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Engineering support for
Jaguar’s first-ever diesel

Mitsubishi design chief
Olivier Boulay
Tom Keim, consortium
director, MIT

Analyse, advise,
Ricardo Strategic Consulting: real
solutions in clear language

Winter 2003/2004

8 JAGUAR X-TYPE 2.0D Ricardo Quarterly Review Winter 2003/4

cat goes diesel
Jaguar’s first diesel has
here can be little doubt about the months ago, was reflected in the widespread
significance to Jaguar of the 2004 X- and enthusiastic coverage of the vehicle in the
earned praise for its TYPE 2.0D. As the first ever diesel motoring media. More importantly than this, it
performance and refinement vehicle to be offered by the company since its has been subsequently borne out by the widely
foundation some 81 years previously, the car’s acknowledged sales success of the product at
and is already a major sales place in history was perhaps already assured Jaguar’s European dealerships.
success. Anthony Smith from the moment that the first production vehicle
talks to the Ricardo team left Jaguar’s Halewood plant in August 2003. An established track record
However that distinction is only part of the With such a landmark product it was critical to
who supported Jaguar to story – and a small one at that. Of rather get things right first time, and to understand how
deliver the world-class X- greater importance is the commercial Jaguar achieved such a smooth entry to the
significance that this highly refined and well market with its first diesel product it is necessary
TYPE 2.0D from first concept targeted product means for the Jaguar brand, to turn the clock back. Jaguar had recognised
to Job One, a programme taking it into a new and rapidly growing diesel the rapidly growing significance of the market for
which, innovatively, included market and extending Jaguar ownership to a premium diesel products in Europe and had
much wider customer base. According to Jaguar already evaluated a range of alternative
prototypes built at Jaguar's Cars managing director, Mike Wright, “It is concepts over recent years. The company had
Halewood production plant exactly what buyers want and for Jaguar it identified the X-TYPE as providing an ideal
opens up a vital new market sector, presenting platform for its first diesel, but with an
significant opportunities to capitalise on the already demanding schedule of new
rapidly increasing pan-European demand for model programmes Jaguar decided
premium diesel cars.” This view, that it would be prudent to bring in
expressed at the time of the X- additional engineering
TYPE 2.0D’s launch just a few capacity to

Winter 2003/4 Ricardo Quarterly Review JAGUAR X-TYPE 2.0D 9

A powertrain is installed into a 2.0D ‘In every area, from refinement to
X-TYPE at Jaguar’s Halewood plant
driving dynamics, our aim was to
make the first diesel-engined X-TYPE
support the vehicle development programme. It indistinguishable from a
was vital that the selected partner came with a gasoline-engined X-TYPE’
track record in diesel engineering programmes.
“Ricardo assisted Saab in the introduction of
its first diesel, the Saab 9-3TiD, and more
– Jon Carling,
recently we helped the Volvo Car Corporation Chief Programme Engineer, Jaguar
in the development of its first ever in-house
diesel engine, the D5,” explains Howard
Marshall, Ricardo business development demonstrator. The demonstrator was based on Establishing the project team
manager. “At Ricardo we could offer expertise a production X-TYPE car and used the major As Jaguar’s chief programme engineer for the
in engineering diesel vehicles and powertrains diesel powertrain elements supplied by Ford as X-TYPE 2.0D, Jon Carling had overall
against the demanding targets of the premium well as a range of bespoke components and responsibility for delivery of the vehicle. A
brands.” systems required to effect the installation and career man at Jaguar since starting with the
deliver the premium brand targets. These company in the early 1980s as a student
Proof of concept in a single vehicle included intake and exhaust systems, electrical apprentice, he was already very familiar with
Jaguar had access through its parent to a harnesses, cooling pack, steering and chassis the X-TYPE product, having been involved in
refined and highly efficient high-performance components, and a fundamentally new NVH the development of the original gasoline model.
2.0 litre diesel engine which appeared well pack. Jaguar established a joint project team with
suited to application in the X-TYPE. However, it In order to meet the stringent driveability Jaguar and Ricardo engineers operating within
needed to demonstrate that the two elements standards set by Jaguar, the drivetrain the Ford global product development
were capable of being brought together and calibration was adapted in order to create the processes. The core of the team was based at
engineered to the level of refinement and characteristic Jaguar ‘feel’. This was achieved, a dedicated and secure project office and was
driveability that are the hallmarks of the Jaguar for example, by adapting the calibration of empowered to draw upon specialist resources
brand. electrical signals from the throttle pedal as necessary throughout Jaguar and Ricardo,
Even so, before committing to a model year potentiometer in order to optimise the as dictated by the requirements of the
programme the concept needed to be relationship between pedal position and engine programme. Close integration between Jaguar
demonstrated in a tangible manner, and for this torque demand to more accurately reflect the and Ricardo, between the programme team
reason Jaguar asked Ricardo to assist in the particular driver expectations associated with a and the nominated component and system
preparation of a single vehicle concept Jaguar vehicle. suppliers, and between development and

10 JAGUAR X-TYPE 2.0D Ricardo Quarterly Review Winter 2003/4

manufacturing operations, was ‘It’s a fantastic
essential for project success. The
team also needed to function
vehicle and very
effectively as an integrated part of much a credit to
the Jaguar product development the enthusiasm,
community: with this in mind, secure hard work, and
links were established into Jaguar’s
engineering IT infrastructure enabling dedication of its
programme engineers to release new Jaguar – and
parts into the Jaguar system. Ricardo –
The Ricardo perspective
Within Ricardo, Bob Allsopp was teams.’
appointed as product director for the
X-TYPE 2.0D programme. A self-
– Bob Allsopp,
confessed “petrolhead”, Allsopp is no
stranger either to the management of Ricardo
large programmes or to the Jaguar
brand. Like Carling, he also started Weight was also a major issue for
his career with Jaguar as an the team, who used the
apprentice and spent 18 years with OPTISTRUCT structural
the company before being appointed optimisation software to minimise
chief engineer of the then Range the weight of key modified
Rover product. He was subsequently components. As Allsopp explains,
managing director of GKN the focus upon simulation and
Technology before moving to Ricardo analysis is a fundamental aspect
in 2000 to assist in the establishment of the comprised a range of core specialist skills of the Ricardo approach to a highly
vehicle engineering business. including CAD design, CAE, electrical compressed programme: “Ricardo has invested
“It was very much a collaborative effort”, integration and NVH. While much of the significant resource in the development of CAE
commented Allsopp, “with Ricardo engineers powertrain required only minor adaptation, tools and applications in order to enable us to
working alongside their Jaguar colleagues many key systems and components needed to produce design work on a right-first-time basis.
throughout the programme at both companies’ be re-engineered from scratch for the X-TYPE In a programme such as the X-TYPE 2.0D this
facilities. The spirit of co-operation and installation. Full component engineering is an important enabler in being able to deliver
enthusiasm that was developed in this team programmes were needed for these and a high quality product to market without delay.”
was fundamental in my view to the success of considerable analysis effort was used in, for The integration of control systems was also
the programme. Not only did the Ricardo team example, the simulation and optimisation of the a major focus for the development team. As
have to work in an integrated manner within intake and exhaust systems and underhood Ricardo chief engineer on the X-TYPE 2.0D
Jaguar, but they were also responsible for airflow structure using the VECTIS programme, Kevin Harding was responsible for
working with the nominated Jaguar suppliers – Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package. addressing this challenge: “Jaguar needed to
including Ford on supply of the engine – in
order to bring their components and systems
into production.”
The Ricardo engineering team

Winter 2003/4 Ricardo Quarterly Review JAGUAR X-TYPE 2.0D 11

develop a unified communications structure and benchmarks against which the new X-TYPE
harnessing architecture to ensure effective Jaguar X-TYPE 2.0D 2.0D was to equal or improve upon.
operation of vehicle systems including DSC in numbers In addition to this, the results of development
(Dynamic Stability Control), ABS, cruise control testing of the single concept demonstrator
and HVAC. A significant aspect of this Engine: 2.0 litre 4 cylinder 16-valve vehicle were also used to define programme
challenge was to define software interfaces in turbodiesel with common rail injection targets. Moreover, the vehicle itself remained a
such a way that key operating parameters from Max power: 130ps (128bhp DIN) performance benchmark for Jaguar throughout
both the existing X-TYPE 2.0L gasoline vehicle Max torque: 330Nm with the facility for the programme and was frequently used as a
and the diesel engine were retained in order to ‘overtaking’ overboost to as much as direct comparator in development testing. While
minimise the amount of recalibration required.” 350Nm this approach represented a clear opportunity
Close collaboration between Jaguar, Ricardo Fuel consumption: 5.6 lit/100 km to build upon the work already carried out in
and supplier control and calibration teams was (combined cycle) – gives a potential advance of the programme, it also brought with
crucial to ensuring that systems could be range of more than 1000km it some unique challenges. In any aspect of
developed and validated in parallel, reducing CO2 emissions: 149g/km CO2 measured performance there is naturally some
iterations and compressing the time taken by emissions rating – a class-leading figure level of vehicle-to-vehicle variability. This is
around 50 per cent. in the compact premium diesel segment typically addressed by testing a number of
Vehicle dynamics too was a major area of Max speed: 202km/h vehicles of nominally the same build and
engineering investment. “A diesel installation in Acceleration: 0-100 km/h, 9.5 seconds evaluating the likely range of performance
an existing gasoline platform presents some against which targets should be set; this clearly
fundamental challenges,” explains Harding. cannot be an option for the single demonstrator
“The torque delivery of a diesel is entirely to driving dynamics, our aim was to make the vehicle.
different from that of a gasoline engine and this first diesel-engined X-TYPE indistinguishable A significant achievement of the NVH team
needs to be reflected in the tuning of chassis from a gasoline-engined X-TYPE, especially in was in the deployment of integrated testing
systems in order to provide equivalent the way that it sounds, and in the way that it procedures in order to provide an objective link
standards of handling and driveability to the delivers effortless ground-covering performance between the base engine combustion noise,
baseline vehicle. In addition, the diesel – just like a Jaguar should." bulkhead sealing and the vehicle cabin noise
powertrain brought the challenge of an Key vehicle performance, handling and NVH levels perceived by the passenger. Using this
increased front axle weight and the vehicle was targets for the programme were established in approach the team was able to take account of
required to be engineered with two alternative two ways. Firstly a range of ‘objective’ engine and vehicle build variability in achieving
chassis tunes; respectively for ‘sport’ and competitor vehicles was identified, representing key noise targets.
‘comfort’ derivatives.” The success of the team the market-leading products in the European
in this aspect of the programme is reflected in premium diesel sector. Targets were Integrating development with production
the comments of Jon Carling, at the time of the established for key performance criteria of Engineers from Jaguar’s X-TYPE production
vehicle launch: “In every area, from refinement these competitor products, and it was these plant at Halewood were involved from the first

12 JAGUAR X-TYPE 2.0D Ricardo Quarterly Review Winter 2003/4

build of prototype cars in the early summer of difficulties for the team – Jaguar has clear
2002. This early involvement of the production guidelines on the number of identified problems Key programme
plant in the development process of the vehicle that can be handled by each programme
was viewed by Jaguar as critical to the engineer – but it enabled the team to make
achievement of the programme timing and significant progress in developing the vehicle ● Quality, time and cost targets all met
quality targets. “They observed the build very ready for production. Moreover, the considered ● High levels of integration between
closely,” explains Ricardo build and launch view of the programme team was that the OEM and external engineering
manager, Dean Murden, “and they were able to ability to address these problems at an early resource
highlight very early in the programme issues stage enabled their resolution at lower cost and ● Exceeded product performance
which might cause problems when the vehicle risk than would have been the case if left expectations in key areas
was carried forward towards production. The unresolved until a subsequent prototype stage. ● Considered by many to be best-in-class
enthusiasm of the production team at By the late spring of 2003 the full benefits of on NVH
Halewood was impressive – they embraced the compressed approach were realised as the
their early involvement in prototype build and remaining level of problem identification fell
were committed to making it work.” below that which might usually be expected. X-TYPE 2.0D is clearly on path to becoming a
Unusually, Jaguar implemented the next very successful Jaguar product.
prototype build within the Halewood Job One and beyond For Ricardo there are many lessons that
The Job One vehicle was produced to time in Allsopp intends to take forward to other vehicle
‘...tremendous August 2003. As if the accolade of being the programmes. He cites the demonstrator
first ever Jaguar diesel were not distinction vehicle as not only establishing a tangible proof
refinement and enough, the X-TYPE 2.0D achieved another of concept but also proving extremely useful as
exceptional economy important record on entering production: a vehicle level benchmark throughout the
according to the standard metrics used by programme, augmenting the established
and emissions...’ Jaguar to assess build quality, it achieved the development targets. He views the intensive
Autocar magazine highest rating of any new product launched by use of CAE as particularly beneficial in
the company. developing the design to a comparatively
As the team continued to work towards the mature level before the first prototype vehicles
manufacturing plant itself rather than in a completion of Ricardo’s engineering support at were produced. The enthusiastic and early
specialist prototype workshop as would have Job One plus ninety days, the response to the involvement of the production staff and the
been traditional practice. This was yet another X-TYPE 2.0D was already apparent in the flow implementation of early prototype builds in the
first for Jaguar on the X-TYPE 2.0D of customers into Jaguar showrooms plant environment were in his view clearly
programme: bringing the new model into the throughout Europe. In the first year of significant enablers of a time-efficient
production plant one full prototype stage ahead production alone, Jaguar estimates that the programme. Most of all, however, Allsopp sees
of the company’s usual product development 2.0D is likely to account for almost two thirds of the X-TYPE 2.0D as an achievement of
sequence. X-TYPE sales across Europe and up to fifty per focused team work: “It’s a fantastic vehicle and
The programme team prepared assembly cent within the UK. Delivered to cost and time, very much a credit to the enthusiasm, hard
kits for each of these prototypes at Ricardo and the programme has exceeded expectations in work and dedication of its Jaguar – and
shipped them to the Halewood plant ready for many areas of targeted performance, and the Ricardo – engineering teams.” ■
the prototype build. Key members of the team
relocated to Halewood for the duration of the
build process, which was run in a highly
controlled manner in parallel to the main X-
TYPE production line. The parts for each
assembly operation were delivered to each
station and were fitted to the vehicle by the
production staff.
“Taking this level of prototype into the plant
was an excellent way to identify as early as
possible any problems and difficulties which
may arise during production implementation,”
recalls Murden, “but it created a bow wave of
issues to be identified and addressed by the
team much earlier in the programme than
might normally have been expected at this
stage.” All of these problems were logged in
Jaguar’s quality systems to ensure that they
were dealt with and closed off in an acceptable
manner through root cause identification and
solution implementation.
The effect of identifying so many issues at
once posed some short term capacity

Winter 2003/4 Ricardo Quarterly Review JAGUAR X-TYPE 2.0D 13