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Institute for Competitive Exams

Contents

Data Interpretation: How To?

2

DI: Tabular Data

DI: Bar Chart
DI: Line Chart
DI: Pie Chart
DI: Miscellaneous
DI: Compound

6

11

17

23

30

39

Institute for Competitive Exams

Data Interpretation: How T o?

to decipher the information/data, usua lly provided in a graphical

form. These problems have beco me a necessary component of all compe titive exams, since this type of questioning makes it is ea sier to evaluate the candidate’s perc eptiveness with numbers. Understand the following distil o n how to hone data interpretation prowe ss to perfection. Let us first familiarise with the v arious forms of data presentation:

Data interpretation is an ability

1.
Tabular Form:
This is the most conventional for m of representation of data. Data is repr esented in a tabular form as
represented below.
Comparative Sales Figur es of Various Tooth Pastes For Firs t Five months of ‘98
(A ll Figures in Rs. ‘000 (fictional))
BRAND
Ja nuary
February
March
April
May
Close-Up
34
2
360
360
410
415
Colgate
15
80
1600
1640
1660
1780
Pepsodent
37
51
42
47
44
2.
Line Chart:
Data is represented on lines. Onl y a cursory glance can give you a lot of in formation. Especially used
by stock brokers to study movem ent of share prices.
Share price movement of Two Bl ue Chips – X & Y – on BSE.
360
350
340
330
320
310
300
290
2 4/08
25/08
26/08
27/08
2 8/08
X
Y
A particular week in August
3.
Bar Charts:
Share Price

This is an improvisation over the line graph where in it is easy to see the a ctual difference very easily.

Refer to the following graph whi ch depicts the percentage of boys and girl s, in various age groups,
studying at a particular level.
75
70
80
65
60
60
40
35
30
40
25
20
0
3-8
9-15
16-20
21-24
BOYS
GIRLS
Age Groups
Percentage

Institute for Competitive Exams

4. Pie Charts:

As the name suggests Pie Charts depict information in the form of a Pie, i .e. as per area of the circle. The differences are very clearly h ighlighted when we have more than two or three items to compare. The following two pie charts com pare the receipt and expenditure of each rupee by the Government of India.

INCOME

EXPENDI TURE

10%
Excise
8%
13%
Oth
30%
Sub
Def.
Def
Excise
Custom
Int.
28%
Plans
Dev.
40%
20%
Tax
Tax
33%
Custom
Plans
Int
18%
Subsidy
Others
Dev
5. Compound Charts:

Here in two or more different ty pes of graphs may be given and one woul d have to co-relate the data from these.

Tips To Improve Score in Data Interpretat ion
1.
Computational Speed:
Increase your mental calculation speed. It is essential that you develop an ability to calculate 10%,
1%, 2%, 5% of random numbers. You should be able to calculate average o f six three-digit numbers
in less than thirty seconds.
e.g. to find the average of 514, 36 8, 975, 140, 674, and 807.
2.
Be Meticulous:
Look for
a.
Units:
you must pay attention to the fac t that the figures may be given in thousa nds of rupees (example the
figures for sales mentioned in Ta bular Graph, as elsewhere in this assign ment, are in thousand of
rupees).

b. Respect Footnotes:

certain graphs, especially financi al graphs, may carry some footnotes. Typ ical footnotes may mention that a balance sheet per tains to only nine months or fifteen mon ths instead of normal

twelve months. Sometimes some data may be projected data only. Keep a n open eye for such

qualifying information, generally

occurring at the bottom of the graph.

c. Understand Percentage:

It is essential to understand the

compute percentage in about fift y percent of the questions. Please note th e following nuances in percentage.

basic concept of percentage because you

may be required to

Institute for Competitive Exams

Profit of a Vapourware Pvt. Ltd in the last two years were (in Rs. Crore)

 Year 1996 1997 Profit 120 150
A: Profit increased from 1996 to 1997 by Rs. 30 crores (150 – 120)
B: Profit in 1997 was how many times the profit in 1996 = 1.25 times (150 / 120)
C: Profit in 1996 was how many times the profit in 1997 = 0.8 times (120 / 150)
D: Profit earned in 1997 was what percent more than the profit earned in 1996
 150
120
25 % =
100   . We can also say that the profit earned in 1997 was 125% of the profit earned
120
in 1996.
E: Profit earned in 1996 was what percent less than the profit earned in 1997
 120
150
20% =
100   . The –ve sign signifies that profit was lower in 1996 than in 1997. We can
150
also say that the profit earned in 1996 was 80% of the profit earned in 1997.
d. Rapid Eye Movement:
Data Interpretation requires that you have a roving eye – always on the lookout for data.
3. Develop a Sense of Approximation:
You should develop a knack (believe us this can be developed through a lot of practice only) for
approximation. Keep in mind that one can use approximation only when the answer choices are
distant/ far removed.
Grasp the following illustration:
No. of Patients listed by the type of ailment
RVG Hospital
PKR Clinic
JP Hospital
Tuberculosis
123
201
68
AIDS
41
61
34
Leukaemia
23
79
47
Laryngitis
18
8
12
Neurosis
16
6
74
A. The average number of tuberculosis patients in the three institutions is nearly

a) 147

b) 169

c) 131

d) 119

(Now the untrained candidate would add 123, 201 and 68 and divide by 3 to get the answer. What

the smart candidate does is to add 120, 200 and 70, gets a total of 390 and divides by 3 to get 130 and so marks the choice (c)) B. The RVG Hospital has what per cent less patients in AIDS than those in PKR Clinic?

a) 34.45

b) 32.78

c) 35.68

Institute for Competitive Exams

d) 30.78 (Again the smart candidate finds 20 is what per cent of 60, it being 33.33%, understands the actual answer should be slightly less and thus marks choice (b), whereas the dumb candidate actually does

the operation 20 61

100 , wasting valuable time.)

Institute for Competitive Exams

DI: Tabular Data

Directions (Q 1-5): Study the following questions and choose the correct answer for each from the alternatives provided there under.

State wise production of different crops for the year 1993-94 (in million tonnes)

State
Rice
Wheat
Pulses
3. 18%
4. 15%

2.

U.P.
7.18
15.97
2.76
W.B.
8.09
0.81
0.35
M.P.
3.67
3.72
2.32
Maharashtra
1.94
0.86
1.11
Haryana
1.36
4.42
0.36
All India
58.64
44.23
12.20
1. W.B. produces approximately what percent of the total rice produced in India?
1. 12.2 %
2. 13.5 %

The amount of wheat produced by U.P. is more than the amount of wheat produced by the other

four states listed in the table, by
1. 6.97 m tonnes
2. 6.16 m tonnes
3. 5.52 m tonnes
4. 5.89 m tonnes
3.
What per cent approximately of the total wheat production was produced by states other than
those given in the table?
1.
38%
2.
42%
3.
48%
4.
58%
4.
U.P. produced approximately what per cent of the all India production of all the three crops taken

together?

1. 27.75%

2. 26.2%

3. 24.18%

4. 22.52%

5. Which of the following statements is true?

1. U.P. was the top producer of all the three crops.

2. M.P. ranked third in the production of all the three crops.

3. Three different states ranked second in the production of different crops.

4. Haryana was the lowest producer of wheat.

Institute for Competitive Exams

Directions (Q 6-10): Study the following table and answer the questions that follow.

India’s foreign trade for the year 1980-81 to 1986-87 (All figures in Rs. Crores)
Year
Exports
Imports
1980-81
6711
12549 5838
1981-82
7806
13608 5802
1982-83
8803
14293
5490
1983-84
9771
15831
6060
1984-85
11855
17173
5318
1985-86
10420
18371
7951
1986-87
12550
20063
7513
6. Which of the following showed an increase every year?
1. Exports
2. Imports
4. All of these
7. The ratio of imports to exports was maximum in the year
1. 1980-81
2. 1986-87
3. 1985-86
4. 1983-84
8.
The percentage increase in exports was maximum in the year
1.
1981-82
2.
1986-87
3.
1984-85
4.
1983-84
9.
The total trade deficit (in Rs. crores) for the last five years is

1. 28508

2. 32332

3. 44322

4. 33232

10. The difference between imports and exports was maximum in the year:

1. 1985-86

2. 1986-87

3. 1984-85

4. 1983-84

Institute for Competitive Exams

Directions (Q 11-15): Study the following table and answer the questions given below.

World Almond Crop Produced during the years 1983-87

Origin
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
U.S.A.
110000
266000
211000
111000
272000
Spain
35000
43000
65000
52000
70000
Italy
30000
12000
12000
14000
12000
Greece
15000
15000
16000
15000
9000
Others
18000
22000
21000
22000
22000
Total in tonnes
208000
358000
325000
214000
385000
11.
Which of the following statements is not true?
1.
2.
3.
U.S.A. produced more than 50% of the crop in all these years
Italy produced the minimum amount except in 1983
Greece’s total production in all these years is less than Italy’s total production.
4.
The production of ‘other’ countries changed lest in 1987 as compare a to 1983, in comparison to
the other named countries.
12.
Spain’s production was more than the total production of all other countries except U.S.A.,
except in the year/s

1. 1983

2. 1983 and 1984
3. 1983, 1984 & 1986
4. 1983, 1985, 1986 and 1987
13.
The percentage production by U.S.A. was maximum in the year
1.
1983
2.
1984
3.
1985
4.
1987
14.
Which country had the maximum percent change in the production of almonds during 1983-87?
1.
U.S.A.
2.
Italy
3.
Spain

4. None of these

15. The total world production had a maximum difference with the previous year’s production in the

year.

1. 1984

2. 1986

3. 1987

4. None of these

Institute for Competitive Exams

Directions (Q16-20): Study the following table and answer the questions given below.

Progress of Shatabadi Express from City A to City H via other Cities
City
Arrival Time
Departure
Cumulative Distance (in km.)
Time
A
-- 9:00
0
B
9:15
9:20
20
C
10: 40
10:55
165
D
11:25
11:30
224
E
12:15
12:25
296
F
12:40
12:45
304
G
13:45
14:00
400
H
14:30
--
440
16.
What per cent of time for the entire trip has been actually spent travelling between the cities?
1. 84.28
2. 83.3%
3. 75.6%

4. 70.2%

17.
The maximum waiting time is at
1. G
2. C
3. D
4. both C and G
18.
The least distance is between station
1.
G and H
2.
D and E
3.
E and F
4.
B and C
19.
The average speed for the entire trip excluding halting time is

1. 80 km/hr

2. 90 km/30 mts

3. 96 kms/hr

4. 86 km/hr

20. The number of pairs of consecutive stations between which the speed is 96 kms/ hour is

1. two

2. three

3. one

4. None of these

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21. It the rail fare is 25 paise per km, the fare between C and F is

1. Rs. 34.75

2. Rs. 36.75

3. Rs. 39.5

4. Rs. 35

22. The number of pairs of consecutive station between which the speed exceeds 96 kms/hours is

1. four

2. two
3. five
4. None of these
23.
The number of pairs of stations between which the average speed resembles the overall average
speed is
1. three
2. two
3. four
4. None of these
24.
Stations B, D and F are alike in the sense
1.
2.
The average speed upto those stations is the same
The distances between each of these stations and their succeeding stations is the same

3. The halting time at these station is the same

4. None of these
25.
If the halting time is also taken into account, the overall average speed would decline from the
result in problem no. 19 by
1. 16 kms/hr
2. nothing
3.
20 kms/hr
4.
None of these
Answer Key: DI - TABULAR
1: 12243
6: 21321
11: 22213
16: 24331
21: 12231

Institute for Competitive Exams

DI: Bar Chart

Directions (Q 1- 5): Study the f ollowing graph carefully and answer the questions that follow. This is your assignment covering Tab ular form of data representation. !!

Passengers Travellin g By Various Modes from 1987 to 1 992(In Millions)

450
400
400
400
375
375
375
375
350
300
30 0
300
300
275
260
265
250
Buses
200
200
175
175
175
150 160
150
Air Lines
100
50
0
1987
19 88
1989
1990
1991
1992
1.
In 1989, bus passengers repres ented approximately what percentage of all passengers by buses,
railroads, and airlines in the yea r?
1. 35%
2. 45%
3. 55%
4. None
2.
From 1987 to 1992 inclusive, h ow may millions of passengers approxim ately travelled by railroad?
1.
1000
2.
1300
3.
1500
4.
1700
3.
If in 1992 the average bus fare per passenger was \$ 0.50 and if the aver age airline fare per

passenger was \$ 50. Then total f total

1.

ares of airline passengers

fares for bus passengers

6

5

30

2.

1

60

3.

1

4. None

was approximatel y

Institute for Competitive Exams

4. In 1991 airlines in the United states flew 135, 900 million passenger miles. What was the average

number of miles, most nearly flown by each airline passenger in that year?

1. 335

2. 445

3. 555

4. 775

5. The number of railroad passengers in 1992 when compared to the number of railroad passengers

in 1987 were less by
1. 35
2. 40
3. 70
4. None
Directions (Q 6-10): Study the following graph carefully and answer the questions that follow.
External Public Debt in from 1980 to 1986 (in Rs. crore)
40000
30500
28200
26880
30000
25530
23380
20825
21570
20000
10000
0
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
Axis Title
6.
During the years 1980-82, public deal rose by approximately
1.
6 %
2.
8 %
3.
12 %
4.
15 %
7.
Public debt rose by
(in
crores) from 1983 to 1984.
 1 1000 2 1200 3 1250 4 1350 8 Public debt rose by about 5.3 % during the period 1 1980-81 2 1982-83 3 1983-84 4 1984-86

Institute for Competitive Exams

9. Increase in public debt was minimum during the period

1. 1980-81

2. 1981-83

3. 1980-84

4. 1984-86

10. Increase in public debt was maximum during the period

1. 1981-’82

2. 1982-’83
3., 1983-’84
4. 1985-86
Directions (Q 11-15): Examine the following bar chart showing the output of a certain public
sector undertaking during various financial years and give appropriate answers to questions
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
75-76
76-77
77-78
78-79
79-80
80-81
81-82
Year
11. The production during ‘75-‘76 was what percent of production in ‘78-79?
1. 36.4 %
2. 53.7 %
3.
54.3%
4.
None
12.
During which year was the percent increase in production highest?
1.
‘76-’77
2.
‘78-’79
3.
‘80-’81
4.
‘75-’76
Production (in tons)

13. The average production over this seven period was

1. 730 tonnes

2. 747 tonnes

3. 715 tonnes

4. None

14. What is the percent increase in production from ‘75 -’76 to ‘81 - ’82?

1. 600

2. 500

3. 1000

Institute for Competitive Exams

4. 300

15. The percentage of decrease in production from ‘78-’79 to ‘79-’80 is

1. 10

2. 11 1

9

3. 88 8
9
4.
20
Directions (Q 16-20): Study the following graph carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Export & Imports Of Ximnadu For Five Year Period
16000
14000
12000
10000
Import
8000
Export
6000
4000
2000
0
78-79
79-80
80-81
81-82
82-83
16.
The percentage increase in imports between 1978-79 and 1982-83 was
1.
70%
2.
100%
3.
140%
4.
300%
17.
The percentage change in trade gap (Imports – Exports) between 1981-82 and 1982-83 was
approximately
1.
Increase of 10%
2.
Decrease of 10%
7000
6000
9000
6500
12500
6750
13750
7750
14000
8600

3. Increase of 20%

4. Decrease of 25%

18. The percentage increase in trade gap between 1979-80 end 1980-81 was

1. 30%

2. 130%

3. 230%

4. 330%

19. Which of the following statements is true?

1. In all the years exports are greater than imports

Institute for Competitive Exams

2. Trade gap is continuously incr easing

3. Trade gap is continuously dec reasing

4. Trade gap first increases and t hen exhibits a decreasing trend.

20. If oil imports constituted 20 % of, the total imports in 1980-81, then w hat percent of the trade

gap was due to oil (assuming tha t no oil was exported)

1. 20%

2. 30%

3.
43%
4.
50%
Directions (Q 21-25): Study th e following graph carefully and answer th e questions that follow.
Sta te Z unemployment rates
14
12
10
Males
8
6
Females
4
2
0
Rates are based on
male and female labor forces, respectively.
21. For how many of the years sh own was the unemployment rate for fem ales less than the
unemployment rate for males?
1.
One
2.
Two
3.
Three
4.
Four
22.
For how many of the years fr om 1977 through 1982, both inclusive, di d the unemployment rate
for males increase over the corre sponding rate of unemployment for male s in the previous year?
1.
One
7.9
1976
8
7.3
1977
8.3
6.2
1978
8
6.4
1979
7.7
7.8
1980
7.8
8.8
1981
7.8
12.3
1982
9.1

2. Two

3. Three

4. Four

23. In State Z in 1982, the total l abor force was 1 million, of which 55 perc ent were males. If the

unemployment rate for males is defined as the ratio of the number of une mployed males to the

number of males in the labor for ce, what was the approximate number of unemployed males in State Z in 1982?

1. 70,000

2. 55,000

3. 50,000

Institute for Competitive Exams

4. 40,000

24. What was the unemployment rate (including both males and females) in State Z during 1977?

1. 7.8%

2. 8.3%

3. 15.6%

4. Can’t be determined

25.
Which of the following statements about unemployment in State Z can be inferred from the
graph?
I. The same number of females were unemployed in 1981 as in 1980.
1
II. The unemployment rate for males in 1982 was more than
1 2 times the rate for males in 1976.
III. From 1978 to 1979, the number of unemployed males increased
1. None
2. I only
3. II only
4. III only
Answer Key: DI - BAR CHART
1: 24441
6: 34314
11: 41422
16: 22243
21: 24143

Institute for Competitive Exams

DI: Line Chart

Directions (Q 1-7): This is your assignment covering Tabular form of da ta representation. Study the graph and solve the followin g questions.

Sales / Net Profits of Company (in la khs)
70
64
61.5
61.5
60
52
50
47.6
40
37.4
Sales
30
29 .1
Net Pr.
20
15.4
15.6
14.3
10
5.2
3.
5
0 2.1
0
-3.2
-4.2
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
-10

1. In which year was the net prof it as a percentage of the sales revenue the

greatest?

1.
73
2.
74
3.
79
4.
80
2.
Which was the year in which t he sales revenue registered the highest p ercentage growth compared
to that of the previous year?
1.
1974
2.
1976
3.
1978
4.
1980
3.
What was the cumulative net
profit/loss of the first five years for which particulars are shown?
1.
2.2 lakhs
 2 (-) 1.2 lakhs 3 (-) 1.8 lakhs 4 3.2 lakhs 4 Which was the year in which t he expenses of the company were the hig hest? 1 1980 2 1979 3 1978 4 1976

Institute for Competitive Exams

5. If a tax of 55% was paid on gross profit before the net profit was arrived at, what was the

combined gross profit for the years 1979 and 1980? (in Rs. lakhs)

1.
66
2.
62
3.
46
4.
38
6.
If the net profit in 1981 was 18% more than in 1980, and this was approximately 20% of the sales
turnover in that year, the sales turnover in 1981 was (in Rs. lakhs)
1. 78
2. 84
3.
102
4.
92
7.
If, in the year 1980, the expenditure on advertisement was 2.5% of the sales turnover, what was its
percentage on the net profit for that year?
1. 18
2. 10.5
3. 13.5
4. 9.5
Directions (Q 8 – 12): Study the graph and answer the following questions.
Sale of TV Sets By Companies A & B
12000
10000
8000
A
6000
4000
B
2000
0
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May Jun
Jul
Aug Sep
Oct
Nov Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
 8 Which company sold more number of TV sets in 1985? 1 A 2 B 3 Both were equal 4 Cannot be determined 9 Compared to the first four months of 1985, Company B sold, in the first four months of 1986 1 1000 sets more 2 1000 sets less 3 equal number of sets 4 8000 sets more

Institute for Competitive Exams

10. Which was the worst three month period for Company A in terms of business?

1. Jan – Mar 85

2. Mar – May 85

3. April – June 85

4. May – July 85

11. What was the difference in the numbers of sets sold by the two companies in the first four months of 1986?

1. 2000 sets
2. 40000 sets
3. 6000 sets
4.
7000 sets
12.
The difference in the numbers of sets sold by company B in the first eight months and the second
eight months in the graph was
1. 2000 sets
2. Nil
3. 3000 sets
4. 4000 sets
Directions (Q 13 – 20): Study the graph and answer the following questions.
Monthly Imports & Exports - 1985-86
400
395
390
385
380
375
370
365
360
355
350
APR MAY JUN
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR
Rs. Millions

Import

Export

13. What was the total value of exports during the period April-Sept, 85? (in Rs. million)

1. Rs. 1885

2. Rs. 2632

3. Rs. 2257.5

4. Rs. 2295

14. The gap between monthly import and export was greatest in

1. Aug & Sep

2. Sep & Dec

3. Dec & Jan

4. Aug & Nov

Data Interpretation

#3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046

Page 19

Institute for Competitive Exams

15. In the first three months of 1986, imports exceeded exports by

1. Rs. 27.5 m

2. Rs. 20 m

3. Rs. 17.5 m

4. Rs. 32.5 m

16. During the financial year 1985-86,

1. Imports exceeded exports by Rs. 100 m

2. Imports exceeded exports by Rs. 60 m
3. exports exceeded imports by Rs. 250 m
4. exports and imports were of equal value
17.
In how many months did the import exceed export?
1. 8
2. 3
3. 7
4. 5
18.
For the month when exports and imports were of equal value, the import bill was
1. Rs. 760 m
2. Rs. 377.5 m
3. Rs. 380 m

4. Rs. 387.5 m

19.
The three-month period when import was greatest was
1. Jan – Mar
2. Aug – Oct
3. July – Sep
4. May – July
20. In which quarter of the financial year was the difference between import and export values the
least?
1.
First
2.
Second
3.
Third
4.
Fourth

Institute for Competitive Exams

Directions (Q 21 –25): Study the graph and answer the following questions.

Power Supply Position in India (in Billion KWH)
200
170
175
145
137
150
129
120
118
151
125
109
102
124
130
88
100
84
115
Requirement
78
105
97
99
75
Supply
86
75
83
50
66
25
0
74-75 75-76 76-77 77-78 78-79 79-80 80-81 81-82 80-83 83-84 84-85
21. What was the percentage increase in supply of power between 1980-81 and 1984 – 85?
1. 56%
2. 145%
3. 43%
4. 85%
22.
The cumulative shortfall between requirement and supply from 1980 to the end of 1985 was (in
billion Kwh)
1. 56
2. 85
3.
45
4.
76
23.
The requirement of power in 1984-85 was how many times the availability of supply in 1978-79?
1.
2.6
2.
1.75
3.
2.75
4.
2.0

24. The percentage of growth in power requirement from 1979-80 to 1984 – 85 was less than the

percentage of growth in power requirement from 1974 – 75 to 1979 – 80 by what figure?

1. 3

2. 4

3. 15

4. 7

25. Between 1979-80 and 1983-84, the power generation has generally lagged behind power demand

by how many years?

1. 1

Institute for Competitive Exams

2. 2

3. 3

4. 4

1: 41331

Answer Key: DI – LINE CHART

6: 42223

11: 41343

16: 21331

21: 34242

Institute for Competitive Exams

DI: Pie Chart

Directions (Q 1-7): Answer the following questions on the basis of information given.

ZINC: USER SEGMENTS

Chemicals 10%
Others 2%
Semi
manufacturers
Galvanizing
7%
48%
Zinc Alloys 15%
Brass/Bronze
Products 18%
(BINANI ZINC)
HINDUSTAN ZINC
12 MONTHS
12 MONTHS
(Rs Crore)
March 2000
March 1999
% Change
March 2000
March 1999
% Change
Sales Turnover
255.91
233.50
9.60
1515.62
1309.39
15.75
Operating Profit
59.10
49.80
18.67
259.63
219.91
18.07
Interest
22.09
20.11
9.85
10.45
15.24
(31.4)
Gross Profit
37.01
29.69
24.65
249.18
204.67
21.74
Depreciation
13.17
20.35
67.01
57.20
PBT
23.84
9.34
155.25
182.17
147.47
23.53
Tax
2.75
0.99
91.75
68.50
Net Profit
21.09
8.35
152.57
90.42
78.97 14.50
ZINC: DEMAND-SUPPLY SCENE
(In Tonne)
Domestic Demand
Domestic Production
1997-98
238000
174000
1998-99
252000
172000
1999-00
270000
180000
2000-01
290000
190000
2001-02
310000
200000

Short fall in demand & production is met through imports There is a monopoly of zinc producers in the country

1. If Binani & Hindustan Zinc are the only two producers of zinc in the country then what was the

price per kilogram for zinc in 1998-99 assuming Binani & Hindustan zinc prices are same

1. Rs. 89.72

2. Rs. 184.72

Institute for Competitive Exams

 3 Rs. 1010.82 4 None of these 2 Which of the following explains the reason for only 14.5% increase in. Net profit for Hindustan

zinc despite a 15.25% increase in sales turnover while with only a 9.6% increase in turnover Binani

zinc improved profit by 152% I. Binani has much lower depreciation in 99-00 than Hindustan Zinc. Depreciation decreased for

Binani white it increased for Hindustan zinc
II. Hindustan zinc paid nearly 50% tax while Binani paid only about 10% tax
III. Income from forest component is much higher as a percentage of sales turnover for Binani zinc
than it is for Hindustan zinc
1.
I & II
2.
II, III only
3.
I, II & III
4.
I only
3.
The process of Galvanising requires high quality zinc and all the imported zinc is consumed by
this user segment. The remaining requirement of Galvanising Industry is met through domestic
production. In which year was the maximum percentage of demand of zinc met by domestic
producers of zinc for galvanising industry
1. 1999-00
2. 1997-98
3.
1998-99
4.
None of these
4.
Demand of Zinc for which industry/ combination of industries can be met by the imported zinc in
1999-00
1. Brass/ Bronze & Zincalloys
2. 50% demand & Galvanising & zinc Alloys
3.
Chemicals & zinc Alloys
4.
Brass/ Bronze & semi manufacturers
5.
Which of the following is the greatest Ratio?
1.
Gross profit to sales turnover for Binani Zinc in 1999-2000
2.
Gross profit to sales turnover for Hindustan zinc in 1999-2000
3.
Net profit to operating profit for Binani in 1998-1999.
4.
Net profit to operating profit for Hindustan in 1998-1999

6.

price of zinc produced domestically. The import duty is 20% on value of goods imported and transportation is another 10% . What is the foreign exchange outflow if all demand of chemical industry is met through import

1. \$ 32 mn

2. \$ 4o mn

3. \$ 60 mn

4. None of these

Suppose the Chemical industry requires low grade zinc which can be imported at half the average

Institute for Competitive Exams

7. What is the average production of zinc in the country for the five year period.

1. 183200 kg

2. 178900 kg

3. 184200 kg

4. None of these

Directions (Q 8-13): These questions are based on following graph.
Share of world population
12.5% G-
7 nations
57.5%
30% G-15
Other
nations
nations
The G-7
Pop. 1990 (millions)
GNP per capita (\$)
26
19,030
France
56
17,820
Germany
62
20,440
Italy
58
15,120
Japan
123
23,810
U.K
58
14,610
U.S.A.
250
20,910
The G-15
Pop. 1990 (millions)
Real GNP per capita (\$)
Algeria
25
2,230
Argentina
32
2,767
Brazil
143
2,540
Egypt
51
640
India
839
350
Indonesia
180
500
Jamaica
2.5
1,260
Malaysia
18
2,160
Maxico
85
1,958
Nigeria
114
250
Peru
21.5
1,010
Senegal
7.5
850
Venezuela
19.5
2,450
Yugoslavia
24
2,920
Zimbabwe
10
650

8. Which G-7 country has the highest GNP?

1. Japan

2. USA

Institute for Competitive Exams

 3 Canada 4 None of these 9 The lowest GNP of any G-15 nation is what percent of the highest GNP of any other G-15 nation? 1 1.7% 2 5.3% 3 4.3% 4 2.9%
10.
What is the total GNP of the other world countries if their average GNP per capita is 1140.
1.
2.
3.
4.
\$340 8600
\$348 9000
\$468 9600
None of these
11. Which of the following is false about the data given.
1.
Using information given in the above table we can conclude that total GNP of USA is greater than
total GNP of other nations put together
2.
3.
4.
Total GDP of Malaysia is less than total GDP of Egypt.
Per capita GDP of only five G-15 nations is more than 15% of the per capita GDP of UK
None of these

12. The average GDP of G-7 nations is

1. \$18820
2. \$14820
3. \$17820
4. None of these
13.
Which of the following can be inferred form the data given.
I. GNP of each G-7 nation is greater than GNP of any G-15 nation.
II. The variance in population of G-7 nations is greater than the variance in population of G-15
nations.
III.
The population in other nations is about 4.5 times the total population in G-7 nations.
IV.
France has a GDP greater than that of Italy.
1.
I Only
2.
II & III

3. I, III, IV

4. IV & II

Institute for Competitive Exams

Directions (Q 14-18): These questions are based on following pie graph.

Spending Pattern of an Average Worker Comparison of spending patterns 100% = Rs.3500

Saving
Miscellan
5%
eous
10%
Food
Repaymen
t of Loans
35%
12%
Social
Religious
activity
8%
Semidura
Rent
bles
20%
10%
Spending Pattern of Mr. Hard worker
Saving
10%
Misc 5%
Food 25%
Social
Religious
7%
Durables
7%
Entertain-
Rent 18%
ment 8%
Semidurab
les 20%

14. For the categories which are common for both, for which category does Mr. Hard Worker spend more than the average worker?

1. Rent

2. Durables

3. Semi-durables

4. Entertainment

15. How much does Mr. Hard worker spend on categories which are not included in the spending pattern of an average worker?

Institute for Competitive Exams

1. Rs.100

2. Rs.225

3. Rs.525

4. Rs.450

16. The additional savings of 5% of Mr. Hard worker come from his savings under

1. Food

2. Repayment of loans

3. Misc.
4. Cannot be attributed to any particular category
17.
If the salary of Mr. Hard worker is increased by 20% and his expenses under all the heads remain
the same, what will be his percentage savings?
1. 10%
2. 15%
3. 20%
4. 25%
18.
Which of the following is definitely true?
I. Mr. Hard worker has a smaller family than the average worker.
II. Mr. Hard worker has not borrowed any money.
III. Mr. Hard worker spends less on necessities and more on comforts.

1. I only

2. II only
3. I, II and III only
4. None of these
Directions (Q 19-25): The following questions are to be answered on the basis of the pie-chart
given below.
Person’s monthly salary distributed over different expense heads
Petrol
Entertainment
10%
15%
Food
15%
Savings
23%
House Rent
Clothes
30%
7%

19. For a person, whose monthly salary is Rs. 6,000 p.m., how many items are there on which he has

to spend more than Rs. 1000 p.m.?

1. 1

2. 1

Institute for Competitive Exams

3. 3

4. 4

20. For the same person, an expenditure of Rs. 1800 p.m. takes place on

1. Petrol

2. House Rent

3. Food

4. Clothes

21. The annual savings for such a person will be approximately
1. Rs. 5,000
2. Rs. 10,000
3. Rs. 15,000
4. Rs. 16,560
22.
The monthly salary for a person who follows the same expense pattern, but has a petrol expense
of Rs. 500 p.m., is
1. Rs. 2,500
2. Rs. 3,000
3. Rs. 5,000
4. Rs. 6,500
23.
The percentage of money spent on clothes and towards saving is equal to which other single item

of expense?

1. Petrol
2. House Rent
3.
Food
4.
Entertainment
24.
What is the angle made at the centre of the pie-chart by the sector representing the expense on
petrol?
1.
30∞
2.
45∞
3.
36∞
4.
90∞
25.
Given that the pie- chart for a salary of Rs. 6,000 p.m., what would be the ratio of the radius of

this pie-chart to a pie- chart for a person with a salary of Rs. 1500 p.m.?

1. 2: 1

2. 1: 2
3. 1:
2
4. 2 : 1
2

1: 13212

Answer Key: DI - PIE CHART

11: 24333

6: 14144

16: 33312

21: 43232

Institute for Competitive Exams

DI: Miscellaneous

Directions: Solve the following data interpretation questions.
Distribution of Work Hours in a Factory
Number of Workers
Number of Hours Worked
20
45-50
15
40-44
25
35-39
16
30--34
4
0-29
80
TOTAL
3100
1.
What percentage worked 40 or more hours?
1.43.75
2.25
1
3.
33
3
4.
40
2.
The number of workers who worked from 40 to 44 hours is X times the number who worked up to
20 hours, where X is
1. 15
16
3
2. 3
4
3. 4
4. 5
3.
Which of the following statements can be inferred from the table?
I. The average number of hours worked per worker is less than 40
II. At least 3 worked more than 48 hours.
III. More than half of all the workers worked more than 40 hours.
1.
I only
2.
II only
3. I and II only

4. I and III only

Institute for Competitive Exams

1967-70 Government Data RECEIPTS

Corp. Tax
44.9
Indiv
19.7 Corp.
Employment Tax, Unemploym ent & Other Insurance
etc.
Excise Tax
Customs, Estate, Gift Tax
4.7 Cust
Indiv. Income Tax
8.5 Excise
22.1 Employment
OUTLAYS
3%
Spa ce Programme
Agr iculture
3% 3%
Co
mmerce & Transport
47%
5%
Hea lth Security
Edu cation & Manpower
Pen sioners
29%
Oth
ers
2%
Def ence
4%
Int ernational Affairs
4
%
4.
If the annual average receipts from the corporation income tax during t he years 1967-70 equal x,
then the average annual receipts during this period were about
 x 1. 4 2. x2 3. 3x 4. 5x 5. The average annual combined outlay for pensioners, education and ma npower, and health and

income security was roughly wh at fraction of the average annual outlay?

1.

1

4

Institute for Competitive Exams

 1 2. 3 2 3. 5 1 4. 2 6. What category received the second smallest average annual outlay during

1967-70?

1.

excise taxes other space programme international affairs

2.
3.
4.
Distribution of Test Scores in a Class
Number of Students
Number of Correct Answers
10
36
to 40
16
32
to 35
12
28
to 31
14
26
to 27
8
0 to 25
7. What percent of the class answered 32 or more questions correctly?
1. 20
2. 26
1
3. 32
2
1
4.
43
3
8.
The number of students who answered 28 to 31 questions correctly is x times the number who
answered 25 or fewer correctly, where x is
2
1.
3
2.
1
3
3.
2
7
4.
4

Institute for Competitive Exams

Speed of a car over a 3-hour period

 Time Since Start (in minutes) 30 60 90 105 120 150 180 Speed at time (in mph) 50 55 60 62.5 67.5 65 60
9. How fast was the car travelling 2 1 2 hours after the start?
1. 60 mph
2.
62.5 mph
3.
65 mph
4.
67.5 mph
10.
During the last hour of the time period shown on the table, the speed of the car
1. decreased by 10 mph
2. decreased by 7.5 mph
3. decreased by 5 mph
4. stayed the same
11. Which of the following statements about the speed of the car during the 3 hour period can be
inferred from the table?
I. The average speed was 60 mph.
II. The car slowed down during the fifth half-hour of the time period.
III. The slowest speed the car travelled at was 50 mph.
1. II only
2. III only
3. I and III only
4.
II and III only
Expectation of Life at Various Stages in India
Age
1951-60
1961-70
Males
Females
Males
Females
0
41.9
40.6
47.1
45.6
10 45.2
43.8
49.0
48.1
20
37.0
35.8
40.2
39.7
30
29.0
27.9
31.9
31.7
50
16.5
17.5
18.3
18.9

12. Which of the following statements is correct with regard to the table given?

1. A male at the age of 30 in the period 1941- 50 could expect to live up to the age 56.6 on an average

2. The life expectancy of males increase steadily up to the age of 40 and then decreases

3. A male at the age of 30 on an average could expect to live up to a greater age than he could expect

when he was less than a year old

4. Females at all ages have a lower life expectancy than males of the corresponding ages

Institute for Competitive Exams

13. In which year and which age group did the life expectancy of males differ very little from that

females?

1. in 1951-60, age of 30

2. in 1941-50, age of 50

3. in 1960-70, age of 30

4. in age 1961-70, age of 50

14. From the given table we cannot conclude that

1. Female upto 30 year of age have a lower life expectancy than males on an average
2. Females life expectancy has shown an improvement over the year at all stages
4.
3. Three are more females being murdered than males
A male at the age of 10 and a female at the age of 20 years could expect to live up top the man
same age approximately
15.
By how many years on an average has the life expectancy of the Indian people at the age of 30
improved in 1961-70 as compared to 1951-60?
1. 6.7
2. 5
3. 2.35
4. 3.35
Index of Industrial production (Base: 1970 = 100)
Industry group
1976
1977
1978
Beverage industries
262.6
347.0
387.9
Manufacture of paper, etc.
111.8
112.8
121.0
Tobacco industries
109.8
107.7
112.5
Manufacturing Mining and
130.3
135.1
144.4
Quarrying
136.8
139.9
142.1
Electricity
160.3
165.4
183.6
Footwear
91.0
90.6
80.4
Leather and fur products
102.8
104.2
71.5
16.
Which industry in the table has shown the maximum growth in the period 1970-77?
1.
Electricity
2.
Manufacturing

3. Tobacco

4. None of these

17. A decline in production was in 1977 compared to the previous year by the industries of

1. Footwear

2. Footwear and Leather

3. Tobacco and Footwear

4. Leather and Fur

Institute for Competitive Exams

18. A decline production has been shown in 1978 compared to 1970 by the industry of

1. Tobacco and footwear

2. Footwear

3. Leather and fur and Footwear

4. None

19. Among the following, which industry has shown minimum percentage change in 1978 over 1977?

1. Manufacturing

2. Beverage industry
3. Mining and quarrying
4. Paper
Percentages of villages which are not electrified
U
38
T
38
S
42
R
12
Q
28
P
20
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
20. If the central government desires to give aid for speedy electrification starting from stages with
least electrification, which state will get fourth rank in the order of priority?
1. R
2. Q
3.
P
4.
T
5.
U
21.
Which state has twice the percentage of villages electrified in comparison to state S?
1.
R
2.
U
3.
P
4.
Q

5. T

22. In case of state P, What percent of village are electrified?

1. 65

2. 25

3. 35

4. 75

5. none

23. How many states have at least 60% or more electrified villages?

1. 5

Institute for Competitive Exams

2. 3

3. 4

4. 2

5. 1

24. Which states has the maximu m percentage of electrified villages?

1. P

2. Q

3.
R
4. S
5. T
In dia’s Foreign Exchange Reserves
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
FOREX
2000
1000
0
1971-72
1 972-73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76
1976- 77
25. Increase in which of the follo wing years was approximately 25% of th at in the revious year?
1. 1975-76
2. 1973-74
3. 1971-72
4.
1972-73
5.
none
26.
In which year did the export has lowest percent increase over its prece ding year?
1.
1974-75
2.
1975-76
3.
1972-73
4.
1976-77

5. none

27. What is the ratio of the numb er of year’s which have below average ex port to number of those

which above average export?

1. 1: 2

2. 2: 1

3. 1: 1

4. 1: 3

5. none

Institute for Competitive Exams

28. In which of the following pairs of year the increase in export over previous year approximately

the same?

1. 73-74 and 74-76

2. 75-76 and 76-77

3. 71-72 and 72-73

4. 74-75 and 75-76

5. none

29. The export in 75-76 was roughly how many times that of the export in 73-74?
1. 1.29
2. 2
3. 1.50
4. 1.80
5. none
No. of employees working in various departments of a factory
Dept. Year
Production
Sales
Purchase
Res. & Devp.
1976
150
25
50
45
75
1977
225
40
45
62
70
1978
450
65
30
90
73
1979
470
73
32
105
70
1980
500
80
35
132
74
1981
505
75
36
130
75
30.
In which year did the total number of employees reach approximately twice the total number of
employees the factory had in the year 1986?
1. 1981
2. 1980
3.
1979
4.
1978
5.
1977
31. In which department did the number of employees approximately remain the same during the
years?
1.
Production
2.
Sales

3. Research and Development

4. Research and Account

5. Purchase

32. In which year was the number of employees working in production department less than 50% of

the total employees?

1. 1977

2. 1978

3. 1979

4. 1980

5. none

Institute for Competitive Exams

33. In which of the following years each department had more number of employees than it had in

the immediately preceding year?

1. 1980

2. 1979

3. 1978

4. 1977

5. none

34.

Which department had less than 10% of the total employees all through the years 1976 to 1981?

3.
4.
5.
1. Purchase
2. Sales
Research
None
35.
x = 9y for
1.
2.
x = production employees in 1977; y = sales employees in 1976
x = production employees in 1978; y = purchase employees in 1976
3.
4.
5.
x = purchase employees in 1977; y = production employees in 1981
both 1 & 2 above
None of these

ANSWER KEY: DI: Miscellaneous

1: 12142
6: 44332
11: 33342
16: 34315
20: 14231
25: 25115
30: 35124

Institute for Competitive Exams

DI: Compound

Directions (Q 1-10): Study the following graphs and answer the questions that follow.

Sail's Steel Production as a % of total supply

22
20
18
PERCENTAGE
16
DEMAND
14
12
10
96-97
97-98
98-99
99-2000
2000-01
2001-02
Demand - Supply (production) figures for Steel in India
35000
30000
25000
20000
15000
DEMAND
10000
SUPPLY
5000
0
96-97
97-98
98-99
99-2000
2000-01
2001-02
Year
1.
What is the total production of SAIL for the first three years of the given period?
1.10200 tonnes
2.
14000 tonnes
3.
10800 tonnes
4.
None of these
2.
The largest quantity of steel produced by SAIL in a single year has been
1.
5220 tonnes
2.
5600 tonnes
3.
4600 tonnes
4.
None of these
3.
Which of the following years witnessed the highest percentage change in production of steel in the
in
tonnes

country?

1. 2001-02

2. 1998-99

3. 2000-01

4. 1997-98

Institute for Competitive Exams

4. What has been the average per annum steel production by SAIL in the given six year period?

1. 5620 tonnes

2. 5800 tonnes

3. 4310 tonnes

4. None of these

5. Which of the following years witnessed the highest percentage change in production of steel by

SAIL?

1. 1997-98
2. 1998-99
3. 1999-2000
4.
None of these
6.
SAIL should increase its capacity by how many tonnes in order to meet the shortfall between
demand and supply in 2001-02?
1.
3200 tonnes
2.
12400 tonnes
3.
1460 tonnes
4.
4000 tonnes
7.
If there had been a 10% increase in the production capacity of SAIL in 2001-02 , instead of a
decrease then what would have been the shortfall in supply in that year?
1.
3200 tonnes
2.
2835 tonnes
3.
1210 tonnes
4.
3060 tonnes
8.
What was the total production of all steel producing units, except SAIL, in 1998-99?
1.
23220 tonnes
2.
14500 tonnes
3.
24780 tonnes
4.
None of these
9.
If the demand of low carbon steel in 1998-99 is 10,000 tonnes and 40% of SAIL’s total production
is of low carbon steel then what is the demand of low carbon steel which is being met by other
producers, assuming that the total demand of low carbon steel is met?

1. 6468 tonnes

2. 7648 tonnes

3. 8488 tonnes

4. None of these

10. What has been the average steel production per annum in the country for the whole six year period given in the graph above?

1. 26,333 tonnes

2. 34,684 tonnes

3. 28, 464 tonnes

4. None of these

Institute for Competitive Exams

Directions (Q 11-20): Study the

following data and answer the question s that follow?

Percenta ge Share of Women's Magazine Ma rket

15%
Elle
10%
Femina
Society
25%
Cosmo
50%
Elle
Price per issue
4
20
3.5
20
2.5
50
MAGAZINE
FEMINA
SOCIETY
COSMOPOLITAN
ELLE
3
70
Total Women’s Magazine marke t size per month = 400,000
Total Readership = Circulation x Readers per issue
11. What is the share of Elle in te rms of value of the women’s magazine m arket?
1. 10 %
2. 23.7 %

3. 14.8 %

4. None of these
12.
What is the total amount of r evenue of Femina for one year?
1. Rs. 4.8 crores
2. Rs 6.4 crores
3. Rs 4.6 crores
4.
None of these
13.
The ratio of revenue of Elle to
the revenue of Cosmopolitan is
1.
9: 10
2.
8: 11
3.
11: 13
4.
14: 15

14. What is the total number of r eaders of women’s magazines?

1. 12.4 lakhs/month

2. 14.2 lakhs/month

3. 16.8 lakhs/month

4. None of these

15. The total readership of Femin a outnumbers the combined readership of Society and Elle by

1. 1.9 lakhs

2. 2.2 lakhs

3. 3.3 lakhs

4. None of these

Institute for Competitive Exams

16. The readers per copy of Elle should increase by what percent so that the total readership of Elle

matches the total readership of Cosmopolitan?

1. 20%

2. 25%

3. 35 %

4. 30%

17. What is the total number of copies of Society sold per annum?

4.
1. 11.2 lakhs
2. 16 lakhs
3. 8.8 lakhs
12 lakhs
18.
If Cosmopolitan reduces its price by half its market share doubles by eating into the market share
of Femina. In the new scenario what is the difference in annual revenue of Femina and
Cosmopolitan?
1. 18 lakhs
2. 22 lakhs
3. 24 lakhs
4. 28 lakhs
19.
Decent Indian Women, a social organisation committed to saving the cultural heritage of India

file a PIL against Cosmopolitan for display of a semi-nude model on the cover and got its publication

banned. If half of the readers of Cosmopolitan shift to reading Elle then what is the new total
1. 2.7 lakhs
2. 2.4 lakhs
3. 1.95 lakhs
4. None of these
20. If all the magazines start publishing fortnightly instead of monthly then what is the percentage
increase in revenue per annum, assuming that the circulation of the magazines remains same?
1.
100%
2.
200%
3.
125%
4.
None

Answer Key: DI - COMPOUND

1: 12431

6: 44131

11: 21423

16: 24331