Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 50

ISSN : 0975-4717

NECST
Journal of Teacher Training
A Peer Reviewed Journal (Bi-annual) Vol. 2 No. 1, 15th November, 2010

Published by
Mr. Rajeev Malik on behalf of New Era College of Science & Technology
at 333, Pandav Nagar Ghaziabad, U. P. (India)
Editor: Mr. Sanjay Kumar
Printed at New Era College of Science & Technology
Subrang Advertising Pvt. Ltd., Ghaziabad
Ghaziabad (India)
Published by
Mr. Rajeev Malik on behalf of New Era College of Science & Technology
at 333, Pandav Nagar Ghaziabad, U. P. (India)
Editor: Mr. Sanjay Kumar
Printed at
Subrang Advertising Pvt. Ltd., Ghaziabad
NECST- Journal of Teacher Training
(A Peer Reviewed Journal)
Bi- Annual ISSN : 0975-4717
th
Vol. 2 No. 1 — 15 November 2010

Patron Contents
Shri Rajeev Malik
Secretary NECST Knowledge Management Teacher Education ........................... 1
Dr. D. P. Asija
Editor Well-being and Emotional of ................................................ 7
Sanjay Kumar High Intelligence School Teachers
Co- ordinator, NECST Meena Devi and Manju Lohumi

Co- Editors (English) Communication Skills : Imperative For A Teacher ................ 12


Preeti Chitkara
Ms. Sangeeta Malik
Ict In Classrooms : Let’s Remove The Barriers ....................... 16
Co-Editors (Hindi) Dr. Manoj Kumar Saxena and Suresh Aggarwal
Dr. M. Dixit
Mrs. Manisha Singh A Comparative Study of Job Satisfaction in .............................. 21
Relation to Teacher Effectiveness of Government
and Private School Teachers at Secondary Level
Priya Sharma and Neeraj Tyagi
Contact & Head office
Strengthening Student Support Services in ODL : ................ 25
New Era College of Role Of Information And Communication
Science & Technology Technology
333, Pandav Nagar, Y.k. Sharma
Near Shastri Nagar Flyover,
Ghaziabad - 201002 (INDIA) A Study of Sociometric Status in Relation to
Phone: 0120-3293860 Personality Traits of Secondary School Students ................... 35

Published by Shri Rajeev Malik, Secretary, New Era College of Science & Technology, Ghaziabad-201002 (INDIA)
Printed at Subrang Advertising Pvt. Ltd., Ghaziabad-201002 , (INDIA)
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training
Editorial Review Board

Dr. R. P. Kathuria NECST - Journal of Teacher training is


Former Professor, a publication of New Era College of
NCERT, New Delhi Science & Technology which was
established in 2003 under Malik
Dr. J. S. Grewal Education Society, Ghaziabad.
Former Professor,
RIE -NCERT, Bhopal The purpose of this journal is to
develop innovations and research work
Dr. Harikesh Singh in the field of teacher education. The
Professor In Education Journal will continue to focus on the
NUEPA, New Delhi core mission of teacher education and
serve as a forum for the systematic
Dr. Romesh Verma examination of a wide range of voices,
Professor In Education perspectives, and approaches to the
University Of Jammu field. This Journal is designed to reflect
balanced representation of authors
Dr. Aditi Ghose from all the four regions (East, West,
Professor In Education, North, and South) of the country.
University Of Calcutta The opinions/views expressed in this
journal are of the authors and not of
Dr. Sheela Taowari the editor or publisher. The authors are
Principal In Education fully responsible for their contribution.
SSCOE, Maharastra All disputes are subject to the
jurisdiction of Ghaziabad court only.
Shri G. K. Thakur
Principal In Education
MIMT, Greater Noida
Requests for subscription should be
Dr. A. Basappa Addressed to :
Principal of MMNFG college New Era College of Science &
Chitra durga, Karnatka Technology 333, Pandav Nagar,
Near Shastri Nagar Flyover,
Dr. Manoj Saxena Ghaziabad, 201002 India
Reader In Education Ph : 0120-3293860,
MM University, Harayana +919212168175

Copyright New Era College of Science &Technology, Ghaziabad. Any part of the journal
©
may not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher/Editor.
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
TEACHER EDUCATION
Dr. D. P. Asija*
Director – Principal

Introduction
Today knowledge drives the economy. Knowledge economy and Knowledge Management have
been recognized as important fields of intellectual pursuit. Knowledge economy and development
of a country are intimately related. Throughout the world, there is a drastic change in attitude of
both the academicians and the business community. Demand of competitive world has forced the
educational institutions and commercial organizations to strive for the professionally managed end-
result. In all the sectors of human activity, there is need of professionals like engineers, doctors,
teachers, teacher educators, lawyers, managers, administrators and many more. Further these
professionals are required to be well equipped and conversant with the professional knowledge and
skills in their respective area of concern if they are to excel.
In this context, the Indian Govt. has now established National Knowledge Commission, the purpose
of which is to build excellence in the educational system to meet the challenges of 21th century and
increase Indian competitive advantage in the field of knowledge (Thakora, 2005).

Concepts Related to Knowledge Management

Wisdom

Knowledge
Information
Data

Fig. - 1 : Processing of information at various levels

* M. M. College of Education, (Accredited by NAAC with ‘A’ Grade)


M. M. University Campus, Mullana – Ambala (Haryana) dpasija@gmail.com
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

Before discussing the concept of Knowledge Management (KM) let us make a brief analysis of
relational concepts:
(i) Data: Data can be described as a set of facts, concepts or statistics that can be analyzed to produce
information.
(ii) Information: Information is that which has been organized within a context and translated into
a form that has structure and definite meaning.
(iii) Knowledge: Applied information (for taking accurate decisions) or information with judgement
is called knowledge. It is more richer and meaningful than information.
Knowledge includes familiarity; best practices, policies, awareness and understanding gained
through experiences or study and results from making comparisons, identifying consequences
and making connections.
(iv) Wisdom: Creation, accumulation, subsequent management and use of such enhanced knowledge
lead to wisdom

Types of Knowledge
Knowledge has two basic definitions of interest. The first pertains to a body of information consisting
of facts, opinions, ideas, theories, principles and models.
Knowledge also refers to a person’s state of being in tune with some body of information. These
states include ignorance, awareness, familiarity, understanding, facility and so on.
Knowledge is of two types:
(a) Explicit Knowledge
It refers to formal knowledge, which can be articulated in language and transmitted among
individuals.
(b) Tacit Knowledge
It refers to informal knowledge. It is rooted in personal knowledge, experience, beliefs,
perspectives and values.
Knowledge is present in our ideas, judgement, talents, root causes, relationships, perspectives and
concepts. It is stored in individual’s brain or encoded in organizational processes, documents, products,
services, and facilities.

Knowledge Management (KM)


Knowledge management (KM) as the word implies, is the ability to manage ‘Knowledge ’. It is the
process of identification and leverage of organizational knowledge assets to deliver business,
advantage to the organization and its customer.
Knowledge management (KM) is a process that helps organization or education institutions identify,
select, organize, disseminate and transfer important information and expertise that are part of
organizational memory that typically resides within the organization in an instructed manner. This
enables effective problem solving, dynamic learning, strategic planning and decision-making (Turban
and Aronson, 2002).
It is the people who manage knowledge and not the processes or technologies. KM brings together
the three core organizational resources, people resources and technologies to enable the organization
to use and share information more effectively (Pertrides and Nodine, 2003) It is made explicit in the
Fig.2.

2
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

People

Processes Technology

Fig - 2 : The Key Realms of Knowledge Management

Recent Trends in Knowledge Management


Knowledge management focuses on maximizing performance by making the most of the synergy
between people, processes and technology. Several trends will shape the field of knowledge
management in the not-too distant future:
1. Increasing use of tacit knowledge (rather than explicit knowledge)
2. Increasing use of knowledge management to enhance innovation
3. Emerging technology solutions
4. The convergence of knowledge management with e-business
5. The movement from limited knowledge management projects to more enterprise wide projects

Challenges for implementing Knowledge Management


Identifying the problems in implementing Knowledge Management systems is an important issue.
When a problem is understood, organizations may be able to implement strategies. So the various
challenges are:
 Lack of KM tools and techniques -During the past years very less number of training and
development programs have been developed to equip teacher and researcher with KM tools
and techniques and technology based learning.
 Lack of awareness and understanding in higher education system shortens the scope of
Knowledge Management application.
 Face-to-face interaction - Human being as social element interacts with others, puts trust and
confidence based on the mutual interaction and relationship. The relationships are established
during social interaction and face to face interaction which are duly lacking in KM especially
when the geographical distance is large.
 Space and time constraints - Geographical space remains the major constraints for applying KM
in the regular process.
 Language and cultural barriers - Effective communication can only take place when the language
barriers can be solved. Language can cause possible communication problems in online
communities where people come from countries that use different languages especially during
the sharing and transfer of information from far distant places.

3
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

Objectives of KM:
With reference to the development of KM system in an educational institution, Davenport etal (1998),
as cited in Jennifer Rowby (2000), identified four broad objectives which match the institutional
objectives as under:
• To create knowledge repositories (stores of knowledge)
• To improve knowledge access (available)
• To enhance the knowledge environment (knowledge climate)
• To manage knowledge as an asset (resource)

Benefits from KM

Continuous
improvement Global
of Service sharing and
delivery teamwork

Capture of
Managing knowledge as
Intellectual assets of the
Assets company
The relearning
of ongoing
service skills
and
competencies

Fig - 3 : Shows the benefits that can be derived from KM.

1. Managing Intellectual Assets


2. Continuous improvement of Service delivery
3. Global sharing and teamwork
4. Capture of knowledge as assets of the company
5. The relearning of ongoing service skills and competencies

Application of KM in Higher Education


1. KM in teaching and research
o Enhancement of curriculum
o Effective use of technological aids for effective course delivery
o Effective training and development process
2. KM in Development process
o Enhance evaluation and administrative activities
o Develop teaching and learning process to achieve quality outcomes
o Foster innovation by sharing
o Improve faculty, student, alumni and staff affairs and services
o Advancement in technology

4
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

3. KM in strategic planning
o Enhance strategic decision making (resource allocation)
o Improve performance indicators by monitoring and assessment
o Improve service by reducing time
o Enhance students-faculty retention rates by recognizing the value of employees

Application of KM in Teacher Education


At present, teacher education programmes are under going a critical stage. The quality of teacher
education institutions is very much diluted. The products of such institutions is of inferior quality.
The application of KM in teacher education has great potential to raise its quality with regard to
processes and services like while adopting the following measures:
(i) Formation of Philosophy of the Institution: Philosophy of the institution should be translated
in terms of vision, mission and goals in actionable form.
(ii) Curricular Changes: The institution should periodically revise its curricular programmes. Need-
based inputs like behaviour modification techniques, learning styles, community related issues,
family education, personality-development, thinking styles & skills, practical work etc, should
be added to teacher education curriculum.
(iii) Modernizing Teaching Learning Process and Evaluation: Application of new modes of drawing
knowledge from various sources and utilizing the same in the classroom needs to be emphasized.
It makes teaching effective & enhances its efficiency. With this, new reforms in evaluation should
also be added.
(iv) Availability of Resources: Teacher education institutions should build their own resources in
terms of physical infrastructure, qualified faculty, well established library with automation
and internet facilities, method laboratories, workshop, subject associations, clubs and societies.
(v) Management System: At present, a variety of teacher education institutions are functioning in
the country. They are Govt., Aided, and Self-financing. Each category of institutions have their
own assets and limitations. There is a need to adopt the following processes of management.
• Planning (short and long term)
• Organizing
• Staffing
• Controlling
• Flow of information & coordination
• Utilization of men-faculty, non-teaching staff, students, parents & community: material,
time and money (fees, funds, donations and other assets)
• Coordination
• Recording and reporting of the knowledge (data and information)
(vi) Research, development & Extension: Teacher education institutions need to add research
component along with teaching. It should start with action research and gradually develop
into comprehensive quality researches (applied and basic) based on local area specific action
and fundamental researches, the institution should design new courses and develop reading
material for the teachers.
Extension programmes should be most suitable and relevant to the local community. It should
be a regular and continuous feature of the institution.

5
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

(vii) Student support and Progression: Teacher education institutions should provide a
comprehensive and effective support system to teacher trainees in terms of library, laboratories,
games and sports, extension lectures, learning situations and personality development
programmes, medical facility and identification of students’ achievements and recording their
professional development.
(viii) Healthy practices: Every teacher education institution by virtue of its philosophy, location,
manpower, resources and academic leadership, develops some tangible healthy practices, which
are great knowledge of such practices like holding morning assembly, specific value-based
practices-presentation of book reviews, personal resolutions written by teacher trainees,
participation in ‘Think Tank’ of the college and many other activities must be documented,
shared for further development in the subsequent years.
(ix) Academic Audit: Teacher education institution must evolve a practice to have its regular
academic (internal and external) audit through the students, staff and experts from out side.
This would help the institution to evaluate itself among other institutions in the area/state/
region/ the country.
(x) Development of Faculty: for faculty empowerment, colleges need to plan such a schedule so
that all members get a chance to participate in academic programmes elsewhere. Besides
additional incentives need to be provide to them. The developmental profile of each member
of faculty should be maintained. It would act as academic repository of the college.
While concluding, it can be said that knowledge is a great power in a developing economy. An
individual or a country while possesses rich knowledge and applies the same effectively in its
educational institutions and organizations is rich.
Application of KM system in teacher education has a great potential for upgrading its quality
and efficiency. Teacher education institutions should look beyond the criteria fixed by NCTE/
NAAC. They should evolve their own criteria/parameters in order to meet the challenges of
the 21th century and establish a benchmark in a global market.

References
Davenport, T.H. “Think Tank: The Virtual and the Physical”, C/O, November 15, 1995b
Jennifer Rowley, (2000). Is Higher Education ready for Knowledge Management, The International Journal
of Education Management 14/7, pp 325-333
Malhotra, Y. (1998). Deciphering the Knowledge Management Hype. Journal of Quality & Participation
21.4:58-60
Thakore, D. (2005). “Can Sam Pitroda Spark India’s overdue Knowledge Revolution?” Education World,
November 2005
Turban Efraim, Aronson Jay E, (2002), “Decision Support System and Intelligent System”, Pearson
Education Private Limited.
Sharma Pankaj (2004), “Knowledge Management” APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi
http://www.educause.edu/pub/pubs.html#books
http://www.tlainc.com/artic1234.htm

6
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

WELL-BEING AND EMOTIONAL OF


HIGH INTELLIGENCE SCHOOL TEACHERS
Meena Devi1 Manju Lohumi2

ABSTRACT
Traditionally, the teaching role has been one of nurturing and developing students’ potential.
However, teachers work today comprises a complex role of various factors that include teaching,
learning new information and skills keeping abreast of technological innovations and dealing
with students, parents and the community .These are demanding roles and there are growing
concerns about teacher well being and emotional intelligence. In particular teachers experiencing
increasing levels of attrition, stress and burnout. For teachers emotional labour involves showing
or exaggerating particular emotions when interact with students. This faking or suppressing,
of emotions can be a source of stress and lead to emotional exhaustion. This study investigated
the relationship between well being and emotional intelligence for a sample of married female
teacher in high school teachers in Punjab. The findings of this study hold implications for
better educators and the well being and emotional intelligence of teachers. effective reactions.

Introduction
Well-being requires harmony between mind and body. It implies a sense of balance and ease with
the pressures in a person’s life. There is no under-stimulation, and no excessive negative stress;
above all, there’s a sense of control over one’s destiny. Well-being is concern with how and why
people experience their lives in positive ways, including both cognitive judgment and affective
reactions. As such, it covers that have used such diverse as such, it covers that have used such diverse
terms as happiness, satisfaction, morale and positive affect. Crow & Crow (1951) is in the view that
physical well-being, adjustment to mental ability, emotional control, social adjustment and even sex
adjustment-all these characteristics should be included in well-being. Travis (1978) described wellness
as an attitude about one’s own process of self care, involving understanding of basic emotional and
physical needs and the kind of habits and life style necessary to meet those needs.
Longman’s Dictionary of Psychology and Psychiatry (Goldensen, 1984) stated “mental health is a
state of mind, characterized by emotional well-being, relative freedom from anxiety and disabling
symptoms and a capacity to establish constructive relationship and cope with.”
Numerous studies have identified emotional intelligence and teacher efficacy as critical behavioral
factors of teacher to be effective in school environment or classroom (Adeyemo, 2005). According to
Lazarus (1991). Understanding and being able to apply emotional intelligence, is essential to success
in teaching. Indeed in his opinion understanding and managing one’s own and other’s emotion is a
central part of all teachers’ work. An emotionally intelligent teacher learns and applies emotional
intelligence skills to improve: stress management, self –esteem and confidence; positive personal

1
Department of Applied Science, BMS College of IT & LS Muktsar-152026 (India)
2
Department of Education (ICDEOL), HP University, Summer Hill, Shimla-171 005 (India)

7
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

change, decision making, leadership, assertion, comfort, and commitment which would raise quality
of teacher and consequently quality of education.
The concept, “Emotional Intelligence”, refers to how intelligently we can control our emotions. It
refers to the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves
and for managing our emotions well. It is a new concept and at times more powerful than the older
one of IQ. Until 1980s there was no talk of Emotional Intelligence. In 1989, John Mayer and Peter
Salovey first coined the term ‘Emotional Intelligence’ to describe a person’s ability to understand his
own emotions, the emotions of others and act appropriately under the pull of these emotions.
Emotional Intelligence has its roots in the concept of ‘social intelligence’, first coined by E.L. Thorndike
in 1920. Psychologists have grouped other intelligences in three clusters. namely: abstract intelligence,
concrete intelligence and social intelligence. Thorndike (1920) defined social intelligence as “the
ability to understand and manage men and women, boys and girls to act wisely in human relations”
and in 1938 he included inter and intra personal intelligences in his theory of multiple intelligences.
“Emotional Intelligence is a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own
and others emotions to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one’s thinking
and actions” (Mayer and Salovey, 1993).

Purpose of the study


The purpose of the present study is to specify the well being level and emotional intelligence of
married female teachers. The study also compared the WB and EI of the sample in the light of
residence, age and educational level. The results of the research provided preliminary data with a
detailed understanding of current knowledge on teachers well being as well as emotional
understanding skills.

Objectives
1. To study the relationship of well being with emotional intelligence among high school married
female teachers of Punjab.
2. To study the well-being and emotional intelligence of the sample in the light of residence, age
and educational level.

Hypotheses
1 There exists positive correlation between well being and emotional intelligence.
2 There exists any significance difference between the means of well being score and emotional
intelligence with respect to residence, age and educational level.

Significance of the study


The study focused upon the teacher well being and emotional intelligence of high school married
female teachers. Studies have reported the emotional intelligence and well being of teachers and the
role they play in their teaching. Such research indicate that those teacher who fall under high
category of emotional intelligence emphasize the value of positive individual difference, promote
the learning of teamwork and problem solving skills and empower children to gain positive mutual
respects and engagement in classroom learning (C Kaufhold,Johna, 2005) In the same vein, it is
being said that higher sense of well being work are significantly related (Larsen,1990) especially
teachers who have been sense of self and healthy psychological. Well being are more willing to
attend work. The teacher with high emotional intelligence leads to greater feeling of emotional well
being. Therefore it is essential and have beneficial for planners and authourities to consider teacher’s

8
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

psychological variables such as well being and emotional intelligence in teacher training programme
to meet individual positive consequences on the basis of the researches.
Sample: The population of this study was all married female teachers from educational institution
simple random sampling was used to select 200 out of 500 teachers of selected schools.
Tools: Two instruments were used in this study: Well being Scale: this instrument by Singh and
Gupta (2001) was designed to measure well being of teachers. This tool includes 50 items .Emotional
Intelligence Scale: This instrument by Schutte, et, al. (1998) was designed to measure the emotional
intelligence of teachers. The 33 items are given in this test. There is no right or wrong answer to this
test and respondents answer on the basis of how they feel and not what they think.
Data Analysis The data were analyzed with two statistical tools, namely Pearson correlation and T
test. T test was used to find out the difference between Means scores of married female teachers on
well being and emotional intelligence scale
The results of data analysis indicating inter-correlation matrix of all dependent variables are shown
in table 1.
Table -1: Correlation between Variables
Variables WB EM
WB 0.230 ** 1
EM 1 0.230
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level.

As from table, it is clear that correlation value of WB and EI comes out to be 0.230 which is significant
at 0.01 level of significance. Hence there exists a significant relationship between WB and EI. The
study indicate that highly emotionally intelligent individual are likely to experience
Table 2 and 3 show a comparison between the Mean obtain on well being a comparison between the
Mean obtained on well being scale and emotional intelligence test with respect to residence, age and
educational level.
Table-2: A significant difference between the Mean of WB scores of the sub sample
No. Items Sub- item N Mean SD t-value Sig/0.05
1. Residence Urban 122 30.8 3.04 2.01*
Rural 78 23.8 2.05
2. Age Below30 46 42.4 7.28 3.58**
31-40 57 31.94 3.67
41-50 97 28.5 5.21
3. Educational
level G1* 33 39.5 6.42 3.01**
G2* 92 25.4 8.73
G3* 75 32.3 6.37
0.05-1.97 0.01-2.60

9
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

Table-3: A significance Difference between the Means of EI score of the sub sample.
No. Items Sub- item N Mean SD t-value Sig/0.05
1. Residence Urban 122 34.0 6.98 3.64**
Rural 78 21.94 9.25
2. Age Below30 46 24.9 9.25 4.75**
31-40 57 34.8 8.67
41-50 97 47.6 8.45
3. Educational
level G1* 33 38.5 9.79 2.92**
G2* 92 23.67 9.52
G3* 75 26.78 9.08
*B.Sc., B.A., DIPLOMA **B.Ed., B.Com. MASTER *** SSLC, PUC
0.05-9.97
0.01-2.60

Table -2 reveals that there is no significant difference between rural and urban teachers in their well
being level. It can also be seen that the Mean of WB is high for urban teachers when compared with
that of rural teachers. It also revealed that the t-values are significant at the 0.05 level in respect of
age and educational level.
From the table-3 it is clear that calculated value is greater than table value hence there exist significant
difference in the emotional intelligence of rural and urban .As from table it is clear that Mean of
Urban teachers is more than rural teachers. Hence urban teachers have better EI as compare to rural
teachers. In respect of age a significant difference is observed between the Mean of G1 (Below 30)
and G3 (41-50). According to some studies EQ could be developed and increased through learning
and experience in lifespan. Thus higher EQ is linked with higher age. It is also evident from Table-3
that the t-value is significant at the 0.05 level in respect of educational level.

Conclusion
For many years educators and researchers have debated over which variables influence quality of
school education. A growing body of evidence suggested that school can make difference in term of
quality and a substantial portion of that difference is attributable to teachers. It has been said that
teachers characteristics are related to and influence the, the way teachers practice their profession
(Anderson,2004). Well being and emotional intelligence of teachers are integral factors that increase
the quality of teaching. Teachers with high sense of well being and having high level of emotional
intelligence are active in their orientation to students, work and life. The indicators offered in this
research focusing on emotional intelligence well being and also obtained results, revealed that both
well being and emotional intelligence are a journey and process, not an arriaval state or and result.
Hence it is time to incorporate a set of programmes in teacher education for develops emotional
skills and knowledge of teaches and wellness of teachers.

10
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

References
[1] Anderson, Loren W, (2004). Increasing teacher effectiveness. UNESCO: International Institute for
Educational planning.
[2] Adeyemo, D. A,. Ogunyemi, Bola. (2005). Emotional intelligence and self efficacy as Predictors of
Occupational Stress among Academic Staff in Nigerian University
[3] Crow L.D. & Alice Crow. (1951). Mental Hygiene, (second edition). New York : Mc Graw- Hill
Book Company, inc.
[4] Goldenson , R.M. (1984). Longman Dictionary of Psychology and Psychiatry. New york: Long men
inc. p 451.
[5] Larson, R. (1978). “Thirty years of Research on the subjective well being of older Americans” Journal of
Gerontology, 33, 259-264.
[6] Lazarus, R.S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York : oxford University Press.
[6] Mayer, J. D. and Salovey, P. (1990). “Emotional Intelligence”. Imagination, Cognition and personality,
9, 185-211.
[7] Salovey, P. and Mayer, J.D. (1993). The Intelligence of emotional intelligence. 17. 433-442.
[8] Travis, J.W. (1978). Wellness education and holistic health – How they are related. Journal of Holistic
health, 3, p. 129-132. As cited by M.M. Omizo, S.A. Omizo & M.J.D. Andrea. Journal of Counselling
And Development, 71(2), p. 194-198.
[9] Thorndike, E.L. (1920). Intelligence and its uses. Harper’s Magazine, 140, 227-235.
[10] Kaufhold, Jhon A. (2005). Analysis of the Emotional intelligence Skills and Potential problem Areas of
Elementary Educators.
[10] Adeyemo, D. A,. Ogunyemi, Bola. (2005). Emotional intelligence and self efficacy as Predictors of
Occupational Stress among Academic Staff in Nigerian University.

11
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

COMMUNICATION SKILLS :
IMPERATIVE FOR A TEACHER
Preeti Chitkara

ABSTRACT
In the words of Norbern Wiener
“Communication is the cement that makes an organization.”
In today’s cut throat competitive age, it is extremely important for every professional to invest
ample amount of energy to enhance his/her skills from time to time so as to ensure a competitive
edge over their peers. Some of the skills, which need to be groomed on a regular basis are work
ethics, a positive attitude, critical thinking, problem solving and most importantly the
communication skills. So the skill-sets that are imperative for a working professional especially
a teacher include a perfect mix of the subject know how as well as soft skills like effective
communication. The importance of communication skills is even being recognized by the various
organization for their place in globalization. With this the learning of language and acquisition
of communication skills have gained prominence. Why these communication skills are necessary
for a teacher and how they can be honed has been highlighted in this article.

Communication: Meaning and Significance


Communication in the common parlance, strictly stand for a process in which human beings share
their views, ideas, opinions, informations or an attitude in common. The skill involves the sender &
the receiver. In it the message is sent in a certain medium in an encoded language. The receiver
decodes and sends back the feed back. Two important factors as common frame of reference and
noise have much relevance in the process. The frame of reference between the sender and the receiver
must be common so as to make the process meaningful. The process must be free from different
kinds of noise as physical, mental and psychological. The quality of communication depends upon
the way the whole process of communication is carried out.
Communication is a set of competencies including SWRL i.e. Speaking, Writing, Reading and
Listening. There are different ways of communication visually oral/verbal, written and non-verbal.
The non-verbal may be further classified as sign language, body language and object language. All
of these are equally important, as the verbal & non-verbal communication goes hand in hand.
Communication has become the integral part of the life. Inefficient and ineffective communication
may slow the function of any professional. Without communication skills, whatever skill a teacher is
equipped with, things are not smooth for him/her.
The importance of communication can be measured by the fact that the gaps within the communication
process gives birth to many misconceptions & misunderstanding. This way it needs to be clear,
healthy proper & definite communication.

12
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

According to George R. Terry


“Communication serves as the lubricant, fostering for the smooth operations of management process”
The importance of communication for a teacher is not possible to explain in some paragraph or
pages. If there is no communication, then it will be very difficult for him/her to find out going on
around him/her. What is the significance of effective communication for a teacher an be summed up
in the following points:
• It facilitates systematic & realistic planning for teaching.
• It helps in proper & efficient operation of learning teaching process.
• Its the necessary precondition for effective leadership.
• It assists in developing cooperation & coordination among his/her colleagues, seniors and
students.
• Its essential for developing management skills among teachers.
• It is the basis for improving relationships with all around them.
• Proper communication enhances the job satisfaction among teachers as it helps in achieving
high productivity.
• Effective communication of teachers accelerates the process of motivation & morale building
among students.
Thus communication is fundamental to any profession & it is true that it is a dynamic aspect of every
teacher.

The Role of Communication for a Teacher


Communication for teachers is central to justify the cause of their existence. A teacher without sound
and effective communication skills is like a warrior without needed armaments. Communication
skills are regarded to be the most needed skills in the personality of teacher. He / she feels handicapped
in putting across the views in the lack of good communication skills. Many teachers quit their jobs as
after joining an institution they realize that they lack the communication skills & are not fit for the
profession of teaching.
The rapid development & growth in the education industry has resulted in upcoming of various
professional institutions that give importance to effective planning, execution, management and
taking feedback from the students to judge their growth and for this purpose communication plays.
Presently the English communication is dominant in the professional world. As stated by K. Mohan
& Meera Banergee.
“In India where other languages are also used for this purpose out of the total time spent on communicating in
English is 64.14% against 27.22 to in Hindi and 8.64% to in regional language”
The other skills or abilities needed for the teaching profession are almost the same among all the
teachers of same level with same qualification but their caliber changes with the ability of
communication. For some positions in an institution the communication skills are absolutely essential.
For the working & development of an organization, communication skills among teachers performs
a number of functions. A teacher has a well defined goal which can be fulfilled on the basis of internal
& external communication”.
The internal communication helps a teacher in the following ways-
• Helps him acquire the working skills for his job
• Assist him know about the rules & regulations of the institution.

13
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

• Supports him to generate and disseminate the information whenever & wherever necessary.
• Helps him to direct & instruct his students or colleagues.
• Assists him cultivate the sense of belonging with morale
• Supports him in sharing his views, ideas, thoughts, concepts with his students.
Externally the communication skills enhance a teacher in the following works-
• In creating good will with all around him.
• In uplifting the institution and his own self.
• In presenting effective presentations in seminars, workshops, etc. to create an image of the
organization.
Here the words of Davis Keith stand most appropriate that “Communication is life blood of any
organization. Without communication process there can be no activity.”

Barriers to Communication
‘Barrier’ means hurdle, hindrance or obstacle So Barrier to communication imply hurdles or obstacles
on the way of transmission of message from the sender to the receiver. They work as impediments in
the meaningful occurrence of the communication process. These barriers can be physical,
psychological, organizational, semantic or emotional and others. For example if a teacher does not
know the language of his/her students properly, she/he can suffer from semantic or language barrier.
Communication, if not made in a planned manner, may suffer from the barrier of unplanned
communication and un common frame of reference. Similarly some other barriers to communication
can be :-
 Lack of proper environment
 Semantic/language barrier
 Complex organizational barrier
 Noise/Time/Distance
 Health/ Finance related obstacles
 Immature evaluation & emotional approach
 Communication distrust b/w sender & receiver
 Societal / Cultural diversification
 Overload of Information
 Poor listening
 Misunderstanding of body language
 Lack of time, interest & inspiration to communicate
 Modern mechanical equipments
 Seniority or subordinates related obstacles
 Perceptual gaps.

Effective Gateways to Communication


The success of teacher depends on how well he communicates. An effective communication can do
miracles. Communication made in a premeditated manner vouches for the meaningful
accomplishments of the purpose for which it has been made. As Anthony Robbins states :-

14
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

“To effectively communicates we must realize that we are all different in the way we perceive the world & use
this understanding as a guide to our communication with others.”
So the probable barriers to communication if managed properly & intelligently can result into an
effective & meaningful communication. The teacher in order to have most effective communication
should follow the following tips & principles.
• The speaker/ teacher must be clear in his mind about the objective of his communication. He
should know what & how to communicate keeping in mind the education, experience & language
of the receiver.
• An effective communication should be adequate & complete in all respects.
• The communication must be opportune.
• The physical environment should be conducive in terms of noise & disturbance.
• Medium of communication must be carefully selected as per the subject matter, urgency of
communication & situation etc.
• Avoid overload of information.
• Sharpen your perceptual skills
• Tailor the message to the audience
• Be an effective listener as only an effective listener can literally serve the purpose of
communication.
Effective listener can literally serve the purpose of communication:-
• Keep it short & sweet
• Be confident, friendly and watchful
• Be humble & cultured
• Have appropriate tone(pitch volume, articulation & accent)
• Both the sender & the receiver should be mentally & physically prepared to communicate.
• Employ a variety of techniques.

Conclusion
In fine it can be said that it is imperative for teachers highly expert in their fields too, to be equipped
with the required skills of communication as without the treasure of this skills they stand
professionally poor direly in need to acquire these skills to do justice to their profession.

References
1. Adler N (1991). International Dimensions of organizational Behaviour PWS-Kent, Boston
2. Andrea J. Rutherford (2001). Basic Communication skills for Technology (second edition), Person
Education Ink, India.
3. Barlo, D.K. (1960). The process of Communication, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York.
4. Krishna Mohan & Meera Benarji, (1990) Developing Communication Skills, Mac Milan India Ltd.
5. Sekaran, Uma (2004), Organizational Behaviour, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company Ltd,
New Delhi.

15
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

ICT IN CLASSROOMS :
LET’s REMOVE THE BARRIERS
Dr. Manoj Kumar Saxena* Suresh Aggarwal*
Associate Professor Assistant Professor
drmanojksaxena@gmail.com unique20002@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Digital technology has given rise to information age. Now-a-days, a number of sources of
information are available to us. These changes have transformed the way we work and deal
with problems. The field of education has not remained unaffected due to this. The potential of
new technologies has revolutionized the manner in which young generation thinks and learns.
From extensive use of chalk boards and verbal lectures, we are fast moving towards Overhead
projectors, LCD projectors and E-learning. Questions are now being raised as to whether
technology is fast replacing the teacher in the classroom. A careful examination of the facts will
prove that the role of teacher is becoming even more important with extensive use of ICT in
classrooms. Technology is a learning medium but not a teacher. The role of teachers is as
important as it was 20 to 30 years back. Simultaneously, there are many barriers in using
technology effectively in the classrooms. The present paper tries to find how these barriers can
be effectively dealt with, in order to create a constructive mix of technology and teaching.

Introduction
ICT has emerged as one of the most important aspects of human life (Saxena, et.al., 2009). One can
access the information from any part of the world in fraction of second. It is a new way of representing,
communicating and working with information (Kukreti & Saxena, 2004). Using ICT in education
demands a lot of preparation on part of the students, teachers and also the administration. There are
numerous barriers when we think of its applications in schools. The world has a large student
population and schools. The schools too differ in the type of facilities they provide to the students.
Information and Communication Technology has become an important part of most organizations
and businesses these days (Zhang & Aikman, 2007) and the role of ICT can not be ignored (Saxena,
2010). So there is a need to sort out ways in which we can overcome barriers in its application in
classrooms.
One of the challenges facing teacher educators is how to ensure that graduate teachers have the
necessary combination of skills and pedagogical knowledge that will enable them to both effectively
use today’s technologies in the classroom as well as continue to develop and adapt to new technologies
that emerge in the future (Gill, L., Dalgarno, B.).. These challenges have to be met effectively in order
to create a constructive and creative mix of technology and classroom activities. Given below are
some constraints in the use of ICT in the classroom and how we can remedy them to yield a better
teaching-learning experience on part of the students. One of the most commonly cited reasons for

* M. M. College of Education (Accredited by NAAC with ‘A’ Grade)


M.M. University Campus, Mullana – Ambala (Haryana)

16
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

using ICTs in the classroom has been to better prepare the current generation of students for a
workplace where ICTs, particularly computers, the Internet and related technologies, are becoming
more and more ubiquitous (Tinio, V.L.).
Some of the means through which we can make this amalgamation of Education and Technology
effective, are discussed below.

Helping Teachers Develop Positive Attitude Towards Change


Teachers often fear that changes in traditional methods of teaching will bring about undesirable
adjustment problems. The fear of change can be dealt with effectively by arranging orientation
programmes for teachers in and outside the school. They should be made aware how technology can
foster classroom teaching and how they can supplement the content with the help of ICT equipments.
Experts from various subjects should be invited into schools for providing demonstrations. Teachers
should be made aware of the comparative studies between traditional and ICT enabled learning.
They have to be made aware that technology friendly classrooms are the need of the hour.

Making Teachers Feel Secure


Teachers feel that technology will soon replace them in the classroom. Use of projected aids like
OHP, LCD projector etc cater to the needs of large number of learners simultaneously. The teachers
feel that technology will replace them in the classroom. This insecurity can be removed by giving
presentations regarding how technology is to be used as a helping aid to classroom teaching. Students
cannot learn in isolation. The experience and expertise of teachers is of utmost value. Seminars and
workshops should be arranged subject wise as to how different topics can be supplemented with
computer presentations. This will develop a feeling of security in the teachers and also help them to
develop themselves personally. Technology will further increase the value of teachers because students
learn and retain better through it.

Educating Teachers About Proper Use Of Ict Equipment


Technology brings with it, fear and anxiety. We cannot expect all teachers to be technology friendly.
The fear of ICT equipments in the minds of some teachers is again a major hurdle. Regular programmes
have to be arranged in order to teach the teachers how to handle the equipment to be used in the
classroom. Hands-on training should be given and practice teaching sessions should be arranges
under simulated conditions. This will remove the fear of technology and also prove effective when
the same is actually done in the classroom. Many teachers, who are motivated and desirous to use
ICT in classrooms, fail to do so due to tight schedule, pressure of completing the syllabus and excessive
workload. ICT usage demands a lot of time and planning on part of the teachers. Prolonged
brainstorming sessions have to be organized in order to create an effective amalgam of content and
technology.

Fund Shortage And Lack Of Infrastucture Availability


The funds required for ICT are much higher and its use demands lots of maintenance cost. School
management hesitates to invest in ICT equipments. Separate provision of labs and rooms for ICT
equipments are required. The fee structures of schools where these facilities are available are too
costly and a very small percentage of students are actually able to avail them. School Management
should provide sufficient funds to schools for making effective use of ICT in the classrooms. The
managements of private schools should be positive in this context and spend to train the staff in
effective use of ICT in education. Infrastructural facilities like ICT labs and Computer-Assisted–

17
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

Learning rooms should be provided. They should be kept maintained under the supervision of a
qualified faculty and lab assistant. A predetermined process is important for the integration of ICTs
in the classroom, curriculum, school management, library, and any educational setting. Integration
of ICTs enhances the quality of education by helping teachers to do their job and by helping students
to learn more effectively (Goktas, Y., Yildirim, S., & Yildirim, Z.).

Giving Teachers enough time to make the use of ICT in Education Effective
Proper use of ICT in education demands a lot of time, energy and resources. No teacher can develop
ICT enabled lessons in a day or two. It has to be a continuous and dedicated effort. Therefore, the
teachers should not be burdened and given fixed time frames to develop ICT enabled lessons. They
should be advised to make integration of technology in education slowly. Students should be advised
to use ICT equipments only to supplement classroom teaching and not as a substitute for teachers.
Selected subjects like Science and Mathematics can be dealt with in the beginning followed by other
subjects.

Enabling Optimum use of ICT Equipments


Even when the ICT equipments are available in the school, its optimum use cannot be ensured.
Therefore, there is a need for specially appointed staff that will ensure the optimum use of ICT
equipments in classroom teaching. They should prepare presentations and advise the teachers where
and how to use them in teaching. Overuse of technology can also create hidden problems. The
continuing and growing investment in the use of new technologies in our schools is predicated on
the expectation that ‘standards’ of achievement will rise as a result of increasingly effective teaching
and learning (Denning, T., Fisher, T., Higgins, C., Loveless, A., Tweats, R.).

Computer Awareness
A number of researches have been conducted to study computer awareness among teachers
throughout the world. The results of these researches signify that computer awareness among teachers
is not up to the desired level. The advent of the Internet has rapidly advanced the numbers of teachers
using computers as an information source, but it is taking much longer for schools to respond
significantly to this new medium than it has in business world (Eadie, G.M.).
Computers form the basis of all ICT equipments. School managements have to work hard in making
the staff computer literate by taking the help of companies who provide staff training in this area. In
this age of information, we cannot hope to produce world class teachers if they are not computer
literate. Thus, self-initiative on part of the teachers plays a vital role in making the use of ICT in
classrooms a reality. They have to realize the importance of being technology friendly.

Making ICT an Integral Part of School Curriculum


Modifications in curriculum due to technology might disturb the working of institution. Students
have to be sent to computer assisted learning labs and there has to be a provision for such periods in
the time table. The entire curriculum gets affected due to this. Computer Assisted Learning has to be
made an integral part of school curriculum. Slow changes have to be brought about in the curriculum
thereby giving time for change to settle down. Teachers should take pains in integrating technology
in their respective subjects. Soft copies of the same should be stored for future use. There are bound
to be hurdles in the beginning, but once this change settles down, it can work wonders. Future
efforts of teachers will be considerably less and more result yielding.

18
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

Taking help of Online Resources


Teachers can take help of several agencies which are working in the effective use of ICT in education.
These tools can be flexibly used across the curriculum. For example, Moovl is a unique online tool
that creatively embeds ICT across the curriculum. Both teachers and learners can use it to draw,
animate and apply physical properties to objects, bringing pictures and words to life (http://
ictintheclassroom.blogspot.com). These softwares provide easy instructions as to how teachers can
use ICT in their subjects. Similarly, Becta is a government agency which promotes the best use of ICT
in schools. ICTeachers is a useful site for teachers that reviews new products and offers resources
and support for anyone implementing ICT in the classroom. Internet is full of such resources which
are easily accessible and provide everything a teacher needs to supplement classroom teaching with
technology.

Making Technology a Facilitator


ICT can also have an impact on students beyond their knowledge of traditional school subjects. A
number of studies have established that computers can have a positive effect on student motivation,
such as their attitudes toward technology, instruction, or the subject matter (Kozma, R.B.). Technology
creates dependence. Once the lessons are made ICT enabled, the teachers face difficulty when the
same is not available to them. This dominating characteristic of ICT use also creates a barrier. Teachers
should be told to make carefully selected use of ICT equipment in their subjects. Some topics which
need in depth discussion should be taken up first. Other topics which students feel bored with or
which are difficult to deal with can also be taken up. The aim is not to let technology dominate and
make teaching artificial. The role of teacher is as important as the entire education itself.

Maintaining the Value of Human Resources


When technology is integrated with teaching, there is bound to be a communication gap between
students and teachers. Classroom discussions, sharing and exchange of ideas and interaction are
adversely affected. With the growth of ICT, the role of teacher becomes more important than before.
Earlier, stress was only on chalk and talk, but now there is a challenge for teachers as to how best
they can make use of available resources in order to make the teaching process more effective. Teachers
should be oriented towards importance of their role so that they do not fear to involve technology in
education. Human feeling should never be separated from teaching. Respect for feelings and ideas
form the basis of effective learning.

Conclusion
ICT and its applications in the classrooms have long been talked of. The present paper has sought to
find ways and means through which we can overcome some of the hurdles in its effective use. Schools
are now educating a generation of students who are growing up in a digital world. As the use of ICT
continues to grow globally, students will increasingly demand an education that embraces ICT. To
keep pace with students and today’s world, teachers need ready access to computers as a tool of
trade (Department of Education, Training and Arts, Queensland Government). What is generally
recognised is that ICT are an important part of our lives today, but there are divergent views about
the role that schools should play in promoting use and fluency of the tools, and their primacy as
resources in classrooms (Bangwana, M.A.).
Modern teachers are left with no other option than to be technology friendly. They have to find ways
of creating a constructive mix of theory and practical through the use of technology. ICT changes
teaching and learning through its potential as a source of knowledge, a medium to transmit content,

19
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

a means of interaction and dialogue. Thus, ICT is both a cause of change and a means of achieving it
(Jenkins, J.M.)

References
Advice on the deployment of key initiatives under the smart classrooms strategy, Department of
Education, Training and Arts, Queensland Government, Retrieved from http://
education.qld.gov.au/smartclassrooms/ pdf/sc-rollout-brochure-07.pdf, accessed on 27-01-2010.
Denning, T. et.al., “Thinking Skills and ICT Use in the Classroom?”, Education Department, Keele
University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, UK, Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc,
accessed on 27-01-2010.
Eadie, G.M. (2001), “The Impact of ICT on Schools: Classroom Design and Curriculum Delivery”,
Retrieved from http://www.tki.org.nz/r/ict/pedagogy, accessed on 28-01-2010.
Gill, L., Dalgarno, B. (2008), “Influences on pre-service teachers’ preparedness to use ICTs in the
classroom”, Retrieved from http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/melbourne08/procs, accessed
on 27-01-2010.
Goktas, Y., Yildirim, S., & Yildirim, Z. (2009). Main Barriers and Possible Enablers of ICTs Integration
into Pre-service Teacher Education Programs. Educational Technology & Society, 12 (1), 193–204,
Retrieved from http://www.ifets.info/journals/12_1/15.pdf, accessed on 28-01-2010.
Jenkins, J.M., “Teaching For Tommorrow : The Changing Role of Teacher In The Classroom”, Retrieved
from http://www.eden-online.org/papers, accessed on 27-01-2010.
Kozma, R.B. Monitoring and Evaluation of ICT for Education Impact: A Review, Retrieved from
www.infodev.org/en/Document.284.pdf, accessed on 28-01-2010.
Kukreti, B.R. & Saxena, Manoj Kumar (2004). Information Technology in Teacher Training Programme:
Need & Significance, Experiments in Education, Vol. XXXII, No. 8, August, pp. 152 – 154.
Mbangwana, M.A. (2008). “Introduction of ICT in Schools and Classrooms in Cameroon”, In K. Toure,
T.M.S. Tchombe, & T. Karsenti (Eds.), ICT and Changing Mindsets in Education. Bamenda,
Cameroon: Langaa; Bamako, Mali: ERNWACA / ROCARE, Retrieved from http://
www.rocare.org/ ChangingMindsets, accessed on 28-01-2010
Saxena, Manoj Kumar (2010). “Strategic Planning for Qualitative Improvement in Teacher Education
(With Special Reference to ICT)” Key Note Address delivered at National Seminar on Quality
Concern in Education, Shankara Institute of B.Ed., Jaipur (Rajasthan), October 02 – 03, 2010.
Saxena, Manoj Kumar, Saxena, Jyotsna & Gihar, Sandhya (2009). Internet Knowledge among M.Ed.
Studnets of Jammu & Kashmir State, in Saxena, Saxena and Gihar (ed.) ICT in Professional
Education, APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, pp. 142 – 148.
Tinio, V.L., “ICT in Education”, Retrieved from http://www.apdip.net/ publications/iespprimers/
eprimer-edu.pdf, accessed on 27-01-2010.
Zhang, P. & Aikman, S. (2007). Attitudes in ICT Acceptance and use. In J. Jacko (Ed.), Human-Computer
Interaction, Part I (pp. 1021-1030). Syracuse, NY: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

20
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF JOB SATISFACTION


IN RELATION TO TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS
OF GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE SCHOOL
TEACHERS AT SECONDARY LEVEL
Priya Sharma Neeraj Tyagi

ABSTRACT
The purpose of the study was to determine the job satisfaction at secondary level teachers in
relation to teachers effectiveness of government and private school teachers. A sample of 100
teachers working in various schools were selected by purposive simple random sampling method
for the study. A standardrised ‘teachers job satisfaction scale’ developed by Y. Mudgil, I.S.
Muhar and P. Bhatia, and A ‘teachers effectiveness scale’ developed by Dr. Pramod Kumar and
Dr. D.N. Mutha were used for collection of primary data. The result revealed that there is no
significant difference of job satisfaction between private and government school teachers and
there is no significant difference of teachers effectiveness between government and private
school teachers and there is no relation between job satisfaction and teacher effectiveness.

Job satisfaction is pleasant and positive attitude possessed by an employee towards his job life. If is
an employee’s judgement concerning his job how it does satisfy his various needs and his success or
failure in attaining his personal objectives.
Reddy and Rajasekharan, (1991)-Job satisfaction expresses the degree of congruence between one’s
expectations of the reality that job provides.
Job satisfaction is the sine to attract and retain the right type of persons into the profession and to
help them function at the highest level of their teaching efficiency and effectiveness.
Teachers effectiveness is concerned with the relationship between the characteristics of teacher,
teaching act and their effect on the educational outcomes on classroom teaching.
Job satisfaction is of great significance for efficient functioning of any organisation. It becomes very
powerful motivation factor for a person involvement in his profession. Satisfaction pulls a person
towards his work by the force of circumstances. A teacher without satisfaction is like a soul less type
player delivering a lecture in a classroom. In such a situation we cannot expect that there can be real
communication between teacher and his students, we cannot expect such a teaching to be significantly
effective. But it is definitely true that teacher student relationship is essential in teaching effectiveness.
The present study will be useful for the job satisfaction of teachers and teachers teaching in government
and private school in understanding the appropriate behaviour pattern which make their teaching
more effective.

21
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

Objectives
The present study seeks to achieve the following objectives :
1. To study the job satisfaction of teachers in government school at secondary level.
2. To study the job satisfaction of teachers in private school at secondary level.
3. To study the teacher effectiveness in government school at secondary level.
4. To study the teacher effectiveness in private school at secondary level.
5. To find out the significant difference in the job satisfaction of government and private school
teachers at secondary level.
6. To find out the significant difference in the teacher effectiveness of government and private
school teachers at secondary level.
7. To find out the relationship between Job satisfaction and Teachers effectiveness.

Hypothesis
Following hypothesis have been constructed to achieve the objectives of the study :
1. There is “High” job satisfaction in government school teachers at secondary level.
2. There is “Low” job satisfaction in private school teachers at secondary level.
3. There is “High” teacher effectiveness in government school teachers at secondary level.
4. There is “Low” teacher effectiveness in private school teachers at secondary level.
5. There is significant difference in the job satisfaction between government & private school
teachers at secondary level.
6. There is significant difference in the teacher effectiveness between government & private school
teachers at secondary level.
7. There is no relationship between Job satisfaction and teachers effectiveness.

Method
Sample and Sampling Technique
Purposive simple random sampling method was used in the present research. The total number of
teachers working in the school selected in the sample was 100 teachers. 50 teachers of government
schools and 50 teachers of private schools at secondary level of Ghaziabad city were chosen for the
present study and 10 teachers of each school were selected for the study.

Tools
In the following present study following tools were selected.
(a) Teacher’s job satisfaction scale constructed by ‘Yudhvirandra Mugil’, ‘Prof. I.S. Muhar and ‘Prabha
Bhatia’.
(b) Teacher effectiveness scale constructed by Dr. Pramod Kumar and Dr. D.N. Mutha.

Statistical Analysis
In order to achieve the objectives and testing the hypothesis following statistical techniques were
used that is mean, standard deviation, Z-test and correlation.

22
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

Result and Discussion


Analysis and test of hypothesis H1 and H2
Table - 1: Shown the job satisfaction of government and private school teachers
School No. of Mean Standard Nature of Hypothesis
teachers (M1) Deviation the job
(?1) satisfaction
Govt. 50 M1 = 261.5 ?1 = 17.14 High Accepted
Private 50 M2 =258.5 ?2 = 16.49 High Rejected
From the above table it is clear that the mean value of government and private school teacher is
found higher than the standard value (239) given in the test. Thus we can say that job satisfaction of
government and private school teachers is high.

Analysis and test of hypothesis H3 and H4


Table - 2: Shown the teacher effectiveness of government and private school teachers
School No. of Mean Standard Nature of Hypothesis
teachers (M1) Deviation the job
(?1) effectiveness
Govt. 50 M1 = 335.5 ?1 = 18.86 High Accepted
Private 50 M2 =334.7 ?2 = 15.56 High Rejected
From the above table it is clear that the mean value of government and private school teachers is
found higher than the standard value (329.91) given in the test. Thus we can say that teacher
effectiveness in government and private school is high.
Analysis and test of hypothesis H5
Table - 3: Shown comparison of job satisfaction between government and private school teachers
Schools No. of Mean S.D. Level of Tabulated Calculated Hypothesis
teachers significant value value
Govt. 50 261.5 17.14 .01 2.58 .89 Accepted
Private 50 258.5 16.49
From the above table it is clear that obtained value .89 is lower than the calculated value 2.58 and
therefore Null Hypothesis is found to be accepted which shows that there is no significant difference
in the job satisfaction between government and private school teachers at secondary level.

Analysis and test of hypothesis H6


Table - 4: Shown comparision of teacher effectiveness between government and
private school teachers
Schools No. of Mean S.D. Level of Tabulated Calculated Hypothesis
teachers significant value value
Govt. 50 335.5 18.86 .01 2.58 .23 Accepted
Private 50 334.7 15.56

23
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

From the above table it is clear that obtained value .23 is lower than the calculated value 2.58 and
therefore Null hypothesis is found to be accepted which shows that there is no significant difference
in the teachers effectiveness between government and private school teachers secondary level.

Analysis and test of the Hypothesis H7


The calculated coefficient of correlation (.1299) between job satisfaction and teacher effectiveness
show divergence from the coefficient of correlation at .05 and .01 level of significance. The coefficient
of correlation is insignificant at both the levels. The magnitude of ‘r’ indicates that there is negligible
correlation between job satisfaction and teacher effectiveness. Thus null hypothesis is accepted. It is
concluded that there is no relationship between job satisfaction and teacher effectiveness.

Conclusions
1. It was found that the job satisfaction of teachers in government and private school is high.
2. It was found that teacher effectiveness of government and private school is high.
3. There was no significant difference in the job satisfaction between government and private school
teachers at secondary level.
4. There was no significant difference in the teacher effectiveness between government and private
school teachers at secondary level.
5. There was no relationship between job satisfaction and teacher effectiveness.

References
Abraham, A (1994), “Job satisfaction and teachers effectiveness– A study on college teachers.” Indian Journal
psychometry and education, 25.P.
Bharti (2005), “A comparative study of job satisfaction of government and private school teachers at secondary
level.” C.C.S. University, Meerut.
Bhuyan. B & M. Chaudhary (2003), “Job satisfaction of college teachers.” psycho Lingua, Vol. 33, No. 2,
123 P.P.
Goyal, J. C. (1981), “Effectiveness of teachers”, Indian Educational Review XVI, No. 4, NCERT, 55. P.
Gupta, S.P. (1995), “A correlation study of teachers job satisfaction and their teaching effectiveness.” The
progress in education, 49 P.
Pandey Maju & Rama Maikhuri (2005), “Teaching attitude of effective and ineffective teachers.” Vol. 35,
No. 1, 87.P.P.
Ramakrishnaiah, D. (1989), “Job satisfaction of college teachers”, Ph.D., Edu. Srivenkadeswara, University,
fifth survey of Educational Research, Vol. II, 1221. P.P.

24
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

STRENGTHENING STUDENT SUPPORT


SERVICES IN ODL : ROLE OF INFORMATION
AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
Y.K. Sharma1

Technology has dominated all spheres of life. The distance education is also one of the fields where
we can see the impact of technology especially of the information and communication technology.
Over several years the education process has seen extreme changes in imparting knowledge. During
the last few years we have seen, an almost exponential development and growth of the digitalization,
automation and the internet, with little sign of a slow down. No longer is internet access restricted to
a few selected education establishments it is now available to anyone in their place of work, local
libraries, and the internet site and even in the home. It is the information that has become the key to
the success in different walks of life. The concept of e-education is significantly influencing all areas
of the education. The Open and Distance Learning has been greatly influenced by the fast emerging
information and communication technology. It has brought a transformation in the concept of distance
education.
The changing nature and scope of the discipline of Distance Education can be understood with the
help of this fact that during 1970’s it was only correspondence education which further extended its
scope to distance education and later on to open learning where electronic media and non-formal
approach is playing a crucial role. The extension of the scope of the correspondence education to
these modes may be attributed to the fast developments which took place in the information and
communication technology. These developments have virtually reduced the communication distance
between the learner and the institution. The learner sitting at a distance from the host institution
receives education not only through the material sent to him through post but radio, TV, Video
tapes, telephone, teleconferencing and computer are also used extensively for imparting education.
The use of computer and information and communication technology paved the way for the slow
transformation of the correspondence courses into distance education. Further, due to its openness
with regard to the rigid limits imposed by the formal system of education it became the Open and
Distance Learning (ODL) of the present time. Now the convenience of the learner decides what he will
learn, how he will learn, where he will learn and when he will learn.

Place of student in Distance Education


In any system of education the students always occupy the central place because all other components
of the system are there for the students and all these (components) loose their relevance without
students. The distance education system and students are intimately related to each other as the
existence of one without the other is not possible. Since students of distance education are handicapped
in the sense that they do not have easy access to educational facilities, therefore, they need extra
support, extra help to make them feel secure and stable.
The harmonious relationships between the institution and the students depend upon the
sincerity and cooperation between the two. The good relations between distance education system

1
Professor, Department of Education, H.P. University, Shimla-5

25
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

and the students is a matter which does not depend on the administrative conduct of distance
education institute alone. It equally depends on the interest and attitudes of students and their
eagerness to learn. The learner of this category entirely depends upon the facilities provided by the
distance education system. Therefore there is a great need to pay attention to their problems, demands,
needs, etc. to ensure maximum benefits of the distance education system to them. From this we can
conclude that distance education to be effective must aim at teaching, reaching, guiding and
supporting the students in all locations through the well designed study materials, supported by
tutors, personal contact programmes, response sheet assignments and electronic and digital media.
Any distance education system must have following components in the process of teaching, reaching
and learning.
a) Study Material (Lecture Scripts);
b) Personal Contact Programmes;
c) Electronic Media (e.g. Radio, Video, Teleconferencing, Video Tapes, Computer Access, Tele-
Learning and EDUSAT);
d) Library and Learning Resources;
e) Students Assignment (Response Sheets);
f) Study Centres and
g) Personal Guidance.

Student Support Services


The main aim of distance education (DE) is to promote self study or independent study among
distance learners in the absence of regular face-to-face (F2F) teaching. To achieve this, every DLI
extends support to its learners, which comprises of a cluster of facilities and activities that are intended
to make the teaching - learning process easier and more interesting for the learners. The most
important characteristics of distance education, as suggested by Keegan (1986), is student support
services. All these activities beyond the production and delivery of course material assist in the
progress of students in terms of learning, interacting and effective communication (Simpson, 2000)
and therefore, the support system may range from study centre counselling/tutorial support to
administrative problem solving (Rumble, 1992). Quality ‘Student Support Services’ have now become
an integral part of most of the good distance education institutes. These support services are very
essential for interactive and effective communication in distance education. Bajaj (1997) observed,
“There is no doubt that the academic courses are necessary to sustain Distance Education system,
but the quality, comprehensiveness, level, context, applicability and outreach of the printed material
are now a matter of greater concern to our distance education management effort. While the distance
education institutions have been thriving mostly on the unidirectional supply and flow of information
to students through printed lessons because of the small reach of technology in India yet, in the
times to come the demands and requirements of students will necessitate a complete conceptual and
practical overhaul in its delivery system and call for a more articulate and systematic, contextually
relevant, students focused support system to supplement the quality and context of such courses”.
It is now internationally recognized that adequate student support services must be provided to the
distant learners who are most of the time studying in isolation, away from their institution, teachers
and the fellow students. The non-availability of such type of environment as is available to the students
getting education through formal mode and the motivation which they receive in face to face education
and by being in constant touch with their teachers and classmates has to be compensated to a larger
extent through the support system. The purpose is to help these students to overcome the feeling of
isolation and to facilitate learning. It is therefore, necessary that distance education system should

26
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

organise proper student support services. The major responsibilities that should be accomplished
under SSS may include:
– to create an environment conducive to Distance learning;
– to facilitate the Distance Learning Method;
– to motivate students to continue their education;
– to encourage socialization and to promote team work and team spirit and
– to improve the educational standards of students.
A general survey of the student support system however, reveals pathetic state of affairs. Students
are admitted without looking to the capacity and capability of the distance education institutes. The
financial crises in most of the universities have compelled the universities to make money through
distance education students. Which is of course quite unfair, especially, with the students getting
education through this system. On the one hand, we are subsidizing regular students and providing
them all the facilities while we are charging heavily from the distance education students and
providing poor services. Besides, the library, study centres are used only by 10-20 per cent of distance
education students. Even their queries are not attended promptly. Therefore, there is a need of great
improvements and reforms to make distance education institutes provide quality services. Only the
use of ICT can cope up with the increasing demands of the student support so that most of the
queries are attended promptly and properly.
The support services in ODL include pre-admission counseling, admission process, provision of
study materials both in print media and audio visual forms, subject specific academic counseling,
audio visual viewing facilities, participation in teleconferencing, ICT facilities for e-learning, library
services, laboratory support facilities, academic career guidance, information services related to rules,
regulations, procedures, schedules etc.
The role of ICT to speed up the delivery of the support services has now become inevitable for the
distant learners. It also considers the shift from mass produced generic resources to tailored,
personalized support and communications and sets this in the context of globalization of the economy
and the changing expectations of students as consumers.

Need for Student Support Services


Consider some of the remarks and queries of the distance learners received by a DEI from time to
time:
• “Some parts of the units are not clear. I need more clarifications.
• “It is difficult to answer all the assignments from the study materials sent by the university”.
• “I am totally in dark with regard to my project work. Who can help me?”
• Is it necessary to consult reference books to answer the assignment questions and to prepare for
the term-end examinations?”
• “The schedule for practical as displayed in the study centre notice board does not suit me at all.
How can I complete my practical?”
• “I am not satisfied with my grades in assignment. Whom can I approach?”
There are unlimited number of queries and remarks of this sort. If one is attached to any distance
learning institute, it is very common to come across similar queries and problems faced by distance
learners. These are natural. Distance learners are dispersed and physically separated from the
institution as well as their peer groups. They may not get immediate clarifications for their doubts
that come up during their studies. It is a fact that the learning packages (print materials, audio cassettes,

27
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

video cassettes etc.) used by open and distance learning institutes are not enough for the distance
learners. Thousands of distance learners who have expressed their helplessness and inability to
continue their studies without human support. This reminds us of the saying of David Sewart (1987)
“… the standard teaching package cannot provide a wholly satisfactory individualised learning
system for students and also that such package suffers from a tendency towards tight curriculum
control. It is only the introduction of the human element, capable of adapting to the great variety of
student needs, which can counteract this sort of bias”.

Stages of Support and kind of support needed by the Distance Learners


The distance learners may need help before, during and after the learning programme. A discussion
on the type of help needed in each stage is provided here:
1. Pre-entry stage: At this stage the learners need information, advice and counseling. The learners
need information about programmes, courses, entry requirements, application procedures,
structure, functions, rules and regulations of the institute, recognition of the institute, market
value of the programme and so on. They may need advice for selecting a particular programme
or course for their career advancement. They may need counseling for deciding what kind of
individual support they might need and the best way of achieving their goals and objectives
without disturbing their daily routine activities. All such information can be made available on
the web site of the institution which the student can access at a time and place convenient to
him. These facilities can be now provided even at the remote places where ever telephone and
internet facilities are available.
2. During the learning programme: At the beginning of the programme, when the learners have
already received their packages (study materials, programme guides, assignments, experimental
kits, etc.), they may need some guidance. Many learners might have returned to their studies
after a long gap, so they may need constructive help at this stage. As the learners are unfamiliar
with the self-learning materials, assignments etc. they may ask for some guidance on study
skills, the process of dealing with the assignments, and so on.
During the middle stage of the programme, the learners may want to discuss about their progress,
assignments grades, study visits, projects, seminars, practical, improving study skills, learning
from media, overcoming personal and technical problems and so on.
At the final stage, the learners may need some guidance for incomplete tasks /assignments,
difficult units, revision work, preparation for term-end examinations, and so on. Besides all
these, from time to time, they need help and guidance to perform some formalities according to
rules and regulations of the institute e.g., payment of fees, submission of application form for
term-end examination etc. This further necessitates tuning up the efficiency of the administrative
support system at the institution’s end. To facilitate the learner, all these information can be
made available at his/her doorstep by making use of the information and communication
technology.
The detailed components of Student Support System at this stage are as under:
• Providing clear information as to what is expected from students;
• Publicizing a procedure for dealing with students complaints;
• Guaranteeing timely and effective feedback and commentary on assignments;
• Guaranteeing that the mode of delivery would not affect the award of credit;
• Guaranteeing provision of library services wherever these are necessary;
• Provision of academic pre-study counseling before selection of courses;

28
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

• Access to tutor on a regular basis;


• The publication of clear information regarding administrative regulations;
• The right to complete a programme of study within agreed time scales and
• The charter should be related to the institution’s mission statement.
3. After the learning programme: After completion of a particular programme the learners may
want to do some advanced programmes on which they would like advice. They may also require
information on new programmes.
Thus summing up, the distance learners need academic, administrative, and informative support
before, during and after their learning programme. Student support services in distance education
system are of greater significance than in other modes of higher education since the students in
this system suffer from many limitations and problems. Some of these are:
1. Lack of effective and viable communication.
2. Lack of physical proximity resulting in lack of confidence and thus the need of constant
support and guidance from the faculty.
3. Lack of adequate infrastructure- quality reference books, library facilities and fellow
students.
4. Lack of adequate time as productive time being busy in some occupation or service.
5. Lack of proper guidance from any source.
6. Fear of examination.
7. Lack of simple, well defined and clear study material.

Major Components for a Student Support System


The services provided to the students include access to information about the programmes, the
enrolment procedure, where to collect the learning material, whom to contact for the tutorial sessions,
from where to get the audio/video programmes and so on. The basic objective of these services is to
help students choose the right kind of courses and learn better once the courses are properly chosen.
Thus, mainly Student Support Services comprise the following major components:
• Dissemination of Information
• Enrolment Information
• Delivery of Course Material
• Personal Contact Programmes, and
• Counselling

ICT and Learner Support


Distance and open education schemes that have until recently relied mainly on the mailing of written
materials , videos, cassette recordings, and radio and or TV broadcasting techniques can be augmented
, enhanced or replaced by new on-line tools and technologies which have the power to transform
the learning environment.
Technology developments offer the following benefits:
• Through the internet and world wide web new and enlarged sources of information and
knowledge that offer teachers and students opportunities for self development as well as benefits
from incorporation into classroom environments.

29
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

• Through e-mail and other internet related feedback mechanisms, greater opportunity to reduce
the isolation and time delay associated with distance education.
• Through the extraordinary pace of software development, enriched teaching and learning
with enhanced graphics, interaction, animation and visualization.
• Through lowering telecommunications bandwidth costs and emergence of enhanced cable,
wireless and satellite systems, greater opportunities for basic access, video conferencing, on-
line interactive learning, and live interaction with the central place of a distance education
programme.
Through community access schemes, more potential to make the benefit of distance education
eventually available to lower income people and rural communities
With the development of the internet, global connectivity has increased exponentially. Inevitably
with the increasing utilization of digital information and communication networks in the daily conduct
of university teaching and research, change is rapidly occurring in many aspects of the physical and
organizational environments in which fundamental academic principles have operated. The
possibilities that were visualized in early stage in 1990s for distance education are now by and large,
technically feasible and are being realized in diverse applications. Advanced terrestrial and satellite
communications, computers, networking, and shared software databases present opportunities for
education delivery systems that are flexible, time and place independent and learner centered.
Particularly, with technology based distance education, the operation of the university as the locus
of learning is changing. Indeed, there are prophesies that campuses will disappear as learning
increasingly becomes a distributed activity. Regardless of their identity as “places” of learning,
universities and also other corporate entities now have the capability of better meeting the ever-
growing demand by employers and learners alike for continuing, part-time, post baccalaureate
education. Both educators and the public are realizing that in our knowledge economy, a university
degree no longer provides a knowledge base to support a life time career.

The Concept of e-education


The term e-education means electronic education and it is basically the online delivery of information
communication, training and learning, e-education seems to have a multiplicity of definitions to
each of its users and the term seems to mean something different. A very comprehensive definitions
has been given by the Cisco system, which defines e-education is Internet–enabled learning,
components can include content delivery in multiple format E-education provides faster learning at
reduced costs, increased access to learning and clear accountability for all participants in the learning
process in today’s fast- paced culture, organizations that implement E-education provide their work
force with the ability to turn change into an advantage.

Why E-education?
• Learning is self paced and gives students a chance to speed up or slow down as necessary
• Learning is self-directed, allowing students to choose content and tools appropriate to their
differing interests, needs and skill levels
• Accommodates multiple learning styles using as variety of delivery methods geared to different
learners, more effective for entrain learners
• Designed around the learner
• Geographical barriers are eliminated, opening up broader education options

30
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

• 24/7 accessibility makes scheduling easy and allows a greater number of people to attend classes
on demand access means learning can happen precisely when needed travel –time is reduced
or eliminated
• Overall student costs are comparatively less (tuition, residence, food)
• Potentially lower costs for companies needing training and for the providers
• Fosters greater student interaction and collaboration
• Fosters greater student/instructor contact
• Enhances computer and internet skills
• Draws upon hundreds of years of established pedagogical principles
• Has the attention of every major university in the work, most with their own online degrees,
certificates and individual course
E-education offers us potentially less expensive, more convenient, and richer ways of becoming
educated, and of comings into contact with more diverse groups of fellow learners than ever before.

Instruments of E-education
To take the better opportunities of e-education, we have to know the tools associated with it. Some of
them are as under:
• E-mail
• Real time conferencing
• Desktop vide

E-education Tools
Digital library, virtual library, e-book, CDROM Various Modes of E-learning Course
At present the online courses can be offered in following modes:
• Online mode
• E-correspondence mode

Under online, mode, the learners are entitled to the following benefits:
• Access to virtual classroom in the website for collaborative learning experience via a host of
interactive tools including chat, discussion forum, electronic white board and e-mail.
• Semester wise interactive courseware CD.
• Optional short duration contact program in each semester
• Facility top order the courseware books (optional)
• Access to infotainment section, providing links to latest news channels, book publishers providing
facility to order books online, online games, greetings, music software downloads and
certification.
• Facility to create a personal web page

31
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

What’s the ‘e’ is about?


E- Education is electronic education, but the ‘e’ in E-education has a number of other implications as
briefly mentioned below:
Exploration E- Learners sue the web as an exploratory tool to access a plethora of
information and resources.
Experience The web offers e-learners a total learning experience, from synchronous
learning to threaded discussions to self-paced study.
Engagement The web captivates learners by enabling creative approaches to learning that
foster collaboration and a sense of community.
Ease of use Not only is the web easy to sue for learner who are already familiar with the
navigation capabilities of the medium, but to learning providers as well, as
they can easily make content immediately available to learner across all
technical platforms (Windows, N4AC, Unix, etc.) .
Empowerment The web puts learners in the driver’s seat with a set of tools that enables
personalization of content and allows learner to choose the way in which they
best learn.

However, new ICT is not a panacea for all educational problems, although technologies have become
essential tools for teaching and learning in any mode. It is a fact that the learning packages (print
material, audio cassettes etc.) used by open and distance learning institutes are not enough for the
distance learners. There are thousands of learners who express their helplessness and inability to
continue their studies without human support. This reminds us of the saying of David Sewart (1987)
“…. The standard teaching package cannot provide a wholly satisfactory individualized learning
system for students and also that such package suffers from a tendency towards tight curriculum
control. It is only the introduction of the human element capable of adapting to the great variety of
student needs which can counteract this sort of bias.
There have been a number of factors impeding the wholesale uptake of ICT in education across all
sectors. These have included such factors as (i) a lack of funding to support the purchase of the
technology, (ii) a lack of training among established teaching practitioners, (iii) a lack of motivation
and need among teachers to adopt ICT as teaching tools, (iv) Non availability of the required
equipment support to the learners of Distance education and (v) their ignorance about the technology
are some of the further obstructions in shifting over to the new system.
ODL practices are changing. New fields of study have emerged, policies revised, a quality culture
emerged, student services improved, new ICT-based delivery modes explored, and a variety of
collaborative relationships developed. With advanced ICT, distance teaching is becoming one of the
most challenging professions in our society where technology options are diverse and new concepts
of learning are emerged. Distance teaching is now expected to facilitate self-learning, make it
meaningful to individual learners rather than just to provide knowledge and skills, and improve
interactions. Modern developments of innovative technologies have provided new possibilities to
distance teaching professions, but at the same time have placed more demands on ODL institutions
to explore how to use these new technologies in their ODL practices.
The Annual Survey of Courses of the Open University of U.K. revealed that various forms of tutorial
support are the most strongly and frequently requested items by the students (Burt, 1997). Most of
the open and distance learning institutes in the world have established student support service centers
and/or regional/study centers to cater to a large number of students on various matters like, admission,

32
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

courses, examination schedules, materials dispatch, counseling and so on. It is a fact that the success
of distance education depends largely on student support services provided to distance learners. As
distance educators, we should know why the learners need support, what kind of support a distance
learning institute may provide, who can provide support and how and so on.
Further, there is a great competition among distance education institutes relating to the attraction of
students to their courses. Better student support services would automatically spread the reputation
and prestige of the institution. It requires that the distance education institutes must ensure certain
minimum standards of Academic and Support services. The future survival of ODL institutions will
rest on the quality of the Student Support Services being provided to its learner by the institution
and importance of ICT to play this role effectively cannot be overemphasized.

References
Bajaj, K.K (1977) Student Support Services for Interactive Communication in Distance Education.
University News, Vol. 5, New Delhi.
Chalmers, D., & Fuller, R. (1996) Teaching for Learning at University: Theory and Practice. London:
Kogan Page.
Clerehan R., Turnbull J., Moore T., Brown A., & Tuovinen J. (2003) Transforming Learning Support:
An online resource centre for a diverse student population. Education Media International, 40(1/
2), 15.32.
David Sewart (1986) Distance Education: New Innovations,London, Kogan Page.
E-education A class Act. Outlook India, April 9, 2001.
Farrell, G. (2001) The Changing Faces of Virtual Education. Vancouver: Commonwealth of Learning.
Goel, S.L and Goel, A (2001) Distance Education in the 21st Century. Deep & Deep Publications Pvt.
Ltd, New Delhi.
Holmberg, B. (1977) Distance Education: A Survey and Bibliography, London, Kogan Page.
Jung, I. S., & Rha, I. (2000) Effectiveness and Cost-effectiveness of Online Education: A Review of
Literature. Education Technology July-August.
Jung, I.S. (2004a) Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms of Distance Education for Higher
Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Five selected cases. A paper presented at the UNESCO
Workshop on Exporters and Importers of Cross-Border Higher Education. 20-22 March 2004.
Beijing, China
Kaw, M.K. (1999) The Need and Relevance of Distance Education System. University News,37(35),
p.16. New Delhi
Keegan, D. (1986) The Foundations of Distance Education, London, Croom Helm.
Kishore, S (1998) Student Support and Quality Indicators in Distance Learning, Indian Journal of
Open Learning, 7(2), 205-212.
Laurillard, D. (1993) Rethinking University Teaching: A framework for the effective use of educational
technology. London: Routledge.
Ljosa, Erling (1992) Distance Education in a Modern Society. The Journal of Distance and Open
Learning ,Vol.7(2), p.30.

33
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

Lockwood, F., & Gooley, A. (Eds.) (2001). Innovation in Open and Distance Learning. London:
RoutledgeFalmer.
Moore. M.G. (1973) Towards a theory of Independent Learning and Teaching. Journal of Higher
Education,44,p.664.
OECD (2004) Quality and Recognition in Higher Education: The Cross-border Challenge. Paris: Center
for Educational Research and Innovation.
Parraton, Hilary (1981) A theory for Distance Education. Prospects XI,1:13,24.
Phillip & Chatnis (1993) Innovation in Open and Distance Learning. London: Routledge Falmer.
Power et al (2000) Quality in Distance Education, in Performance Indicates in Distance Higher
Education, Aravali, New Delhi.
Prebble, T., & Pullar, K. (2002, March) Extramural Student Support: Report on a Planning Workshop.
Report to Participants, VCEC and Board of Extramural Studies, Massey University, Palmerston
North, NZ.
Rumble, G (1992) Management of Distance Learning System, Paris: UNESCO and IIEP.
Simpson, O (2000) Supporting Student in Open and Distance Learning, Kogan Page, London.
Sims, R. (2000) An Interactive Conundrum: Constructs of Interactivity and Learning Theory. Australian
Journal of Educational Technology, 16(1), 45.57.
Tait, A. (2000) Planning Student Support for Open and Distance Learning. Open Learning, 15(3),
287.299.
Tait, A., & Mills, R. (Eds.). (2003) Rethinking Learner Support in Distance Education: Change and
Continuity in an International Context. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Tait, H., & Entwistle, N. (1996) Identifying Students at Risk Through Ineffective Strategies. Higher
Education, 31, 97.116.
Tinto, V. (1995) Learning Communities and Education in the First Year Experience. Proceedings of
the inaugural Pacific Rim First Year Experience conference, Brisbane.
UNESCO (2003) The Virtual Universities: Models and Messages. Retrieved, September 11, 2004, from
http://www.unesco.org/iiep/virtualuniversity/home.php
Yawan, L., & Linshu, L. (2003) Construct Learning Support System for Distance Education in China.
A paper presented at 10th Cambridge International Conference on Open and Distance Learning.
Zuhairi, A., Pribadi, B., & Muzammil, M. (2003) Quality assurance as continuous improvement in
distance higher education: we write what we do, and we do what we write! A paper presented at
the seminar of the Association of the Southeast Asia Institutions of Higher Learning. 9-11 December
2003. Jakarta, Indonesia.

34
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

ewY;ijd ff''k{kk ds lUnHkZ esa fo/kkfFkZ;ksa ds


nf` "Vdks.k dk ,d los{Z k.k
Mk0 Vh0 ,u0 xqIrk Mk0 cc``ts
t's k dqekj ik.Ms;
izkpk;Z] U;w bZjk dkWyst vkWQ izoDrk & f’k{kk’kkL=
lkbUl ,.M VSDuksyksth] lar fouksck ih0th0 dkWyst]
xkft;kckn ¼m0 iz0½ nsofj;k ¼m0 iz0½

izLrkouk
f’k{kk ekuo lekt ds fodkl dh lrr~ izfØ;k ,oa vk/kkjf’kyk gSA f’k{kk lekt }kjk fuf’pr mn~ns’;ksa dh izkfIr gsrq ,d cMk gh
izHkko’kkyh lk/ku gSA f’k{kk ckyd esa laLdkj Mkyus dh izfØ;k gSA lkekthdj.k ds }kjk O;fDr tUe ds ckn ls gh vkn’kksZa ,oa ewY;ksa
dks vkRelkr djrk gSA f’k{kk }kjk gh mlds vUnj dk;Z ,oa O;ogkj djus dh ,slh {kerk fodflr dh tk ldrh gS mldk O;ogkj
eulk] okpk vkSj deZ.krk rhuksa dh ,drk ls vko) gksdj ?kfVr gksA ewY; dh ifjHkk”kk nk’kZfud] lekt’kkL=h;] euksoSKkfud vkSj
vk/;kfRed n‘f”Vdks.k ls fHkUu&fHkUu dh xbZ gSA okLro esa ewY; os ekun.M gS ftuds }kjk y{;ksa dk pquko fd;k tkrk gSA tc ge
nks oLrqvksa ;k nks euksjFkksa esa pquko djrs gS] rks ml euksjFk dks izkIr djus dk fu’p; djrs gSa] tks vf/kd Js”B gS vkSj blh fu.kZ;
ds vuqlkj thou esa dk;Z djrs gSA
ewY; og gS tks ekuo bPNk dks iwjk djrk gSA ewY; dks fuEufyf[kr #i esa ifjHkkf”kr fd;k x;k gS & tSd vkj0 ÝSady & ^^ewY;
vkpkj] lkSUn;Z] dq’kyrk ;k egRo ds os ekun.M gS ftudk yksx leFkZu djrs gS] ftuds lkFk os tkrs gS rFkk ftUgsa os dk;e
j[krs gSaA**
ewY; ds lEcU/k esa dgk x;k gS fd & rdZ’kkL=] lkSUn;Z’kkL= rFkk uhfr’kkL= ewY; ehekalk ds v/khu gS] D;ksfd ;s rhuksa foKku ewy
#i esa ,d u ,d ewY; dk v/;;u djrs gSA rdZ’kkL= lR; dh [kkst djrk gS vkSj mldk ekin.M rS;kj djrk gSA lkSUn;Z’kkL=]
lqUnjrk ds ewY; dk v/;;u djrk gS] vkSj uhfr’kkL= HkykbZ ds ewY; ds Lo#i tkuus dk iz;Ru djrk gSA vr% lR;] lqUnj rFkk
‘kqHk (Truth, Beauty & Goodness) dks thou dk ije ewY; dgk x;k gSA vkyiksVZ dk er gS fd ewY; os ekun.M gS ftuds vk/
kkj ij euw”; dks ojh;rk iznku djrs gq, dk;Z djrk gSA izks0 vcZu us viuh iqLrd ^^Q.MkesUVy vkQ ,fFkDl** esa fy[kk gS fd
ewY; og tks ekuo bPNk dh r`fIr djsa] tks O;fDr rFkk mlds tkfr ds laj{k.k esa lgk;d gksA ewY; ‘kCn dks lekU;r% bl izdkj
ls ifjHkkf”kr fd;k tk ldrk gS fd ewY; fdlh oLrq ;k fLFkfr dk og xq.k gS tks lekykspuk o ojh;rk izdV djrk gSA ;g ,d
vkn’kZ ;k bPNk gS ftls iwjk djus ds fy, O;fDr thrk gS rFkk vkthou iz;kl djrk gSA ewY; gekjs thou ds iFk izn’kZd gSas tks
u dsoy O;fDr ds ‘kkjhfjd ,oa ekufld LokLFk; ds fodkl esa lgk;d gksrk gS cfYd blls lEiw.kZ lekt dk dY;k.k Hkh lEHko
gksrk gSA ewY; f’k{kk ds uhfr funZs’kd rRo gS] ;s ekuo O;ogkj dks fu;af=r vkSj funZsf’kr djrs gSA ewY;foghu f’k{kk fujFkZd ,oa
futhZo le>h tkrh gSA ge ;g dg ldrs gS fd f’k{kk dh lajpuk ewY; ij vk/kkfjr gksrh gSA ewY;ksa ds vHkko esa euw”; O;fDrxr
#i ls pkgs ftruk vf/kd lq[k&lqfo/kk ds lk?ku tqVk ys] le`f) ,oa oSHko vftZr dj ys ysfdu lekt esa lq[k ,oa ‘kkfUr dk;e
ugh gks ldrh gSA
fof/k
izfrn’kZ
ewY;ijd f’k{kk ds lEcU/k esa fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds D;k n‘f”Vdks.k] vfHko‘fRr rFkk vis{kka, gS bldks tkuus ds fy, nsofj;k ¼m0 iz0½ tuin
ds rhu egkfo|ky;ksa] ;Fkk lar fouksck ih0 th0 dkyst] nsofj;k] ckck jk?konkl ih0 th0 dkWyst] nsofj;k rFkk jktdh; efgyk
egkfo|ky;] nsofj;k ds LUkkrd Lrj ds 300 Nk=&Nk=kvksa dks lg;ksxh ds #i esa pquk x;k rFkk ewY;ijd f’k{kk ls lEcfU/kr lkr
35
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

egRoiw.kZ vk;keksa ds lUnHkZ esa buds fopkj tkuus dk iz;Ru fd;k x;kA bl lEcU/k esa lg;ksfx;ksa ls lkr iz’u iwNs x;s tks eqDrkUr
iz’u FksA fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks iwjh Lora=rk Fkh f dos tSlk pkgs vius fopkj dks fyf[kr #i esa izLrqr djsaA bl izdkj bu iz’uksa dk mi;ksx
,d iz{ksih rduh ds #i esa fd;k x;kA

lkexzh
izLrqr v/;;u dh lkexzh ewY;ijd f’k{kk ij vk/kkfjr lkr vk;keksa ij iz’u iwNs x;s tks fuEu izdkj gS %&
1- D;k orZeku f’k{k ewY;ijd \
2- f’k{kk dks ewY;ijd cukus esa f’k{kd dh D;k Hkwfedk gS \
3- f’k{kk dks ewY;ijd cukus esa f’k{kkFkhZ dh D;k Hkwfedk gS \
4- f’k{kk dks ewY;ijd cukus esa lekt dh D;k Hkwfedk gS \
5- f’k{kk dks ewY;ijd cukus esa jk”Vª dh D;k Hkwfedk gS \
6- f’k{kk dks ewY;ijd cukus esa ikB~; lgxkeh fØ;kvksa dh D;k Hkwfedk gS \
7- D;k mijksDr laLFkka, f’k{kk dks ewY;ijd cukrh gS] ;fn ugh rks dkSu&dkSu lh ck/kka, gS \

izfØ;k
Lukrd Lrj ds 300 Nk=&Nk=kvksa dks lkrkas iz’u fn;s x;s rFkk muls dgk x;k fd vius fopkjksa dks fyf[k, rFkk mUgsa vius fopkjksa
dks O;Dr djus dh iw.kZ Loar=rk FkhA mlds ckn mUgsa fn;s x;s iz’uksa dh mRrjkoyh dh ,df=r fd;k x;k rFkk mldk oLrq fo’ys”k.k
fd;k x;kA ftu fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fopkj ldjkRed Fksa mls lger ekuk x;k rFkk ftuds fopkj udjkRed Fks mls vlger ekuk x;k
vkSj ftuds fopkj ldkjkRed rFkk udkjkRed nksukas Fks mUgs vLi”V ekuk x;k A fo”k; oLrq fo’ys”k.k ds fy, mudk izfr’kr Kkr
fd;k x;k A

ifj.kke
lg;ksfx;ksa }kjk fyf[kr #i ls fn;s x, muds fopkjksa dk fo”k;oLrq fo’ys”k.k fof/k }kjk fo’ys”k.k fd;k x;kA fo’ys”k.k }kjk tks
ifj.kke izkIr gq, mudk mYys[k bl izdkj gS %&
ewY;ijd f’k{kk ls fofHkUu vk;keksa ls izkIr vfHko‘fRr dk izfr’kr
iz’u Øekad lger vlger vLi”V
1 54-00% 16-50% 29-50%
2 100-00% 0-00% 0-00%
3 67-85% 10-72% 21-43%
4 78-00% 02-00% 20-00%
5 64-28% 03-58% 32-14%
6 74-00% 04-57% 21-43%
7 57-14% 07-14% 35-72%

dksBkjh vk;ksx ¼1964&66½ dk lq>ko Fkk fd fo’ofo|ky; f’k{kk vk;ksx }kjk fn;s x;s lq>koksa ds vuq#i lHkh laLFkkvksa esa uSfrd]
lkekftd ,oa vk/;kfRed ewY;ksa dh f’k{kk nsus dh O;oLFkk dh tk;sA izkFkfed Lrj ij ewY;ijd f’k{kk dks jkspd dgkfu;ksa ds }kjk
ek/;fed Lrj ij f’k{kdksa ,oa Nk=ksa }kjk ikjLifjd fopkj&foe’kZ ds }kjk rFkk fo’ofo|ky; Lrj ij fofHkUu /keksZa dk rqyukRed

36
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

v/;;u djk;k tk;sA jk”Vªh; f’k{kk uhfr ¼lu~ 1986½ ds nLrkost esa bl ckr ij fpUrk izdV dh x;h gS fd thou ds fy, vko’;d
ewY;ksa dk âkl gks jgk gS vkSj ewY;ksa ij ls yksxksa dk fo’okl mBrk tk jgk gSA vr% f’k{kk Øe esa ,sls ifjorZu dh t:jr gS ftlls
lkekftd ,oa uSfrd ewY;ksa ds fodkl esa f’k{kk ,d l’kDr lk/ku cu ldsaA
f’k{kk dks ewY;ijd cukus esa ikB~; lkexzh fØ;kvksa dk egRoiw.kZ ;ksxnku jgk gSA blds }kjk O;fDr esa dRrZo;ijk;.krk] vuq’kklu]
ns’kizse dh Hkkouk] LokLF; lEcU/kh fodkl] lekt ls tksMus dk dk;Z vkfn ewY; ikB~; lgxkeh fØ;kvksa ds }kjk ge izkIr dj ldrs
gSA ysfdu orZeku esa ikB~; lkexzh fØ;k,W dsoy fo|ky;ksa esa vkSipkfjd ek= cu dj jg x;h gSA
mijksDr lHkh laLFkk,a f’k{kk dks ewY;ijd cukus esa l’kDr Hkwfedk vnk dj ldrh gS] rFkk buds fcuk f’k{kk dks ewY;ijd cukus dh
ifjdYiuk gh ugha dh tk ldrhA vc tcfd izfr{k.k u;s&u;s vkfo”dkj gks jgs gS] dEI;wVj vkSj bUVjusV dh lhek dk vHkwriwoZ
foLrkj dj fn;k x;k gS] ,sls esa ge oSfnddkyhu f’k{kk i)fr esa okfil tkus dh ckr lksp Hkh ugha ldrsA ges ;g fopkj djuk
gS fd fdl rjg ls xq:&f’k”; lEcU/k esa fudVrk vk;s vkSj f’k{kk txr esa uSfrdrk iqu% ikWo tek ldsA
lUnHkZ
1- vkyiksVZ] th MCyw ¼1954½ nh fglVkfjdy cSdxzkm.M vkWQ ekMZu lks’ky lkbdkWyth] ;sy ;wfuoflZVh izsl] U;w gsdsuA
2- dqyJs”B] ,l-ih- ¼1979½] beftZx oSY;w iSUVlZ vkWQ VhplZ ,.M U;w VªSaM~l vkWQ ,twds’ku bu bafM;k] ubZ fnYyh % ykbZV ,.M
ykbQ ifCy’klZA
3- Hkkjr ljdkj ¼1966½] dksBkjh vk;ksx & 1966 % f’k{kk vkSj jk”Vªh; fodkl] Hkkjr ljdkj] ubZ fnYyhA
4- Hkkjr ljdkj ¼1986½] jk”Vªh; f’k{kk uhfr] 1986] Hkkjr ljdkj] ubZ fnYyhA
5- jks’pj] fudksyl ¼1968½] bUVªksMsD’ku Vq oSY;w F;ksjh] ubZ fnYyh % izsfUVlgkyA
6- ‘kek ¼oh0 ,l0] egs’ojh ¼oh0 ds0½] ¼2000½ & i;kZoj.k vkSj ekuo ewY;ksa ds fy, f’k{kk] lw;kZ ifCyds’ku] esjB] m0 iz0A

37
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT &


HIGHER EDUCATION
Sanjay Kumar*

ABSRACT
Total Quality Management is a Philosophy as well as a set of guiding Principles that have been
successfully adopted in the field of higher education by developed countries such as Japan,
USA and UK. Core Practices of the TQM are Top management commitment, Strategic planning,
Customer focus, Staff total participation, Training & Development, Team work, Continuous
improvement and Evaluation & Feedback. TQM improves the Quality of courses, Teaching-
learning process, Evaluation process, Research activities, Publications activities, Extension
activities, student support & progression services and linkages with Industries and other
organizations.

Introduction
Total Quality Management is a Philosophy as well as a set of guiding Principles that represent the
foundation of a continuously improving institution. It has generally been recognized as a major
innovation in management thought and has gained widespread acceptance in business and industry.
The principles of TQM have been successfully adopted in the field of higher education by developed
countries such as Japan, USA and UK. Naik (2001) has strongly suggested that brining quality
movement through application of TQM in Indian higher education will result in global recognition.

Quality in education
Harvey & Green (1993) created four perspectives of quality in higher education. Quality as excellence
refers to the crystal clear touchstone created by the institutions, quality as fitness for purpose focuses
on filling the gap in the industry and considering the needs of the customer, quality as value for
money refers to the desired outcome of the institutions in term of business and profits, lastly quality
as transformation is when the institutions adopt strategic changes to gain a niche in the industry
(Harvey & green, 1993).

Total Quality Management


Total: Everyone in the institution is involved in creating and maintaining the quality of the services
offered.
Quality: The institution through individual and collections focuses on meeting customer needs,
recognizing that customer perception identities quality.
Management: In managing the system, the emphasis les on continuously improving his system in
order to achieve the best results.

Co-ordinator, New Era College of Science & Technology, Ghaziabad

38
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

TQM is a management philosophy embracing all activities through which the needs of the customer
and the community, and the objectives of the institution, are satisfied in the most efficient and the
cost-effective way by maximizing the potential of all employees in a continuing drive for improvement.

Poor practices in Higher Education Institutions


1. Leaders do not gives clear directions.
2. Accepting that certain levels of human errors are common.
3. Confuses quality with grade.
4. The “It’s not my problem” attitude among employees.
5. Tries to control people through fear of rules & regulations.
6. Each department works only for itself.
7. Quality improvement is just to get good grade.
8. Evaluation & feedbacks are not more than just formalities.

Core Practices of TQM for Higher Education Institutions


1. Management Commitment to promote quality.
2. Strategic Planning of the Institution for quality.
3. Customer satisfaction is the measure of quality.
4. Employee involvement is sources of quality improvement.
5. Adopt modern methods of training & Development –eliminate fear.
6. Eliminate barriers between departments by promoting teamwork.
7. Quality improvement must be continuous.
8. Evaluation & Feedbacks are the keys for quality improvement.

Top Management Commitment


Top management plays most important role in implementation of TQM in any Educational Institution.
If an organization is serious about implementing TQM, the commitment to do so have to start at the
top and the institution’s senior management has to be unwavering in its commitment to quality.
Major tasks of the Management Commitment are
 To state and communicate vision, mission & goals related to quality.
 To state policy statements related to Quality.
 To set values for the Institutions.
 To set performance expectations.
 To addresses its responsibilities to the student and other stakeholders.

39
NECST - Journal of Teacher Training Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010

Strategic Planning
Quality plan is based on the strategic planning of the institution. Major Tasks of the Strategic Planning
are
 To sets strategic directions.
 To determines key action plans.
 To address deployment of plans.
 To measure and sustain accomplishments.
 To stresses on learning-centered education and operational performances.

Customer Satisfaction
The fundamental goal of TQM is to satisfy customers. It is important to focus on the both internal
(Employees) and external (students) customers. Customer’s needs must be identified and understood.
This concept helps to strengthen the co-operation within the institution, eliminate internal competition
and drives away fear.

Staff Total Participation


Staff total participation is an integral part of TQM because quality is the responsibility of all employees
in everything they do. How the Institute enables its workforce of academic and non-academic staffs
to develop its full potential and how the workforce is aligned with the Institution’s objectives. It also
addresses key human resource practices that are directed toward creating and maintaining a high
performance workplace with a strong focus on students learning and toward developing staff
involvement and adaptation to change.

Training and Development


Training is a process of updating the knowledge, developing skills, bringing attitudinal and
behavioural changes and improving the trainee’s abilities to perform effectively and efficiently. When
TQM is introduced in an institution, it is essential that all the people have knowledge of its principles,
values, objectives, tools and techniques and the institution’s plans for its implementation.

Teamwork
Good teamwork constitutes the base of TQM. Teamwork requires the spirit of cooperation,
complementation and synergetic relationship among departments. In order to make TQM oriented
teamwork, the institution can take the following measures:
1. Creating purpose of the team in concert with the institution strategy.
2. Creating a culture in the institution that values team participation and autonomy.
3. Providing appropriate training to team members.
4. Reinforcing teamwork by reward system of institution.

Continuous Improvement
There is a beginning to the process of TQM, but there is no end. Checking, rechecking, valuation,
revaluation, engineering and re-engineering are essential to ensure continuous improvement. All

40
Vol. 2 No. 1 – 15th November 2010 NECST - Journal of Teacher Training

work must be viewed as a process. Management’s responsibility to anticipate or expect changes in


the needs, wants and expectations of customers, employees and society.TQM is an unremitting system
of improving work processes.TQM requires knowledgeable employees who have the ability to work
in teams and adapt themselves to the dynamic work environment. Aspects of how key and support
processes are designed, managed, and continuously being improved and maintained.

Evaluation and Feedback


A strategy is incomplete without constant evaluation and feedback. Evaluation does not mean passing
judgments on success or failure. The purpose is to assess the distance covered to reach the set target.
As and when evaluation is done, feedback is the immediate step followed. The institution should
encourage one and all for evaluation of their own performance and of institution also. By getting the
feedback, the concerned unit / department should immediately act upon that to maintain total quality.

Conclusion
Total Quality Management is a Philosophy as well as a set of guiding Principles which allow an
institution to pursue a definition of quality and a means of attaining quality through Top management
commitment, strategic planning of the institution, customer satisfaction, Staff total participation,
Training & development, Team work, Continuous improvement and Evaluation & Feedback. It
improves the Quality of courses, Teaching-learning process, Evaluation process, Research activities,
Publications activities, Extension activities, student support & progression services and linkages
with Industries and other organizations.

References
1. Ali M. and Shastri R.K. (2010).Implementation of Total Quality Management in Higher Education.
Asian Journal of Business Management, Volume 2(1).
2. Chang, S.L. (1996). Organizational Culture and Total Quality Management. Dissertation Abstracts
International, 57(4).
3. Carey,T.R (1998).Total Quality Management in Higher Education: Why it works? Why it does
not? Dissertation Abstracts International,59(1).
4. Dhiman, S.K. (1995).Leadership Implications of Total Quality Management in Higher Education.
Dissertation Abstracts International 56 (7).
5. Ganihar.N.N & Bhat.V.K (2006).Total Quality Culture in Teacher Training Colleges, First Edition,
Discovery Publishing House, New Delhi..
6. Kyle, L. D. (1995).Visionary Leadership and Total Quality Management in Higher Education
Administration. Dissertation Abstracts International, 56(08).
7. Lakhe, R.R. and Mohanti, R.P. (1994), Total quality management –Concepts, Evolution and
Acceptability in Developing Economics,International Journal of quality and reliability
management, Vol.11 (9).
8. Naik, B.M. (2001), “Need to bring quality movement in higher education”, Journal of Engineering
Education, India, July Issue.
9. Paul, C.L (1998).The Relationship between the principles of Total Quality Management and School
Climate, School Culture and Teacher Empowerment. Dissertation Abstracts International,
59 (08).

41
10. Rodgers, C.G (1998).Teacher Perceptions of Total Quality Management Practices in Elementary
Schools. Dissertation Abstracts International, 59(10).
11. Sakthivel P.B., Rajendran, Raju G., R., (2005), TQM implementation and students’satisfaction of
academic performance, The TQM Magazine, Vol. 17 (6).
12. Sabihaini,L.Y, Astuti W.T. (2010).Total Quality Management Application in Learning Activity:
Indonesia’s Case Study, Pakistan Journal of Commerce & Social Sciences, Vol. 4 (1).
13. Tari, J.J. (2006), An EFQM Model Self-Assessment Exercise at a Spanish University , Journal of
Education Administration, Vol. 44, No.2.
14. Watson, J.R. (2000).Total Quality Education: a School District’s Beliefs, Behaviours and Outcomes.
Dissertation Abstracts International, 61(01).
DECLARATION

Statement of Ownership and other particulars about “NECST Journal of Teacher


Training “ Required for Registration of Newspapers (Central Rule)

Place of Publication : New Era College of Science & Technology


333, Pandav Nagar, Ghaziabad

Periodicity of Publication : Bi – annual

Printed at : Subrang Advertising Pvt. Ltd.


R-81 Raj Kunj , Raj Nagar, Ghaziabad

Publisher’s Name : Shri Rajeev Malik

Nationality : Indian

Address : III – A/41, Nehru Nagar,


Ghaziabad - 201001

Editor’s Name : Sanjay Kumar

Nationality : Indian

Address : 360, Niti Khand III, Indirapuram,


Ghaziabad 201014

Owned by : New Era College of Science & Technology


333, Pandav Nagar, Ghaziabad

I, Rajeev Malik, hereby declare that the particulars given above are true to the best of
my knowledge and belief.

Shri Rajeev Malik


Publisher
SUBSCRIPTION FORM

I wish to subscribe to my subscription to ‘NECST’ Journal of Teacher Training for


1/2/3 years (S). A bank draft/ cheque bearing no. ........................... dated .....................
for Rs /U.S. $ .............................. drawn in favour of New Era College of Science &
Technology, payable at Ghaziabad / Delhi towards subscription for .........................
years, in inclosed.

Please tick appropriately the subscription details:

New/ Renewal Existing Subsn. No. : .............................................................................

Name : ........................................................................................................................

Org/Inst. : ........................................................................................................................

Address : ........................................................................................................................

City : ........................................................................ Pin : ......................................

Country : ................................................................... Phone : ......................................

Fax : ................................................................... E mail : ......................................

Signature with date : .......................................................................................................

Subscription Rate : Individual / Institutional Rs. 500/- each


ISSN : 0975-4717

NECST
Journal of Teacher Training
A Peer Reviewed Journal (Bi-annual) Vol. 2 No. 1, 15th November, 2010

New Era College of Science & Technology


Ghaziabad (India)
ISSN : 0975-4717

NECST
Journal of Teacher Training
A Peer Reviewed Journal (Bi-annual) Vol. 2 No. 1, 15th November, 2010

Published by
Mr. Rajeev Malik on behalf of New Era College of Science & Technology
at 333, Pandav Nagar Ghaziabad, U. P. (India)
Editor: Mr. Sanjay Kumar
Printed at New Era College of Science & Technology
Subrang Advertising Pvt. Ltd., Ghaziabad
Ghaziabad (India)