed.

11. Click density = and enter 10 to indicate the number of rows of elements you want to create
between source surface A and end surface B.

12. Click mesh.

The header bar gives status messages as the elements are generated.

When finished, the model contains ten rows of elements that begin at surface A and end at
surface B. The new solid elements follow the contour of the specified “along” surfaces. The
hole in the center of the original shell element mesh is propagated through the solid element
mesh.

13. Click return to exit the solid map panel.

To view the model in hidden line mode:

1. Press the function key F1 to access the hidden line menu, or select the hidden line panel on the
Post page.

2. Click fill plot.

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The model in hidden line mode

3. Click return.

Elem Offset Panel


In this tutorial, use the elem offset panel to create solid elements by extruding an existing 2-D mesh
in the direction of the element normals.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the bumper.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
bumper.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to exit the files panel.

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The bumper.hm file

To change the performance graphics mode and view the model in hidden line mode:

1. Select the options panel on the permanent menu.

2. Select the graphics subpanel.

3. Click the toggle and select performance.

4. Select the vis panel on the permanent menu.

5. Click the Hidden Line with Mesh Lines icon, .

6. Click all.

7. Click return twice to access the main menu.

To orient the element normals in the same direction:

1. Select the normals panel on the Tool page.

2. Select the elements subpanel.

3. Click the switch and select comps.

4. Click comps again and select comp 1 and comp 2 as the component collectors.

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5. Click return.

6. Click size = and enter 10 for the size of the normal vectors to be displayed.

7. Click display normals to show the element normals’ directions.

8. Click elem under orientation:.

9. From the graphics area, pick any element in the cyan colored collector comp1.

10. Click adjust normals.

The normals of the elements in the green collector, comp2, are the same as the elements in
cyan collector, comp1.

11. Click return to access the main menu.

To create solid elements using the elem offset panel:

1. Select the elem offset panel on the 3-D page of the main menu.

2. Click elems and select by config from the extended entity selection menu.

3. Click config = and select quad4 from the pop-up menu.

4. Click select entities.

5. Click elems and select by config from the extended entity selection menu.

6. Click config = and select tria3 from the pop-up menu.

7. Click select entities.

This selection method can be used to select elements of more than one type in a model.

1. Click density = and enter 3 for the number of rows of elements you want to create.

2. Click thickness = and enter 5 for the total thickness of the elements you want to create.

3. Click offset to create the solid elements.

4. Click z on the permanent menu and use the left mouse button to draw a circle around the right
side of the bumper.

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Model with solid elements created from faces of shell elements

NOTE The solid elements that have been created are extruded from the faces of the
original shell elements. In some cases, the shell elements may have been
modeled at the mid-plane of the solid elements you want to create.

5. Click reject to reject the solid elements.

6. Click offset = and enter –2.5 as the starting position for the solid elements.

7. Click offset to create the solid elements.

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Model created with solid elements from shell elements shown at mid-plane

NOTE The solid elements that have been created start at a


distance of 2.5 behind the shell elements with a total solid
thickness of 5.

8. Click return to exit the elem offset panel.

Drag Panel
In this tutorial, use the drag panel to create solid elements with a linear bias by extruding an existing
mesh of 2-D elements.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the drag.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

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5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the drag.hm
file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to exit the files panel.

The drag.hm file.

To create solid elements using the drag panel:

1. Select the drag panel on the 3-D page.

2. Select the drag elems subpanel.

3. Click elems and select displayed from the extended entity selection menu.

4. Click the plane and vector collector switch and select N1, N2, N3.

5. Click N1.

6. Pick any three nodes on the model.

This defines a plane and normal vector from which HyperMesh creates the solid elements.

7. Click the toggle and select distance =.

8. Click distance = and enter 100 for the total thickness of elements you want to create.

9. Click on drag = and enter 20 for the number of rows of solid elements you want to create.

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10. Click bias intensity = and enter 10 for the intensity.

11. Click drag -.

The solid elements are created.

12. Click return to exit the drag panel.

To view the model in hidden line mode:

1. Press the function key F1 to access the hidden line menu, or select the hidden line panel on the
Post page.

2. Click fill plot.

3. Click z on the permanent menu and use the left mouse button to draw a circle around the right
side of the bumper.

NOTE Each row of elements gets progressively thicker due to the linear bias.

Experiment with the exponential and bellcurve bias styles.

4. Click return to access the main menu.

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Line Drag Panel
In this tutorial, use the line drag panel to create solid elements by extruding an existing mesh of 2-D
elements along more than one non-linear line.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the linedrag.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
linedrag.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to exit the files panel.

The linedrag.hm file.

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To change the performance graphics mode and view the model in hidden line mode:

1. Select the options panel on the permanent menu.

2. Select the graphics subpanel.

3. Click the toggle and select performance.

4. Select the vis panel on the permanent menu.

5. Click the Hidden Line with Mesh Lines icon, .

6. Click all.

7. Click return twice to access the main menu.

To create the solid elements using the line drag panel:

1. Select the line drag panel on the 2-D page.

2. Select the drag elems subpanel.

3. Click elems and select displayed from the extended entity selection menu.

This selects the shell elements that define the section of the solid mesh you want to create.

4. Click line list next to along:.

5. Pick the two lines that define the helical spring from the graphics area.

Hold the left mouse button and move the cursor in the graphics area to highlight each line.
Release the left mouse button to select each highlighted line.

6. Click on drag = and enter 200 for the number of rows of solid elements you want to create.

7. Click drag to create the mesh.

The header bar displays status messages as the elements are created.

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Model with solid elements created

8. Click reject to reject the solid mesh that was created.

9. Practice by clicking the use default vector toggle and selecting specify vector. Also, define a
bias style: and a value for bias intensity =

NOTE If you select specify vector, use the plane and vector collector to select
the orientation vector.

For more information on the biasing options, refer to the Element Biasing
section in the Automatic Mesh Generation chapter of the User’s Manual.

10. Click drag to create a new solid mesh based on the changes made.

11. Click return to accept the new solid mesh and access the main menu.

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Using the Automatic Tetramesher - HM-450
This tutorial demonstrates how to use the tetra mesh, tetra remesh and CFD mesh subpanels
available in the tetramesh panel.

The following functions allow you create a solid model of tetrahedral elements from an enclosed
volume tria surface mesh:

floatable Matches the node locations of the tetras with the trias, but
the connectivity of those tetras may be modified to produce
a better mesh. Normally, this results in some tetra faces
going across tria diagonals.

fixed Matches the node locations of the tetras with the trias. It
guarantees the connectivity of the tetras with the trias. Use
this option whenever you need to match other components
to the resulting tetra mesh.

prism trias Selects the tria elements that define the surface from which
the layers of high aspect ratio are used when creating a
CFD mesh.

normal trias Selects the tria elements that do not need high aspect ratio
tetra layers. This performs the same function as the
normal trias option in the standard tetramesh panel.

boundary layer prisms Specifies the layer thickness parameters as appropriate for
the Reynold’s number for the fluid being studied.

init thickness: thickness of first layer of high aspect ratio


tetras

init growth rate: growth rate for high aspect ratio tetra
layers

acceleration: growth acceleration for high aspect ratio tetra


layer

NOTE Prism growth parameters: If d is the initial


thickness, r is the initial growth rate, and a is
the growth acceleration, then the thicknesses
of the successive prism layers is d, d*r, d*r2*a,
d*r3*a2, d*r4*a3,...

structured isotropic prisms Uses the local element size for the initial thickness and a
value of 1.0 for the growth rate and acceleration. You can
use structured isotropic prism layers in any situation where
ordered layers of tetras are required near the surface. The
mesher uses as many layers as possible of isotropic
elements until the elements in the next layer are of
unacceptable quality, and then it switches to the normal
meshing algorithm.

generate mesh normally Applies in most applications, and uses the standard tetra-
meshing algorithm as in previous versions of HyperMesh.
This option is available in each tetramesh subpanel.

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optimize meshing speed Uses an algorithm which optimizes meshing speed. Use
this option if element quality considerations are less
important than mesh generation time. This option is
available in each tetramesh subpanel.

optimize meshing quality Directs the tetramesher to spend more time trying to
generate the best shaped elements. It employs the
volumetric ratio, or CFD skew, measurement for rating
potential tetras. Use this option if your solver is sensitive to
element quality. This option is available in each tetramesh
subpanel.

growth rate The growth rate for normal trias and after prism elements
are complete.

initial layers The number of initial layers for normal trias after prism
elements are complete.

growth options Various growth options can be specified in order to control


the tradeoff between the number of tetras generated and
the element quality. Options that can be selected are
standard, aggressive, gradual, interpolate and user
controlled. The standard option is suggested for most
conditions. For a detailed explanation of these parameters,
please consult the HyperMesh on-line Help.

The following tutorials are included:

• Tetramesh a Volume

•Tetra Remesh a Selected Group of Elements

• Tetramesh Using the CFD Algorithm

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

The Tetramesh Panel


The tetramesh panel allows you to fill an enclosed volume with first or second order tetrahedral
elements. A region is considered enclosed if it is entirely bounded by a mesh of tria elements where
each tria has material on one side and open space on the other.

You can specify trias as fixed and floatable. Under most circumstances, select only those trias that
must match up to another pre-existing mesh as fixed. You can also specify various growth options in
order to control the tradeoff between the number of tetras generated and the average and minimum
element qualities. Higher, more aggressive growth rates produce fewer elements, but they may be of
poor quality.

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To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the tetmesh.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
tetmesh.hm file.

5. Click retrieve.

6. Click return to access the main menu.

tetmesh.hm model file.

To tetra mesh the enclosed volume:

1. Select the tetramesh panel on the 3-D page.

2. Select the tetra mesh subpanel.

3. Click the switch below floatable trias: and select comps from the pop-up menu.

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4. Pick an element that belongs to the component.

or

Click the upper comps and select trias, then click return.

5. Click the switch below growth option: and select standard from the pop-up menu.

6. Click the lower right switch and select generate mesh normally from the pop-up menu.

7. Click tetmesh.

8. Click return to access the main menu.

NOTE The header bar displays status messages as the elements are created. The
right mouse button allows you to cancel the tetramesh operation.

NOTE Elements that cause the tetramesher to fail are highlighted and placed into a
buffer for later retrieval. See The Tetra Remesh Panel for a description on
retrieving and isolating these elements for inspection.

The Tetra Remesh Panel


The tetra remesh subpanel allows you to regenerate the mesh for a single volume of tetras. The
tetras you select form a single connected region. This command allows you to locally remesh an
area where poor quality tetras may exist. Look for a concentration of bad elements and use a
combination of the mask and find panels to locate a collection of neighboring tetras to remesh.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the tetremesh.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
tetremesh.hm file.

5. Click retrieve.

6. Click return to access the main menu.

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To identify tetra elements with poor quality:

1. Select the check elems panel on the Tool page.

2. Select the 3-D subpanel.

3. After tetra collapse, enter the value 0.10.

4. Click tetra collapse.

5. Once elements are highlighted, click save failed.

6. Click return to access the main menu.

NOTE The header bar relays the message that the minimum tetra collapse is 0.00,
a tetra element that does not occupy a volume. The save failed operation
places the bad elements that show a tetra collapse value less than what is
specified in a buffer, allowing the elements to be retrieved later.

tetremesh.hm model file.

To isolate the save failed elements:

1. Select the mask panel on the Tool page.

2. Select the mask subpanel.

3. Click the switch and select elems from the pop-up menu.

4. Click elems and select retrieve from the extended entity selection menu.

The save failed elements become highlighted.

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5. Click elems and select reverse from the extended entity selection window.

All the elements excluding the save failed become highlighted.

6. Click mask .

Only the save failed elements should remain.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

To find elements attached to the displayed element:

1. Select the find panel on the Tool page.

2. Select the find attached subpanel.

3. Click the upper switch and select elems from the pop-up menu.

4. Click the lower switch and select elems from the pop-up menu.

5. Select the displayed element.

6. Click find.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

To tetra remesh the selected group of elements:

1. Select the tetramesh panel on the 3-D page.

2. Select the tetra remesh subpanel.

3. Click elems and select displayed from the extended entity selection menu.

Elements to be remeshed become highlighted.

4. Click remesh.

5. Click return to access the main menu.

To unmask previously masked elements:

1. Select the mask panel on the Tool page.

2. Select the mask subpanel.

3. Click unmask all.

4. Click return to access the main menu.

To review the newly created elements:

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1. Select the check elems panel on the Tool page.

2. Select the 3-D subpanel.

3. Click tetra collapse.

The minimum tetra collapse is now 0.20.

4. Continue to tetra remesh until element quality is satisfactory.

5. Click return to access the main menu

CFD Mesh
The accuracy with which a solution is resolved is directly related to the number of elements in regions
of high solution gradient. In most CFD applications, this is near the surface of the flow and is called
boundary layer behavior. Consequently, the mesh is generated so that it clusters many elements
near the surface. The CFD mesh subpanel utilizes floatable trias which allow you to pack many
layers of high aspect ratio tetras against a surface in order to resolve boundary layer behavior in the
solution.

Using the normal algorithm, if you pack many elements against the surface, many of the elements will
have some very obtuse face angles, which often cause problems for solvers. For the prism layer
algorithm, the tetra elements are generated in prism-shaped groups of three or more in such a way to
prevent large angles from appearing. Arbitrarily, many of these high aspect ratio tetras can be
layered against the surface as needed in order to resolve the boundary layer behavior. They are
generated with very thin initial layers, growing in thickness with an accelerating growth rate until the
layer thickness is the same as the width of the prism, at which point the tetramesher switches to its
normal algorithm to efficiently fill the remaining volume.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the sphere.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
sphere.hm file.

5. Click retrieve.

6. Click return to access the main menu.

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To switch to performance graphics and display a model in hidden line mode:

1. Select the options panel on the permanent menu.

2. Select the graphics subpanel.

3. Click the toggle after engine: and select performance.

4. Click return to access the main menu.

5. Select the vis panel on the permanent menu.

6. Click the hidden line with mesh lines icon, , the third icon from the left below the all button.

7. Click all.

8. Click mesh color and select Color 0 from the pop-up menu.

9. Click return to access the main menu.

To create a new component for the tetra elements:

1. Select the collectors panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click name = and enter tetras.

4. Click color and select a color for the new collector from the pop-up window.

5. Click create.

6. Select return to access the main menu.

NOTE For this exercise we have created a component collector that does not
reference a solver template. For more information on how to associate a
solver to a collector, see the HyperMesh on-line Help.

To tetramesh using the CFD meshing subpanel:

1. Select the tetramesh panel on the 3-D page.

2. Select the CFD mesh subpanel.

3. Click the switch below prism trias: and select comps from the pop-up menu.

4. Pick an element that belongs to the component.

or

Click the upper comps and select trias, then click return.

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5. Click the toggle and select boundary layer prisms.

6. Click the lower right switch and select generate mesh normally from the pop-up menu.

7. Click init thickness = and enter the value 0.5.

8. Scroll through the other options using the TAB key and assign the following values:

init growth rate = 1.100

acceleration = 1.100

growth rate = 1.250

initial layers = 0.750

9. Click tetmesh.

10. Select return to access the main menu.

Volume enclosed tria mesh.

To use the mask panel to view the interior of the tetramesh model:

1. Select the view panel on the permanent menu.

2. Select top.

3. Select the mask panel on the Tool page.

4. Select the mask subpanel.

5. Click the switch and select elems from the pop-up menu.

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6. Click elems and select by window from the extended entity selection menu.

7. Click interior.

8. Using the left mouse button to define the corners of your window, select elements from the right
half of the model.

9. Click select entities.

10. Click mask .

11. Select the vis panel on the permanent menu.

12. Click the hidden line with mesh lines icon, , the third icon from the left below the all button.

13. Click all.

14. Select the view panel on the permanent menu.

15. Select rear.

Section cut of tetra mesh volume using CFD mesh.

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Splitting and Combining Shell Elements - HM-500L
This tutorial demonstrates how to split and combine shell elements using the split and edit element
panels. Splitting and combining elements allows you to refine or coarsen meshes and correct
element-to-element connectivity.

The following exercises are included:

• Splitting shell elements using the edit element panel

• Splitting shell elements using the split panel

• Combining shell elements using the edit element panel

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Splitting Shell Elements using the edit element


panel
In this tutorial, use the edit element panel to split shell elements.

The split sub-panel allows you to split an arbitrary number of shell elements by drawing a split line
over them. The splitting algorithm used depends on how the split line crosses the element.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash, /.

4. Select the el_edit_split.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
el_edit_split.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to exit the files panel.

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To split shell elements using the edit element panel:

1. Select the edit element panel on the 2-D page.

2. Select the split subpanel.

3. Click the switch and select elems.

4. Click split.

5. Use the mouse to build a line in the graphics area that intersects the elements A - E.

To draw the line:

- Position the cursor on element A, pressing the left mouse button.

- Draw the line from element A to element B and release the left mouse button.

- Repeat these steps to draw a line from elements B to C, C to D, and D to E.

This specifies the elements you want to split.

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6. Click split elements.

7. You can use the split panel to split elements in the following ways:

- Across opposite edges, creating 2 quads

- Along adjacent edges, creating 3 quads

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- From an edge to a vertex , creating one tria and one quad

- From one vertex to its diagonally opposite vertex, creating 2 trias.

NOTE Tria elements can be split in a similar manner.

In this tutorial, an element is split when the split line crosses two of its
edges. This feature is useful if you have several ‘layers’ of duplicated shell
elements that need to be split.

If you select elements before drawing the split line, only the selected
elements are split. If you do not select elements before drawing the split
line, the splitting algorithm operates on all elements displayed.

If you split elements on a surface that has been automeshed, new nodes
created by the split are automatically projected to the surface.

Maintain proper connectivity (without internal free edges) after splitting the
elements.

Splitting Shell Elements using the split panel


In this tutorial, use the split panel to split shell elements. The split panel allows you to split elements
simultaneously using one of four algorithms.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory names
are followed by a slash, /.

4. Select the split.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the split.hm
file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to exit the files panel.

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To split shell elements using the split panel:

1. Select the split panel on the 2-D page.

2. Select the plate elements subpanel.

3. Pick elements A - E.

4. Click the switch and select divide quads.

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5. Click split.

The selected quads are split into trias.

NOTE The methods available for splitting plate elements include:

split all sides - splits an element at the midpoint of its sides

divide quads - divides all the quad element s into trias and allows you to fix
quads with severe warpage

midpoint - to trias - partitions an element by creating a node at its centroid


and forms trias using the element’s vertices

midpoint - to quads partitions an element by creating a node at its centroid


and forms quads using the midpoints of each of its sides

When you split elements whose nodes are associated to a surface, the new
nodes created are also on the surface. To associate a node to a surface, use
the node edit panel.

Maintain proper connectivity (without any internal free edges) after combining
elements.

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Combining Shell Elements using the edit element
panel
In this tutorial, combine shell elements using the edit element panel.

The combine subpanel on the edit element panel allows you to combine an arbitrary number of shell
elements simultaneously or a set number of shell elements automatically. Both methods are
controlled by the tolerance = and angle = functions. When elements are being combined,
HyperMesh requires the nodes attached to the elements to be planar within a user-specified
tolerance. The tolerance may be changed with the menu item tolerance =.

When elements are being combined, HyperMesh performs node condensation on mid-side nodes.
Nodes are considered to be mid-side nodes if the angle between any three nodes in the set of nodes
being condensed is greater than a user-specified angle. The angle may be changed with the menu
item angle =.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory names
are followed by a slash, /.

4. Select the el_edit_comb.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
el_edit_comb.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to exit the files panel.

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To combine an arbitrary number of elements:

1. Select the edit element panel on the 2-D page.

2. Select the combine subpanel.

3. Click tolerance = and enter 0.010.

4. Click angle = and enter 150.00.

5. Click auto comb = and enter 1000.

6. Pick elements A, B, C, and D.

7. Click combine.

8. HyperMesh displays the following error message: The elements selected are not planar for the
given tolerance.

9. Click tolerance = and enter 0.1.

10. Click combine.

The selected elements become one element.

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To automatically combine a set number of elements:

The auto comb = function allows you to combine elements automatically.


1. Click auto comb = and enter 2.

2. Pick elements E and F.

HyperMesh combines the elements automatically.

NOTE Setting tolerance = too high may create warped elements, and/or the deviation from the
geometry may increase.

Maintain proper connectivity (without any internal free edges) after combining elements.

HyperMesh Tutorials 162 Altair Engineering


Editing Elements by Moving Nodes - HM-510L
This tutorial demonstrates how to edit elements by moving the nodes attached to them. This tutorial
uses the distance, align node, replace, and node edit panels.

Since each procedure builds on the preceding section, you should start with the first exercise and
continue doing the exercises in the following order:

The following exercises are included:

• Changing the Distance Between Nodes

• Replacing Nodes

• Aligning Nodes

• Placing Nodes

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Changing the Distance Between Nodes


The distance panel allows you to determine the distance between two nodes or the angle between
three nodes, or to change distances or angles. In this tutorial, use the distance panel to change the
distance between nodes.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash, /.

4. Select the node_editing.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
node_editing.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to exit the files panel.

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To change the distance between nodes:

1. Select the distance panel on the Geom page.

2. Select the two nodes subpanel.

3. Pick node 1 on the model while N1 is highlighted.

4. Pick node 2 on the model while N2 is highlighted.

The total distance between the nodes is displayed as 39.500 in the distance = field.

NOTE The total distance is further broken down into the components’ distances
and displayed in x dist =, y dist =, and z dist =. These distances are
updated when the total distance is changed. You can also edit these
distances individually, upon which the total distance and other
component distances change.

5. Click the data entry field after distance = and enter 27.0.

N2 moves along the N1 - N2 vector to reflect this change.

6. Click return to exit the distance panel.

Undo

• Click reject.

HyperMesh Tutorials 164 Altair Engineering


Replacing Nodes
The replace panel allows nodes to be replaced with other nodes. Use this function if you want to
manually equivalence two nodes.

Use the node_editing.hm file used in the previous tutorial, Changing the Distance Between
Nodes:

To replace a node:

1. Select the replace panel on the Tool page.

2. Click equivalence if it is not already selected.

3. Click z on the permanent menu and draw a circle around nodes A, B, C, and D.

4. Click the upper node list and pick node A on the model.

5. Click the lower node list and pick node B on the model.

Node A moves to the position of node B.

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6. Click at mid-point.

7. Click the upper node list and pick node C on the model.

8. Click the lower node list and pick node D on the model.

The nodes move to the midpoint of their original locations.

9. Click return to exit the replace panel.

Undo

• Click the right mouse button immediately after the nodes have been replaced, or click reject.

NOTE The nodes are equivalenced if you select equivalence. You may move
nodes only if equivalence is not selected.

You can select the second node at any location on a line or along a
surface. In this case, select the node on the line or surface by first
highlighting the line or surface, then selecting the preferred location on
the line or surface.

Aligning Nodes
The align node panel allows you to project nodes to an imaginary line passing through two nodes.
Nodes being projected do not have to lie between the two nodes selected to form the line. The nodes
are projected to the imaginary line along its normal. This function is mostly used on planar meshes
where straightened mesh lines improve mesh quality.

Use the node_editing.hm file used in the previous tutorials, Changing the Distance Between
Nodes and Replacing Nodes.

To align a node:

HyperMesh Tutorials 166 Altair Engineering


1. Select the align node panel on the Geom page.

2. Select b on the permanent menu to go back to the previous view of the model.

3. Click the upper node list and pick node 3 on the model.

4. Click the lower node list and pick node 4 on the model.

Nodes 3 and 4 define the vector along which other nodes selected are aligned.

5. Pick nodes 5, 6, and 7 on the model.

Each node moves to a position along the vector defined by the nodes 3 and 4.

6. Click return to exit the align nodes panel.

Undo

• Click the right mouse button immediately after selecting a node.

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Placing Nodes
The node edit panel allows you to associate nodes to a surface, move nodes along a surface, or
place a node at a point on a surface. In this tutorial, use the place node option on the node edit
panel. This option is used to select a node and reposition it to any location on a selected surface.

Use the node_editing.hm file used in the previous tutorials, Changing the Distance Between
Nodes, Replacing Nodes, and Aligning Nodes.

To place a node:

1. Select the node edit panel on the Geom page.

2. Select the place node subpanel.

3. Click z on the permanent menu and draw a circle around E and X in the graphics area.

4. While destination surf is highlighted, pick the surface to which to associate the node by
selecting on or near one of the surface lines.

5. While node to place is highlighted, pick node E.

6. Pick a point near X in the graphics area.

The node is moved to that location on the surface.

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Undo

• Click the right mouse button or click reject.

NOTE You can check elements while using the place node on the node edit
panel. To do this, press the F10 key, check the element(s) in question,
and click return to access the node edit panel.

Placing a node on a surface associates the node to the surface. Once a


node has been placed on a surface, another node can be placed on the
same surface by picking the new node and then the surface (you do not
have to reselect the surface).

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Model Checking - HM-520
This tutorial demonstrates how to use the check elements and edges panels. The check elements
panel verifies the quality of elements. The edges panel allows you to find free edges and
equivalences nodes on edges.

Some of the terms used when checking element quality include:

Warpage The amount by which an element or element face (in the case of solid
elements) deviates from being planar. Warpage of up to five degrees is
generally acceptable.

Aspect Ratio The ratio of the element's longest edge to its shortest edge. Aspect ratios
should be less than 5:1 in most cases.

Skew The angle between the lines that join opposite midsides.

Jacobian A measure of the deviation of an element from an ideally shaped element.


The Jacobian value ranges from 0.0 to 1.0, where 1.0 represents a perfectly
shaped element. However, Jacobian values of 0.7 and above are generally
acceptable.

The following exercises are included:

• Testing Elements for Warpage

• Testing Elements for Aspect Ratio

• Finding Duplicate Nodes and Free Edges in the Model

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Testing Elements for Warpage


In this tutorial, identify those elements with excessive warpage and view the saved failed elements.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash, /.

4. Select the modelchk_final.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

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5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
modelchk_final.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to exit the files panel.

To change the performance graphics mode and view the model in hidden line mode:

1. Select the options panel on the permanent menu.

2. Select the graphics subpanel.

3. Click the toggle and select performance.

4. Select the vis panel on the permanent menu.

5. Click the Hidden Line with Mesh Lines icon,

6. Click all.

7. Click return twice to access the files panel.

8. Click return to access the main menu.

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To test elements for warpage:

1. Select the check elems panel on the Tool page.

2. Select the 3-D subpanel to indicate the type of element you want to check.

3. Click the data entry field after warpage > and enter 5.0 to specify the maximum allowable
warpage.

4. Click warpage.

The elements that have a warpage value higher than the value specified are highlighted. These
elements are also defined as failed elements.

5. The number of failed elements and the maximum warpage value are displayed in the header bar.

6. Pick any of the highlighted elements from the graphics area to check the warpage of the
individual elements

To save failed elements:

Isolate the failed elements with the save failed option. The save failed option allows you to place
entities that are not written to the deck on the user mark. This situation occurs if there is no definition
for the entity’s configuration and type in the specified template.

1. Click save failed.

2. Click return.

To view the saved failed elements only:

1. Select the mask panel on the Tool page.

2. Select the mask subpanel.

3. Click the input collector switch and select elems.

4. Click elems and select retrieve from the extended entity selection menu.

The failed elements are highlighted.

5. Click elems and select reverse from the extended entity selection menu.

6. Click mask .

Only the failed elements are displayed. This function may be necessary when you are working
with a large number of elements.

7. Click return.

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Testing Elements for Aspect Ratio
In this tutorial, identify those elements with high aspect ratios and view the saved failed elements.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash, /.

4. Select the modelchk_final.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
modelchk_final.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to exit the files panel.

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To check elements for aspect ratio:

1. Select the check elems panel on the Tool page.

2. Select the 3-D subpanel to indicate the type of element you want to check.

3. Click the data entry field after aspect > and enter 5.0 to specify the maximum allowable aspect
ratio.

4. Click aspect.

The elements that have an aspect ratio value higher than the value specified are highlighted.
These elements are defined as failed elements.

5. The number of elements failed and the maximum aspect ratio are displayed in the header bar.

6. Pick any of the highlighted elements from the graphics area to check the aspect ratio of the
elements individually.

To save failed elements:

Isolate the failed elements with the save failed option. The save failed option allows you to place
entities that are not written to the deck on the user mark. This situation occurs if there is no definition
for the entity’s configuration and type in the specified template.

1. Click save failed.

2. Click return.

HyperMesh Tutorials 174 Altair Engineering


To view the saved failed elements only:

1. Select the mask panel from the Tool page.

2. Select the mask subpanel.

3. Click the input collector switch and select elems.

4. Click elems and select retrieve from the extended entity selection menu.

The failed elements are highlighted.

5. Click elems and select reverse from the extended entity selection menu.

6. Click mask .

Only the failed elements are displayed. This function may be necessary when you are working
with a large number of elements.

7. Click return.

Finding Duplicate Nodes and Free Edges in the


Model
In this tutorial, find the duplicate nodes and free edges and equivalence these nodes.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash, /.

4. Select the modelchk_final.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
modelchk_final.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to exit the files panel.

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To find and equivalence the duplicate nodes:

1. Select the faces panel on the Tool page.

2. Click the input collector switch and select elems.

3. Click elems and select displayed on the extended entity selection menu.

4. Click tolerance = and enter 0.01.

5. Select preview equivalence.

Temporary nodes are created on all the duplicate nodes.

6. Select equivalence.

7. All duplicate nodes are equivalenced.

8. Click return.

NOTE Duplicate nodes are within the specified tolerance and have the same
location as the other nodes; however, they have not been equivalenced.

To find free edges:

1. Select the edges panel on the Tool page.

2. Click the input collector switch and select elems.

3. Click elems and select displayed on the extended entity selection menu.

4. Click find edges.

5. Click return.

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To view the edges only:

The edges created are 1-D elements. To view them alone, turn off the display of the other elements.

1. Select the display panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click the upper input collector switch and select comps.

3. Click the toggle and select elems.

4. Click none.

5. Click ^edges.

6. Click return.

To validate the free edges, analyze them with respect to the geometry of the model. If there are
invalid free edges, it means there are duplicate nodes that need to be equivalenced. The model
in the graphics area contains an invalid free edge:

7. Select the display panel on the permanent menu.

8. Click all.

The other elements are displayed.

9. Click return.

To equivalence the remaining duplicate nodes:

1. Select the edges panel on the Tool page.

2. Click delete edges to delete the edge elements.

3. Click the input collector switch and select elems.

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4. Click elems and select displayed on the extended entity selection menu.

5. Click tolerance = and enter 0.2.

6. Click preview equivalence.

Four nodes were found that have not been equivalenced.

7. Click equivalence.

8. Click return.

To recheck for free edges:

1. Select the edges panel on the Tool page.

2. Click the input collector switch and select elems.

3. Click elems and select displayed on the extended entity selection menu.

4. Click find edges.

5. Click return.

To review the edges:

1. Select the display panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click none.

3. Click ^edges.

4. Click return.

There are no free edges other than the valid ones.

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Using OptiStruct in HyperMesh - HM-550
This tutorial demonstrates how to retrieve a HyperMesh database containing a fully defined
OptiStruct/FEA database, export the input deck, and run an OptiStruct/FEA job from the solver panel
in HyperMesh.

Since each procedure builds on the preceding section, you should start with the first exercise and
continue doing the exercises in the following order:

• Running OptiStruct/FEA

• Running OptiStruct at the Command Prompt

• Analysis of a Plate with a Hole

• Analysis of a Coffee Pot Lid with Thermal Loads

• Normal Modes Analysis of a Splash Shield

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Running OptiStruct/FEA
To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2.Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Double-click file =.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directories are
followed by a slash, /.

4. Select the plate.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm.

5. Click retrieve.

6. Click return to access the main menu.

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To write the OptiStruct/FEA .fem input deck file:

Write your OptiStruct/FEA input deck (usually specified with the .fem extension) before running
OptiStruct/FEA.

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the export subpanel.

3. Click template = and type in optistruct/optistruct. Or, click template = a second time
and select the optistruct template file in the optistruct directory.

4. Click filename = and enter plate.fem.

5. Click write.

This writes your HyperMesh database as an OptiStruct/FEA ASCII input deck.

6. Click return to access the main menu.

To run OptiStruct/FEA:

1. Select the solver panel on the BCs page.

2. Click the upper switch and select OPTISTRUCT/FEA.

HyperMesh loads the path to the OptiStruct executable in the solver = field. You do not need to
edit this field.

3. Click input file = and enter plate.fem, the OptiStruct/FEA input deck. Or, click input file =
again and browse your directory structure for the file plate.fem.

4. Click memory in Mb = and enter 10 for the RAM required in MB. RAM is directly dependent
upon the number of grids in your model. As a starting point, use 8MB/1000/grids/nodes. You can
perform a test that allows OptiStruct/FEA to calculate a recommended amount of RAM for your
model.

5. Click solve.

This launches the OptiStruct/FEA job. If the job is successful, results files are created and
stored in the directory from which HyperMesh is launched. The plate.out file contains error
messages that can help you debug your input deck if necessary.

6. Click return.

The default files written to your directory are:

plate.res The HyperMesh binary results file.

plate.HM.ent.cmf A HyperMesh command file used to organize


elements into entity sets based on their density
result values (only used with OptiStruct topology
optimization runs).

HyperMesh Tutorials 180 Altair Engineering


plate.HM.comp.cmf A HyperMesh command file used to organize
elements into components based on their density
result values (only used with OptiStruct topology
optimization runs).

plate.out The OptiStruct output file containing specific


information on the file set-up, the set-up of your
optimization problem, an estimate for the amount of
RAM and disk space required for the run,
information for each optimization iteration, and
computation time information. Review this file for
warnings and errors that are flagged from
processing the plate_hole.fem file.

plate.oslog The OptiStruct log file containing compliance and


volume calculations for each optimization iteration.

Running OptiStruct at the Command Prompt


In the section Running OptiStruct/FEA, you ran OptiStruct from the solver panel in HyperMesh. You
can also run OptiStruct from the command prompt (UNIX or MS-DOS). To run OptiStruct from UNIX
or MS-DOS, copy the OptiStruct file plate.fem to the HyperWorks installation directory,
$ALTAIR_HOME for MS-DOS and $ALTAIR_HOME/scripts for UNIX.

For UNIX:

To run OptiStruct from the UNIX command prompt, type:

• $ALTAIR_HOME/scripts/optistruct plate.fem -len 10

To check the current version of OptiStruct, type:

• $ALTAIR_HOME/scripts/optistruct -version

To perform a test run to validate your input deck and determine how much RAM and disk
space is necessary for the run, type:

• $ALTAIR_HOME/scripts/optistruct plate.fem -len 10 -check

• Memory requirement information is written to the file plate.out

For MS-DOS:

To run OptiStruct from the MS-DOS command prompt, type:

• $ALTAIR_HOME\optistruct\3.4\bin\opti plate.fem 10

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To check the current version of OptiStruct, type:

• $ALTAIR_HOME\optistruct\3.4\bin\opti -version

To perform a test run to validate your input deck and to determine how much RAM and disk
space is necessary for the run, add the check parameter to your input deck and run OptiStruct
from the MS-DOS prompt:

• $ALTAIR_HOME\optistruct\3.4\bin\opti plate.fem 10

• Memory requirement information is written to plate.out

Analysis of a Plate with a Hole


In this tutorial, create finite elements on a given geometry of a plate with a hole, apply boundary
conditions, and perform a finite element analysis of the problem. Use the post-processing tools in
HyperMesh to determine deformation and stress characteristics of the loaded plate.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Double-click file =.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directories are
followed by a slash, /.

4. Select the plate_hole.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm.

5. Click retrieve.

To define the OptiStruct template:

1. Select the template subpanel.

2. Double-click template file =.

3. Select the optistruct template file in the optistruct directory. Selecting the OptiStruct
template allows you to define OptiStruct-specific attributes in your HyperMesh session.

4. Click return to access the main menu.

HyperMesh Tutorials 182 Altair Engineering


To define material properties and element thickness:

Create the material collectors before creating the component collectors; components must reference
a material collector.

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Select the switch after collector type: and select mats.

4. Click name = and enter steel.

5. Click card image = and select MAT1.

6. Click create/edit.

The MAT1 card image is loaded for the material steel.

7. Click E to make the status title active.

NOTE A status title is displayed as yellow (off) or blue (on). The status title
toggles between the two options when you click it. It is not necessary to
define a density value since only a static analysis is required. Density
values are required, however, for normal modes analysis.

8. Click the data entry field under E and enter 2E5.

9. Click NU, click the data entry field under NU, and enter 0.3.

10. Click return.

11. Select the switch after collector type: and select comps.

12. Click name = and enter shells.

13. Click card image = and select PSHELL.

14. Click material = and select steel.

15. Click color and select color 8.

16. Click create/edit.

This loads the PSHELL card image for the new component, shells. It also assigns color 8 to
the elements that are organized into this component, and assigns the material steel to this
component.

17. Click T to make the status title active.

18. Click the data entry field under T and enter 10.

OptiStruct stores information regarding shell thickness on the PSHELL card.

19. Click return.

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A component is created named shells. Any elements created and organized into the shells
component have thickness attributes defined on the PSHELL card for the shells component (T =
10.0mm). The elements have material attributes defined on the MAT1 card by the material
collector steel, since the shells component references this material.

20. Click return again to access the main menu.

Use the card image subpanel to edit the card images for these collectors.

Use the update subpanel to define a different material for the components.

To mesh the geometry:

The automeshing module allows you to mesh interactively on surfaces. It also includes some tools
for manipulating surface edges and meshing fixed points (locations where the mesher is required to
place a node). The elements generated are organized into the current component, shells.

1. Select the automesh panel on the 2-D page.

2. Select the surface displayed in the graphics area and click mesh.

3. Click using size = and enter 40.

4. Click recalc all.

5. Click mesh.

The automesher creates about 400 elements on the surface.

Plate mesh using element size of 40mm

6. Click return to save the mesh in the shells component.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

HyperMesh Tutorials 184 Altair Engineering


Applying Boundary Conditions to the Model

In this section, the model is constrained such that two of the four edges cannot move. A total lateral
load of 1000N is applied at the edge of the hole so that all forces point in the positive z-direction.

To create collectors:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type: and select loadcols.

4. Click name = and enter spcs.

5. Click color and select color 10.

6. Click create.

The collector was created.

7. Click name = again and enter forces.

8. Click color and select color 15.

9. Click create.

The collector was created.

10. Click return to access the main menu.

To create constraints:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click loadcol = and select spcs.

3. Click return.

4. Select the constraints panel on the BCs page.

5. Click nodes and select by window from the extended entity selection menu.

HyperMesh goes to the build window panel.

6. Click interior if not already selected.

7. Create a window around the left and right edges of the model. Do this by picking points on the
screen with your mouse.

8. Click select entities.

The nodes along the left and right edges of the model are selected (see the figure below).

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HyperMesh returns to the constraints panel.

Select these nodes to apply single point constraints

9. Click dof1 - dof6, if not already selected.

NOTE Dofs that are checked are constrained.

Dofs 1,2, and 3 are x, y, and z translation degrees of freedom

Dofs 4, 5, and 6 are x, y, and z rotational degrees of freedom.

10. Click create to apply these constraints to the selected nodes.

To create forces on the nodes around the hole:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click loadcol = and select forces.

3. Click return.

4. Click return again to access the main menu.

5. Select the forces panel on the BCs page.

6. Click nodes and select by window from the extended entity selection menu.

HyperMesh goes to the build window panel.

7. Click interior if not already selected.

8. Create a window around the hole of the model. Do this by picking points on the screen with your
mouse.

9. Click select entities.

HyperMesh Tutorials 186 Altair Engineering


The nodes around the hole of the model are selected (see the figure below).

HyperMesh returns to the constraints panel.

Select these nodes to create loading around the hole

10. Click nodes and select save from the extended entity selection menu.

11. Click return.

12. Select the count panel on the Tool page.

The nodes are counted automatically so that a calculation can be made to create a total force of
1000N.

13. Click the upper left switch and select nodes.

14. Click nodes and select retrieve from the extended entity selection menu.

15. The nodes saved in the forces panel are retrieved.

16. Click selected to count the number of nodes around the hole.

17. Click return.

18. Select the forces panel on the BCs page.

19. Click nodes and select retrieve.

20. Click magnitude = and enter 1000.

21. Click the vector definition switch below magnitude = and select z-axis.

22. Click create.

23. Click return.

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The last step in setting up the boundary conditions is to create a NASTRAN subcase (a load
step in HyperMesh).

1. Select the load steps panel on the BCs page.

2. Click name = and enter lateral force.

3. Click loadcols and select spcs and forces.

4. Click select.

5. Click create.

The load step has been created.

6. Click return.

Submitting the job

To write the file:

Write your OptiStruct/FEA input deck (usually specified with the .fem extension) before running
OptiStruct/FEA.

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the export subpanel.

3. Click template = and type in optistruct/optistruct. Or, click template = a second time
and select the optistruct template file in the optistruct directory.

4. Click filename = and enter plate_hole.fem.

5. Click write.

This writes your HyperMesh database as an OptiStruct/FEA ASCII input deck.

6. Click return.

To run OptiStruct/FEA:

1. Select the solver panel on the BCs page.

2. Click the upper switch and select OPTISTRUCT/FEA.

HyperMesh loads the direct path to the OptiStruct executable in the solver = field. You do not
need to edit this field.

3. Click input file = and enter plate_hole.fem, the OptiStruct/FEA input deck. Or, click input
file = again and browse your directory structure for the file plate_hole.fem.

4. Click memory in Mb = and enter 10 for the RAM required in MB. RAM is directly dependent
upon the number of grids in your model. As a starting point, use 8MB/1000 grids or nodes. You

HyperMesh Tutorials 188 Altair Engineering


can perform a test that allows OptiStruct/FEA to calculate a recommended amount of RAM for
your model.

5. Click solve.

6. This launches the OptiStruct/FEA job. If the job is successful, results files are created in the
directory from which you select the file plate_hole.fem. The plate_hole.out file contains
error messages that can help you debug your input deck if necessary.

The default files written to your directory include:

plate_hole.res The HyperMesh binary results file.

plate_hole.HM.ent.cmf A HyperMesh command file used to organize


elements into entity sets based on their density
result values (only used with OptiStruct topology
optimization runs).
plate_hole.HM.comp.cmf A HyperMesh command file used to organize
elements into components based on their density
result values (only used with OptiStruct topology
optimization runs).

plate_hole.out The OptiStruct output file containing specific


information on the file set-up, the set-up of your
optimization problem, an estimate for the amount
of RAM and disk space required for the run,
information for each optimization iteration, and
computation time information. Review this file for
warnings and errors that are flagged from
processing the plate_hole.fem file.

plate_hole.oslog The OptiStruct log file containing compliance and


volume calculations for each optimization
iteration.

Viewing the results


OptiStruct generates displacement and von Mises stress results for your linear static analysis. This
section describes how to view those results in HyperMesh. You need to load your HyperMesh binary
results file to view your results.

To load the results file:

1. Select the files panel on any page in HyperMesh.

2. Select the results subpanel.

3. Click results = and enter plate_hole.res. Or, click results = a second time and browse your
directory structure for the file.

4. Click return.

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To view a deformed shape:

1. Select the deformed panel on the Post page.

2. Click simulation =.

There are two simulations: DENSITY - ITER 0 and SUBCASE1 - ITERATION 0. If you are
running a linear static analysis only, you can ignore the DENSITY simulation. Simulations
tagged with SUBCASE contain the results from your analysis.

If you had created two load steps, three simulations would exist: DENSITY - ITER 0,
SUBCASE1 - ITERATION 0, and SUBCASE2 - ITERATION 0. The subcase IDs reflect your
HyperMesh load step IDs.

3. Click SUBCASE 1 - ITERATION 0.

4. Click model units = and enter 250.

5. Click deform to view a deformed plot of your model overlaid on the original, undeformed mesh
(refer to the figure below).

6. Select the view panel on the permanent menu and select iso 1.

Isometric view of deformed plot overlaid on original, undeformed mesh. Model units are set to 250.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

8. Select the view panel on the permanent menu and select top.

To view a contour plot of stresses and displacements:

1. Select the options panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click the toggle after engine: to performance.

3. Click return.

4. Select the contour panel on the Post page.

5. Click simulation = and select SUBCASE 1 -ITERATION 0.

6. Click data type = and select displacements.

There are three data types available: displacements, von Mises stress and density. The

HyperMesh Tutorials 190 Altair Engineering


density data type is used only with topology optimization results and is not used in this
procedure.

7. Click contour.

8. Click data type = and select von Mises stress.

9. Click assign.

10. Click contour and compare your model to the figure below.

11. Click return.

von Mises stress plot using discrete contours (performance graphics selected)

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Analysis of Coffee Pot Lid with Thermal Loads
In this tutorial, apply boundary conditions and perform a finite element analysis of an existing finite
element model of a plastic coffee pot lid. Use the post-processing tools in HyperMesh to determine
deformation and stress characteristics of the loaded plate.

Before importing the model for this tutorial, delete the current model from HyperMesh.

To delete the current model:

1. Select the delete panel on the Tool page.

2. Click delete model.

3. Click yes to delete the current model.

Deleting the current model clears the current HyperMesh database. Information saved in .hm
files is not affected.

4. Click return to access the main menu.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the import subpanel.

3. Double-click translator =.

4. Select the optistruct.exe input translator. The OptiStruct input translator allows you to retrieve
model information stored in an OptiStruct ASCII .fem file.

5. Double-click filename = and select the file coffee_lid.fem, located in the HyperWorks
installation directory under /tutorials/hm/.

6. Click import.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

By default, HyperMesh sizes the icons that represent the temperature loads to 100% of the
temperature magnitude. These icons may be too large with respect to the model size. To change the
size, follow these steps:

1. Select the display panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click the upper switch and select loadcols.

3. Click none to turn off the thermal loading.

4. Click f to maximize the view of the displayed collectors in the graphics area.

5. Click return.

HyperMesh Tutorials 192 Altair Engineering


To define your OptiStruct template:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the template subpanel.

3. Double-click template file =.

4. Select the optistruct template file in the optistruct directory. Selecting the OptiStruct
template allows you to define OptiStruct-specific attributes in your HyperMesh session.

5. Click return.

To define the material properties and element thickness:

The model you imported has two component collectors without any materials. In this step, create a
material collector and assign it to your component collectors.

1. Select the collectors panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type: and select mats.

4. Click name = and enter plastic.

5. Click card image = and select MAT1.

6. Click create/edit.

This loads the MAT1 card image for the material plastic.

7. Click E to make the status title active.

NOTE A status title is displayed as yellow (off) or blue (on). The status title
toggles between the two options when you click it. It is not necessary to
define a density value since only a static analysis is required. Density
values are required, however, for normal modes analysis.

8. Click the data entry field under E and enter 1137MPa.

9. Click NU, click the data entry field under NU, and enter 0.26.

10. Click A, click the data entry field under A, and enter 81E-6mm/mm/C.

A is the coefficient of linear thermal expansion.

11. Click return.

12. Select the switch after collector type: and select comps.

13. Select the card image subpanel.

14. Double-click name = and select shells.

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15. Click edit.

16. Make sure the value of T is 2.5. If it is not, click T, click the data entry field under T, and enter
2.5.

17. Click return.

18. Double-click name = and select shells_nondesign.

19. Click T, click the data entry field under T, and enter 2.5.

20. Click return.

OptiStruct stores information regarding shell thickness on the PSHELL card in the T block.

Notice that both components have MID’s of 0.

21. Click return to access the main menu.

To assign a material collector to each component:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the update subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type: and select comps.

4. Click comps and select shells and shells_nondesign.

5. Click select.

6. Click material = and select plastic.

7. Click update and select material id.

8. Click update.

At this point, check your component collector PSHELL cards again to ensure that the MIDs are now
set to 1.

1. Select the card image subpanel.

2. Double-click name = and enter shells.

3. Click edit.

Check that the MIDs are set to 1.

4. Click return.

5. Double-click name = and select shells_nondesign.

6. Click edit.

Check that the MIDs are set to 1.

HyperMesh Tutorials 194 Altair Engineering


7. Click return.

8. Click return again to access the main menu.

To apply boundary conditions to the model:

In this section, the model is constrained opposite the spout to simulate two hinges. Two constraints
are applied at the corners of the spout so that the nodes do not move vertically.

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type: and select loadcols.

4. Click name = and enter constraints.

5. Click color and select color 8.

6. Click create.

To create constraints at the corners of the spout:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click loadcol and select constraints.

3. Click return.

4. Click return again to access the main menu.

5. Select the constraints panel on the BCs page.

6. Select the two nodes at the corners of the spout, as shown in the figure below.

Select these nodes to create constraints at the spout corners

7. Click dof3 to constrain it, if not already selected.

8. Click size = and enter 1 for the constraint size.

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NOTE Dofs that are checked are constrained.

Dofs 1, 2, and 3 are x, y, and z translation degrees of freedom

Dofs 4, 5, and 6 are x, y, and z rotational degrees of freedom

9. Select create to constrain the selected nodes.

10. Click return to access the main menu.

To create constraints opposite the spout:

1. Select the create nodes panel on the geom page.

2. Select the type in subpanel.

3. Click the data entry field after x = and enter 0.0.

4. Click the data entry field after y = and enter -10.0.

5. Click the data entry field after z = and enter 0.0.

6. Click create node.

The node is created at the centerline of the coffee lid.

7. Click return.

8. Select the constraints panel on the BCs page.

9. Pick the nodes as shown in the figure below.

Create constraints opposite the spout to model hinges

10. Click dof1, dof2, and dof3 if not already selected.

11. Click create.

Four constraints are created.

12. Click return.

HyperMesh Tutorials 196 Altair Engineering


13. Select the temp nodes panel on the Tool page.

14. Click clear all to remove the temp node.

15. Click return.

The last step in setting up the boundary conditions is to create an OptiStruct subcase (a load
step in HyperMesh).

1. Select the load steps panel on the BCs page.

2. Click name = and enter brew cycle.

3. Click loadcols and select constraints and THERMAL_LOADING from the collector list.

4. Click select.

5. Click create.

The load step has been created.

6. Click return.

Submitting the job

To write your file:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the export subpanel.

3. Click template = and enter optistruct/optistruct. Or, click template = again and select
the optistruct template file in the optistruct directory.

4. Click filename = and enter lid_complete.fem.

5. Click write.

This writes your HyperMesh database as an OptiStruct/FEA ASCII input deck.

6. Click return.

To run OptiStruct:

1. Select the solver panel on the BCs page.

2. Select the switch and select OPTISTRUCT/FEA.

HyperMesh loads the direct path to the OptiStruct executable in the solver = field. You do not
need to edit this field.

3. Click input file = and enter the OptiStruct input deck lid_complete.fem. Or, click input file =

Altair Engineering 197 HyperMesh Tutorials


again and browse your directory structure for the file.

4. Click memory in Mb = and enter 50 for the RAM required in MB. RAM is directly dependent
upon the number of grids in your model. As a starting point, use 8MB/1000 grids or nodes. You
can perform a test that allows OptiStruct/FEA to calculate a recommended amount of RAM for
your model.

5. Click solve.

This launches the OptiStruct/FEA job. If the job is successful, new results files are created in the
directory from which HyperMesh is run. The lid_complete.out file contains error messages
that can help you debug your input deck if necessary.

6. Click return.

The default files that are written to your directory are:

lid_complete.res The HyperMesh binary results file.

lid_complete.HM.ent.cmf A HyperMesh command file used to


organize elements into entity sets based
on their density result values (only used
with OptiStruct topology optimization
runs).

lid_complete.HM.comp.cmf A HyperMesh command file used to


organize elements into components based
on their density result values (only used
with OptiStruct topology optimization
runs).

lid_complete.out The OptiStruct output file containing


specific information on the file set-up, the
set-up of the optimization problem, an
estimate for the amount of RAM and disk
space required for the run, information for
each optimization iteration, and
computation time information. Review this
file for warnings and errors that are
flagged from processing the
lid_complete.fem file.

lid_complete.oslog The OptiStruct log file containing


compliance and volume calculations for
each optimization iteration.

HyperMesh Tutorials 198 Altair Engineering


Viewing the results
OptiStruct generates displacement and von Mises stress results for your linear static analysis. This
section describes how to view those results in HyperMesh.

To load the HyperMesh binary results file:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page in HyperMesh.

2. Select the results subpanel.

3. Click results = and enter lid_complete.res. Or, click results = a second time and browse
your directory structure for the file.

4. Click return.

To view a deformed shape:

1. Select the deformed panel on the Post page.

2. Click simulation =.

There are two simulations: DENSITY - ITER 0 and SUBCASE 1 - ITERATION 0. If you are
running only a linear static analysis, the DENSITY simulation can be ignored. Simulations
tagged with SUBCASE contain the results from your analysis.

If you had created two load steps three simulations would exist: DENSITY - ITER 0, SUBCASE
1 - ITERATION 0, and SUBCASE 2 - ITERATION 0. The subcase IDs reflect your HyperMesh
load step IDs.

3. Click SUBCASE 1 - ITERATION 0.

4. Click model units = and enter 2.

5. Click deform to view a deformed plot of your model overlaid on the original undeformed mesh
(refer to the figure below).

6. Click return.

Deformed shape with overlay of displacement contour

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To view a contour plot of stresses and displacements:

1. Select the contour panel on the Post.

2. Click simulation = and select SUBCASE 1 -ITERATION 0.

3. Click data type = and select Displacements.

There are three data types available: displacements, von Mises stress, and density. The
density data type is used only with topology optimization results and is not used in this
procedure.

4. Click contour.

5. Click data type = and select von Mises stress.

6. Click assign.

7. Click return.

Normal Modes Analysis of a Splash Shield


In this tutorial, apply boundary conditions and perform a normal modes analysis of the problem using
an existing finite element model of an automotive splash shield. Use the post-processing tools in
HyperMesh to determine mode shapes of the model.

Before importing the model for this tutorial, you must delete the current model from HyperMesh.

To delete the current model:

1. Select the delete panel on the Tool page.

2. Click delete model.

3. Click yes to delete the current model.

Deleting the current model clears the current HyperMesh database. Information stored in .hm
files on your disk is not affected.

4. Click return.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the import subpanel.

3. Double-click translator =.

4. Select the optistruct.exe input translator. The OptiStruct input translator allows you to retrieve
model information stored in an OptiStruct ASCII .fem file.

HyperMesh Tutorials 200 Altair Engineering


5. Double-click filename = and select the file sshield.fem, located in the HyperWorks installation
directory under /tutorials/hm/.

6. Click import.

To define your OptiStruct template:

1. Select the template subpanel.

2. Double-click template file =.

3. Select the optistruct template file in the optistruct directory. The OptiStruct template
allows you to define OptiStruct specific attributes in your HyperMesh session.

4. Click return.

The model contains two rigid spiders where the shield is bolted down. This represents the interaction
between the bolts and the shield. It is assumed that the bolts are significantly more rigid than the
shield.

The dependent nodes of the rigid elements have six degrees of freedom constrained. Each spider
connects the nodes of the shell mesh together so that they do not move with respect to each other.

To review the rigid elements:

1. Select the rigids panel on the 1-D page.

2. Click review.

3. Select a rigid element from the graphics area.

HyperMesh labels the independent node, the dependent node, and the IDs of the two nodes
and the rigid element. HyperMesh also shows the constrained degrees of freedom in the rigids
panel for the rigid element you selected. All rigid elements in this model should have dof1 - dof6
constrained.

4. Click return.

To define the material properties:

The model has two component collectors without any materials. In this step, create a material
collector and assign it to your component collectors. The rigid elements do not need to be assigned
to a material.

1. Select the collectors panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type: and select mats.

4. Click name = and enter steel.

Altair Engineering 201 HyperMesh Tutorials


5. Click card image = and select MAT1.

6. Click create/edit.

This loads the MAT1 card image for the material steel.

7. Click E to make the status title active.

NOTE A status title is displayed as yellow (off) or blue (on). The status title
toggles between the two options when you click it. It is not necessary to
define a density value since only a static analysis is requried. Density
values are required, however, for normal modes analysis.

8. Click the data entry field under E and enter 2.0E5MPa.

9. Click NU, click the data entry field under NU, and enter 0.3.

10. Click RHO, click the data entry field under RHO, and enter 7.85E-9Mg/mm^3.

For this tutorial, it is necessary to define a density value since you will be running a normal
modes solution.

11. Click return.

To assign a thickness to your shell elements:

1. Select the card image subpanel.

2. Click the switch after collector type: and select comps.

3. Double-click name = and select shell, the component containing your shell elements.

4. Click edit.

5. Click T, click the data entry field below T, and enter 0.25 as the thickness of your component.

6. Click return.

To assign the steel material collector to a component:

1. Select the update subpanel.

2. Click the switch after the collector type: and select comps.

3. Click comps and select shell.

4. Click select.

5. Click material = and select steel.

6. Click update and select material id.

7. Click update again.

HyperMesh Tutorials 202 Altair Engineering


At this point, check your component collector PSHELL cards again to ensure that the MIDs are
now set to 1.

8. Select the card image subpanel.

9. Double-click name = and select shells.

10. Click edit.

Check that the MIDs are set to 1.

11. Click return.

12. Click return again to access the main menu.

To apply boundary conditions to the model:

In this section, the model is constrained at the bolt locations.

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type: and select loadcols.

4. Click name = and enter constraints.

5. Click color and select color 8.

6. Click create.

In the previous tutorials, multiple load collectors were created and grouped together in the load
steps panel to form an OptiStruct subcase. For example, the constraints load collector and a
forces load collector. Both of these boundary conditions were used together in one load step.

In this tutorial, constrain the model using SPC’s at the bolt locations. Those constrains are
organized into the load collector constraints. Designate the analysis as normal modes. To
designate the subcase, put a load collector with the EIGRL card image into the subcase (or load
step).

7. Click the switch after collector type: and select loadcols.

8. Click name = and enter frequencies.

9. Click color and select color 15.

10. Click card image = and select EIGRL.

11. Click create/edit.

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To set up the EIGRL card:

Extract the first six roots between 0 and 200 Hz.


1. Click V1, click the data entry field under V1, and enter 0 for the lower bound of the frequency
range.

2. Click V2, click the data entry field under V2, and enter 200.

3. Click ND, click the data entry field under ND, and enter 6 for the number of roots.

4. Click return.

To create constraints at the bolt locations:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click loadcol and select constraints.

3. Click return.

4. Select the constraints panel on the BCs page.

5. Select the two nodes as shown in the figure below.

6. Select the view panel on the permanent menu and click top.

Select these nodes to constrain the bolt locations (top view)

7. Click dof1 - dof6, if not already selected.

NOTE Dofs that are checked are constrained.


Dofs 1, 2, and 3 are x, y, and z translation degrees of freedom
Dofs 4, 5, and 6 are x, y, and z rotational degrees of freedom

8. Click create to constrain the selected nodes.

9. Click return.

HyperMesh Tutorials 204 Altair Engineering


The last step in setting up the boundary conditions is to create an OptiStruct subcase (a load
step in HyperMesh).

1. Select the load steps panel on the BCs page.

2. Click name = and enter bolted.

3. Click loadcols and select constraints and frequencies.

4. Click select.

5. Click create.

The load step has been created.

6. Click return.

Submitting the job

To write your file:

1. Select the files panel from any main menu page.

2. Select the export subpanel.

3. Click template = and enter optistruct/optistruct. Or, click template = again and select
the optistruct template file in the optistruct directory.

4. Click filename = and enter sshield_complete.fem.

5. Click write.

This writes your HyperMesh database as an OptiStruct ASCII input deck.

6. Click return.

To run OptiStruct:

1. Select the solver panel on the BCs page in HyperMesh.

2. Click the switch and select OPTISTRUCT/FEA.

HyperMesh loads the direct path to the OptiStruct executable in the solver = field. You do not
need to edit this field at this time.

3. Click input file = and enter the OptiStruct input deck sshield_complete.fem. Or, click input
file = again and browse your directory structure for the file.

4. Click memory in Mb = and enter 20 for the RAM required in MB. RAM is directly dependent
upon the number of grids in your model. As a starting point, use 8MB/1000 grids. You can
perform a test that allows OptiStruct/FEA to calculate a recommended amount of RAM for your
model.

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5. Click solve.

This starts the OptiStruct/FEA job. If the job is successful, new results files are created in the
directory from which HyperMesh is run. The sshield_complete.out file contains error
messages that can help you debug your input deck if necessary.

6. Click return.

The average time between starting the analysis and completing the job is 30 seconds. Performance
depends upon your processor, available RAM, and the time required for system communications.

The default files that are written to your directory are:

sshield_complete.res The HyperMesh binary results file.

sshield_complete.HM.ent.cmf A HyperMesh command file used to


organize elements into entity sets based
on their density result values (only used
with OptiStruct topology optimization
runs).

sshield_complete.HM.comp.cmf A HyperMesh command file used to


organize elements into components
based on their density result values (only
used with OptiStruct topology
optimization runs).

sshield_complete.out The OptiStruct output file containing


specific information on the file set-up, the
set-up of your optimization problem, an
estimate for the amount of RAM, and
disk space required for the run,
information for each optimization
iteration, and computation time
information. Review this file for warnings
and errors that are flagged from
processing the
sshield_complete.fem file.

sshield_complete.oslog The OptiStruct log file containing


compliance and volume calculations for
each optimization iteration.

Viewing the results


OptiStruct generates Eigenvector results for your normal modes analysis. This section describes
how to view your results in HyperMesh.

To load the results file:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the results subpanel.

3. Click results file= and enter sshield_complete.res. Or, click results = a second time and
browse your directory structure for the file.

HyperMesh Tutorials 206 Altair Engineering


4. Click return.

To view a deformed shape:

1. Select the deformed panel on the Post page.

2. Click simulation =.

There are seven simulations:

DENSITY - ITER 0

MODE 1-F#.##E+##-ITER 0

MODE 2-F#.##E+##-ITER 0

MODE 3-F#.##E+##-ITER 0

MODE 4-F#.##E+##-ITER 0

MODE 5-F#.##E+##-ITER 0

MODE 6-F#.##E+##-ITER 0

If you are running a normal modes analysis only, the DENSITY simulation can be ignored.
Simulations containing the word “MODE” and numbers contain the results from your analysis.

The frequency values for the six roots that OptiStruct extracted are:

MODE 1 = Hz.

MODE 2 = Hz.

MODE 3 = Hz.

MODE 4 = Hz.

MODE 5 = Hz.

MODE 6 = Hz.

3. Select the simulation for MODE 1.

4. Click model units = enter 15.

5. Click modal to view an animation of the mode shape at the first frequency.

For modal solutions, make sure that the nodes that are constrained are not moving.

6. View the rest of your mode shapes using the same model units.

When you select MODE 5, how does your model compare with the figure below?

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Mode shape of 5th root, 287Hz.

Analysis Review
• In this analysis, it was assumed that the bolts were significantly stiffer than the shield. If the
bolts needed to be made of aluminum and the shield was still made of steel, would you need to
modify your model and run the analysis again?

• It is necessary to push the natural frequencies of the splash shield above 50Hz. With the
current model, you should have one mode that violates this constraint: MODE 1, 43Hz. Design
specifications allow the inner disjointed circular rib to be modified such that no significant mass
is added to the part. The available package space for this new rib is shown as the solid region
in the figure below. The thickness of the solid region is equal to the depth of the original rib. Is
there a better configuration for this rib within the above stated constraints that will push the first
mode above 50Hz? (see the OptiStruct tutorial OS-3001 to redesign this part)

Yellow, solid region represents the available package space for redesigning the inner disjointed circular rib

HyperMesh Tutorials 208 Altair Engineering


Deformed and Contour Plotting - HM-610
This tutorial introduces the deformed and contour panels, which are used for post-processing and
viewing finite element analysis (FEA) results files. Additional viewing options are available on these
panels if you use the performance graphics engine.

contour panel Allows you to create contour and assigned plots of your model. Use
this function to see your results graphically, in either a contour or
assigned plot mode.

deformed panel The deformed panel plots displacement analysis results. Use this
function to see the motion of your structure after analysis.

The following exercises are included:

• Creating a Contour Plot

• Creating an Assign Plot

• Cutting planes using the contour panel

• Isosurface plotting in performance graphics mode using the contour panel

• Plotting a structure using the deformed panel

• Creating a linear animation sequence

• Creating a modal animation sequence

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Creating a Contour Plot


In the following tutorial, use the contour panel to view results from a structural analysis. The results
are represented by color-coding the model, such that each color represents the different
engineering values of each section of the structure.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the bumper.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under

Altair Engineering 209 HyperMesh Tutorials


/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
bumper.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

The bumper.hm file

To retrieve the analysis results file:

1. Select the global panel from the permanent menu.

2. Click results file = twice.

3. Select the bumper.res file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

4. Click return.

To create and display a contour plot using the analysis results file:

1. Select the contour panel on the Post page.

2. Click simulation = and select NEAR CENTER HIT-LINE LOAD.

3. Click data type = and select Displacements.

4. Click title = and enter This is the title for the contour plot.

HyperMesh Tutorials 210 Altair Engineering


5. Click contour.

The contoured plot is displayed. The legend, which identifies the values associated with the
color bars, is displayed in the top left corner of the graphics area. The title of the plot is also
displayed.

Contour plot of the file bumper.hm

To attach titles to the entities with the least and greatest results values:

1. Click min/max titles.

2. Click contour.

For contour plots, the titles are attached to nodes in the graphics area.

To use the info title function:

1. Click info title.

2. Click contour.

A new title box, displayed in the top left corner of the graphics area, describes features of the
displayed results.

Altair Engineering 211 HyperMesh Tutorials


To display a full size screen plot:

1. Click full size.

2. Click contour.

The main menu is removed and a full size screen plot is displayed.

3. To return to the main menu, click a mouse button.

To change the color of the mesh lines:

1. Click mesh color and select Color 12.

2. Click contour.

The mesh lines are yellow.

To change the displacement component:

1. Click the switch next to total disp and select y comp.

The vector component of displacement is used to calculate contours.

By default, the total displacement (total disp) of the node is used as the value in the contour, if
displacements are being used to calculate contours.

2. Click contour.

To select a deformed type for the model:

The default mode of the assigned plot is undeformed. You can deform a model by selecting model
units or scale factor.

1. Click the lower left switch next to undeformed and select scale factor.

2. Click scale factor = and enter 100.0.

3. Click contour.

The model is deformed.

HyperMesh Tutorials 212 Altair Engineering


Contour plot, deformed shape of bumper.hm

To change the scale factor:

1. Click mult = and enter 10.000.

2. Click contour.

The engineering values in the results file are changed to reflect this factor. The shape of the
model changes as well.

To redefine a minimum contour value:

By default, values assigned to the colors in the legend are calculated by taking the maximum analysis
value found in the results file and the minimum value found in the results file and dividing the range of
these values by the number of colors used in the plot.

1. Click the lower left toggle next to find minimum and select minimum =.

2. Click minimum = and enter 0.000.

This value is assigned to the lowest color in the plot.

3. Click contour.

Altair Engineering 213 HyperMesh Tutorials


To redefine a maximum contour value:

1. Click the upper left toggle next to find maximum and select maximum =.

2. Click maximum = and enter 0.01.

This value is assigned to the highest color in the plot.

3. Click contour.

To change the display mode of the contour plot:

1. Click visual options.

A pop-up menu of the display options is displayed.

2. Click the toggle next to mode and switch between hidden line and wireframe.

The model is displayed in hidden line and wireframe mode.

3. Click the toggle next to color and switch between by element and contour.

The color display of the model changes to reflect your selection.

4. Click the toggle next to lights and switch between smooth, flat, and off.

The lighting of the model changes to reflect your selection.

5. Click the toggle next to mesh and switch between mesh, features, and none.

This changes the plotting of the meshed lines.

To create a cutting plane through the model:

1. Click visual options and select cutting plane.

HyperMesh goes to the cutting planes subpanel.

2. Click distance = and enter 10.000.

3. Pick three nodes on the model.

These nodes define the cutting plane direction.

4. Pick a base node on the model.

The model will be cut at that node.

5. Select cut plane.

The model is cut.

HyperMesh Tutorials 214 Altair Engineering


Contour plot of bumper.hm using a cutting plane

6. Click reverse plane.

The reverse of the model is removed from view.

7. Click translate +.

The cutting plane is moved 10.000 positive units forward in the direction normal to the plane
defined by the three nodes that you selected.

8. Select translate -.

The cutting plane is moved 10.000 negative units in the direction normal to the plane defined by
the three nodes you selected.

9. Click clear plane to remove the section cut.

You can now define a new plane cut, if necessary.

10. Click return twice to access the main menu.

Creating an Assign Plot


In the following tutorial, use the contour panel along with the assign plot function to view results
from a structural analysis. The results are represented by color coding the model, such that the
each color represents the different engineering values of each section of the structure.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

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1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the bumper.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
bumper.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

The bumper.hm file

To retrieve the analysis results file:

1. Select the global panel from the permanent menu.

2. Click results file = twice.

3. Select the bumper.res file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

4. Click return.

HyperMesh Tutorials 216 Altair Engineering


To create and display an assign plot using the analysis results file:

1. Select the contour panel on the Post page.

2. Click simulation = and select NEAR CENTER HIT-LINE LOAD.

3. Click data type = and select Displacements.

4. Click title = and enter This is the title for the assign plot.

5. Click assign.

The assigned plot is displayed. The legend, which identifies the values associated with the
color bars, is displayed in the top left corner of the graphics area. The title of the plot is also
displayed.

The assign function assigns a color to each element in the model, based on the values in the
results file. The elements are then displayed in the solid color assigned to them.

Assign plot of the bumper.hm file

To attach titles to the entities with the least and greatest results values:

1. Click min/max titles.

2. Click assign.

For assigned plots, the titles are attached to the elements.

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To use the info title function:

1. Click info title.

2. Click assign.

A new title box, displayed in the top left corner of the graphics area, describes some features of
the displayed results.

To display a full size screen plot:

1. Click full size.

2. Click assign.

The main menu is removed and a full size screen plot is displayed.

3. To return to the main menu, click a mouse button.

To change the color of the mesh lines:

1. Click mesh color and select Color 12.

2. Click assign.

The mesh lines are yellow.

To change the displacement component:

1. Click total disp and select y comp.

The vector component of displacement is used to calculate contours.

By default, the total displacement (total disp) of the node is used as the value in the
assignment, if displacements are being used to calculate assignments.

2. Click assign.

To select a deformed type for the model:

The default mode of the assigned plot is undeformed. You can deform a model by selecting model
units or scale factor.

1. Click the lower left switch next to undeformed and select scale factor.

2. Click scale factor = and enter 100.0.

3. Click assign.

The model is deformed.

HyperMesh Tutorials 218 Altair Engineering


To change the scale factor:

1. Click mult = and enter 10.000.

2. Click assign.

The engineering values in the results file are changed to reflect this factor. The shape of the
model changes as well.

To redefine a minimum contour value:

By default, values assigned to the colors in the legend are calculated by taking the maximum analysis
value found in the results file and the minimum value found in the results file and dividing the range of
these values by the number of colors used in the plot.

1. Click the lower left toggle next to find minimum and select minimum =.

2. Click minimum = and enter 0.000.

3. Click assign.

To redefine a maximum contour value:

1. Click the upper left toggle next to find maximum and select maximum =.

2. Click maximum = and enter 0.01.

3. Click assign.

To change the display mode of the contour plot:

1. Click visual options.

A pop-up menu is displayed.

2. Click the toggle next to mode and switch between hidden line and wireframe.

The model is displayed in hidden line and wireframe mode.

3. Click the toggle next to color and switch between by element and contour.

The color display of the model changes to reflect your selection.

4. Click the toggle next to lights and switch between smooth, flat, and off.

The lighting of the model changes to reflect your selection.

5. Click the toggle next to mesh and switch between mesh, features, and none.

This changes the plotting of the meshed lines.

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To create a cutting plane through the model:

1. Click visual options and select cutting plane.

2. Click distance = and enter 10.000.

3. Pick three nodes on the model.

These nodes define the cutting plane direction.

4. Pick a base node on the model.

The section cut will be made here.

5. Select cut plane.

The model is cut.

6. Click reverse plane.

The reverse of the model is removed from view.

7. Click translate +.

The cutting plane is moved 10.000 positive units forward in the direction normal to the plane
defined by the three nodes that you selected.

8. Click translate -.

The cutting plane is moved 10.000 negative units in the direction normal to the plane defined by
the three nodes that you selected.

9. Click clear plane to remove the section cut.

You can now define a new plane cut, if necessary.

10. Click return twice to access the main menu.

Cutting Planes using the Contour Panel


In the following tutorial, use the performance graphics engine, the contour panel, and the cutting
plane function to create a sectioned result plot of the structural analysis results.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

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4. Select the bumper.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
bumper.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

The bumper.hm file.

To retrieve the analysis results file:

1. Select the global panel from the permanent menu.

2. Click results file = twice.

3. Select the bumper.res file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

4. Click return.

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To switch to the performance graphics mode:

1. Select the options panel on the permanent menu.

2. Select the graphics subpanel.

3. Click the toggle after engine: to performance.

4. Click return.

To change the display in the graphics area:

1. Select the vis panel on the permanent menu.

2. Select the following icons: and .

3. Click all.

4. Click return.

The performance graphics engine treats each HyperMesh component as an independent unit. This
feature allows you to assign a set of display attributes to each component of your model that
determine how each component is displayed. For more information on the display attributes that you
can assign to each component, see the topic Component Display in Performance Graphics in the
HyperMesh User’s Guide.

To create and display a contour plot:

1. Select the contour panel on the Post page.

2. Select the params subpanel.

3. Click simulation = and select NEAR CENTER HIT-DISTR LOAD.

4. Click data type = and select Displacements.

5. Click title = and enter This is the performance graphics contour plot.

6. Click the toggle and select visual panel.

7. Click contour.

To attach titles to the entities with the least and greatest results values:

1. Click min/max titles.

2. Click contour.

For contour plots, the titles are attached to nodes in the graphics area.

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To use the info title function:

1. Click info title.

2. Click contour.

A new title box, displayed in the top left corner of the graphics area, describes some features of
the displayed results.

To display a full size screen plot:

1. Click full size.

2. Click contour.

The main menu is removed and a full size screen plot is displayed.

3. To return to the main menu, click a mouse button.

To change the color of the mesh:

1. Click the toggle and select visual options.

2. Click mesh color and select Color 12.

3. Click contour.

The mesh lines are yellow.

To change the displacement component:

1. Click the switch next to magnitude and select y comp.

The vector component of displacement is used to calculate contours.

By default, the total displacement (magnitude) of the node is used as the value in the contour if
displacements are being used to calculate contours.

2. Click contour.

To select a deformed type for the model:

The default mode of the assigned plot is undeformed. You can deform a model by selecting model
units or scale factor.

1. Click the lower center switch next to undeformed and select scale factor.

2. Click scale factor = and enter 100.0.

3. Click contour.

The model is deformed.

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To change the scale factor:

1. Click mult = and enter 10.000.

2. Click contour.

The engineering values in the results file are changed to reflect this factor. The shape of the
model changes as well.

To redefine a minimum contour value:

By default, values assigned to the colors in the legend are calculated by taking the maximum analysis
value found in the results file and the minimum value found in the results file and dividing the range of
these values by the number of colors used in the plot.

1. Select the legend subpanel.

2. Click the lower center toggle and select minimum =.

3. Click minimum = and enter 0.000.

4. Click contour.

To redefine a maximum contour value:

1. Select the legend subpanel.

2. Click the upper left toggle next to find maximum and select maximum =.

3. Click maximum = and enter 0.01.

4. Click contour.

To create a cutting plane on the model:

1. Select the cutting subpanel.

2. Click xy plane and trim planes.

3. Click the upper right toggle next to single and select double.

4. Click t = and enter 25.000.

In the performance graphics engine, the cutting plane function allows three planes to be active
simultaneously. A cutting plane can be moved through the model by selecting the active plane with
the mouse and then dragging it across the model.

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xy cutting plane contour plot of bumper.hm

Using the Deformed Panel to Plot a Structure


In the following tutorial, use the deformed panel to view structural analysis results. The results are
represented as static deformed plots, linear animation, or modal animation. You have the option to
color code the model, so that different colors represent different engineering values relating to each
section of the structure.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the bumper.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
bumper.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

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The bumper.hm file.

To retrieve the analysis results file:

1. Select the global panel from the permanent menu.

2. Click results file = twice.

3. Select the bumper.res file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

4. Click return.

To switch from performance graphics mode to standard mode:

1. Select the options panel from the permanent menu.

2. Select the graphics subpanel.

3. Click the toggle next to engine: and select standard, if not already displayed.

To create and display a deformed plot using the analysis results file:

1. Select the deformed panel on the Post page.

2. Click simulation = and select NEAR CENTER HIT-LINE LOAD.

3. Click data type = and select Displacements.

4. Click title = and enter This is the title for the deformed plot.

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5. Click the leftmost toggle and select model units.

6. Click model units = and enter 45.0.

The node(s) with the maximum displacement in the model is displayed as if it had the value
entered in the model units = field. For example, if the maximum displacement was .001 units,
the node would be displaced as if its displacement were 45.0 units. All other displacements
would be interpolated from that point.

7. Click the switch next to undef color and select as selected.

8. Click undef color and select a color from the pop-up window.

The as selected option allows you to select a constant color for all the elements in the
structure.

The use elem color option colors the elements in the structure the same color as the element.

The use background option colors the structure the same color as your background..

9. Click the switch next to deform color and select use elem color.

10. Click deform.

The deformed and undeformed shapes are displayed in the wireframe mode.

11. Click visual options to change the display mode of the model.

NOTE Any change made to the visual options causes the undeformed shape to be
removed from the display.

Deformed and undeformed wireframe plot of bumper.hm

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To view the deformed shape in hidden line mode:

1. Click hidden line.

2. Click deform.

To display a full size screen plot:

1. Click full size.

2. Click deform.

The main menu is removed and a full size screen plot is displayed.

3. To return to the main menu, click a mouse button.

To create a linear animation using the analysis results file:

1. Retain the settings from the procedures above.

2. Click frames = and enter 6.

This sets the number of frames of animation to be displayed.

3. Click linear.

HyperMesh calculates the animation frames and displays them. Each frame is a linear
interpolation of the maximum displacement for each node.

During animation, the visual controls in the permanent menu can be used to manipulate the
view. The visual options can be used to manipulate the display.

4. Click exit to stop the animation.

5. Click return to access the main menu.

Creating a Modal Animation Sequence

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the rotor.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under

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/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the rotor.hm
file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

The rotor.hm model

To retrieve the analysis results file:

1. Select the global panel from the permanent menu.

2. Click results file = twice.

3. Select the rotor.res file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

4. Click return.

To create a modal animation using the analysis results file:

1. Select the deformed panel on the Post page.

2. Click model units = and enter 30.00.

3. Click frames = and enter 6.

4. Click modal.

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HyperMesh calculates the animation frames and displays them. Each frame is a linear
interpolation of the maximum displacement for each node.

Modal animations are calculated and displayed in HyperMesh such that the shape is shown in
its positive and negative form. All the visual options, as well as view manipulation, can be used
during animation.

5. Click exit to stop the animation

6. Click return to access the main menu.

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HyperMesh 3.0 Post-Processing Features - HM-620
In this tutorial, use the transient panel and the performance graphics mode to learn about the
HyperMesh 3.0 post processing features. These features allow you to create bitmap animations and
AVI animation files, display discrete contours in the performance graphics mode, replay previously
saved files, edit legends, and create EPS files.

The following exercise is included:

• Using the Post-Processing Features on the options and transient panels

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Using the Post-Processing Features on the options and


transient panels

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1.Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash, /.

4. Select the treb.hm30 file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
treb.hm30 file.

6. Click retrieve.

To retrieve the analysis results file:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the results subpanel.

3. Click results file = twice.

4. Select the treb.res file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

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5. Click return to exit the files panel.

To change from the standard to performance graphics mode:

1. Select the options panel on permanent menu.

2. Select the graphics subpanel.

3. Click the toggle after engine: and select performance.

4. Click return twice to access the main menu.

Perform the following procedures in performance graphics mode:

To specify a bitmap animation preference:

• Click the switch after bitmap animation: and select simple.

To change the AVI window size:

• Click the switch after AVI Options and select ¼ screen.

To change the result color type - performance graphics mode:

1. Click the toggle after result color type: and select discrete contours.

Discrete contours produces discrete color bands on contour plots with distinct boundaries
between contour levels.

2. Click return to exit the options panel.

Use the transient panel to perform the following procedures:

To create an animation sequence from transient results:

1. Select the transient panel on the Post page.

2. Click start with =.

HyperMesh displays a list of the available simulations.

3. Select Time step 0, t = 0.000e+00 to be used as the starting point for calculating the deformed
shape of the structure.

4. Click end with =.

5. Select Time step 26, t = 2.500e+00 as the last simulation to be used.

6. Click data type =.

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7. Select Vonmises (mid) as the data type used to calculate the deformed shape of the structure.

8. Click the toggle before find maximum and select maximum =.

9. Click maximum = and enter 2000 as the maximum data type value on the contour plot.

10. Click transient.

In the header bar, the message “Some element results not found (ignored)” is displayed. This
message occurs because rigid links and joints are displayed in the graphics area. HyperMesh
does not support results for these entities.

HyperMesh goes to the animation panel.

11. Click the leftmost toggle and select visual options.

12. Click the toggle after mode and select hidden line.

13. Click the toggle after color and select contour.

To create a replay file:

1. Click create replay.

2. Click return to exit the animation panel and return to the transient panel.

To reverse the legend data type values:

1. Click the legend in graphics area to activate the legend edit panel.

2. Click reverse legend.

3. Click return to exit the legend edit panel.

HyperMesh returns to the transient panel.

4. Click transient.

In the header bar, the message “Some element results not found (ignored)” is displayed. This
message occurs because rigid links and joints are displayed in the graphics area. HyperMesh
doesn’t support results for these entities.

HyperMesh returns to the animation panel, the bitmap frames are built, and the animation
begins.

5. Click return to exit animation panel.

HyperMesh returns to the transient panel.

To turn off the legend and simulation titles:

1. Click w on the permanent menu.

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2. Click display legend to make this option inactive.

3. Click display simulation title to make this option inactive.

4. Click return to exit the w panel.

5. Click transient.

In the header bar, the message “Some element results not found (ignored)” is displayed. This
message occurs because rigid links and joints are displayed in the graphics area. HyperMesh
doesn’t support results for these entities.

To create an AVI file:

1. Click make AVI.

The file is generated and saved in your specified user directory with a file extension of .AVI.
The file is the size specified under AVI Options in the options panel. File names are
automatically incremented when you create multiple AVI files. You can insert AVI files into
Microsoft Word or PowerPoint files.

2. Click return to exit the animation panel.

3. Click return to exit the transient panel.

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Building and Annotating Plots - HM-700
This tutorial introduces the panels used to build and annotate plots and curves.

Since each procedure builds on the preceding section, you should start with the first exercise and
continue doing the exercises in the following order:

The following exercises are included:

• Using the results curves panel

• Using the plots panel

• Using the query curves panel

• Using the curve attribs panel

• Using the axis scaling panel

• Using the axis labels panel

• Using the grid attribs panel

• Using the grid labels panel

• Using the legend panel

• Using the border panel

• Using the plot titles panel

• Exporting curve data with the simple math panel

• Using the read curves panel

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Using the results curves panel


The results curves panel allows you to create curves by extracting data from a HyperMesh results
file.

The along nodes and position subpanels allow you to create a contour plot of the model. Then, the
panels allow you to select nodes along a path or select nodes that are then used in the order in which
they occur along a specified axis.

In this tutorial, create plots with curves using the data from a HyperMesh binary results file and the
results, along nodes, position, and along cut subpanels.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

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1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash, /.

4. Select the raildemo.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
raildemo.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

To specify a HyperMesh binary results file:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the results subpanel.

3. Click results file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash, /.

4. Select the raildemo.res file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that results = now displays the location of the
raildemo.res file.

6. Click return.

To create a plot and curves using the results subpanel:

1. Select the xy plots module on the Post page.

2. Select the results curves panel.

3. Select the results subpanel.

4. Click the upper switch and select create new plot.

5. Click x data type = and select time.

6. Click y data type = and select Displacements.

7. Click start with = and select Rail Crash, t = 0.29959E-03.

8. Click end with = and select Rail Crash, t = 0.12000E-01.

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9. Click the lower input collector switch and select nodes.

10. Pick three nodes on the model in the graphics area. Pick a node near each end and one node in
the center of the model.

11. Click create.

Three displacements vs. time curves are created on a standard plot. The plot is located in the
upper left corner of the graphics area. The name of the plot, untitled1, is displayed in the
create new plot data entry field.

To create a plot and a curve using the along nodes subpanel:

1. Select the xy plots module on the Post page.

2. Select the results curves panel.

3. Select the along nodes subpanel.

4. Click simulation = and select Rail Crash, t = 0.12000E-01.

5. Click contour.

A contour plot of total displacements is created.

6. Pick 14 nodes on the model so that the nodes define a path. Pick the nodes across the different
contour colors where the model curves.

NOTE The order in which the nodes are picked determines the connectivity of
the data points on the curve being created.

7. Click plot list.

A Displacements vs. Distance Along Node Path curve is created on a standard plot named
untitled2. HyperMesh names the curve curve8. The plot is located in the lower right
corner of the graphics area. The name of the plot is displayed in the create new plot data entry
field.

To create a plot and a curve using the position subpanel:

1. Select the xy plots module on the Post page.

2. Select the results curves panel.

3. Select the position subpanel.

4. Click the switch after axis: and select x axis.

5. Click contour.

A contour plot of total displacements along the x-axis is created.

6. Pick 14 nodes on the model so that the nodes define a path. Pick the nodes across the different
contour colors where the model curves.

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7. Click plot axis.

A Displacements vs. Distance Along X Axis curve is created on a standard plot named
untitled3. HyperMesh names the curve curve9. The plot is located in the lower right
corner of the graphics area. The name of the plot is displayed in the create new plot data entry
field.

NOTE Complex data can also be plotted for shell elements using the results,
along nodes, and position subpanels on the results curve panel. For
more information, see the HyperMesh 3.0 Update Training document.

To reposition a plot on the screen:

1. Click w on the permanent menu.

2. Click move.

3. Hold down the mouse button and drag the plot containing curve 9 to the upper right corner of the
graphics area.

4. Click p on the permanent menu to refresh the screen.

5. Click move.

6. Hold down the mouse button and drag the plot containing curve 8 to the upper middle section of
the graphics area.

7. Click p.

8. Click return.

To create a plot and a curve using the along cut subpanel:

1. Select the xy plots module on the Post page.

2. Select the results curves panel.

3. Select the along cut subpanel.

NOTE If the along cut subpanel is not visible, switch from the performance to
standard graphics mode. If it is visible, go to step 4.

To switch from performance to standard graphics mode:

- Click return.

- Select the options panel on the permanent menu.

- Select the graphics subpanel.

- Click the toggle and select standard.

- Click return.

- Select the results curves panel on the xy plots module.

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- Select the along cut subpanel.

4. Click simulation = and select Rail Crash, t = 0.12000E-01.

5. Click contour.

A contour plot of total displacements is created.

6. Click the plane and vector collector switch and select N1 N2 N3.

7. Click edit.

8. Click x = under N1 and enter 539.054.

In the Node Vector Edit panel, x =, y =, z = data entry fields are displayed under N1, N2, N3,
and base.

9. Click y = under N1 and enter 15.000.

10. Click z = under N1 and enter 53.749.

11. Click x = under N2 and enter 525.688.

12. Click y = under N2 and enter 15.000.

13. Click z = under N2 and enter 40.833.

14. Click return.

A purple circle in the graphics area indicates the base node location.

15. Click cut plane.

16. Click plot cut.

A Displacements vs. Distance Along Cut curve is created for the nodes that are on the cut
plane. HyperMesh names the curve curve10. curve10 is located on the standard plot in the
lower right corner of the graphics area. The name of the standard plot, untitled4, is
displayed in the create new plot data entry field.

17. Click return.

18. Click exit.

To rename a plot:

1. Select the rename panel on the Tool page.

2. Click the switch and select plots.

3. Click collector = and select untitled1.

4. Click new name = and enter myplot1.

5. Click rename.

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In the header bar, the message “The collector was renamed” is displayed.

6. Click return.

7. Select the display panel on the permanent menu.

8. Click the upper switch and select plots.

9. Notice that the plot collector untitled1 is now named myplot1

10. Click return to access the main menu

Using the plots panel


The plots panel is used to create new plots and allows you to select curves to include on the plot.
You can create plots with default attributes or with attributes of an existing plot. In this tutorial, add an
existing curve to a plot, create an entirely new plot, and create a plot with the attributes of an existing
plot.

To display a plot:

1. Select the display panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click the upper switch and select plots.

3. Click none.

No plots are displayed in the graphics area.

4. Select raildisp and railstrs.

Two plots are displayed in the graphics area.

5. Right-click railstrs.

The railstrs plot is no longer displayed in the graphics area.

6. Click p on the permanent menu.

7. Click return.

To create an entirely new plot collector:

1. Select the xy plots module on the Post page.

2. Select the plots panel.

3. Click plot = and enter myplot2.

Click the switch and select standard.

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4. Click create plot.

A standard plot is created and is located in the upper left corner of the graphics area on top of
the plot raildisp.

To create an new plot based on default values from an existing plot:

1. Click plot = and enter myplot3.

2. Click like = and select raildisp.

3. Click create plot.

A plot is created with the same attributes as the plot raildisp. The new plot is displayed in the
upper left corner of the graphics area on top of the plots myplot2 and raildisp.

To add a curve to a plot:

1. Select the display panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click none.

3. Select myplot1 and raildisp.

4. Click return.

5. Reposition the displayed plots:

- Click w on the permanent menu.

- Click push.

- In the header bar, the message “Select a window to push to the background” is displayed.

- Select the plot raildisp in the graphics area.

- The plot myplot1 is now on top of the plot raildisp.

- Click return.

6. Double-click plot =.

7. Select myplot1.

8. Click select curves.

9. Select curve 3.

Curves 2, 3, 6, and 7 are selected. Curves, 2, 6, and 7 are displayed on the plot myplot1.

10. Click return.

curve3 is added to the plot myplot1. There are now four curves on the plot myplot1.

11. Click return.

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To expand a plot to fill the screen:

1. Click w on the permanent menu.

2. Click expand.

3. Select the plot myplot1 from the graphics area.

The plot expands to fill the screen.

4. Click return.

Using the query curves panel


The query curves panel allows you to find the x and y values of a point in a curve. You can edit
curve titles displayed in the plot legends as well. In this tutorial, view curve data points.

To view a curve’s data points:

1. Select the query curves panel on the xy plots module.

2. Click plot = and select myplot1.

3. Click curve =.

4. Pick curve3 (the green curve) in the graphics area.

curve = displays curve3. The data entry field following points = displays 40, indicating that
there are 40 XY data points on curve3. The data entry field following title = displays node
705. Curve3 plots the time step results data for node 705 in the model.

5. Pick curve3 in the graphics area.

A white circle is displayed on the curve. The x-axis and y-axis coordinates for this point are
displayed in their respective data entry fields.

6. Pick other points on curve3.

The coordinates listed in the data entry fields for x = and y = change as you select a new point.

7. Click return.

Using the curve attribs panel


The curve attribs panel allows you to create and edit curves displayed on an xy plot. In this tutorial,
change the curve attributes and add a marker to a curve.

To change curve attributes:

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1. Select the curve attribs panel on the xy plots module.

2. Click plot =.

3. Select the plot in the graphics area.

The data entry field following plot = displays myplot1.

4. Click auto color.

A new color is assigned to the curves, which were previously gray.

5. Click curve = and select curve 6.

6. Click the toggle and select thick lines.

The line thickness for curve 6 reflects this change.

7. Click color and select color 6 from the pop-up menu.

The color of curve 6 changes. The legend on myplot1 reflects the change as well.

8. Click the lower switch and select tria marker.

A triangle is displayed at every XY data point on curve6. The legend on myplot1 also displays
this triangle.

9. Click title =.

10. Enter node 625 Disp (total disp) VS time in the data entry field after title =.

11. Press the ENTER key.

In the plot legend, the title description for curve6 reflects this change.

12. Click return.

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Using the axis scaling panel
The axis scaling panel allows you to modify plot axes. In this tutorial, increase the number of x-axis
grid lines.

To increase the number of x-axis grid lines:

1. Select the axis scaling panel on the xy plots module.

2. Click plot = and select myplot1.

3. Click x increment = and enter .0005.

On the plot myplot1, grid lines are placed at every increment of .0005 along the x-axis.

4. Click return.

Using the axis labels panel


The axis labels panel allows you to edit the axis label information of the current plot or selected
attributes in a group of plots. In this tutorial, add x and y-axis titles and change their color and font
size.

To add x and y-axis titles:

1. Select the axis labels panel on the xy plots module.

2. Click plot = and select myplot1.

3. Click xaxis title = and enter time.

4. Click yaxis title = and enter Displacements.

NOTE When yaxis title = is selected, the x-axis title Time is displayed in the graphics area.

5. Click color and select color 13.

NOTE When color is selected, the axis title Displacements is displayed in the graphics
area.

6. Click the switch and select font 3.

The font size for the x and y-axis titles change.

7. Click return.

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Using the grid attribs panel
The grid attribs panel allows you to edit the grid line information contained in a plot. In this tutorial,
change plot grid lines so that they have the grid attributes of an existing plot.

To change the grid lines of a plot to have the grid attributes of an existing plot:

1. Select the grid attribs panel on the xy plots module.

2. Click plot = and select raildisp.

3. The plot raildisp is on top of the plot myplot1.

4. Click plots and select myplot1.

5. Click select.

6. Click update.

7. Select gridcolor, width, line style, and margin.

8. Click update.

The plot myplot1 is updated to have the same grid attributes as the plot raildisp. The plot
raildisp is moved to the background; and only the plot myplot1 is visible in the graphics area.

9. Click return.

Using the grid labels panel


The grid labels panel allows you to edit the grid labels on the x and y axes of a plot. In this tutorial,
edit the grid label format of the plot and specify the level of precision.

To change the grid label format and precision of a plot:

1. Select the grid labels panel on the xy plots module.

2. Click plot = and select myplot1.

3. Click the switch after x: and select exponential.

The x-axis grid label format reflects this change.

4. Click the switch after y: and select exponential.

The y-axis grid label format reflects this change.

5. Click the upper precision = and enter 1.


The x-axis grid label precision reflects this change.

6. Click the lower precision = and enter 1.

The y-axis grid label precision reflects this change.

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7. Click return.

Using the legend panel


The legend panel allows you to edit the legend associated with a xy plot.

To move a plot legend:

1. Select the legend panel on the xy plots module.

2. Click plot = and select myplot1.

3. Click move legend.

4. Click the upper left corner of the plot.

The legend of the plot moves to that location.

5. Click return.

Using the border panel


The border panel allows you to edit the border of an xy plot. In this tutorial, change a plot border’s
color and margin.

NOTE Changes made to the border of the plot, such as editing the color and line thickness,
are also reflected in the border of the plot legend. Turning off the border of the plot
also turns off the plot legend’s border.

To change the border color and margin of the plot:

1. Select the border panel on the xy plots module.

2. Click plot = and select myplot1.

3. Click border color and select color 13.

The borders of the plot and the legend are outlined with color 13.

4. Click border margin = and enter 0.

The margin between the border of the plot and the plot reflects this change.

5. Click return.

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Using the plot titles panel
The plot titles panel allows you to edit plot titles. In this tutorial, add a title to a plot and change the
title’s color and font size.

To add a title to the plot:

1. Select the plot titles panel on the xy plots module.

2. Click plot = and select myplot1.

3. Click title = and enter Displacements vs Time.

The title on the plot myplot1 changes.

4. Click title and select color 6.

The title of the plot changes color.

5. Click the switch under title and select font 4.

The plot title’s font size changes.

6. Try changing the subtitle and label of the plot, and their color and font size.

7. Click return.

Exporting Curve Data with the simple math panel


The simple math panel allows you to perform simple math functions on a curve. In this tutorial,
export curve data.

To export curve data:

1. Select the simple math panel on the xy plots module.

2. Click the switch and select external.

3. Click plot = and select the plot myplot1.

4. Click 1st curve = and select curve3.

5. Click filter = and enter the path name of the copy command for your operating system.

6. If you are using the UNIX version of HyperMesh, enter /bin/cp in the filter = data entry field.

7. If you are using the WindowsNT version of HyperMesh, enter \winnt\systems32\xcopy in


the filter = data entry field.

8. Click params = and enter curve3_data.ascii.

9. Click execute.

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A file named curve3_data.ascii is created and saved to the directory from which HyperMesh is
run. This file contains the xy data for curve3. A copy of curve3 is also created in HyperMesh and is
named curve11. curve11 is on the plot myplot1. In the data entry field following target = is
curve11.

NOTE If you are using HyperMesh for the PC, a DOS window may appear with
the following message: “Does curve3_data.ascii specify a file name
or directory name on the target <F = file, D = directory)?”

Type F for file.

10. Click return.

11. Review the curve3_data.ascii file.

- For the UNIX version of HyperMesh, go to the directory from which HyperMesh is run.

- For the PC version of HyperMesh, open the file with a text editor.

- The curve3_data.ascii file contains the xy data for curve3.

12. Return to the current HyperMesh session.

To delete curves and plots:

1. Select the delete panel on the Tool page.

2. Click delete.

3. Click the switch and select curves.

4. Click curves and select curve8, curve9, curve10, and curve11.

5. Click select.

6. Click delete.

7. In the header bar, the message “4 entities were deleted” is displayed.

8. Click the switch and select plots.

9. Click plots and select untitled2, untitled3, untitled4, and m2.

10. Click select. yplot

11. Click delete.

12. In the header bar, the message “4 entities were deleted” is displayed.

13. Click return.

Using the read curves panel


The read curves panel allows you to input an xy data set from an ASCII file. In this tutorial, import

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the curve data that was exported in the last tutorial.

To input an xy data set:

1. Select the xy plots module on the Post page.

2. Select the read curves panel.

3. Select the display panel on the permanent menu.

4. Right-click myplot1 and raildisp.

5. There are no plots displayed in the graphics area.

6. Click myplot3.

7. The plot myplot3 is displayed in the graphics area.

8. Click p on the permanent menu.

9. Click return.

10. Click plot =.

11. Select the plot in the graphics area.

12. The data entry field after plot = displays myplot3.

13. Click file = twice.

14. Select curve3_data.ascii.

15. Click input.

16. The xy data in the curve3_data.ascii file is plotted on the plot myplot3. In the header bar,
the message “Finished reading in curve data” is displayed.

17. Click return.

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Performing Curve Math - HM-710
This tutorial introduces mathematical functions and operators.

Since each procedure builds on the preceding section, start with the first exercise and continue the
exercises in the following order:

• Using the integral math function

• Using the freq math function

• Using the polyfit math function

• Using the vector subrange extractor

• Using the integrate panel

• Using the simple math panel

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Using the Integral Math Function


The edit curves panel creates or edits new or existing curves from files or math expressions. The
math expressions can contain functions or operators and curve references. Curve numbers define
the curve references. An example of a curve reference is c4.x, where c is curve, 4 is the curve id,
and x is the vector. In this tutorial, create a curve from a data file, modify the curve, and use the
integral math function to return the indefinite integral of a curve.

To create a curve from a data file:

1. Select the xy plots module on the Post page.

2. Select the edit curves panel on the xy plots module.

3. Select the create subpanel.

4. Click x =.

5. Select file as the data source.

6. Click file = twice to access the file directories.

7. Select the rcforc.ascii file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

Note that x = displays the location of the rcforc.ascii file as well as Time. type = displays
Time.

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8. Click y =.

9. Select file as the data source.

10. Click file = twice to access the file directories.

11. Select the rcforc.ascii file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

12. Click type =.

13. Select Interface Forces.

14. Click req =.

15. Select Master 1.

16. Click comp =.

17. Select Z.

y = displays the location of the rcforc.ascii file as well as Master 1/Z.

18. Click create.

The plot and curve are created. The plot is named untitled, and the curve is named curve1, by
default. plot = displays untitled.

To expand the plot to fill the screen:

1. Click w on the permanent menu.

2. Click expand.

3. Pick the plot in the graphics area.

The plot fills the screen.

4. Click return.

To edit a curve:

1. Select the modify subpanel on the edit curves panel.

2. Click curve =.

3. Select curve1.

4. Click comp =.

5. Select Y.

6. Click modify.

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curve1 reflects the component Y.

7. Click comp =.

8. Select Z.

9. Click modify.

curve1 reflects the component Z.

10. Click return.

11. Click exit.

Use the following procedures to perform integration curve math:

To display curve IDs:

1. Select the xy plots module on the Post page.

2. Select the legend panel on the xy plots module.

3. Click show ids.

The curve’s ID, 1, is displayed in the plot’s legend.

4. Click return.

To create plots:

1. Select the plots panel on the xy plots module.

2. Click plot = and enter test2.

3. Click the switch and select standard.

4. Click create plot.

A standard plot is created, located in the upper left corner of the screen. This plot is on top of
the plot untitled.

5. Repeat steps 2 - 4 to create four standard plots named test3, test4, test5, and test6.

6. In the graphics area, the four plots are stacked on top of the plot test2. It appears that there are
only two plots displayed in the graphics area (untitled and test2).

7. Click return.

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To unstack the plots:

1. Click w on the permanent menu.

2. Click unstack.

Six plots are displayed in the graphics area.

3. Click return.

To edit curves:

1. Select the edit curves panel on the xy plots module.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Select math as the data source.

4. Click plot = and select test2.

5. Click the data entry field after x = and enter cl.x.

6. Click the data entry field after y = and enter integral(c1.x,c1.y).

7. Click create.

Given c1, a curve is created which is the indefinite integral of c1. The curve is named curve2
and is located on the plot test2.

Using Filters
Curves can be passed through an SAE filter. In this tutorial, filter a curve using the edit curves
panel.

To filter a curve:

1. Click plot = on the edit curves panel.

2. Select untitled.

x = displays c1.x.

3. Click the data entry field after y = and enter saefilter(c1.x,c1.y,180).

4. Click create.

A third curve, curve3, is created on the same plot as curve1.

NOTE For a description of the SAE class filter saefilter and other math functions and
operators, see the topic List of Functions and Operators in the Math Reference chapter.

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Using the Freq Math Function
The freq function builds a frequency vector from time-domain data.

To build a frequency domain curve:

1. Click plot = on the edit curves panel.

2. Select test3.

3. Click the data entry field after x = and enter freq(c1.x).

4. Click the data entry field after y = and enter fftmag(c1.y).

5. Click create.

Given c1, a curve is created which is the amplitude spectrum of the FFT of c1. The curve is
named curve4 and is located on the plot test3.

6. Click return.

7. Click axis scaling on the xy plots module.

plot = displays test3.

8. Click the rightmost switch and select y: logarithmic.

The y-axis scale on the plot test3 changes from linear to logarithmic.

9. Click find curves.

curve4 is displayed on the plot test3.

10. Click return.

Using the Polyfit Math Function


Polynomial and exponential functions can be fit to curves.

To fit a polynomial function to a curve:

1. Click edit curves panel on the xy plots module.

2. Click plot =.

3. Select test4.

4. Click the data entry field after x = and enter c1.x.

5. Click the data entry field after y = and enter polyfit(c1.x,c1.y,8).

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6. Click create.

Given c1, curve 5 is created which is an eighth order polynomial fit of curve c1. Curve 5 is
located on the plot test4.

Using the Vector Subrange Extractor


The subrange function returns a vector containing the indices of the elements of a vector for a
specified subrange.

To use the subrange function:

1. Click plot = on the edit curves panel.

2. Select test5.

3. Click the data entry field after x = and enter c1.x[subrange(c1.x,.01,.04)].

4. Click the data entry field after y = and enter c1.y[subrange(c1.x,.01,.04)].

5. Click create.

Given c1, curve6 is created which is a portion of the original curve, with .01 ≤ X ≤ .04. Curve
6 is located on the plot test5.

6. Click return.

Using the integrate panel


The integrate panel allows you to obtain the area under a curve and a curve’s average height. In
this tutorial, find the area under curve1.

To find the area under a curve:

1. Click the integrate panel on the xy plots module.

2. Click plot =.

3. Pick the plot that contains curve1 and curve3.

4. Click curve = and select curve1.

5. Click the data entry field after to: x and enter 0.05.

6. Click integrate.

In the graphics area, the area under curve1 is shaded. area = displays 5.219e+08, and avg
height = displays 1.044e+10.

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7. Click return.

The simple math panel


The simple math panel allows you to apply mathematical operations to curves. In this tutorial,
subtract one curve from another.

To subtract one curve from another:

1. Select the simple math panel on the xy plots module.

2. Click the switch and select sub from the pop-up menu.

3. Click plot = and select test6.

4. Click 1st curve = and select curve1.

5. Click 2nd curve = and select curve3.

6. Click execute.

A curve is created that illustrates the difference between curve1 and curve3. The curve is
named curve7 (displayed in the target = field) and is located on plot test6.

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NASTRAN Static Analysis Using HyperMesh - HM-
1010-L
In this tutorial, use the HyperMesh NASTRAN interface to create finite elements on the geometry of a
plate with a hole, apply boundary conditions, and perform finite element analysis.

Since each procedure builds on the preceding section, you should start with the first exercise and
continue doing the exercises in the following order:

The following exercises are included:

• Defining the Model in HyperMesh

• Writing the NASTRAN Input Deck

• Viewing the Results

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Defining the Model in HyperMesh


To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Double click file =.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash, /.

4. Select the plate_hole.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
plate_hole.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

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To retrieve the NASTRAN template for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the template subpanel.

3. Double click template file =.

4. Select the nastran directory.

5. Select the general template file.

6. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that template file = now displays the location of the
general template.

The NASTRAN general template allows you to define NASTRAN-specific attributes in


HyperMesh.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

To create material collectors and components:

Create your material collectors before creating your component collectors; components must
reference a material collector.

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Select the switch after collector type: and select mats.

4. Click name = and enter steel.

5. Click card image = and select MAT1.

6. Click create/edit.

The MAT1 card image is loaded for the material steel.

7. Click E to make the status title active.

NOTE A status title is displayed as yellow (off) or blue (on). The status title
toggles between the two options when you click it.
8. Click the data entry field under E and enter 2E5.

9. Click NU, click the data entry field under NU, and enter 0.30.

10. Click return.

11. Click the switch after collector type : and select comps.

12. Click name = and enter shells.

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13. Click card image = and select PSHELL.

14. Click material = and select steel.

15. Click color and select color 8.

16. Click create/edit.

HyperMesh goes to the card image panel for the new component, shells. HyperMesh assigns
color 8 to the elements that are organized into this component, and assigns the material steel to
this component.

17. Click T, click the data entry field under T, and enter 10.0.

18. Click return twice to access the main menu.

A component is created named shells. Any elements created and organized into this
component have the thickness attributes defined by the PSHELL card. The elements have
material attributes defined on the MAT1 card by the material collector steel, since the shells
component references this material collector.

Use the card image subpanel to modify the card images for these collectors.

Use the update subpanel to define a different material for the components.

To mesh the geometry:

The automeshing module allows you to mesh interactively on surfaces. It also includes tools for
manipulating surface edges and meshing fixed points (locations where the mesher is required to
place a node). The elements generated are organized into the current component, shells.

1. Select the automesh panel on the 2-D page.

2. Select the surface displayed in the graphics area and click mesh.

3. Click using size = and enter 40.

4. Click recalc all.

5. Click mesh.

The automesher creates about 400 elements on the surface.

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Plate mesh using element size of 40mm.

6. Click return to save the mesh in the shells component.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

Applying boundary conditions to the model

In this section, the model is constrained such that two of the four edges cannot move. A total lateral
load of 1000N is applied at the edge of the hole so that all forces point in the positive z-direction.

To create collectors:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type: and select loadcols.

4. Click name = and enter spcs.

5. Click color and select color 10.

6. Click create.

The collector is created.

7. Click name = again and enter forces.

8. Click color and select color 15.

9. Click create.

The collector is created.

10. Click return to access the main menu.

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To create constraints:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click loadcol = and select spcs.

3. Click return.

4. Select the constraints panel on the BCs page.

5. Select the create subpanel.

6. Click nodes and select by window from the extended entity selection menu.

HyperMesh goes to the Build Window panel.

7. Click interior, if not already selected.

8. Create a window around the left and right edges of the model. Do this by picking points on the
screen with your mouse.

9. Click select entities.

The nodes along the left and right edges of the model are selected (see the figure below).

HyperMesh returns to the constraints panel.

Select these nodes to apply single point constraints

10. Click dof1-dof6, if not already selected.

NOTE Dofs that are checked are constrained.

Dofs 1, 2, and 3 are x, y, and z translation degrees of freedom

Dofs 4, 5, and 6 are x, y, and z rotational degrees of freedom

11. Click create to apply these constraints to the selected nodes.

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To create forces on the nodes around the hole:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click loadcol = and select forces.

3. Click return.

4. Click return again to access the main menu.

5. Select the forces panel on the BCs page.

6. Click nodes and select by window from the extended entity selection menu.

HyperMesh goes to the Build Window panel.

7. Click interior.

8. Create a window around the hole of the model. Do this by picking points on the screen with your
mouse.

9. Click select entities.

The nodes around the hole of the model are selected (see the figure below).

HyperMesh returns to the constraints panel.

Select these nodes to create loading around hole.

10. Click nodes and select save from the extended entity selection menu.

11. Click return.

12. Select the count panel on the Tool page.

The nodes are counted automatically so that a calculation can be made to create a total force of
1000N.

13. Click the upper left switch and select nodes.

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14. Click nodes and select retrieve from the extended entity select menu.

The nodes saved in the forces panel are retrieved.

15. Click selected to count the number of nodes around the hole.

16. Click return.

17. Select the forces panel on the BCs page.

18. Click nodes and select retrieve from the extended entity selection menu.

19. Click magnitude = and enter 1000.

The total load on the nodes around the hole is 1000N.

20. Click the plane and vector definition switch below magnitude = and select z-axis.

21. Click create.

22. Click return.

The last step in setting up the boundary conditions is to create a NASTRAN subcase (a load
step in HyperMesh).

1. Select the load steps panel on the BCs page.

2. Click name = and enter lateral force.

3. Click loadcols and select spcs and forces.

4. Click select.

5. Click create.

The load step is created.

6. Click return.

To create control cards:

1. Select the cntl cards panel on the BCs page.

2. Click SOL.

3. Click the switch and select either Statics (SOL 101) or Statics & Lin. Heat Transfer (SOL 24)
from the pop-up menu.

4. Click return.

5. Click PARAM.

6. Click AUTOSPC.

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7. Click return.

8. Click return again to access the main menu.

Writing the NASTRAN Input Deck


In this tutorial, write the NASTRAN input deck file, specified with the .dat extension, before running
NASTRAN.

To write your file:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the export subpanel.

3. If the nastran/general template is not specified in the template = field, click template = and
select the general template file from the nastran directory.

4. Click filename = and enter plate_hole.dat.

5. Click write.

This writes your HyperMesh database as a NASTRAN ASCII input deck.

6. Click return to access the main menu.

To save your .hm file and exit HyperMesh:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = and enter plate_hole_new.hm.

4. Click save.

5. Click return to exit the files panel.

6. Click quit to exit HyperMesh.

To add output requests to your deck:

1. Open the plate_hole.dat file in a text editor, such as WordPad.

2. After the SUBCASE 1 card, insert the following cards:

DISPLACEMENT(PUNCH)=ALL

STRESS(PUNCH)=ALL

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3. Save the changes to your file.

4. Exit the text editor and submit the job to NASTRAN for analysis.

Viewing the Results


After running NASTRAN, the punch file plate_hole.pch is created. This file contains
displacement and stress results for your linear static analysis. This section describes how to view
those results in HyperMesh. Use the utility program hmnast to translate the .pch file into a
HyperMesh results file.

To run hmnast, attach the results file and set visual options:

1. From a UNIX or MS-DOS prompt, type the following:

hmnast –d –von_max plate_hole.pch plate_hole.hmres

2. Start HyperMesh and remove any model that is currently loaded:

- Select the delete panel on the Tool page.

- Click delete model.

- Select Yes from the pop-up window.

3. Retrieve the input deck that was used to run the NASTRAN job:

- Select the files panel.

- Select the import subpanel.

- Double click translator = and select nastran.exe, located in the feinput directory.

- Double click filename = and choose plate_hole.dat.

- Click EXTERNAL.

- Click the upper toggle to no overwrite.

- Click import.

4. Set the visual options:

- Select the command subpanel.

- Double click file = and choose nastut1.cmf, located in the HyperMesh installation directory under
/tutorials/hm.

- Click execute.

5. Attach the results file for post-processing:

- Select the results subpanel.

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- Double click results file = and select plate_hole.hmres, located in the directory from which
NASTRAN is run.

6. Click return to exit the files panel.

To view a deformed shape:

1. Select the deformed panel on the Post page.

2. Click simulation =.

SUBCASE-1 is the only simulation. If you had created two load steps, two simulations would
exist: SUBCASE-1 and SUBCASE-2. The subcase IDs reflect your HyperMesh load step IDs.

3. Click Subcase-1.

4. Click model units = and enter 250.

5. Click deform to view a deformed plot of your model overlaid on the original, undeformed mesh
(refer to the figure below).

Isometric view of deformed plot overlaid on original undeformed mesh. Model units are set to 250.

To view a contour plot of stresses and displacements:

1. Select the contour panel on the Post page.

2. Click simulation = and select Subcase-1.

3. Click data type = and select Displacements.

4. Select the view panel on the permanent menu.

5. Select top from the pop-up menu.

6. Click contour.

7. Click data type = and select von Mises Stress(max,all).

8. Click assign.

9. Click contour and compare your model to the picture below.

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von Mises stress plot using discrete contours (in performance graphics mode).

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Modeling Contact for ABAQUS - HM-1020-L
This tutorial explains how to use the interface between HyperMesh and ABAQUS. The following
exercises are included:

• Defining material properties.


• Defining properties for solid elements.
• Defining contact surfaces and interactions.
• Defining spring elements and properties.
• Creating loads and boundary conditions.
• Exporting the file to ABAQUS.
• Running hmabaqus and post processing.
All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator for assistance.

Defining Material Properties


HyperMesh supports many different material models for ABAQUS. In this example, you create the
basic *ELASTIC material model with no temperature variation. The material properties are then
assigned to the elements by the component collector.

To read in the initial model file:

1. Select the files panel.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Double-click file = and select abaqus3_0tutorial.hm.

4. Click retrieve.

To select the ABAQUS template:

1. Select the template subpanel.

2. Double-click template file = and choose abaqus/standard.3d from the templates directory.

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To set the pre-prepared visual options:

1. Select the command subpanel.

2. Double-click file = and choose abtut1.cmf.

3. Click execute.

4. Click return to exit the panel.

To create the *ELASTIC material model card:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Create the material collector with the appropriate card image:

- Select the create subpanel.

- Click the switch after collector type and select mats.

- Click the switch under creation method: and select card image.

- Click name = and enter STEEL

- Click card image = and choose ABAQUS_MATERIAL

- Click create/edit.

3. Edit the card image to add the appropriate material model cards:

- Select ELASTIC in the option list.

- By default, the selected type is ISOTROPIC. If it is not set to ISOTROPIC, click the switch and select
it.

- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath E and enter 2.1E5.

- In the card image section of the menu, click the field beneath NU and enter 0.3

- Click return to accept the changes to the card image.

4. Click return to exit the panel.

To tie the material card to the component collectors:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the update subpanel.

3. Click the upper switch and select comps.

4. Click material = and select STEEL.

5. Double-click comps and select INDENTOR and BEAM from the list.

6. Click select to finish the selection process.

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7. Click update.

8. Select material id from the list.

9. Click update.

10. Click return to exit the panel.

Defining Properties for Solid Elements


HyperMesh supports properties for shells, solids and beams from the component collector. In this
example, create the *SOLID SECTION property cards and tie them to the already existing component
collectors.

To create *SOLID SECTION property cards for already existing components:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the card image subpanel.

3. Click the input collector switch and select comps.

4. Click card image = and select SOLIDSECTION.

5. Click load.

6. Select INDENTOR and BEAM from the list of components.

7. Click select to finish the selection process.

8. Click return to exit the panel.

To view the *SOLID SECTION property cards:

1. Select the card panel from the permanent menu.

2. Click the input collector switch and select comps.

3. Click comps and select INDENTOR from the list of component collectors.

4. Click select to finish the selection process.

5. Click edit to view the *SOLID SECTION property card image.

6. Click return to finish the viewing process.

7. Click return to exit the panel.

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Defining Contact Surfaces and Surface Interactions
HyperMesh supports definition of the *SURFACE DEFINITION card using sets, components, or
individual element IDs with faces. In this example, you use individual element faces to define the
slave contact surface and sets to define the master contact surface. This model is made from solid
elements, so you must first skin the surface with face elements, and then use those face elements to
define the contact surface.

To create face elements on solids:

1. Select the faces panel from the Tool page.

2. Click the input collector switch and choose comps.

3. Click comps and select INDENTOR from the list of components.

4. Click select to finish the selection process.

5. Click find faces.

6. Click return to exit the panel.

To view the face elements without the rest of the model:

1. Select the display panel from the permanent menu.

2. Click the upper switch and select comps.

3. Click the toggle to elems.

4. Use the right mouse button to deselect INDENTOR and BEAM.

5. Click return to exit the panel.

6. Select the view panel from the permanent menu and select left from the pop-up menu.

To mask the face elements not involved in the contact surface:

1. Select the mask panel from the Tool page.

2. Select the mask subpanel.

3. Click the input collector switch and select elems from the pop-up menu.

4. Click elems and select by window from the pop-up menu.

5. Pick points on the screen to create a window like the one shown in the picture below.

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6. Click select entities.

7. Click mask .

8. Select the view panel from the permanent menu and select iso 1 from the pop-up menu.

9. Click return to exit the panel.

To create the *CONTACT PAIR card:

1. Select the interfaces panel from the BCs page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click name = and enter the name: CONTACT1

4. Click the switch under creation method: and click card image.

5. Click card image = and select CONTACT_PAIR.

6. Click type = and select CONTACT_PAIR.

7. Click interface color and select a color.

8. Click create.

9. Click return to exit the panel.

To define the slave *SURFACE DEFINITION using face elements:

1. Select the interfaces panel on the BCs page.

2. Select the add subpanel.

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3. Double-click name = and select CONTACT1.

4. Click the switch under slave: and select entity.

5. Click elems to the right of slave and select displayed from the extended entity selection menu.

6. Click add to the right of slave: to add these faces to the *SURFACE DEFINITION.

When elements are added to a group, HyperMesh creates ghost element images that are
placed into the group. The original element that was selected is not modified.
7. Click return to exit the panel.

To tie the slave elements to the underlying solids:

1. Select the faces panel on the Tool page.

2. Click delete faces.

3. Click return to exit the panel.

To define the master *SURFACE DEFINITION using sets:

1. Select the interfaces panel from the BCs page.

2. Select the add subpanel.

3. Double-click name = and select CONTACT1.

4. Click the switch under master: and select sets.

5. Click sets and choose BEAMSURF from the list of sets.

6. Click select to finish the selection process.

7. Click update on the same line as master: to add the set to the *SURFACE DEFINITION.

8. Click return to exit the panel.

To complete the definition of the *CONTACT PAIR card:

1. Select the interfaces panel on the BCs page.

2. Select the card image subpanel.

3. Double-click name = and select CONTACT1.

4. Click edit.

5. Click the field under SLAVE in the *CONTACT PAIR card image and enter SLAVE1.

6. Click the field under MASTER in the *CONTACT PAIR card image and enter MASTER1.

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7. Select the option SmallSliding from the option list.

Notice that the parameter SMALL SLIDING now appears in the card image.

To add the *SURFACE DEFINITION and *SURFACE INTERACTION cards:

1. Click MasterSurfaceDefinition.

Note that a *SURFACE DEFINITION card now appears in the card image.
There are two ways to define the surface from a set:
- If you want to define the surface by explicitly specifying a face:

Click the selection box under MSLabel(1) and choose S1 from the pop-up menu.

Using this method requires all of the elements in the set to be aligned properly and also requires
you to know which face is involved in the contact. Also note that ABAQUS does not allow the
TRIM option to be used simultaneously with a face identifier. In order to use the TRIM option
(discussed next), you must have the MSLabel(1) switch set to NoLabel.

- If you want to define the surface using the ABAQUS TRIM functionality:

Click the TRIM option under MasterSurfaceDefinition.

Click the switch under TRIM and select YES from the list.

Using this method allows ABAQUS to automatically define the master surface based on the
rules found in the ABAQUS User’s Manual. Also note that ABAQUS does not allow the TRIM
option to be used simultaneously with a face identifier. In order to use the TRIM option, you
must have the MSLabel(1) switch set to NoLabel.

3. Click SlaveSurfaceDefinition.

No modification of the slave *SURFACE DEFINITION card is necessary since the surface is
defined using element faces. When you export the deck to ABAQUS, a list of the element faces
is written after the *SURFACE DEFINITION card.
4. Click SurfaceInteraction.

5. Select the Friction option under SurfaceInteraction to add a *FRICTION card.

6. Click the field beneath FrictionCoeff in the card image and enter 0.05

7. Click return to accept the changes to the card image.

8. Click return to exit the panel.

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Defining Spring Elements and Properties
In ABAQUS contact problems, it is common to use weakly grounded springs to provide stability to the
solution in the first loading step. This section explains how to create these springs and how to create
the *SPRING card.

To reset the view for further processing:

1. Select the display panel from the permanent menu.

2. Click the upper switch and select comps.

3. Click the toggle to elems.

4. Click the all button on the right side of the panel.

5. Click return to exit the panel.

6. Select the view panel from the permanent menu and select iso 1 from the pop-up menu.

To create the *SPRING property card:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Create a property collector with the appropriate card image:

- Select the create subpanel.

- Click the switch after collector type and select props.

- Click name = and enter SPRING

- Click the switch under creation method: and select card image.

- Click card image = and choose SPRING.

- Click create/edit.

3. Edit the card image to add the appropriate options:

- Click the field beneath SETNAME in the card image and enter GROUNDED

- Click the field beneath dof1 in the card image and enter 3.

- The dof2 field in the *SPRING card is ignored by ABAQUS for SPRING1 elements.

- Click the field beneath Stiffness in the card image and enter 1.0E-5

- Click return to accept the changes to the card image.

4. Click return to exit the panel.

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To create a component to group the spring elements according to property:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the upper switch and select comps.

4. Click the switch under creation method: and click no card image.

5. Click name = and enter GROUNDED.

The name of this component must be the same as the name in the SETNAME field in the
*SPRING property card or the elements are not tied properly to the property card.
6. Click color and select Color10.

7. Click create.

8. Click return to exit the panel.

To create the spring elements and tie them to the property:

1. Select the elem types panel on the 1D page.

2. Click mass = and select SPRING1.

In HyperMesh, grounded elements are created and stored as mass elements since they only
have one node in the element connectivity.
3. Click return to exit the panel.

4. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

5. Click component = and select GROUNDED from the list of component collectors.

As the spring elements are created, they are placed in this component. This component is then
tied to the *SPRING card through the name: GROUNDED.
6. Click return to exit the panel.

7. Create the spring elements:

- Select the masses panel on the 1D page.

- Click property = and select SPRING from the list of property collectors.

- Click nodes and select by id from the pop-up menu.

- Type the following in the id = selection window: 451t460b3

- This shorthand selects all of the nodes from 451 to 460 in increments of 3.

- Click create.

8. Click return to exit the panel.

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Defining Loads and Boundary Conditions
In HyperMesh, every load collector with the ABAQUS_STEP dictionary loaded creates a new *STEP
in the ABAQUS deck. This model has only one loading step.

To create the *STEP load collector:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type and select loadcols.

4. Click name = and enter the name: STEP1.

5. Click the switch under creation method: and select card image.

6. Click card image = and choose ABAQUS_STEP.

7. Click color and choose Color 5 from the pop-up menu.

8. Click create.

9. Click return to exit the panel.

To edit the *STEP load collector:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the card image subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type and select loadcols.

4. Double-click name = and select STEP1 from the list of load collectors.

5. Click edit.

6. Add parameters to the *STEP card:

- Select StepParameters in the options list.

- Select Increment and Nlgeom from below StepParameters in the options list.

- Click the field beneath INCREMENT in the card image and enter 100.

7. Add the *STATIC card to the card image:

- Select Static in the options list.

You may have to use the scroll bar on the left side of the screen in the options list to find the Static
option.

- Click the Ini_T_Inc field in the card image to change from the default value.

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- Click the field beneath Ini_T_Inc in the card image and enter 0.05

8. Add the *NODE FILE card to the card image:

- Select NodeResults in the options list.

- Select U from below NodeResults in the options list.

9. Add the *ELEMENT FILE card to the card image:

- Select ElementResults in the options list.

- Select S and SINV from below ElementResults in the options list.

10. Add the *CONTACT FILE card to the card image:

- Select ContactResults in the options list.

- Select CSTRESS from below ContactResults in the options list.

11. Add the *FILE FORMAT card to the card image:

- Select FileFormat in the options list.

- Click the switch under FILEFORMAT and select ASCII from the list.

12. Click return to accept the changes to the card image.

13. Click return to exit the panel.

To create an entity set for loading:

1. Select the entity sets panel on the BCs page.

2. Click name = and enter LOADED.

3. Click the input collector switch and select nodes.

4. Select the view panel from the permanent menu and select left from the pop-up menu.

5. Click nodes and select by window from the pop-up menu.

6. Click points on the screen to create the pick window shown in the picture below.

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7. Click select entities.

8. Click create.

9. Click return to exit the panel.

To create constraints on the BEAM component:

1. Select the constraints panel on the BCs page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Activate the check boxes next to dof1, dof2, and dof3.

4. Deactivate the check boxes next to dof4, dof5, and dof6.

5. Click nodes and select by sets from the extended entity selection menu.

6. Select ENDS from the list of entity sets.

7. Click select.

8. Click create.

9. Click return to exit the panel.

To create constraints on the INDENTOR component:

1. Select the constraints panel on the BCs page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Activate the check boxes next to dof1, and dof2.

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4. Deactivate the check boxes next to dof3, dof4, dof5, and dof6.

5. Click nodes and select by sets from the extended entity selection menu.

6. Select LOADED.

7. Click select.

8. Click create.

9. Click return to exit the panel.

To create forces on the INDENTOR component:

1. Select the forces panel on the BCs page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click nodes and select by sets from the extended entity selection menu.

4. Select LOADED.

5. Click select.

6. Click the upper switch and select vectors.

7. Click magnitude = and enter 10.0

8. Click the lower switch and select z-axis.

9. Click the toggle to global system.

10. Click create.

11. Click return to exit the panel.

Exporting the File to ABAQUS


The data currently stored in the database must be output to an ABAQUS .inp file for use with the
ABAQUS solver. The .inp file can then be used to perform the analysis using the ABAQUS outside
of HyperMesh.

To export the .inp file:

1. Select the files panel.

2. Select the export subpanel.

3. Double-click template = and choose abaqus/standard.3d from the templates directory.

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4. Click filename = and type in a name for the input deck: job1.inp

5. Select TEMPLATE.

6. Click the toggle to all.

7. Click write.

8. Click return to exit the panel.

To save the .hm file and quit from HyperMesh:

1. Select the files panel.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = and type job1.hm.

4. Click save.

5. Click return to exit the panel.

6. Click quit to exit HyperMesh.

After you quit HyperMesh you can run the ABAQUS solver using the job1.inp file that was written
from HyperMesh.

Running hmabaqus and Post-Processing


After you have run the job using ABAQUS, the .fil file is available. In order to read the results into
HyperMesh, you must use the hmabaqus external results translator to convert the ABAQUS .fil file to
a HyperMesh formatted results file. Once this is done, you can attach the results file and perform
post-processing procedures.

If you ran ABAQUS and created your own .fil file, run the hmabaqus results translator to create the
results file. If you did not run the solver, you can use the abaqus3_0tutorial.res file supplied in
the Tutorial directory.

To run hmabaqus:

• At a UNIX or MS-DOS prompt, enter hmabaqus job1.fil job1.hmres.

To import the hm file, attach the results file, and set visual options:

1. If you have a model loaded into HyperMesh, follow these procedures:

- Select the delete panel from the Tool page.

- Click delete model.

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- Answer Yes in the pop-up window.

2. Select the files panel.

3. Read the input deck that was used to run the ABAQUS job or the input deck supplied in the
tutorials directory:

- Select the import subpanel.

- Double-click translator = and choose abaqus from the feinput directory.

- Double-click filename = and choose job1.inp, if you ran your own solver program and
abaqus3_0tutorial.inp, if you want to use the supplied file.

- Select EXTERNAL.

- Click the upper toggle to no overwrite.

- Click import.

4. Set the pre-prepared visual options:

- Select the command subpanel.

- Double-click file = and choose abtut2.cmf from the tutorials directory.

- Click execute.

- If you are using the x version of HyperMesh, an error message may be displayed. Select continue in
the pop-up menu.

5. Assign the results file for post-processing:

- Select the results subpanel.

- Double-click results file = and choose job1.hmres if you ran your own solver program and
abaqus3_0tutorial.res if you want to use the supplied file.

6. Click return to exit the panel.

To post-process displacement and stress results:

1. Select the contour panel on the Post page.

2. Click simulation = and select: step 1 inc 7, t=1.00e+00

Notice that each increment in the ABAQUS analysis is a new simulation.


3. Click data type = and select Displacements.

4. Click the leftmost switch and select model units from the pop-up menu.

5. Click model units = and enter 10.0

6. Click contour.

7. Click data type = and select Von Mises.

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8. Select the view panel from the permanent menu and select restore 1 from the pop-up menu.

9. Click assign.

The default location for ABAQUS to output stress values is at the Integration Points. The
hmabaqus program takes these values and averages them to the centroid of each element.
Therefore, the most accurate representation of the stress values as they were reported from
ABAQUS can be found with an assigned plot.
10. Click return to exit the panel.

To post-process incremental results:

1. Select the transient panel on the Post page.

2. Click start with = and select step 1 inc 1, t=5.00e-02.

3. Click end with = and select step 1 inc 7, t=1.00e+00.

4. Click data type = and select Von Mises.

5. Click scale factor = and enter 100.0.

If you are using the x-version, skip to Step 12.


6. Click transient.

HyperMesh calculates seven frames of animation showing the displacement and von Mises
stress for each increment. In a non-linear analysis, this type of animation is necessary to view
the history of the stress development.
7. Once the animation begins, click the leftmost toggle to visual options.

8. Click the toggle next to mode and select hidden line.

9. Click the toggle next to color and select contour.

10. Click exit to exit the animation.

11. Activate the hidden line option.

12. Click transient.

HyperMesh calculates seven frames of animation showing the displacement and von Mises
stress for each increment. In a non-linear analysis, this type of animation is necessary to view
the history of the stress development.
13. Click exit to exit the animation.

14. Click return to exit the panel.

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To set up the display for post-processing contact results:

1. Select the display panel from the permanent menu.

2. Click the input collector switch and select comps.

3. Click the toggle to elems.

4. Click none.

5. Click return to exit the panel.

6. Select the view panel from the permanent menu and select iso 1 from the pop-up menu.
The elements displayed on the screen are the slave elements that are involved in the contact. To
view the contact results, the underlying element faces must be visible. The following steps show
all of the elements connected to these slave element faces.

7. Select the find panel on the Tool page.

8. Select the find attached subpanel.

9. Click the upper switch and select elems.

10. Click the switch under attached to: and select elems.

11. Click elems under attached to: and select displayed from the extended entity selection menu.

12. Click find.

13. Click return to exit the panel.

To post-process contact results:

1. Select the contour panel on the Post page.

2. Click simulation = and select: step 1 inc 7, t=1.00e+00

Notice that each increment in the ABAQUS analysis is a new simulation.


3. Click data type = and select Contact Pressure.

4. Click the second switch down, which should be set to model units, and choose undeformed
from the pop-up menu.

5. Click contour.
At this point, an error message is displayed in the message bar that states:

Some node results were not found (ignored).


When ABAQUS reports contact results, it only reports values for the nodes directly on the slave
surface. Therefore, the nodes on the other end of the displayed solid elements don’t have any
contact results reported from ABAQUS. HyperMesh recognizes that there are no values at those
nodes and reports an error message to warn you that they may be missing results. Also notice
that the contact pressure is high on the corners of the slave surface, but is zero in the middle
where no contact is occurring.

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Stress Analysis using ANSYS - HM-1030
This tutorial demonstrates how to use the HyperMesh ANSYS interface for stress analysis.

Since each procedure builds on the preceding section, you should start with the first exercise and
continue doing the exercises in the following order:

The following exercises are included:

• Updating Elements

• Defining Element Properties

• Updating Load Types

• Exporting a HyperMesh Database File to ANSYS

• Translating Results in ANSYS

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

A Description of the Model


A compressor wheel with blades is modeled as a plane stress problem with two planes of symmetry.
The blades are connected to the wheel using dovetail joints. The wheel and dovetail joints are
modeled using plane42 elements. The region of contact between the dovetail and the wheel slot is
modeled using point-to-point gap elements. The blades are modeled using lumped mass elements
connected to the dovetail joint with link elements. The loading is centrifugal (angular velocity of 3600
rpm). The gap elements make this a non-linear analysis.

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Updating Elements
In this tutorial, make the existing element types ANSYS-compatible elements.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Double click file =.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash, /.

4. Select the hm-ansys.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the hm-
ansys.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to exit the files panel.

To select the ANSYS template:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Double click template file =.

3. Select the ansys.2d template from the \ansys\ directory.

4. Click return.

To update elements:

1. Select the elem types panel on the 2-D page.

2. Click mass = and select MASS21.

3. Click rod = and select LINK1.

4. Click gap = and select CONTAC12.

5. Click tria3 = and select PLANE42.

6. Click quad4 = and select PLANE42.

7. Click elems and select all from the extended entity selection menu.

8. Click update.

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9. Click return.

Defining Element Properties


In this tutorial, define element properties based on the ANSYS template.

To define plane element properties:

1. Select the card panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click the input collector switch and select comps.

3. Click comps again and select WHEEL and DOVETAIL.

4. Click select.

5. Click card image = and select ETR42.

6. Click edit.

HyperMesh goes to the card image panel.

7. Select kopt3_FLAG.

8. Click the data entry field under kopt3 and enter 0.

9. Click return.

HyperMesh returns to the card panel.

10. Click return to access the main menu.

To define options for mass, gap, and link elements:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the card image subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type: and select comps.

4. Double click name = and select MASS.

5. Click card image = and select ETR21.

6. Click load/edit.

HyperMesh goes to the card image panel.

7. Select kopt3_FLAG.

8. Click the data entry field under kopt3 and enter 4.

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9. Click return.

HyperMesh returns to the collectors panel.

10. Double click name = and select GAP.

11. Click card image = and select ETR12.

12. Click load/edit.

HyperMesh goes to the card image panel.

13. Select kopt1_FLAG.

14. Click the data entry field under kopt1 and enter 0.

15. Select kopt2_FLAG.

16. Click the data entry field under kopt2 and enter 1.

17. Select kopt4_FLAG.

18. Click the data entry field under kopt4 and enter 0.

19. Click return.

HyperMesh returns to the collectors panel.

20. Double click name = and select LINK.

21. Click card image = and select ETR1.

22. Click load/edit.

HyperMesh goes to the card image panel.

23. Click return.

HyperMesh returns to the collectors panel.

24. Click return to access the main menu.

To create a property collector for mass elements:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type: and select props.

4. Click name = and enter MASS.

5. Click card image = and select ETR1D21 from the pop-up menu.

6. Click material = and select mat.

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7. Click create/edit.

HyperMesh goes to the card image panel.

8. Click R_LEN = and enter 1.

9. Click the data entry field under R and enter 100 for the mass of the MASS elements.

10. Click return.

HyperMesh returns to the collectors panel.

11. Click return to access the main menu.

To create a property collector for gap elements:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click name = and enter GAP.

4. Click card image = and select ETR1D12.

5. Click material = and select mat.

6. Click create/edit.

HyperMesh goes to the card image panel.

7. Click R_LEN = and enter 4.

8. Click the data entry field under R and enter 0. Use the TAB key to enter the following values in
the remaining data entry fields: 2 E 05, 0, and 0.

9. Click return.

HyperMesh returns to the collectors panel.

10. Click return to access the main menu.

To create a property collector for link elements:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click name = and enter LINK.

4. Click card image = and select ETR1D1.

5. Click material = and select mat.

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6. Click create/edit.

HyperMesh goes to the card image panel.

7. Click R_LEN = and enter 1.

8. Click the data entry field under R and enter 10 for the cross sectional area of the link elements.

9. Click return.

HyperMesh returns to the collectors panel.

10. Click return to access the main menu.

After creating property collectors, assign them to their respective element types.

To update mass element properties:

1. Select the masses panel on the 1-D page.

2. Select the update subpanel.

3. Click elems and select by config from the extended entity selection menu.

4. Click config = and select mass from the extended entity selection menu.

5. Click select entities.

6. Click property = and select MASS.

7. Click update.

8. Select property.

9. Click update.

10. Click return to access the main menu.

To update the gap element properties:

1. Select the gaps panel on the 1-D page.

2. Select the update subpanel.

3. Click elems and select by config from the extended entity selection menu.

4. Click config = and select gap from the extended entity selection menu.

5. Click select entities.

6. Click property = and select GAP.

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7. Click update.

8. Select property.

9. Click update.

10. Click return to access the main menu.

To update the rod elements:

1. Select the rods panel on the 1-D page.

2. Select the update subpanel.

3. Click elems and select by config from the extended entity selection menu.

4. Click config = and select rod from the extended entity selection menu.

5. Click select entities.

6. Click property = and select LINK.

7. Click update.

8. Click return.

Updating Load Types


In this tutorial, make the existing load types ANSYS compatible.

1. Select the load types panel on the BCs page.

2. Click constraint = and select D_CONSTRNT.

3. Click loads and select all from the extended entity selection menu.

4. Click update.

5. Click return.

Exporting a HyperMesh Database File to ANSYS


In this tutorial, edit your HyperMesh database file and export it to ANSYS.

To write the ANSYS .prp file:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

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2. Select the export subpanel.

3. Click filename = and enter hm-ansys.prp.

4. Click write.

5. Click return.

6. Click quit to end the HyperMesh session.

You do not need to save the HyperMesh file.

To edit the ANSYS file:

You must edit the hm-ansys.prp file since HyperMesh does not translate the application of angular
velocity to ANSYS.
1. Open the hm-ansys.prp file in a text editor.

2. Before the /SOLU command, insert the following command:

OMEGA,,,10

(3600 rpm ˜ 10 rad/s)

3. Save the file and exit.

You can now submit the hm-ansys.prp file to ANSYS for analysis.

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Translating Results in ANSYS
The ANSYS analysis performed on the hm-ansys.prp file generated a file named hm-ansys.rst.
hmansys translates this ANSYS binary file into a HyperMesh binary results file using the command
line utility hmansys.exe. You can then use the HyperMesh binary results file, hm-ansys.hmres,
for post-processing.

To generate the file hm-ansys.hmres:

1. Enter the following syntax in UNIX or at the MS-DOS prompt:

../hm/results/hmansys/hmansys [options] hm-ansys.rst hm-ansys.hmres.

The hm-ansys.hmres file can be used for post-processing.

2. To obtain the list of options, use the following syntax:

../hm/results/hmansys/hmansys.exe –u.

3. To specify the HyperMesh results file, click results file = on the global panel and select hm-
ansys.hmres.

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General Interfacing with Crash Analysis Solvers -
HM-1100
This tutorial explains how to interface with crash analysis codes. New procedures include penetration
and time step checks and joint creation.

The following exercises are included:

• Checking for penetration

•Fixing penetrations (2 methods)

• Creating joints.

• Checking the minimum time step.

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Checking for Penetration


The penetration panel is used to check contact interfaces for nodal penetrations. It allows you to
determine how much penetration is occurring and to correct the penetration by moving any
penetrating nodes.

The penetration panel supports all of the solver interfaces that contain card images and interface
elements. Before you use the penetration panel, element thicknesses and contact interfaces must
be defined for the current template loaded in the global panel. For more information on defining
thickness on collector cards, refer to the collectors panel in the Panels section of the on-line help.
For more information about creating contact interfaces, see the interfaces panel in the on-line help.

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The penetration panel calculates penetration based on the following formula:

Ta/2 + Tb/2 - d = P

Where Ta and Tb are element and/or nodal thicknesses, d is the distance between the element
midplanes, and P is the amount of penetration. HyperMesh computes the penetration check on a
node by node basis, which allows the penetration, P, to vary throughout the model. Nodes with
negative penetration values are marked as non-penetrating nodes.

Contact directions (interface element normals) are not considered when determining if nodes are
penetrating the opposing contact face. Nodes are marked as failed regardless of the direction normal
to the contact elements. However, the calculated penetration does consider the normal direction.
This is discussed in more detail in the Fixing Penetrations section.

There are some limitations for penetration checking:

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Two known penetration checking limitations

• Nodes that penetrate far enough through the thickness of the opposing surface so that the
thicknesses do not overlap at the nodal location (left diagram in above figure).

• Nodes that lie exactly normal to nodes on the opposing contact surface (right diagram in above
figure). Some of the nodes in the right diagram will be detected, however some of nodes will
not be detected.

To retrieve the pene_dyna.hm file:

1. Select the files panel.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

4. Select the pene_dyna.hm file.

5. Click retrieve.

6. Click return.

To specify the dyna.key template:

1. Select the files panel.

2. Select the template subpanel.

3. Click template file = twice.

4. Select the ls-dyna/dyna.key file.

5. Click return.

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To check for penetrations:

1. Select the penetration panel on the Tool page.

2. Click groups and select S2S_regular.

3. Click select.

The minimum distance between the two surfaces of elements in this group is 3.00 and the
thickness of each component is 9.00.

4. Click check.

All of the nodes that fail the penetration check are marked as temporary nodes and the
penetration adjustment panel is displayed.

Fixing Penetrations
After a penetration check is completed, the penetration check adjustment subpanel is displayed.

NOTE The penetration check adjustment panel can only be accessed after completing a
penetration check in the penetration panel.

The thickness value you enter in the penetration check adjustment subpanel specifies the element
thickness adjustment required to eliminate the penetration. The value in the thickness number field
can be set to scale or reduction. When you click recheck, it recalculates the penetration by either
scaling or by reducing the element thickness by the specified value. The amount of penetration
calculated when you use the recheck function is based on the following formulas:

for scale:

scale * (Ta/2 + Tb/2) – d = P

for reduction:

(Ta/2 + Tb/2) – d – reduction = P

The display mode can be set to temp nodes, vectors, or contour. The temp nodes mode displays
yellow temporary nodes at all node locations that failed the penetration check. The vectors mode
displays vectors in the direction and magnitude required to fix each penetrating node. You can
alternate the vector display between uniform size or magnitude %. The contour mode displays a
contour plot from zero to the maximum penetration.

The save penetrated option allows you to save the location of the penetration areas as well as the
magnitude and direction of the vectors required to fix the penetration areas. The saved entities can

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be used in other HyperMesh panels to fix the penetration (see exercise two). The save penetrated
function creates a ^vectors collector that contains the saved vectors. The ^vectors collector can
be turned on and off by using the display panel.

The adjust function allows you to quickly fix penetrations by moving only the nodes that failed the
penetration check. When you click adjust, the penetrated nodes move in the direction and
magnitude of the vectors in the vectors display mode. Additional use of the adjust function
continues to translate the nodes in the same direction and magnitude. You must use this function
with discretion because the adjust function deforms the original model at the points of penetration
(shown in the next exercise).

After the adjust function has been applied, you can:

• Use reject to undo any modifications and remain in the penetration check adjustment panel

• Use abort to undo any modifications and return to the penetration panel

• Use return to accept the modifications and return to the penetration panel

The penetration checking calculation does not take into account the direction of the contact normals.
Nodes are marked as failed regardless of the direction the contact normals are pointing. However,
the computed direction and magnitude of the penetration does take into account the direction of the
contact normals. When the segment orientation option is on, the penetration check takes into
consideration the directions of contact normals when it calculates the amount of penetration (first
illustration below). The returned values represent the actual nodal penetration. When the segment
orientation option is off (second figure below), the penetration check does not take into account the
directions of element normals. Instead, the check calculates the amount of penetration as the
shortest distance required to move nodes so they do not lie within the region defined as the element
thicknesses. The returned values are the mathematical absolute amount of nodal penetration. It is
recommended that you leave the segment orientation option active unless all the vectors in the
vector display mode are pointing in the opposite direction needed to fix the penetration.

Segment orientation on with contact normals reversed

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Segment orientation off with contact normals reversed

Once the amount of penetration is determined, the value is used to calculate the vector directions and
magnitudes required to fix the penetrating nodes. Surface to Surface and Single Surface contacts
create vector magnitudes equal to P/2 (the total penetration divided by 2). Node to Surface contacts
define vector magnitudes equal to P because only slave nodes are adjusted.

One method you can use to fix penetration areas is to use the translate panel to move the elements
the distance necessary to correct the penentration.

To correct penetration areas:

1. Click the switch under display mode and select vectors.

2. Activate the label vector check box.

3. Click the toggle under vectors and select uniform size.

4. Click uniform size = and enter 50.000 to make the vectors easier to view.

The vectors show the direction and magnitude required to fix the penetrations. The calculated
value for P is 6.00, so moving each surface in this surface to surface contact by P/2=3.00, will
fix the penetration problem.

5. Click the switch under save penetrated and select nodes & vect.

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6. Click save penetrated to place the failed nodes in the user mark and to create vectors at all the
failed nodes. The vectors are placed in a ^vector collector that can be turned on and off in the
display panel. The vectors are created in the direction and magnitude required to fix the
penetration.

7. Click return.

8. Select the translate panel on the Tool page.

9. Select all the elements in the fl1 component:

- Click the input collector switch and select elems.

- Click elems and select by comp.

- Select the fl1 component.

- Click select.

10. Click the plane and vector collector switch and select vector.

11. Pick one of the vectors that point in the positive x direction.

12. Click magnitude = and enter 3.000

13. Click translate +.

14. Click reset to clear the selected entities.

15. Select all of the elements in the fl2, light blue component.

- Click the input collector switch and select elems.

- Click elems and select by comp.

- Select the fl2 component.

- Click select.

16. Click translate -

17. Click return.

To delete the ^vector collector:

1. Select the delete panel on the Tool page.

2. Click the input collector switch and select vectorcols.

3. Click vectorcols.

4. Select ^vector.

5. Click select.

6. Click delete.

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Another method you can use to fix penetration areas is to use the adjust function in the
penetration check adjustment panel.

To fix penetration areas by using adjust:

1. Select the penetration panel on the Tools page.

2. Click groups.

3. Select the NS_reverse group.

4. Click select.

5. Click check.

6. Click the switch under displayed mode and select contour.

7. Click view in the permanent menu and select iso 1.

8. Pick one element on the screen to see the nodal penetration values associated to that element.

9. Click the left mouse button to turn off the penetration value display.

10. Click the switch under displayed mode and select vectors.

11. Click magnitude % = and enter 2000.

12. Click view in the permanent menu and select top.

Notice that the lengths of the vectors are dependent on the amount of penetration and are
pointing in the wrong direction.

13. Deactivate the segment orientation check box.

HyperMesh ignores which direction is normal to the contact.

14. Click adjust.

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NOTE The adjust function is an easy way to fix penetrations. However, using the
adjust function deforms your model at the areas of penetration, as is
apparent when this exercise is complete.

The pene-dyna.hm file contains other model components that may be


useful for trying the penetration checking/adjusting functions. These
examples are not included in the tutorial but are available for more practice.
Use the display panel to view the other collectors in the model.

Creating Joints
Joint definitions are created in the joints panel on the 1D page. HyperMesh 3.0 supports the
following standard joint types: Spherical, Revolute, Cylindrical, Planar, Universal, Translational, and
Locking. All of these types are stored as joint elements in the HyperMesh database. HyperMesh
also supports LS-DYNA3D’s *CONSTRAINED_JOINT_STIFFNESS_OPTION (Card 38) property to
define friction, damping, stop angles, etc. The LS-DYNA3D solver interface supports the creation of
joints in the joints panel. The PAMCRASH solver interface currently supports the creation of joints
as rod elements (see the PAMCRASH tutorial).

NOTE A spherical joint consists of two coincident nodes. During analysis, the two
coincident nodes are forced to remain coincident but the bodies attached to
each coincident node are allowed to rotate freely about the joint location.

To retrieve the joints.hm file:

1. Select the files panel.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

4. Select the joints.hm file.

5. Click retrieve.

6. Click return.

To load the dyna.key template:

1. Select the files panel.

2. Select the template subpanel.

3. Click template file = twice.

4. Select the ls-dyna/dyna.key file.

5. Click return.

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To activate coincident node picking:

1. Select the options panel in the permanent menu.

2. Select the modeling subpanel.

3. Activate the coincident node picking check box.

To change the display:

1. Select the display panel in the permanent menu.

2. Select the blue torus, orange torus, and New Joint collectors.

3. Deactivate any other collectors.

4. Click return.

To create a spherical joint:

1. Select the joints panel on the 1D page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch under joint type and select spherical.

4. Left click once on a node in the center of both tori to bring up the coincident node picking window
(see figure below).

There are two nodes in the window, node 598 and node 1.

5. While holding down the left mouse button, drag the cursor over the node labeled 598.

The blue rigid body attached to this node is highlighted.

6. Release the left mouse button to select node 598.

7. Repeat the last three steps, but select node 1 from the coincident node picking window instead

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of node 598.

8. Click create to generate the spherical joint element.

NOTE A revolute joint consists of four nodes, two sets of two coincident nodes.
During analysis, all four of the revolute joint ’s nodes remain at the same
location with respect to each other. The bodies attached to the nodes are
free to rotate about the axis that lies along the length of the revolute joint.

To change the display:

1. Select the display panel in the permanent menu.

2. Select the bearing, shaft, bearing rigids, shaft rigids, and New Joint collectors.

3. Deactivate the other collectors.

4. Click return.

To create a revolute joint:

1. Zoom in on one end of the shaft assembly (see figure below).

2. Click the switch under joint type and select revolute.

3. Left click once on a node at the center of one of the rigid link elements to bring up the coincident
node picking window (see figure below).

4. Select a node attached to a blue rigid link element.

If you depress the left mouse button while your cursor is over a node in the coincident node
picking window, the element attached to that node is highlighted.

5. Click at the same node location again and select the node attached to the orange rigid link
element.

6. Repeat the previous three steps on the opposing pair of blue and orange rigid link elements (see
figure below).

7. Click create.

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Checking the Minimum Time Step
The time subpanel in the check elems panel calculates element time steps, based on the FEA
solver, and allows you to check for time steps that fall below a specified value. The ability to check for
the minimum time step is a new feature.

To retrieve the pene_dyna.hm file:

1. Select the files panel.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

4. Select the pene_dyna.hm file.

5. Click retrieve.

6. Click return.

To specify the dyna.key template:

1. Select the files panel.

2. Select the template subpanel.

3. Click template file = twice.

4. Select the ls-dyna/dyna.key file.

5. Click return.

To check the time steps:

1. Select the check elements panel on the Tool page.

2. Select the time subpanel.

3. Click check elems.

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LS-DYNA3D Interface - HM-1110-L
This tutorial explains how to use the HyperMesh interface with LS-DYNA3D.

Since each procedure builds on the preceding section, you should start with the first exercise and
continue doing the exercises in the following order:

• Load a pre-defined HyperMesh file

• Select the LS-DYNA3D template

• Create Control Cards for LS-DYNA3D

• Assign Element Types for LS-DYNA3D

• Define Materials with Components for LS-DYNA3D

• Define a HyperMesh Group: Sliding Interface for LS-DYNA3D

• Define a Rigid Wall for LS-DYNA3D

• Creating Boundary Conditions for LS-DYNA3D

• Create Time Histories for LS-DYNA3D

• Create a Cross Section for LS-DYNA3D

• Exporting a LS-DYNA3D data deck from HM

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Load a Pre-defined HyperMesh File


In this section, retrieve the model, rail-dyna.hm.

To retrieve a HyperMesh binary database:

1. Select the files panel.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Double-click file = and select rail-dyna.hm.

4. Click retrieve.

5. Click return.

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Select the LS-DYNA3D Template
To use HyperMesh with a special solver, the template of this solver has to be loaded. This template
"knows" how to transform the binary HyperMesh database into a solver input deck. LS-DYNA3D has
three templates. The dyna.key supports the Keyword input format, the template dyna.seq supports
the sequential input format of LS-DYNA3D, and dyna.lrg supports the large format which is also a
sequential input format.

To load the LS-DYNA3D template:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click template file = and select ls-dyna/dyna.lrg.

3. Click return.

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Create Control Cards for LS-DYNA3D
This section explains how to create the control card of the CONTROL SECTION.

NOTE The settings of the control cards influence the default values for defining
materials.

To define the Title Card:

1. Select the cntl cards panel on the BCs page.

2. Click Title Card and enter the title string, “This is my first LS-DYNA example.”

3. Click return.

To define the Control Cards:

1. Click Termination.

2. Click the data entry field under endtim and enter 10.

3. Click return.

4. Click TAURUS.

5. Click the data entry field under the output intervall, PLTC, and enter 1.

6. Click return.

7. Click ASCII out I.

8. Enter values for SECFORC, RWFORC, NODOUT, GLSTAT and MATSUM :

- Click the text.

- Click the data entry field that appears under the text.

- Enter .1

This sets the output intervall for cross-section-, rigid-wall, nodal time history-, global statistic-
and material output.

9. Click return.

10. Click return.

Define Materials
NOTE The material collector is used in the LS-DYNA3D interface. In contrast to

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PAM-CRASH, LS-DYNA3D has separate material and cross section
definitions. Once materials and cross sections are defined, they can be
combined in different property definitions. The property collects the cross
section and material data for a certain number of elements. Elements and
property are connected with the property ID in the element cards.

To define a Material Type 24 (Piecewise Linear Plasticity):

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type and select mats.

4. Click name = and enter steel.

5. Click the switch under creation method and select card image.

6. Click card image = and choose MATL24.

The template provides different material dictionaries. It supplies not only materials for shells and
bricks, but also materials for discrete elements like springs. To switch the material type, use the
card previewer.

7. Click create/edit.

8. Click the data entry field under RHO and enter 7.85e-6.

9. Click the data entry field under Comment and enter This is the side material.

10. Click the data entry field under E and enter 210 (in kN/mm2).

11. Click the data entry field under NU and enter 0.3.

If necessary, use the arrow buttons on the left side to scroll the screen.

12. Click SIGY, click the data entry field, and enter 0.37 to define the yield stress .

13. Click the button under array count and select 3.

This means that we are defining a stress-strain curve with 3 points.

14. Type the following pairs for strain (in EPS(i)) and stress (in ES(i)) : (0.0; 0.37), (0.02; 0.39), (0.04;
0.45).

15. Click return.

16. Click return.

To define a second steel Material Type 24 using loadcurves for the nonlinear behavior:

It is necessary to define the loadcurve first. After it is defined, it is possible to choose this loadcurve in
the material definition instead of using the method described in the first section.

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1. Select the Post page.

2. Select the xy plots panel.

3. Select the plots panel.

4. Click plot = and enter Materialdata.

5. Click create plot.

6. Click return.

To create a curve:

1. Select the edit curves panel.

2. Click plot = and select Materialdata.

3. Select the math option instead of file.

4. Click x= and enter {0.0, 0.02, 0.04} (including the brackets) as the value for the plastic strain.

5. Click y= and enter {0.37, 0.39, 0.45} (including the brackets) as the value for the effective stress.

6. Click create.

7. Click return.

8. Click exit.

NOTE Once a loadcurve is defined, it can be used for the stress-strain behavior of a
material, as a load vs. time function, force-deflection function, or others.

To create and edit a material collector:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type and select mats.

4. Click the switch under creation method and select card image.

5. Click name = and enter steel2.

6. Click card image = and select MATL24.

7. Click create/edit.

8. Click Rho, click the data entry field, and enter 7.85e-6.

9. Click the data entry box under Comments and enter “This is the second definition.”

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10. Click the data entry field under E and enter 210 (in kN/mm2).

11. Click the data entry field under NU and enter 0.3.

If necessary, use the arrow buttons on the left side to scroll the screen.

12. Click the data entry field under SIGY and enter 0.37 to define the yield stress .

13. Double-click LCSS and pick curve1.

14. Double-click LCSR and pick curve1.

15. Click return.

16. Click return again.

Definition of Cross Section Properties for LS-


DYNA3D
The cross section definition in LS-DYNA3D contains the element thickness, integration rule, and
element type. There are different types of cross sections; for example, shell section and beam
section.

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The tutorial model has different thicknesses for the elements on the top and bottom and on the sides.
Therefore, you must create 2 cross section properties.

To define the first cross section property:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type and select props.

4. Click name = and enter side_prop.

5. Click the switch under creation method and select card image.

6. Click card image and select SectShll.

7. Click material = and select steel.

8. Click create/edit.

9. Enter a comment for that property; for example, “Property of side elements.”

10. Select NIP, click the data entry field, and enter 3. (This is the number of integration points
through the thickness.)

11. Click the data entry field under T1 and enter 1 (shell thickness).

12. Click return twice.

To define the second cross section property:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type and select props.

4. Click name = and enter top_prop.

5. Click card image and select SectShll.

6. Click material = and select steel2.

7. Click create/edit.

8. Click the data entry field under comment and enter Property of elements on the top
and bottom of the rail.

9. Click NIP, click the data entry field, and enter 3 for the number of integration points through the
thickness.

10. Click the data entry field below T1 and enter 2.5 (shell thickness).

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11. Click return twice.

To create a new collector :

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type and select comps.

4. Click name = and enter topbottom.

5. Click card image = and select Part.

6. Click material = and select steel.

7. Click color and select color13.

8. Click create/edit.

9. Double-click SID and select top_props.

10. Click the data entry field under Comment and enter Elements on top and bottom of the
rail.

The number below ELFORM should be the same as in the ShellSectionProperty definition,
which is depicted below the comment. If it is not, change the value.

11. Click return.

12. Click return.

In the next steps, combine the elements with material and cross section data.

To reorganize the elements:

1. Select the organize panel.

2. Click the input collector switch and select elems.

3. Click elems to access the extended entity selection menu.

4. Select by comps.

5. Select the tmp component.

6. Click select.

7. Click destination = topbottom.

8. Click move.

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All elements that were previously in the tmp component are moved to the topbottom
component.

9. Click return.

10. Select the delete panel on the Tool page.

11. Click the input collector switch and select comps.

12. Click comps and select the tmp component.

13. Click return.

14. Click delete.

The tmp component is deleted.

15. Click return.

To add a material and a ShellSection property to the side component:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the card image subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type and select comps.

4. Double-click name = and select side.

5. Click card image and select Part.

6. Click load/edit.

7. Double-click SID and select side_prop.

8. Click in the area below Comment and enter Elements on the side of the rail.

9. Note that the value below ELFORM is the same as the value for ELFORM in the Shell section
property (in this case in the property component side).

10. Click return.

11. Click return.

Define a HyperMesh Group: Sliding Interface for LS-


DYNA3D
This section describes how to define a sliding interface of type13. This is a single surface contact.
There are several methods you may use to select the contact elements. You can define a box that
encloses all the elements you want included in the contact definition or select the elements by
component, set, or entity.

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In this section, define a multiple self-impacting contact of type 13.

To define the group:

1. Select the interfaces panel on the BCs page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click name = and enter self_impact.

4. Click type = and select SingleSurface.

5. Click the switch under creation method and select card image.

6. Click card image = and select SingleSurface.

7. Click interface color and select color 5.

8. Click create/edit.

9. Click the switch below options and select Automatic.

The contact type in the card previewer window changes to 13.

10. Click return.

To add the slave components:

1. Select the add subpanel.

2. Click the switch under slave and select comps.

You can specify the contact members by their component ID.

3. Click comps and select the components side and topbottom.

4. Click select.

5. Click return.

6. Click update.

7. Click return.

In this section, define a master slave (element - node) contact of type 5.

To define the group:

1. Select the interfaces panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

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3. Click name = and enter masterslave.

4. Click type = and select NodesToSurface.

5. Click card image = and select NodesToSurface.

6. Click create/edit.

7. Click the switch under Options and select Automatic.

8. Click return.

To add the master elements and slave nodes:

1. Select the add subpanel.

2. Click the switch under master and select entity.

3. Click the switch under slave and select entity.

4. Click elems and pick two arbitrary elements.

5. Click the upper add.

6. Click nodes and pick two arbitrary nodes.

7. Click the lower add.

8. Click return.

Define a Rigid Wall for LS-DYNA3D


In this section, create a rigid wall of type 4 with an infinite plate as the base node
(-1.00,0.0,0.00116).

To create a node as base node for the rigid wall:

1. Select the create nodes panel on the Geom page.

2. Select the type in subpanel.

3. Set x = -1.0, y = 0.0, and z = 0.00116.

4. Click create node.

5. Click return.

To create and define a rigid wall card:

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1. Select the rigid walls panel on the BCs page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click name = and enter rwall1.

4. Click type = and select RWPlanar.

5. Click the switch under creation method and select card image.

6. Click card image = and select RWPlanar.

7. Click rgdwall color and select color 12.

8. Click size = and enter 100.

This controls only the size of the displayed Rigid Wall on the screen.

9. Click create/edit.

To define the rigid wall type:

1. Click in the data entry field under FRIC and enter 0.3 for the friction coefficient.

2. Click return.

To define rigid wall geometry:

1. Select the geom subpanel.

2. Click name = and select rwall1.

3. Select the switch after shape and select plane.

4. Click the toggle to infinite.

5. Click the switch under normal vector and choose x-axis.

6. Click base node, and then pick the node you just created in the graphics area.

You may need to click f in the permanent menu to see the node.

7. Click update to create the rigid wall geometry.

To add slave nodes for rigid wall:

1. Select the add subpanel.

2. Click the switch under slaves and select nodes.

3. Click nodes and select by id.

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4. Enter 1-21 after id = and press the ENTER key on the keyboard.

5. Delete the previous selection and enter node 1012 as input and press the ENTER key on the
keyboard.

6. Click add.

To add a motion to the rigid wall:

1. Select the motion subpanel.

2. Click the switch and select components.

3. Click x comp = and give 2000.0 as value.

4. Click the switch under type of motion and select velocity.

5. Click update.

To define attributes in the card previewer:

1. Select the card subpanel.

2. Click edit.

3. Click the data field under mass and enter 1.

4. Make sure that the IMSWF is switched off; then the velocity is defined as initial velocity and you
are able to specify the mass of the stonewall.

5. Click return.

6. Click return.

NOTE The card previewer of the rigid wall changed accordingly to the definitions been
made. If the IMSWF is switched on in HyperMesh you can define the stonewall
movement with a loadcurve.

Creating Boundary Conditions for LS-DYNA3D


This exercise will show how to create boundary conditions to the model.

To create a load collector:

1. Select the collectors panel.

2. Select the create subpanel.

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3. Click the switch after collector type and select loadcols.

4. Click name = and enter bounc.

5. Click color and select color15.

6. Click create.

7. Click return.

To specify the load type:

1. Select the load types panel on the BCs page.

2. Click constraint = and choose BoundSPC.

All constraints that are now created will be displacement boundary conditions.

3. Click return.

To create constraints on nodes:

1. Turn off the display of groups:

- Click display on the permanent menu.

- Click the upper switch and select groups.

- Click none.

- Click return.

2. Select the constraints panel on the BC’s page.

3. Select the create subpanel.

4. Double-click nodes and select by id.

5. Enter 990-1011 as the node numbers.

6. Press ENTER on the keyboard.

7. Click create.

The constraints are now added to all nodes.

8. Click return.

Create Time Histories for LS-DYNA3D


For LS-DYNA3D, time histories for nodes and elements are available. For this exercise, you

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create time histories for both. The method is the same for any type of time history you create.

To create a node time history card:

1. Turn off display of loads:

- Click the display panel from the permanent menu.

- Choose the switch next to groups and select loadcols.

- Click none.

- Click return to access the main menu.

2. Select the output block panel from the BC’s page.

3. Click name = and enter nodeth.

4. Make sure that nodes is the entity type, if not, use the toggle button to switch.

5. With your mouse, select a few nodes in the graphics area.

6. Click create.

The Time History for nodes is now created.

To create an element time history card:

1. Click name = and enter elemth.

2. Click the input collector switch and select elems.

3. Pick a few elements in the graphics area.

4. Click create.

To review time histories entities:

1. Click review.

2. Select elemth.

The entities associated with this time history are now highlighted.

3. Click return to access the main menu.

To create a node time history card:

1. Click card on the permanent menu.

2. Click the switch and select outputblocks.

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3. Click elemth.

4. Click select.

5. Click edit.

The time history card is displayed as it will look in the output.

6. Click return.

7. Click return.

Cross Section Definition for LS-DYNA3D


To create a set of elements that consists of the elements which should belong to the cross
section:

1. Select entity sets menu on page BCs

2. Make sure that elems is depicted in the yellow area, if not use the toggle button to switch.

3. Click name= and enter cross_ele.

4. Select the elements which describe the cross section.

5. Click return.

To create the cross section.

1. Select the interfaces on page BCs.

2. Select the create menu.

3. Click name = and enter cross-sect1.

4. Click type = and select CrossSection.

5. Click card image and select CrossSection also.

6. Click create.

7. Select the add menu.

8. Use the toggle button below master: to select the selection type sets.

9. Click sets in the yellow area and select cross_ele.

10. Click select.

11. Click return.

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12. Click update.

13. Make sure that the selection type for the slaves is entity.

14. Click nodes and select the nodes with the mouse which describe the section.

15. Click add.

16. Click return.

Exporting a LS-DYNA3D Data Deck from HyperMesh


The exercise explains how to generate a LS-DYNA3D input deck from HyperMesh.

To export a LS-DYNA3D file:

1. Select files from the main menu.

2. Select the export sub-panel.

3. Make sure that the template = field still shows the dyna.lrg file.

4. Click filename = once, and enter the name of the LS-DYNA3D file you will create: rail.bdf

5. Click write.

HyperMesh writes the deck, and it displays a message once it is complete.

6. Click return to access the main menu.

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PAM-CRASH Interface - HM-1120L
This tutorial introduces the HyperMesh interface to PAM-CRASH. The HyperMesh PAM-CRASH
input translator supports the PAM-CRASH 97 cards and most PAM-CRASH 98 cards.

Since each procedure builds on the preceding section, you should start with
the first exercise and continue doing the exercises in the following order:

• Load a Prepared HyperMesh File

• Select the PAM-CRASH Template

• Create Control Cards

• Assign Element Types

• Define Materials with Component Dictionaries

• Define HyperMesh Groups: Sliding Interface

• Define a Rigid Wall

• Creating Boundary Conditions

• Create Time Histories

• Creating a Function

• Creating a Sensor Card

• Exporting a PAM-CRASH Data Deck from HyperMesh

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Load a Prepared HyperMesh File


A prepared model with elements and nodes is included in the /tutorials/hm/ directory. The file
name of the example is rail.hm. This is the basic example on which the tutorial is based.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

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4. Select the rail.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the rail.hm
file.

5. Click retrieve.

6. Click return to access the main menu.

Select the PAM-CRASH Template


To use HyperMesh with a specific solver, the solver template must be loaded. This template
specifies how HyperMesh writes a solver input deck. PAM-CRASH has only one template.

To load the PAM-CRASH general template:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click template file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

3. Select the general template, located in the HyperMesh installation directory under
/pamcrash/general/.

HyperMesh returns to the global panel. Note that template file = now displays the location of
the general template.

4. Click return to access the main menu.

Create Control Cards for PAM-CRASH


This tutorial explains how to create the control card for the CONTROL SECTION of the PAM-CRASH

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input deck.

NOTE The settings of the control cards influence the default values for defining
materials. No PAM-CRASH deck can be executed without error if the control
card CTRL is undefined.

To define the title card:

1. Select the cntl cards panel on the BC’s page.

2. Click Title and enter This is my first PAM-CRASH example.

3. Click return.

To define the control card:

1. Click Control.

2. Below TIME, enter the value 0.06.

3. Below TIOD, enter the value 0.005.

4. Below PIOD, enter the value 0.005.

5. Click the box below MORE and select 1 from the pop-up menu.

6. Click return.

To define the file optional keyword:

1. Click File Name.

2. Below FILENAME, enter rail.

3. Click return.

To define the time step optional keyword:

1. Click next.

2. Click Time Step.

3. Click the switch below Shell Criteria and select LARGE from the pop-up menu.

4. Click the switch below Thickness Term and select BEND from the pop-up menu.

5. Click return twice to access the main menu.

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Assign Element Types for PAM-CRASH
HyperMesh allows you to specify how different element types are defined in the solver deck. For
example, a quad4 can be a SHELL or a MEMBR element. The tria3 element can be a TRIA_C,
SHELL, or MEMBR element. The tetra4, the penta6, and the hexa8 elements define the SOLID
elements of PAM-CRASH.

To assign the element type:

1. Select the elem types panel on the 1-D page.

2. Click quad4 = and select SHELL from the pop-up menu.

3. Click elems and select all from the extended entity selection menu.

4. Click update.

5. Click return to access the main menu.

To edit the SHELL card properties in the card previewer:

1. Select the card panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click the upper left switch and select elems from the extended entity selection menu.

3. Click config = and select quad4 from the pop-up menu.

4. Click type = and select SHELL from the pop-up menu.

5. Select any displayed element and click edit.

The SHELL card now appears in the card previewer. The number of integration points through
the thickness NINT and the optional thickness T are defined here. If no thickness is entered,
the thickness of the material defined in the component is used.

6. Click return twice to access the main menu.

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Define Materials with Component Dictionaries for
PAM-CRASH
Each PAM-CRASH material card MAT or MATER requires one component.

NOTE The material collector is not used in the PAM-CRASH interface. PAM-
CRASH does not differentiate between material data and cross section data
as other solvers do. Consequently, elements have no reference to materials,
which only belong to a component. The material definition for the elements is
included with this component.

Elements are located in a component (beam, bar, joint, shell). The template takes the component ID
as material ID. The card image type of the collector defines the material as 1-D material, 2-D
material, or 3-D material.

To define a Material Type 102 for collector side:

1. Select the collectors panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the card image subpanel.

3. Click the switch and select comps from the pop-up window.

4. Click name = twice and select side.

5. Click card image = and select MAT_2D from the pop-up menu.

NOTE The template provides MAT_1D, MAT_2D, and MAT_3D dictionaries.


Material types from 200 to 230 are defined with MAT_1D. Materials types
from 100 to 151 are defined with MAT_2D. Material types from 1 to 41 are
defined with MAT_3D. To switch the material type, use the card previewer.

6. Click load/edit.

7. Click the switch below Material Type and select Type 102 from the pop-up menu.

NOTE Only the materials of the current dictionary (1-D, 2-D, 3-D) can be selected.
The ID of the material is given by HyperMesh with the component ID.

8. Below density, enter the value 7.85e-9.

NOTE You can use the TAB or SHIFT TAB key on the keyboard to go to the next or
previous edit field.

9. Below TITLE, enter This is the side material.

10. Below E, enter the value 20000.

11. Below Yield, enter the value 250.

12. Below v, enter the value 0.3.

13. Below t, enter the value 2.

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14. Click return.

To define a Material Type 102 for collector topbottom:

1. Select the create subpanel.

2. Click name = and enter topbottom.

3. Click the switch below creation method: and select same as from the pop-up menu.

4. Click same as = and select side.

5. Click color and select Color 10 from the pop-up menu.

6. Click create/edit.

All attributes of the card image from the side material are automatically copied into the current
component.

7. Below t, enter the value 2.5.

8. Below Title, enter This is the topbottom material.

9. Select LARGE_FMT.

NOTE The card previewer of the components allows you to change between the
MAT and the large material format MATER.

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10. Click return twice to access the main menu.

NOTE The created component topbottom now is empty. We will now move the
elements of the component tmp into the component topbottom.

To reorganize the elements:

1. Select the organize panel on any main menu page.

2. Click the switch and select elems from the pop-up menu.

3. Click elems and select by comps from the extended entity selection menu.

4. Select tmp.

5. Click select.

6. Click destination = and select topbottom.

7. Click move.

All elements of the component tmp are moved to the component topbottom. Note that the
color of the elements has changed from orange to green.

8. Click return.

To delete the component tmp:

1. Select the delete panel on the Tool page.

2. Click the switch and select comps from the extended entity selection menu.

3. Click comps and select tmp.

4. Click return.

5. Click delete.

The component tmp is now deleted.

6. Click return to access the main menu.

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Define HyperMesh Groups: Sliding Interface for
PAM-CRASH
This tutorial describes how to define a self contacting sliding interface (type 26). A second interface
is defined only for tutorial purposes.

The procedure below explains how to define a type 26 self contacting sliding interface.

To define the group:

1. Select the interfaces panel on the BCs page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click name = and enter self_impact.

4. Click type = and select SLINT26 from the pop-up menu.

Note that the card image is updated simultaneously.

NOTE It is possible to define various types of sliding interfaces. All of them, except
the SLIN42, are written as a SLINT / card. The SLINT42 type is written as
the PAM 98 SLINT2/ card.

5. Click interface color and select Color 6.

6. Click create/edit.

7. Below SLFACM, enter the value 1.0.

8. Select Comment.

9. Below Comment, enter This is the selfimpact interface.

10. Click return.

To add the slave components:

1. Select the add subpanel.

2. Click name = twice and select self_impact.

3. Click the switch below slave: and select comps from the pop-up menu.

4. Click comps twice and select side and topbottom.

5. Click return.

6. Click update.

If update is not clicked, no changes to the previous definition are made. No changes are made
to the graphics window, because the master and slave component list is not displayed.

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NOTE If you edit this interface with the card previewer, the master and slave set and
component definition are not shown; however, they are still defined in the
add subpanel.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

The procedure below explains how to define a type 34 master slave (element - node) contact.

To define the group:

1. Select the interfaces panel on the BCs page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click name = and enter masterslave.

4. Click type = and select SLINT34 from the pop-up menu.

Note that the card image is updated simultaneously.

5. Click interface color and select Color 13.

6. Click create/edit.

7. Below SLFACM , enter the value 1.0.

8. Click return.

To add the master elements and slave nodes:

1. Select the add subpanel.

NOTE The add subpanel now appears with different options. The template specifies
what group type is available with the different interfaces, such as SLINT26 or
with SLINT34. Possibilities are: (1) master and slave elements, (2) master
elements and slave nodes, (3) slave elements, and (4) slave nodes.

2. Click the switch below master: and select entity from the pop-up menu.

3. Click the switch below slave: and select entity from the pop-up menu.

4. After master:, click elems to highlight the box with the blue input cursor.

5. Select two elements on the model.

6. Click the upper right add.

7. After slave:, click nodes to highlight the box with the blue input cursor.

8. Select two nodes on the model.

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9. Click the lower right add.

10. Click return to access the main menu.

You should now see the master elements (elements with x) and the slave nodes (S) displayed
on the model.

Define a Rigid Wall for PAM-CRASH


This tutorial explains how to define a type 4 infinite rigid wall with a base node at -1.00, 0.0, 0.00116.

To create a base node for the rigid wall:

1. Select the create nodes panel on the Geom page.

2. Select the type in subpanel.

3. After X =, enter the value –1.0.

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4. After Y =, enter the value 0.0.

5. After Z =, enter the value 0.00116.

6. Click create node.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

To create and define the rigid wall card:

1. Select the rigid walls panel on the BCs page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click name = and enter rwall1.

4. Click type = and select RIGWA from the pop-up menu.

NOTE You can switch between the PAM 97 RIGWA and the PAM 98 RWALL card
by choosing different types: RIGWA or RWALL.

5. Click rgdwall color and select Color 12.

6. Click size = and enter the value 100.

This specifies the display size of the rigid wall.

7. Click create.

To define rigid wall geometry:

1. Select the geom subpanel.

2. Click name = twice and select rwall1.

3. Click the switch after shape = and select plane from the pop-up menu.

4. Click the toggle after shape = and select infinite.

5. Click the switch below normal vector: and select x-axis from the pop-up menu.

6. Click base node to highlight the box with the blue input cursor.

7. Select the created node in the graphics area.

You may need to click f on the permanent menu to see the node.

8. Click update.

The rigid wall is now shown in the graphics area.

To add slave nodes for the rigid wall:

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1. Select the add subpanel.

2. Click the switch below slaves: and choose nodes from the pop-up menu.

3. Click nodes twice and select by id from the extended entity selection menu.

4. Enter the value 1-21.

Note that 21 nodes at the interface of the rail and the rigid wall are highlighted. Also note that
one of the nodes was not selected.

5. Click the node that was not highlighted.

or

Enter the value 1012 in the by id field.

6. Click add.

The selected nodes are now set as slaves.

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To add motion to the rigid wall:

1. Select the motion subpanel.

2. Click the switch below name = and select components from the pop-up menu.

3. Click x comp = and enter the value 1.0.

4. Click the switch below type of motion: and select velocity from the pop-up menu.

5. Click update.

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To define attributes in the card previewer:

1. Select the card panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click the switch and select groups from the extended entity selection menu.

3. Click groups and select rwall1.

4. Click return.

5. Click edit.

6. Click the switch below Friction Coefficient and select no sliding from the pop-up menu.

7. Click the switch below Rigid Wall Descriptor – Plane Type and select Type 4 from the pop-up
menu.

NOTE The card previewer of the rigid wall changed according to the definitions
made. Now it is possible to define the mass and the initial velocity for moving
rigid wall with finite mass.

8. Below Mass, enter the value 1.

9. Below Vinit, enter the value 2000.0.

10. Click return twice to access the main menu.

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Creating Boundary Conditions for PAM-CRASH
This tutorial explains how to create model boundary conditions.

To create a load collector:

1. Select the collectors panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type: and select loadcols from the pop-up menu.

4. Click name = and enter bounc.

5. Click the switch below creation method: and select card image from the pop-up menu.

The card image field should be blank.

6. Click color and select Color 15 from the pop-up menu.

7. Click create.

The header bar now displays bounc as the current loadcol.

8. Click return to access the main menu.

To specify the load type:

1. Select the load types panel from the BCs page.

2. Click constraint = and choose BOUNC from the pop-up menu.

All constraints that are now created will be displacement boundary conditions.

3. Click return to access the main menu.

To create constraints on nodes:

1. Select the display panel on the permanent menu

2. Click the upper right switch and select groups from the pop-up menu.

3. Click none.

The display of groups is now off.

4. Click return to access the main menu.

5. Select the constraints panel from the BCs page.

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6. Select the create subpanel.

7. Click nodes and select by id from the pop-up menu.

8. Enter the value 990-1011.

9. Click size = and enter the value 10.

10. Click create.

The constraints are now added to the nodes.

11. Click return to access the main menu.

Create Time Histories for PAM-CRASH


For PAM-CRASH, time histories may be defined for nodes, elements, and local coordinate systems.
For this exercise, you will only create time histories for some nodes and elements. The operation is
the same for any type of time history that is created.

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To create a node time history card:

1. Select the display panel on the permanent menu

2. Click the upper right switch and select loadcols from the pop-up menu.

3. Click none.

The display of loads is now off.

4. Click return.

5. Select the output block panel from the BCs page.

6. Click name = and enter node_thp.

7. Click the switch and select nodes from the pop-up menu.

8. Use the mouse to select a few nodes in the graphics area.

9. Click create.

The time history for nodes is now created.

To create an element time history card:

1. Click name = and enter elem_thp.

2. Click the switch and select elems from the pop-up menu.

3. Use the mouse to select a few elements in the graphics area.

4. Click create.

To review time histories entities:

1. Click review.

2. Select elem_thp.

The entities associated with this time history are highlighted.

3. Click return to access the main menu.

To view the time history card image:

1. Select the card panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click the switch and select outputblocks from the pop-up menu.

3. Click outputblocks.

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4. Select elem_thp.

5. Click return.

6. Click edit.

The time history card is displayed as it will look in the output.

7. Click return twice to access the main menu.

Create a Function
This section describes how to generate curves, which corresponds to the function cards FUNCT and
LOCUR in PAM-CRASH. This curve should serve as a function for a logical sensor switching on and
off. At time=0, the sensor is on, at time=0.01 the sensor is switched off.

To create a curve:

1. Select the xy plots panel from the Post page.

2. Click plots.

3. Click plot = and enter sensor.

4. Click create plot.

5. Click return.

6. Click edit curves.

7. Select the create subpanel.

8. Click plot = and select sensor.

9. Select math.

10. After x =, enter {0, 0.01, 0.1}.

11. After y =, enter {1, 0, 0}.

12. Click create.

13. Click return.

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14. Click exit to access the main menu.

Create a Sensor Card


Sensors are implemented as properties in HyperMesh. In this example we refer to the curve defined
in the preceding Help topic.

To define a PAM-CRASH sensor:

1. Select the collectors panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type: and select props from the pop-up menu.

4. Click name = and enter sensor.

5. Click the switch below creation method: and select card image from the pop-up menu.

6. Click card image = and select SENSOR from the pop-up menu.

7. Click create/edit.

8. Below ISENS, enter 1.

NOTE The sensor ids cannot be automatically handled by HyperMesh itself. Type in
the ids as integer labels and refer to them from other entities with this integer.
These values are not updated automatically by renumbering entities.

9. Select COMMENT.

10. Below Comment, enter This is a logical function sensor.

11. Click the switch below Sensor type and select logical function switch from the pop-up menu.

12. Click LCS twice and select curve1.

13. Click return twice to access the main menu.

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Exporting a PAM-CRASH Data Deck from
HyperMesh
This tutorial explains how to generate a PAM-CRASH input deck from HyperMesh.

To export a PAM-CRASH file:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the export subpanel.

The template = field must show the pamcrash/general file.

3. Click filename = and enter rail.pc.

rail.pc is the PAM-CRASH file you will create.

4. Click write.

HM writes the deck. A message in the header bar will indicate when the process is completed.

5. Click return to access the main menu.

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RADIOSS Interface - HM -1130-L
This tutorial introduces the use of the RADIOSS 3.1 template when creating models for crash
analyses.

Since each procedure builds on the preceding section, you should start with
the first exercise and continue doing the exercises in the following order:

• Creating and Defining Components, Materials and Properties

• Creating and Defining Interface Elements for RADIOSS

• Create and Define a Rigid Wall Entity

• Creating Boundary Conditions for RADIOSS

• Creating Time Histories for RADIOSS

• Creating and Editing Control Cards for RADIOSS

• Exporting a RADIOSS Data Deck from HM

All files referenced in the HyperMesh tutorials are located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under /tutorials/hm/.

If you do not know the location of the HyperWorks installation directory, contact your systems
administrator.

Creating and Defining Components, Materials, and


Properties
When starting a new model, typically you need to organize a model by components, material, and
property data. This tutorial demonstrates how to organize a model by defining RADIOSS material
and property cards and also shows how those can be associated with components.

A prepared model with elements and nodes is included in the /tutorials/hm/ directory. The file
name of the example is rail_crash.hm. This is the basic example on which the tutorial is based.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the rail_crash.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
rail_crash.hm file.

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5. Click retrieve.

6. Click return to access the main menu.

rail_crash.hm.

To load the RADIOSS template:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click template file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

3. Select the radioss31.fix template, located in the HyperMesh installation directory under
/radioss/radioss31.fix/.

HyperMesh returns to the global panel. Note that template file = now displays the location of
the radioss31.fix template.

4. Click return to access the main menu.

To define material data:

1. Select the collectors panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the card image subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type: and select mats from the pop-up menu.

4. Click name = twice and select steel.

5. Click card image = and select MLAW2 from the pop-up menu.

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This is the RADIOSS material.

6. Click load/edit.

7. Below Title, enter steel.

8. Below RHO_1, enter the value 7.8e-06.

This is the density.

9. Below E, enter the value 2e5.

This is the Young’s modulus.

10. Below nu, enter the value .3.

This is the Poissons’ ratio.

The material properties are now edited.

11. Click return to access the collectors panel.

The material data is now defined.

Material card – RADIOSS MLAW2.

To create and define property data:

1. Select the create subpanel.

2. Click the switch after collector type: and select props from the pop-up menu.

3. Click name = and enter rail_prop.

4. Click the switch below creation method: and select card image from the pop-up menu.

5. Click card image = and select SectSHEL from the pop-up menu.

The RADIOSS property is now selected.

NOTE It is not necessary to specify material in this panel when using the RADIOSS
template.

6. Click create/edit.

7. Below Title, enter rail property.

8. Below Thick, enter the value 1.0.

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The property data is now defined.

9. Click return to access the collectors panel.

Property card – RADIOSS SectSHEL.

To define components:

1. Select the card image subpanel.

2. Click the switch after collector type: and select comps from the pop-up menu.

3. Click name = twice and select rail.

4. Click card image = and select Part from the pop-up menu.

5. Click load/edit.

NOTE Although not a RADIOSS card, this allows you to control which property is
associated with a component. RADIOSS does not have a component concept
such as HyperMesh, so this “card” was created to bridge the gap. This card will
not be output, but element data associated with this component will reflect the
MATNUM (material ID) and IPID (property ID) shown here.

6. Click IPID twice and select rail_prop.

This selects the property that was created and defined earlier.

7. Click return twice to access the main menu.

The component data is now defined.

Component card for RADIOSS.

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Creating and Defining Interface Elements for
RADIOSS
This tutorial shows how to create interface elements that define the RADIOSS interface cards.
Interface elements are for defining where contact or possible contact can occur on a model.

To create and define interface entities:

1. Select the interfaces panel on the BC’s page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click name = and enter int1.

This is a name for the interface.

4. Click type = and select ELEMtoELEM from the pop-up menu.

5. Click interface color and select Color 9 from the pop-up menu.

6. Click create/edit.

7. Click the box below Itype and select 7 from the pop-up menu.

This defines RADIOSS interface type 7. You may also enter in other values pertaining to this
interface, but this example uses the default values.

NOTE HyperMesh currently only allows surface input types 1 or 5 for RADIOSS.

Interface card – RADIOSS ELEMtoELEM.

8. Click return to access the interfaces panel.

We will now add master elements to the model.

9. Select the add subpanel.

10. Click name = twice and select int1.

11. Click the switch below master and select entity from the pop-up menu.

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NOTE For the RADIOSS template, only entity, sets, or all are valid for element
definitions.

12. Click the upper elems box and select all from the extended entity selection menu.

You can also select elements individually or with any other option on the extended entity
selection menu.

13. Click the upper right add.

Master interface elements are created on each structure element.

We will now add slave elements to the model.

14. Click the switch below slave and select entity from the pop-up menu.

15. Click the lower elems box twice and select all from the extended entity selection menu.

16. Click the lower right add.

Slave interface elements are created on each structure element.

NOTE Slave and master elements are added to all structure elements in order to define
the model for self contact.

17. Click return to access the main menu.

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Slave and master interface elements.

Create and Define a Rigid Wall Entity


This tutorial demonstrates how to create and define a rigid wall entity for RADIOSS.

To create and define a rigid wall:

1. Select the rigid walls panel on the BC’s page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

We will now create and define the rigid wall card.

3. Click name = and enter rwall1.

4. Click type = and select RigidWall from the pop-up menu.

5. Click rgdwall color and select Color 13 from the pop-up menu.

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6. Click size = and enter the value 100.

This controls the size of the displayed rigid wall on the screen when it is created.

7. Click create.

The rigid wall group is now created.

We will now define the rigid wall geometry.

8. Select the geom subpanel.

9. Ensure that rwall1 is displayed after name =.

10. Click the upper right switch and select plane from the pop-up menu.

11. Click the toggle and select infinite.

12. Click the switch below normal vector: and select x-axis from the pop-up menu.

13. Press F8 on the keyboard to select the create nodes panel.

14. Create a node at (900,0,0).

15. Click return to access the rigid walls panel.

16. Click base node to highlight the box with the blue input cursor.

17. Select the created node in the graphics area.

You may need to click f on the permanent menu to see the node.

18. Click update.

The rigid wall geometry is now created.

We will now add slave nodes for the rigid wall.

19. Select the add subpanel.

20. Click the switch below slaves and select nodes from the pop-up menu.

NOTE Only nodes, sets, or all are supported for the RADIOSS template.

21. Click the yellow nodes box twice and select all from the extended entity selection menu.

22. Click add.

We will now edit the RADIOSS rigid wall card.

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Rigid wall.

23. Select the card subpanel.

24. Ensure rwall1 is displayed after name =.

25. Ensure that RigidWall is displayed after card image =.

26. Click edit.

27. Below Xm, enter the value 900.

28. Below Ym, enter the value 0.0.

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29. Below Zm, enter the value 0.0.

These are the coordinates of the base point that was used to create the rigid wall.

30. Below Xm1, enter the value 901.

31. Below Ym1, enter the value 0.0.

32. Below Zm1, enter the value 0.0.

The above values are the direction of the normal.

33. Click return twice to access the main menu.

RADIOSS rigid wall card.

Creating Boundary Conditions for RADIOSS


This tutorial shows how to create boundary conditions on the model.

To create a load collector:

1. Select the collectors panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the create subpanel.

3. Click the switch after collector type: and select loadcols from the pop-up menu.

4. Click name = and enter load1.

5. Click color and select Color5 from the pop-up menu.

6. Click create.

NOTE There are no card images associated with loadcols for the RADIOSS template.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

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To specify the load type:

1. Select the load types panel on the BC’s page.

2. Click velocity = and select PrcrcbVel from the pop-up menu.

All velocities now created are initial velocities.

Load types panel.

NOTE PrcrcbVel is prescribed velocity.

3. Click return to access the main menu.

To create velocities on nodes:

1. Select the display panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click the upper right switch and select groups from the pop-up menu.

3. Click none.

The display of groups is now turned off.

4. Click return to access the main menu.

5. Select the velocities panel on the BC’s page.

6. Select the create subpanel.

7. Click view on the permanent menu and select left.

The left side of the model is displayed.

8. Click nodes and select by window from the extended entity selection menu.

9. Use the mouse to draw a window around the nodes on the far left end of the rail.

10. Click select entities.

11. Click magnitude = and enter the value 1000.

12. Click the lower left switch and select x-axis from the pop-up menu.

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13. Click create.

The velocity is now added to all nodes.

14. Click return to access the main menu.

Velocities on end of rail.

Create Time Histories for RADIOSS


For RADIOSS, time histories for nodes, elements, skew frames, interfaces, and materials are
supported. For this tutorial, you will only create time histories for some nodes and elements.
Operation is the same for any type of time history that is created.

To create a node time history card:

1. Select the display panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click the upper right switch and select loadcols from the pop-up menu.

3. Click none.

The display of loads is now off.

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4. Click return to access the main menu.

5. Select the output block panel on the BC’s page.

6. Click name = and enter nodeth.

7. Use the mouse to select a few nodes in the graphics area.

8. Click create.

The time history for nodes is now created.

To create an element time history card:

1. Click name = and enter elemth.

2. Click the switch and select elems from the pop-up menu.

3. Use the mouse to select a few elements in the graphics area.

4. Click create.

To review time histories entities:

1. Click review.

2. Select elemth.

The entities associated with this time history are now highlighted.

3. Click return to access the main menu.

To view a time history card image:

1. Select the card panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click the switch and select outputblocks from the pop-up menu.

3. Click outputblocks.

4. Select elemth.

5. Click select.

6. Click edit.

The time history card is now displayed as it will look in the output.

7. Click return twice to access the main menu.

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RADIOSS element time history card.

Creating and Editing Control Cards for RADIOSS


For RADIOSS, some control cards are generated automatically, such as CARD 2.7 – NUMBER OF
ELEMENTS, so it may not be necessary for you to view every control card. This tutorial only shows a
couple of control cards in order to describe the procedure.

To view and edit a control card:

1. Select the cntl cards panel on the BC’s page.

RADIOSS control cards.

2. Click HeaderCard.

3. Below RUNAME, enter a name for the file.

4. Click return.

Repeat this procedure for any other cards you wish to update.

RADIOSS header card.

To reset a control card:

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1. Click delete.

2. Select the control card you want to reset.

The card changes colors from green to grey.

To suppress control card data from being written:

1. Click disable.

2. Select the control card you wish to suppress.

The color changes from green to red.

To reactivate the control card:

1. Click enable.

2. Select the card you want to restore.

The color changes from red back to green.

To define a control card in order to export a RADIOSS file:

1. Click TimeHistory_1.

2. Click return twice to access the main menu.

Exporting a RADIOSS Data Deck from HyperMesh


This tutorial explains how to generate a RADIOSS input deck from HyperMesh.

To export a RADIOSS file:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the export subpanel.

3. Ensure that template = shows radioss31.fix.

4. Click filename = and enter the name of the RADIOSS file you want to create.

5. Click write.

HyperMesh writes the deck, and displays a message when it is complete.

6. Click return to access the main menu.

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File export.

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Fatigue Panel - HM-1140
This tutorial demonstrates how to write an input file for a given fatigue solver using the options
available on the fatigue panel.

The following exercise is included:

• Using the fatigue panel to export data and write an nSOFT input deck

Using the Fatigue Panel to Export Data and Write an


nSOFT Input Deck
In this tutorial, retrieve the file keyhole.hm. This file contains a finite element (FE) model -for
which an analysis has already been conducted- to obtain the stress/strain information for durability
loads of interest.

To retrieve the file for this tutorial:

1. Select the files panel on any main menu page.

2. Select the hm file subpanel.

3. Click file = twice.

HyperMesh displays a list of the files and subdirectories in the current directory. Directory
names are followed by a slash.

4. Select the keyhole.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

5. HyperMesh returns to the files panel. Note that file = now displays the location of the
keyhole.hm file.

6. Click retrieve.

7. Click return to access the main menu.

To load the results file:

1. Select the global panel on the permanent menu.

2. Click results file = twice.

3. Select the keyhole.res file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory under
/tutorials/hm/.

4. Click return.

To export data and write a fatigue solver input deck:

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1. Select the fatigue panel on the Post page.

2. Click the upper left toggle and select linear statics.

Results contained in keyhole.res were obtained from linear statics analysis.

NOTE Select the transient dynamic option if a dynamic finite element analysis was
used to obtain the stress/strain results for the model.

3. Click the lower left toggle and select ascii.

NOTE Select the binary option if the fatigue solver allows a binary input file.

For more information on fatigue solvers and acceptable input file formats,
please see the fatigue panel in the Panels On-line Help.

4. Click output file = and enter a name for the output file.

This file becomes the input file for the fatigue solver.

5. Click data group = and select any of the data groups that you want to write to the output file.

The data groups are organized based on whether nodal or elemental results are available in the
results file.

NOTE For more information on how HyperMesh organizes the analysis results
available in the results file, please see the fatigue panel in the Panels On-line
Help.

6. Click the switch under select simulation: and select all.

This specifies the data in the results file that is written to the output file. In this case, selecting
all writes the stress/strain data for the selected nodes or elements for all loadcases represented
in keyhole.res.

NOTE For a linear static analysis, you can write out stress/strain information from one
or all of the simulations.

For a transient dynamic analysis, you can write out stress/strain information
for one or all of the time steps, or you can choose a range from the starting time
step to the ending time step.

For more information, see the fatigue panel in the Panels On-line Help.

The next step is to select the entities for which the finite element analysis results file is written.

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NOTE The type of entity you select is based upon the data group you selected. Select
nodes if the data group you selected refers to nodal results. Similarly, select
elements if the data group you selected refers to elemental results. If the data
group results and the entity type are not the same, HyperMesh displays an error
message, “Results file doesn’t contain nodal values”.

7. Click the entity input collector switch and select elems.

8. Click elems and select by window from the extended entity selection menu.

9. Draw the window as shown in the figure below.

10. Click interior.

11. Click select entities.

12. Click write.

An ascii file is written to your directory.

You can read this file into the appropriate fatigue solver to complete the fatigue analysis.

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