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Nanotechnology

• Nanofabrication techniques
• Characterization techniques
• Single electron transistors
• Quantization of electrical resistance
• Molecular electronics
• Nanotubes, nanowires
• Bio-nano-electronics

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Moore’s law(s)
• Transistor per die vs. time
– Gordon Moore, “Cramming more components onto integrated circuits”,
Electronics v. 38, no. 8 (1965)
– Predicted # transistors/die would double every 2 years
• Transistors size vs. time
• Transistor cost vs. time
• MIPS vs. time
• Manufacturing plant cost vs. time
– (here nano can help the most)
• Most recent data presented by G. Moore
– Feb. 2003 (International Solid State and Circuits Conference)
– Peruse some of the data (available in handouts @ copy center)

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Units
• Meter (m)
• Millimeter (mm) = 10-3 m
• Micrometer (µm) = 10-6 m
• Nanometer (nm) = 10-9 m
• Picometer (pm) = 10-12 m
• Femtometer (fm) = 10-15 m

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Length scales
Nanotube Smallest 2003 1970
lithographic Si transistor Si transistor
resolution (0.13 µm) (10 µm)
Atom

DNA Protein Virus Cell

1A 1 nm 10 nm 100 nm 1 µm 10 µm

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What is nanotechnology?
• “Top down” approach
– Micron scale lithography
• optical, ultra-violet
• Focused Ion Beam
– 10-100 nm
• Electron-beam lithography
• “Bottom up” approach
– Chemical self-assembly
• Man-made synthesis (e.g. carbon nanotubes)
• Biological synthesis (DNA, proteins)
– Manipulation of individual atoms
• Atomic Force Microscopy
• Scanning Tunneling microscopy

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Vision

To integrate the “top down” approach with the


“bottom up” approach.

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Nanotechnology is
multidisciplinary:
Electrical
Physics
Eng.

Nanotechnology
Mech.
Chemistry
Eng.

Info.
Mat. Biology
Tech.
Science
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A brief history of nanotechnology
• Democritus in ancient Greece: concept of atom
• Rutherford, 1900: discovery of atomic nucleus
• Feynman, 1960: speech at Caltech
• Drexler, 1986, 1992: Engines of Creation,
Nanosystems
• Clinton, speech, Caltech, 2000
• National Nanotechnology Initiative since 2000

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Feynman challenges
• “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom”
• Feynman, Caltech 1960 set two challenges
– Construct a 1/64 cubic inch moter
– claimed in 1960
– On display at Caltech today
• Encyclopedia Britanica on head of a pin
– Actualy on page in 10 microns2
– Claimed in 1985
– Used electron-beam lithography

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Foresight challenges
• Drexler wrote two books:
– 1986: Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of
Nanotechnology
– 1992: Nanosystems: Molecular Machinary, Manufacturing,
and Computation
• Foresight/Feynman $250,000 prize
– 100 nm arm nano-robot
– 50 nm3 8-bit adder

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Investments in the Future
• National Nanotechnology Initiative
– $422 M in ’01 (federal)
– $604 M in ’02
– $774 M in ’03
– $847 M in ’04
– 14 federal agencies
• Nano-journals
– Nanotechnology
– Nano Letters
– Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
– IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
– IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
• Industry
– All major companies involved
– Dozens of startup comanies:
• Nanosys, Nanomix, Nanotex, Nano-Or, Nanobio, Molecular Nanosystems,
Nanogen, Nanodevices, Nanolab, Nanosig, many others

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Biosystems
• DNA
– 2-3 nm per base pair
– Human genome contains ~ 109 base pairs
• Proteins
– typically 1-10 nm in size
– ~ 100,000 different proteins in human genetic code
– all are synthesized enzymatically (bottom up)
• Biological Nano-motors
– ATP synthase
– Kinesin, Actin important for muscle movement
• Nanotechnology is important for life itself

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ATP Synthase
• 10 nm nanomachine at
the mitochondria
membrane
• Uses proton gradient to
convert ADP to ATP
• Extremely important for 10 nm
metabolism

Movie source: www.res.titech.ac.jp

References: Boyer, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 1997


Yoshida, Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Bio. 1997
Soong, Montemagno, Nature, 2000

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Nano-manufacturing
• Lithography can do 10 nm
• Tricks to 2 nm
• Biosystems can add 2 carbon atoms at a time
– typical in lipid biosynthesis
– enzymes are nano machines
• We do not know how to design enzymes, only
copy them
• As such, nanotechnology does not yet exist
according to Drexler’s definition

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Some nanotechnology uses
• Nanoparticles:
– Catalysts for industrial chemical processing
• Nanocapsules
– Possible organ specific drug delivery
• Nanomaterials
– Improved strength and weight
– E.g. carbon nanotube based materials could be stronger and lighter than steel
• Nanomechanical devices
– RF signal processing
• Nanofluidic devices
– Lab on a chip
• Nanoelectronic devices (focus of this course)
– Computation
– Communication
– Nano-bio-electronic interfaces
• Chemical and biological weapons detection
• DNA sequencing
• Point-of-care clinical diagnoses
• Fundamental studies of molecular biology

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A word of warning
• Don’t expect the goals of nanotech. to be
achieved in just one or two years
• If we promise too much, nanotech. boom will
go the way of the dot coms
• In contrast to the dot coms, I hope to convince
you in this course that there is truly new
technology and science, which will one day be
useful, and possibly revolutionary.

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Readings for this week
• Feynman,
“There’s plenty of room at the bottom”
• Moore’s law original paper
• Moore’s law slides
• Drexler ch. 2

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