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# CHI SQUARE TEST goodness of fit (Non-parametric)

Objectives
To find out if there is any significant differences in frequency across response categories. (To
know whether an observed pattern of frequency corresponds with an expected pattern of
frequency)

## Software used : SPSS 17

Steps:
To conduct a chi-square test for goodness of fit (assumed equal frequencies)

## 1. Enter variables and the respective data

(Initially we have to tell the program that the data for frequency are in the form of
frequency counts and not scores. This can be done using the Weight Cases option)
2. Select the Data menu
3. Click on Weight Cases….. to open the Weight Cases dialogue box
4. Click on the Weight Cases by radio button
5. Select the variable you require (frequency) and click to move it to the Frequency
variable box
6. Click on OK. The message Weight On should appear on the status bar at the bottom
right of the application window.

## 7. Select the Analyze menu

8. Click on Nonparametric Tests and then Chi-square…. To open the Chi-square test
dialogue box
9. Select the variable you require (attitude) and move it into the Test Variable list box
10. Click on OK.

1
To conduct a chi-square test for goodness of fit with unequal expected frequencies

## 1. Select the Analyze menu

2. Click on Nonparametric Tests and then Chi-square…. To open the Chi-square test
dialogue box
3. Select the variable you require (attitude) and move it into the Test Variable list box
4. In the Expected Values box, click the values :radio button
5. Type 15 in the box and click on Add
6. Type another 15 in the box and click on Add
7. Type 30 in the box and click on Add
8. Click on OK.

Output :
a) From the output it can be seen that the chi-square value is significant (p<0.05). Therefore it
can be concluded that there are significant differences in the frequency of attitudes towards the
subject research methodology.
(In this case expected frequencies in the above example represent a 1/3:1/:1/3 split)

b) From the output it can be seen that chi-square value is not significant (p>0.05). Therefore it
can be concluded that there are no significant differences in the frequency of attitudes towards
the subject research methodology.
(When expected frequency for each category in not evenly balanced, say for ex: the expected
frequency is 15,15,30)

Working Example:
The attitude of 60 people towards Indian military bases in Sri Lanka were collected. A chi-square
test for goodness of fit will allow us to determine if differences in frequency exist across
response categories.

Result: As p<.05 there is a significant differences in the frequency of attitude towards Indian
military bases in Sri Lanka