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Submitted to
(Resource agency-Gene Campaign)

The System of Rice Intensification, or SRI, is a system that has evolved over the last few decades of the
20th century and offers a radical departure in the way of growing more rice with fewer inputs. It was
developed in Madagascar by Fr. Henri De Laulanié, a French priest with a background in agriculture and
passion for rural development, whose keen observation of deviant practice and continued experimentation
led to SRI emerging over a decade with six principles of growing rice that were different, often radically,
from conventional rice cultivation techniques. The System of Rice Intensification or SRI emerged as a set
of six practices:

• Transplanting of very young seedlings between 8 and 15 days old to preserve potential for tillering
and rooting;
• Planting seedlings singly very carefully and gently rather than in clumps of many seedlings that are
often plunged in the soil, inverting root tips;
• Spacing them widely, at least 25 x 25 cm and in some cases even 50 x 50 cm, and in a square
pattern rather than in rows;
• Using a simple mechanical hand weeder ('rotary hoe') to aerate the soil as well as to control weeds;
• Keeping the soil moist but never continuously flooded during the plants' vegetative growth phase,
up to the stage of flowering and grain production.
• Use of organic manure or compost to improve soil quality.

These principles, perfected over a period of time in India, surprisingly gave very high yields, in some
instances close to 20 tons per hectare, with much reduced inputs of seed, water, fertilizers and pesticides.

THE SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION known as SRI is a methodology for increasing the
productivity of irrigated rice by changing the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients. SRI, which
originated in Madagascar, leads to healthier soil and plants supported by greater root growth and the
nurturing of soil microbial abundance and diversity. In its simplest form, SRI involves:

 carefully planting single, young seedlings (8-12 days old) at a wide spacing (25 cm or more)
 keeping soil moist but well-drained and aerated
 adding compost or other organic material to the soil when possible

The benefits of SRI, which have been demonstrated in over 40 countries (see map), include: increased
yield (50-100% or more), a reduction in required seed (up to 90%) and water savings (50% or more).
Many SRI users also report a reduction in pests, diseases, grain shattering, unfilled grains and lodging.
Additional environmental benefits stem from the reduction of agricultural chemicals, water use and
methane emissions that contribute to global warming. (SRI does not require the purchase of new seeds, the
use of new high-yielding varieties, or the application of chemical inputs, although some farmers opt to use


Gene Campaign has done intervention in promotion of SRI with the support of NABARD in the year 2010
in the capacity of Resource Agency as well as Project Implementing Agency. There are 7 PIAs which has
implemented SRI promotion activities in different location of the three districts of Ranchi, Garhwa, and
Latehar in the state of Jharkhand and the technical support was provided to them on various stages of SRI
promotion. The target provided by NABARD to different PIAS under Gene Campaign resource agency
was 100 to 200 farmers, this was the primary target fixed by the NBARD but later on this was changed
due to the unfavorable condition of paddy cultivation, delay of monsoon, lack of monsoon and even there
is huge gap during the occurance of rainfall at that time.
The all 7 PIAs initially targeted 200 farmers each. All the PIAs targeted 200 farmers but due to rainfall
and drought situation only 958 (68.42%) farmers were covered. Few of the PIAs have revised their target
after seeing the drought situation so the total target was 3000 farmers. The coverage in terms of area is Ha.
Though due to consecutive drought in the year 2009and 2010 most f the 1 st year farmer couldn’t continue
and the percentage of continuing farmers has fluctuating around 40-60% but the method was well
accepted in terms of its relevance. The cases were found that farmers of 1st year have taken up in third year
and even they have increased the area of cultivation up to 100 to 200 percentages.

NABARD has come up with big support to address the problem of food insecurity in the state of
Jharkhand in the year 2010.undar the resource agency role of 4 organizations the target to cover 5200
farmers was kept and Gene Campaign was one of the Resource agencies who were supported to give
handholding to 7 PIAs who were implementing SRI in 59 villages.

The PIAs whom Gene Campaign has given technical support are:

Sr No Name of No of village PIA NO of Household covered (Nos.)

districts Target Achievement
1. Ranchi 8 Gene Campaign 200 150

2. Ranchi 12 Chotanagpur Sanskritik Sangh 200 100

3. Ranchi 8 Abhinav Vikas Seva Samiti 200 199

4. Ranchi 5 Jan Sahbhagi Kendra 200 100

5. Ranchi 11 MADAIT 200 207

6. Garhwa 4 Sahiya 200 102

7. Latehar 5 Chetna 200 100

With all the PIAs a sum of 958 household was covered under the baseline survey in respect of 1400
households from the 53 villages. The number of male population was 916 and 43 female farmers selected
for the program. Majority of them lies below the poverty line that is 578 and 379 were above poverty line,
these people are poor and they suddenly need the help.

Name of PIA No. of No of Sex Caste Ecomomic

Farmer Village category
s Targeted Male Female Gen SC ST OBC Other APL BP
s L
Gene Campaign 150 8 130 20 13 4 133 0 0 43 107
Chotanagpur 100 12 98 2 7 1 26 66 0 67 33
Sanskritik Sangh
Abhinav Vikas 199 8 183 17 10 14 167 8 0 199 0
Seva Samiti
Jan Sahbhagi 100 5 100 0 0 50 13 37 0 9 91
MADAIT 207 11 203 4 30 25 104 35 13 10 197
Sahiya 102 4 102 0 2 94 6 0 2 99
Chetna 100 5 100 0 6 1 88 5 49 51
Land type wise coverage:
The details of food grain availability, previous year experience on sri and the land holding with area
coverage under paddy cultivation. The landholding is shown with the type of land that is upland, medium
land, low land and irrigated land, all the details are shown in table below:

Food grain Previous Land holding(In acre) Area under paddy in Acre
availability years of Total land used for cultivation in acres (Based on normal Monsoon)
from own Experience Upland Medium Lowland Irrigated Medium Lowland Upland
production in on SRI land land land
10.76 no 1.73 2.14 2.23 1.00 1.11 1.89 1.65
18.26 no 0.71 0.91 1.44 1.31 0.57 0.89 1.38
4.16 no 1.02 0.67 0.43 0.70 0.91 0.66 0.43
6 no 1.48 1.37 1.12 0.62 0.74 1.16 0.79
10.97 no 9.47 3.16 2.15 2.01 1.12 2.34 1.48
8.56 no 1.16 0.84 1.37 0.46 0.84 1.37 1.16
8.44 no 4.23 3.17 3.89 5.72 2.90 2.71 3.89

The MIS data was taken by the six PIAs in their respective work areas with 398 farmers in 38 villages.
The paddy cultivation was done on 484.74 acres of medium land and on 350.5 acres on lowland. 79.13
acres of land was covered during the first year of the program.

Name of PIA No. Of No. of Farmer Total land under paddy (In Acre)
farmers village New (N) Medium Upland Low Land
or Repeat
(R) Total Avg Range Total Avg Range
Gene Campaign 150 8 N 321.88 2.27 0.5-12.0 267.8 2.0 0.5-12
Abhinav Vikas Seva 38 6 N 54.4 1.43 0.5-5.0 20.59 0.54 0-3
Chetna 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sahiya 10 2 N 12.67 1.27 1-2.5.0 0 0 0
MADAIT 121 11 N 65.64 0.54 0.12-2.0 42.11 0.35 0.0-5.0
Jan Sahbhagi Kendra 64 4 N 16.65 25.78 0.25-0.35 0 0 0
Chotanagpur Sanskritik 15 7 N 13.5 0.9 0-1.5 20 1.33 0.5-4.0

Name of PIA Total Land put under SRI during 2010-11(In acre)
Medium Upland Low Land
Total Avg Range Total Avg Range
Gene Campaign 29.0 0.19 0.10-0.50 0.2 0.2 0.2
Abhinav Vikas Seva Samiti 9.2 0.25 0.1-0.25 0.85 0.21 0.1-0.5
Chetna 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sahiya 2.5 0.25 0.25 0 0 0
MADAIT 21.78 0.18 0.05-0.34 0 0 0
Jan Sahbhagi Kendra 16.65 25.78 0.25-0.35 0 0 0
Chotanagpur Sanskritik Sangh 0 0 0 4.2 0.28 0.2-0.5
Below the table shows the practices followed in SRI, by the implementing agencies, the average rate of
the seed is 2.25 kg/acre in SRI whereas it was 25-30kg in the traditional method. In the same way the avg
age of seedling used for the transplantion is 14 days which should be in between 8-12 days. The range of
seedling transplantation is 8-26 days. Average spacing is maintained by keeping the distance of 10”x10”
from row to row and plant to plant. Most of the PIAs recorded the use of weeded is two times and this is
done by kono weeder.
Practices Followed in SRI (in current year / season)
Seed Avg Age of Avg No. of No. of Method Amount of Manure and Fertilizers in Disease & Pest Wettin
rate seedling Spacing seedling weeding of Mainfield (kg) control g-
(Kg/ transplanted (majority s per weeding (Organic / drying
Acre) Avg Range plots) hill Orga DAP Pota Urea NP Inorganic/ (yes/no
nic sh K Integrated) )
2 16.77 8-26 10 x 10 1 2 Weeder 0 4.77 2.67 4.39 0 Inorganic Yes
2.5 25 25 12 x 12 1 1 0 0 50 75 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 15 12-18 10 x 10 1 2 Weeder 0 10 10 10 0 Inorganic 0
5 10 0-10 10 x 10 1 2 Weeder 0 13.6 56 90 0 0 Yes
2 13 12 10 x 10 1 2 Weeder 0 7.81 3.43 12.18 0 0 Yes
2 15.33 12-18 11 x 10 1 3 weeder 1478 32 32 40 0 Integrated Yes

The table shows the grain yield and straw yield from the medium upland and low land respectively. This
table also tells the comparative production among the variety of seeds used as Hybrid, HYV and
traditional. The performance of these three varieties can be easily accessed by the following data that were
acquired by using the SRI method of cultivation. The comparative increase in the yield in traditional and
HYV is more then the Hybrid, in SRI.

Grain Yield (from the SRI Plot) in Mt (1000 Kg = 1 MT) / Straw Yield (from the SRI plot) in Mt/ Ha In 2010-11
Ha In 2010-11 from the same plot from the same plot
Medium Upland Low Land Medium Upland Low Land
HYV Hybrid Tradition HYV Hybrid Traditional HYV Hybrid Traditiona HYV Hybrid Trad
al l ition
0.47 0.66 0.37 0 0.72 0 0.18 0.16 0.09 0.00 0.18 0
14 14 14 14 0 0 6.25 0 6.25 6.25 0.00 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3.12 0 0 0 0 0 1.63 0 0 0 0 0
0.44 0 0 0 0 0 0.18 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 14.23 0 0 16.85 0 0 0 0

Organisation Wise productivity analysis:

All PIAs have adopted different verities as per there earlier practices. Since the Idea behind this was to
promote the SRI with seed neutral concept. The table below is presenting a comparation of production
between the SRI method and the traditional method of paddy cultivation. Here the parameters are tillers
/hill, no of grains / panicle, no of hill/ m2, yields of grains and productivity /acre in quintols. CSS has
recorded the maximum no of grains/ panicle is 264. It also has the highest production of 11.17 tons / acre

Name of PIA GC AVSS CSS MADIAT JSK Chetna Sahiya

Parameter SRI Trd SRI Trd SRI Trd SRI Trd SRI Trd SRI Trd SRI Trd
Tiller/Hill 27 16 18 8 84 16 28 14 25 12 14.3 12
No. Grains/ 236 160 225 100 264 156 132 97 202 115 143 100
No. of hill /m2 16 30 18 25 16 50 16 28 16 32 15 13
Yield of 0.42 0.28 0.28 0.1 2.76 1.3 0.65 0.3 0.3 0.3 65 55
grains/m2 (Kg)
Productivity/a 17 11.2 42 16 111.69 52.6 35 14 35 14 35 15
cre (quintal)

Sample Study
Sample Study was carried out among the 90 farmers by the 5 PIAs. This sample study reveals the
following datas related to the completion of SRI. The table below explains these in better way.
Name of No. Of Area Crop Avg Avg No. Avg No. No of Avg No. Grain Yield Straw Yield Grain Straw Food Increa Additional
PIA Farmers under Durati plant of of P Grain/ of Estimation Estimation Yield Yield availabil se in Income (if
SRI on height in tillers tillers Penicle unfilled (Total grain (Total straw in in ity Straw selling)
(in Ha) cm /hill /hill grain yield in kg / yield in kg / 5 MT / MT / increase Yield
per 5 sq. m and sq. m and ha ha from the (MT/H
panicle covert to convert to SRI plot a)
productivity productivity (In
MT / Ha) MT / Ha) month)
GC 30 0.20 96.67 121.03 23.57 21.87 177.57 22.57 8.51 8.50 21.13 8.83 2.26 1.72 -
AVSS 14 0.25 130 55 25 20 - - 1.4 0.6 1.4 0.6 2.5 0.3 -
CSS 15 0.28 115.00 29.80 64.47 55.07 - - 1.69 1.42 16.85 14.23 6.45 8.11 9630.20
MADAIT 21 0.19 90.00 92.62 29.00 25.95 - - 3.76 2.36 3.30 1.75 0.60 0.66 3121.76
JSK 10 115 18.9 29.6 25.3 - - 4.4 14.6 19 4.805 0 14.6 4.4
Chetna - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Sahiya - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Food security:

The main objective of the project is to ensure food security and the intervention in the year 2010 has
addressed that to some extent. If we see the increase in food availability was assured due to SRI promotion
is ranging from 36 days to 510 days. Since the target of the project is always small and marginal farmers
and food security for them is an important issue because due to lack of that they were migrating from their
villages. Now they are at-least food secure for number, of days.

Performance of the crop through SRI method:

The tillering is one of the important factors which increases productivity and it is profused in case of SRI
due to timely weeding in the SRI technique. In case of normal paddy cultivation the tillers are very less in
numbers which ranges from 8-10 where as in case of SRI more then twenty in normal condition. But the
important aspect in this is the effective tillers which contribute in the overall increase in the yield. In the
table below the average no. of productive tillers are given as per the different verity of seeds.

Findings and suggestion

• The field selection prior to cropping season is essential. It should be on the basis of following

○ Location of field
○ Water availability
○ Soil type

• Channel in the field is necessary both for draining and retaining moisture for a longer time. This
practice will help the farmer to retain moisture in the field for a longer time as the evaporation rate
from the channel is slower as compared to the totally exposed field. Moreover in case of heavy
downpour these channels will to drain out the water from the field.

• The situation of drought and late monsoon arrival and failure of monsoon needs to prepare for the
season early and other mechanism for timely tranplantation of the seedling. This needs that in case
of failure of the first nursery second nursery should be taken up. In addition to this group nursery
or community nursery should also be taken up.

• Preparation of the field is most important part for cultivating Paddy. Continuous drought has
forced the farmer to abandon their field. Since for preparation of the field for transplantation water
is needed. Other alternative should be tried as transplantation of the seedling in ploughed but un-
puddled field. This practice has been followed and the yield has been significantly increased, other
principles of SRI being followed as recommended.

• Weeding being one of the important principle of this method of paddy cultivation. In theabsence of
weeding there is 37% loss is recorded only due to weeds. In condition similar drought this cannot
be practiced in time as there is shortage of water wvwn for the irrigation. Moreover the soil
condition does not support the weeding process. For harder soil different weeder and for normal
soil different weeder. This should be planned in advance so that in time the weeder can be made
available to the farmer that can raise the total crop production.

• It has been found that in the normal practice the tendency of the farmer is to go for inorganic
nutrients where the farmer are advance and the tribal farmer goes for default organic as they are
not the habit of using chemical fertilizer. A balance approach should be adopted for this in addition
of the chemical fertilizer, organic nutrient should also be added as this will improve the soil
condition and will supply the nutrient needed for plant growth. Only inorganic is harmful and only
organic is not possible as the question of the availability of the amount needed for the purpose
comes here. So the best way is to go for both organic and inorganic nutrient management practice
for getting the optimum result.

• It has been found that during the season there is crisis of short duration variety. So in advance
collection of seed for the next season is needed then only the problem of seed can be sorted. Since
last two year the monsoon has been arriving late and due to process gets delayed. The best option
in that situation is to go for short duration variety which can give yield in time with minimum loss.

• It has been generally found that the line is maintained from one side in many cases. While
transplanting special care should be taken so that line is maintained from both the side so the
weeding process can done from both the sides.

• Moreover the distance to be maintained uniformly from both sides. Reference method should be
adopted so that this can be followed in the field. Farmers taking up SRI for the first time needs to
be convinced will so that enough confidence is generated in the farmer for this method of paddy

• For the single seedling transplantion training must be given to the transplantor especially female
for the same purpose. It has been found that if the transplantor are not convinced they do not go for
single seedling transplantation but they usually transplant two to three seedling. Similar is the case
if the other family members are not convinced because they will put seedling in the blank spaces in
the absence of the convinced farmer.

• Awareness should be started well in advance so that at time of taking up SRI farmers are fully
convinced to take up this method of cultivation.
• Water is an important component for taking up this method of cultivation. Since in Jharkhand the
panchayat election has been over recently. The panchayat representative should be convinced
about this method. So that while doing MGNREGA planning they plan for water bodies which will
help this to be taken up by farmer in field in presence of water bodies. This is also necessary as the
drought is recurring every year.

3. Constraint faced:

The years of 2010 was very challenging in terms of 2nd consecutive drought year. The constraints
faced during the implementation of the project are as follows:

• The rainfall was very poor (40%) and was erratic and intense (Most of the rain was in the month of
September end). It has affected the paddy cultivation on following ways;

◦ Main field preparation / transplantation were not done properly in the absence of
◦ Transplantation was done in un-puddled fields in most of the locations as the enough water
was not available to do the paddling.
◦ Shift to medium and short duration varieties; the planning of farmers was failed due to no
rain on time. To cop-up it several measures were taken up like

• As per necessecity many famer go for the third stages of nursery, when the former two were died
due to lack of rainfall. The first stage nursery was of no use in most of the places as the field was
not ready for transplantation due to mo rain.
• Lowland was used for paddy instead of medium-land as there was no water to prepare the medium
land for transplantation
• Short term varieties were preferred in case of 2nd and 3rd stage of nurseries, so the output has got
affected. The seed of short term variety was a big constraint on time of 2nd and 3rd stage nursery
preparation. As at that stage availability of short duration variety was not sufficient to cater the
demands from the people. People were forced to switch over to the variety whichever is available
as they were not having choices for the alternative.
• Weeding as recommended should be of three times after transplantation but due to lack of required
rainfall it could not done three times properly. In many cases due to lack of rainfall first weeding
was also not possible as the soil hardened due to lack of rainfall and ill-moisture. Even after
irrigating the land the soil condition was not supporting the weeding process as farmers were
strained by the effort they need to apply for the weeding process.
• Mechanical weeding was not done in all the fields due to lack of water of enough quantity.
• Preparation of the field was also not possible in the absence of adequate water. Even after
irrigating the process of ploughing and puddling could not be done. Lack of water bodies also
forbid the process as there were not enough water bodies near the field to prepare the field. Where
water bodies present were present the process of preparation of field was possible but where water
bodies were not present this process of field preparation could not be done. Many farmers were
forced to abandon their field.
• Late starts of season also hindered the process of the growth. This needs to be taken care of so
awareness meeting starts early so that the farmers can be convinced for taking up this method of
paddy cultivation.

Economics/Cost of cultivation
The economics of SRI was calculated on the basis of two important criteria
• Input cost involved in paddy cultivation through SRI method which has includes cost of
material, machinery and labour involved the different stages of cultivation
• Income was calculated on the basis of value of output( paddy & straw) in monetary terms

Name of PIA Cost of Cultivation Benefit from Crops Benefit Cost Ratio
Gene Campaign 2921 7405 2.54
Chotanagpur Sanskritik Sangh 9101 36425 4.00
Abhinav Vikas Seva Samiti 732 2535 3.46
MADIAT 1223 3130 2.56
Jan Sahbhagi Kendra 3365 7000 2.08
Chetna - - -
Sahiya - - -
The table below is showing the input cost and benefit in terms of Rupees and the last column is showing
the benefit cost ratio. The data of 15% farmers were collection for this and we are presenting here
organization wise average of each factor. The unit land was fixed that is 25 decimal per unit and the cost
average cultivation and income is based on that.

Agronomic practices followed

During SRI promotion process there are several agronomic practices which followed:

a. Seed selection, shorting and treatment: In case of SRI this step or practice has immense importance
as it helps in selecting the best quality of seed. This method helps the seed to fight for disease. After
which the seedling grow up well and strengthen to fight the external environment.
b. Seed bed preparation: Seed bed preparation is very important as it is standard method / practice
which help in preparation of best quality of seedlings. The minor age seedlings are required in the case
of SRI. It should be of age of 8 to 14 days so proper care for bed preparation and appropriate quantity
FYM is needed. Since SRI method of paddy cultivation needs to transplant the seedling with the soil
minimizing the disturbance of the root zone. So the soil which used for seedling rising should be such
that the one seedling can be separated with soil adhered to the roots of the seedling. This requires that
the seedbed should be prepared with soil and FYM so that proper transplantation of one seedling can
be done. The size of the bed should be as per the recommendation and plan for area of main field that
is 400 square feet for 1 acre. The water availability and safety from small animals like hen, pig should
be taken care of. All these have followed while taking up SRI.
c. Field preparation: The main field should be well prepared with recommended dose of fertilizer and
water etc. It should be puddle. Only after proper pudding the transplantation needs to be done. This
has been followed in taking up SRI with the farmer.
d. Transplantation: It is the crucial step in SRI as the proper distance from row to row and column to
column which is 10 inch should be carefully followed.
e. Weeding: In each field the three times weeded through mechanical weeder named CONO WEEDER
was done. In some of the cases of water crisis, weeding was not possible have taken help of manual
f. Nutrient management: In the SRI from the stage of nursery bed preparation to harvesting the proper
nutrient management is very essential. It was care at following stages:
a. Green manuring was an essential component for taking up SRI organically. This year due to water
crisis this could not be done. In the coming season this will be taken up for this special planning will
be done for the seed procurement, Variety selection and then broadcasting of the seeds in the field
where ploughing has been done. Strategy for applying this technique will be taken up so that this
process can be can be done.

b. Nursery preparation: during the preparation of nursery it had been taken care of that the soil will
became very rich with nutrients, added at the time of raising nursary. This will be further kep moist
till the transplantation of the seedlings. The nursary will be made as per the requirement of the
farmers and it should be made in the same plot where there is the plan to grow paddy by this

c. Field preparation recommended dose of fertilizer as the recommendation of soil test was done in
taking up SRI. In many cases soil test result was not found in those the fertilizer dose
recommendation for the area was applied.

d. Post transplantation: Post transplantation activities such as alternate drying and weting of the plot,
keeping the plot moist, weeding, and off course harvesting are of great importance, besides these the
pest and desease menagemnt practises were alo done, some by the application of chemicals and
some by the organic pestcides and even by the IMP.

g. Water management: farmer were trained to do drains in the field for proper water management since
SRI follow the principal of alternate wetting and which demands proper care for water management
so the farmer were trained on the same and they have tried to practice it in fields. But keeping
channel in the field has helped the farmer to retain the moisture in the field for a longer time as it has
been found that the evaporation loss from the channel is comparatively low as compared to the open
field exposure of the water.

h. Pest management: Training for all staffs on the post harvesting techniques was organized and later
on as a follow up the training in each organization the handholding was provided up-to each farmer
on pest management. The preference was given on organic method of pest management using Cow-
urine, cow-dung, neem leaves, leaves, karanj leaves etc.

i. Crop harvesting techniques: Before harvesting of crop the required preparation was trained and the
sample for collecting data was also taught to each project staff which later on they implemented in
field. The sample of 1m x 1m in 5 locations of a field and different factors status like tillers, average
tillers, panicle, true panicle, grain weigh, height of tiller and panicle etc was practiced and the data
was collected.

6. Way forward:

The NABARD programme to address food security through promotion of SRI in Jharkhand has helped to
build an atmosphere of positive change. In the face of odds-like a very monsoon the Sri technique has still
performed exceptionally well. The technique has proved its suitability for rain-fed areas though it has also
resulted in some insights. The major learning has been the about process that can be adopted to overcome
the problem of statistical drought. The drought coping mechanisms that have been observed in the project
is, shift towards small to medium duration varieties, plan staggered nurseries and there are also learnings
from the field which suggests direct seeded rice could also be a good coping mechanism.

The major challenge though is to reach out to 600 farmers in the coming year, for doing the same planning
has already been initiated.