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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Introduction Page 1

Introduction to the Euro C1 Web Teaching Material


About this Web material

This web material is intended to prepare students for the


Euro Examination at C1 (Operational Proficiency) level.
The material is primarily intended for classroom use, but
can also be used by those working alone or with a tutor.

The material has seventeen units: one for each task in the
examination (reading/writing 5 tasks, listening 3 tasks,
grammar and vocabulary 3 tasks, mediation 3 tasks and
speaking 4 tasks). Five of the units have free-
downloadable mp3 files.

The teaching time for each unit will, of course, depend on the students’ level and needs as
well as the teacher’s method of presentation. However each until should provide for at least
two hours teaching. The material is intended to supplement the C1 EuroCity Coursebook, and
for that reason there is topic continuity between the coursebook and the teaching material.
The teaching material, though, can be used independently of the coursebook and contains its
own teaching notes, appended to each unit.

Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR)

The C1 Teaching Material is based on the CEFR of the Council of Europe (language
division), which is a set of can-do criteria which enable all language examinations in Europe
to be related to a common framework of standards. The criteria are designed positively, i.e.
through establishing what a student can do, and not focussing on what the candidate can’t do
yet. As the criteria for examinations are based positively and on communication competence,
those examinations which are related to the framework are practical and non-threatening.

The C1 EuroExam

Below is a table showing for each test its name, the number of tasks, the time allowed and the
number of available marks. Each of the tests is then described on the following pages. In
order to pass the candidate must get 65% of the 150 available marks, as well as getting 40%
or more in each test.

Number of
Test number Test Time Marks
tasks
Test 1 Reading & Writing 5 60’+45’ 50
Test 2 Listening 3 45’ 25
Test 3 Grammar & Vocabulary 3 40’ 25
Test 4 Mediation 3 20’+30’ 25
Test 5 Speaking 4 10+20’ 25
Approx. 4 hrs 30’
Total time / Marks available 150
+ breaks

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Introduction Page 2

Other books and web material relating to the C1 EuroExam

This teaching material is only one part of a suite of material for teaching the skills necessary
for success in the EuroExam at C1 level. Also available are:
• C1 Students’ Book (and CD)
• C1 Teacher’ notes for C1 EuroCity Coursebook (downloadable pdf and mp3 files)
FREE
• C1 Practice Set One (and CD)
• C1 Practice Set Two (and CD)
• C1 Practice Set Web (downloadable pdf and mp3 files) FREE
• C1 Diagnostic Test (and CD)
• Success in the EuroExam (a detailed exposition of the exam)
All the printed materials can be purchased from the Euro Examination Centre at Bimbo ut 7,
HU-1022 Budapest. Web material is available at www.euroexam.org

The order, content and purpose of the units comprising the C1 Web Teaching Material

In the C1 Web Teaching Material each unit covers one examination task. Unlike the EuroCity
C1 coursebook, the order of the web units is that of the examination. Below is a table relating
the topic of the unit, the examination task name and a brief description of the exam task.

Topic of the unit and teaching Examination task name and description
Unit activities

Kalocsay and Baghy: Esperanto Reading/Writing A – paragraph headings


writers There are six paragraphs for which you must
find the most appropriate heading from a
giving titles to paragraphs choice of eight paragraph headings. Two
1
headings are not needed. An example is
précis provided.

textual discourse
Pathological gambling Reading/Writing A – long text
You read a single text of 1000-1250 words,
finding relevant information in text normally an article, and answer two
2 questions. You write two answers of ca. 100
note taking from a longer text words in connected prose. Answers are
marked for the quality of writing as well as
writing up notes for content.
Complaints to a newspaper Reading/Writing A – transactional writing
You read several pieces of written or
re-writing a confused and diagrammatic text (leaflets, notes, letters,
inappropriate letter. writing an maps, timetables) providing a context and
article. information for the task. You are asked to
3 write a ca. 250 word transactional letter or
lexical development and writing an email or using the information provided.
email

writing a formal letter confirming an


agreement
Dreams Reading/Writing B – multiple choice
4
You read two texts (ca. 400 words each) of

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Introduction Page 3

the overall meaning of a text which one is a formal article. Both texts have
a shared theme. Each text has three multiple-
writer’s attitude to a text choice questions. The questions test the
understanding of detailed information, a
lexical items in context specific lexical item, meaning implied in the
text and the writer’s attitude.
Cultural tolerance and Esperanto Reading/Writing B – extended writing
There are three tasks from which you choose
upgrading a discursive essay one. You must write a ca. 250 word text
within the genre specified. The type of text
5
writing a descriptive composition could be an article, a report, a descriptive or
narrative composition, or a discursive essay.
adapting a review for a youth
audience
Lease of a holiday villa Listening – short conversations
You listen twice to six short conversations
Exam skill development: writing occurring in the same location and match
short conversations dialogues to each one with an item from List A and an
show different attitudes of the item from List B. List B often consists of the
participants attitude or psychological state of one of
speakers. Each list has two items which are
6 Lexis, reading and writing not needed.
development: reading a lease and
conveying the contents in an
informal letter

Listening to a dialogue and


determining the changing attitude of
one of speakers
Sleep and restless Leg Syndrome Listening – making notes
You listen to a three-minute recorded
selective note taking monologue (usually a lecture) and take notes
7 which you use to answer the questions. At
listening for specific information three points, there is a pause in the
monologue, and you are asked a question.
writing up notes The recording is played only once.
Attitudes to globalisation Listening – radio/TV programme
You listen twice to an excerpt from a radio or
writing a detailed multiple-choice TV programme. You answer ten multiple
question choice questions while listening. The
8
programme will typically be talk show or
listening for manner formal discussion.

listening and reconstructing a speech


Grammar & Vocabulary – dictation
Speaking many languages
You listen to a recorded extended monologue
of 150-200 words. You have to write the text
dictogloss (listen, compare ideas and
down word for word. The text is heard three
reconstruct)
9 times, once all the way through with no
break. The text is then heard again broken
grammar words and reduced vowels
down into small units with each unit repeated
once. There are breaks between units to
connected speech features
allow time for writing.
10 Death of Joe Slovo, South African, Grammar & Vocabulary – multiple choice

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Introduction Page 4

politician gap fill


You receive a written text of 400-500 words
• filling in gapped phrasal verbs with fifteen gaps where a single content word
identifying words that do not has been removed. For each gap, the task is
collocate in a text and replacing them to choose the correct word from four options.

choosing between alternatives in a


text on the basis of meaning in
context
Cornwall and its language Grammar & Vocabulary – modified cloze
You receive a written text of 400-500 words
identifying grammatical words with fifteen gaps where a single grammar
word has been removed. For each gap, the
11 looking at grammatical words task is to write in a correct word.
syntactically

determining grammatical words from


meaning in context
Mediation A – dialogue
Passing on information You hear a dialogue of six turns between two
participants, a Hungarian (speaking in
inflated functional language Hungarian) and an English speaker (speaking
12 in English). One of the speakers may be an
making a mediation dialogue official working in the public sphere. You
write down the main points of the
doing a mediation dialogue task conversation in the opposite language to the
one you hear. Two examples are given.
Money laundering Mediation B – English to Hungarian
You receive a factual text or a semi-formal
a running translation letter of 85-100 words, written in English.
You have to translate the text into Hungarian.
a chain translation You may use a printed dictionary.
13
translating and its marking system in
the exam

coherence and cohesion in texts


Hitch-hiking Mediation B – Hungarian to English
You receive a factual text or a semi-formal
letter translation letter of 85-100 words, written in Hungarian.
14 You have to translate the text into English.
working with Hunglish You may use a printed dictionary.

translation problems
Job interviews Speaking – interview
You have a two-minute conversation with
role playing a job interview your partner. If you don’t know him/her, you
15 find out information about him/her. If you
answering job interview questions do, you compare the things you have in
common.
preparing interview questions
Game shows as junk television Speaking – presentation
16 In the preparation room you have ten minutes
noticing sign-posting language in a to choose one of four statements and to

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Introduction Page 5

presentation prepare a two-minute presentation. The


statements are contentious, and you need to
making notes for and giving a marshal arguments for and against the
presentation statement and to conclude by giving a
reasoned opinion. You are not judged on
taking notes from and commenting your opinion, but on the quality of your
on a presentation English and the logic of your argument. No
specific specialised knowledge is required.
When giving the presentation, you may
consult, but not read from, your notes. While
you are giving your presentation the other
candidate will take notes. After your
presentation s/he will ask questions and make
points on what you said. You respond to
these points. One minute is allowed for this
discussion. The same procedure is repeated
vice versa for the other candidate.
Speaking – collaborative task
Language learning styles in schools You receive a card with four thematically
linked photographs. These photographs are
relating a picture to a theme possible illustrations for the cover of a book
on a given subject. First, with your partner,
17
thinking up images which are related you discuss which aspect of the topic each
to a theme picture portrays. Then you debate which is
the most suitable. Finally you discuss any
identifying language of negotiation other suitable images for the book. You have
three minutes for this task.

Recurrent skills in the exam

While each exam task tests a particular language skill, sub-skill or aspect of the language
systems of English, there are three themes that permeate every exam task..

A Recognising and producing genre texts

Every text in the exam, be it receptive/productive or visual/aural, is written in a particular


genre, e.g. the genre of a letter of complaint, of a humorous narrative, of a joke, etc. Much is
at stake here. The candidate needs to be able to recognise genre for reading and listening and
be able to produce in the correct genre for speaking and writing. The following genre related
issues will arise repeatedly throughout the course and in the exam.
• What is the genre of the text?
• What is the purpose of the text?
• What information is, or should be, included?
• What is, or should be, the format and layout of the text?
• How is the information (to be) sequenced into paragraphs?
• What kind of language is appropriate for the text?

B Recognising lexical and grammatical words

The distinction between lexical and grammatical words is central not only to the grammar and
vocabulary tests, but is an important part of decoding texts in the receptive skills as well as
playing a role for the candidate in producing coherence and cohesion in the productive skills.

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Lexical words have nominal, attributive or action roots, have meaning when standing alone
and their number is infinite. Let us examine this definition in a little more detail.

Nominal root words refer to things (e.g. stone, committee), attributes refer to qualities (e.g.
strong, beautiful), and action root words to actions (e.g. walk, hit). Though their root may be
of one kind, words can transform into other classes (e.g. strong, strength, to strengthen) All
lexical words, whether nominal, attributive or active at root, are capable of transformation
into nouns and possess a clear meaning when standing alone (e.g. stone, committee, strength,
walk). The number of lexical words in the language is potentially infinite; (i.e. lexical words
form a paradigmatic open set)

Grammatical words create reference and cohesion, largely lack meaning when standing
alone and are definite in number, They may also be distinguished negatively; i.e. as non-
lexical words. Let us examine this definition in a little more detail.

Reference words substitute one word for a word or phrase: i.e. pronomination, and/or relate
the text, either in part or in whole, to time and place: i.e. deixis. Cohesion is a more general
concept in which words connect different parts of the text. All reference words serve a
cohesive function. The major classes of grammatical words are listed below in non-exclusive
categories:

• Pronouns: substitute for nominals (e.g. she, their, whose, those) and thus create either
intra or extra-textual reference.
• Prepositions front phrases with either adverbial (e.g. She lived in France) or adjectival
(e.g. the book on the table) force. Dependent prepositions indicate nominals connected to
the headword (e.g. She listened to John, to bet on horses)
• Discourse markers are supra-sentential and relate one part of the text to another (e.g.
however, consequently)
• Conjunctions syntactically link words, phrases, clauses, (e.g. and, but, although,)
• Determiners qualify nominal phrases: articles for definiteness (e.g. a, the), and quantifiers
(e.g. some, all)
• Reference adverbials: these contain a pronominal function (e.g. there/in that place,
now/at this time, likewise/in that way), or a pure relational function (e.g. more coffee)
• Adverbial particles indicate the perfective aspect (e.g. to tidy up) or are components in
phrasal verbs (e.g. to put up with)
• Auxiliaries indicate time and aspect (e.g. is, was, has does).
• Modals establish the mood of a clause (e.g. should, could, might).

Grammatical words are often called functional words because they bind with lexical words to
form propositional meaning and textual coherence. Grammatical words cannot be transformed
into nouns (being and having excepted) and have little meaning when standing alone. The
number of grammatical words is fixed in the language; (i.e. grammatical words form a
paradigmatic closed set)

C Using top-down decoding

For every receptive task the issue of top-down decoding is necessarily applicable. The skill
requires the reader/listener to establish as a first step the topic and genre of the text, which is
achieved by looking at the task title and any appended picture and then skim reading the
whole text by concentrating on the lexical words. Having established the topic and genre the
candidate needs to call up his/her knowledge of the topic and genre. In this way the candidate

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Introduction Page 7

establishes an outline meaning of the whole text, which then becomes a tool for determining
detailed and specific meaning within the text.

Top-down methodology is doubly important: first, as a tool for organising the staging of
receptive lessons, and second, as a tool for candidates approaching tasks in the exam. Even
productive task units in the book do not escape its grip, as invariably any model speech or
piece of writing is introduced using a top-down decoding system.

In conclusion, a sound grasp of genre, recognising the distinction between lexical and
grammatical words and acknowledging the wide application of top-down decoding enable
teachers to prepare students for the C1 EuroExam. For students these skills make possible
their success in the exam.

Changes since the publication of C1 Students’ Book in 2005

First, he label descriptor Mastery, which was applied to the examination level, has now been
changed to Operational Proficiency.

Second, there have been minor changes in the reading/writing tests from 2006.

Long Text
Two separate answers instead of one connected textual answer.

Multiple-choice Reading
The number of texts has gone down from 3 to 2 with 3 questions following each text.
There are four detailed information questions, one writer’s intention, 1 lexical question. The
word limit has increased slightly.

The two writing tasks


Word limits now ca. 250 words

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 1 Page 1

Operational proficiency Reading – paragraph headings

1 Kalocsay and Baghy: working with texts


Task 1 – giving headings

A ‘Hungarians who write poems and novels in


Esperanto are wasting their time’ How far do
you agree with this statement and why,

B What do the following mean?


to be short of the mark, pervasive, to plump for
s.th, a masthead, a bulk, taut, a manual, pinnacle,
a bevy, chef d’oeuvres, a eulogy,

C Give a title to each paragraph of the following text.

D What is the structure of each of the paragraphs?

Kálmán Kalocsay: the Esperanto literary giant

Kálmán Kalocsay has been described as the pillar of Esperanto


poetry. This, however, is an underestimate of his stature, as his
pervasive influence has been felt throughout the entire literature
and language theory of Esperanto. For more than a quarter of a
century he inspired and guided the literary world of Esperanto
through the revue Literatura Mondo (Literary World) and the
publishing house of the same name.

Born in 1891, Kalocsay studied Medicine and went on to become


chief surgeon at a leading Budapest Hospital. He learnt two
planned languages in his youth, Esperanto and Ido, but plumped for
the former when he saw greater literary potential. Kalocsay
managed to get along well with the Left with his name appearing
on the masthead of the newsletter that served the Hungarian
Esperanto Association during the 133 days of the post-war
Hungarian Soviet Republic.

The group of writers which formed around the revue Literatura


Mondo in the 1920s and 30s came to be known as ‘The Budapest
School’. Through the influence of their most eminent figure -
Kalocsay, the writing of this group displayed a far superior
technique and a more diverse range of themes than that of the bulk
of their predecessors.

continued

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 1 Page 2

continued

In 1921, when Kalocsay’s first original collection of poems was


published - Mondo kaj Koro (A World and a Heart), readers and
reviewers recognised that a powerful new voice was being heard
for the first time in the original literature of the international
language. It was another ten years before his Streĉita Kordo (A
Taut String) appeared: which ranks among the two or three most
outstanding collections of original poetry in the international
language.

His Parnasa Gvidlibro (Guidebook to Parnassus) published in


1932, which he created in collaboration with Gaston Waringhien,
became the standard reference work for all aspiring poets and
remains so today.

In the early 1930's, in Budapest, an otherwise unknown Esperantist


named, suggestively, Peter Peneter published the Sekretaj Sonetoj
(Secret Sonnets), a collection of fifty-two erotic sonnets which
together make up a sex manual. Except for this one book, nobody
had ever heard of Peneter; whose command of the language was
identical to Kalocsay's. Kalocsay, who was publicly something of a
prude, repeatedly denied that he was Peneter. If he were Peneter,
which most authorities today believe, then it may truly be said that
Kalocsay wrote two of the most important original works in
Esperanto.

His numerous translations are also considered to be the pinnacle of


their art form. From 1925 numerous outstanding translations
appeared in the Esperanto community, in book form and in
journals. Kalocsay was at the forefront, translating literary works
from several languages. His chef d'oeuvres are Johano la Brava
(John the Brave: Petőfi 1923); La Tragedio de l'Homo (The
Tragedy of Man: Madach 1934) Eterna Bukedo (Eternal Bouquet:
an anthology from twenty-two languages 1931); Romaj Elegioj
(Roman Elegies: Goethe 1932); Hungara Antologio (Hungarian
Anthology 1933); Infero (Inferno: Dante 1933); La Floroj de
l'Malbono (The Flowers of Evil: Baudelaire 1957); Kantoj kaj
Romancoj (Songs and Romances: Heine 1966); Regxo Lear
(Shakespeare 1966); Libero kaj Amo (Freedom and Love:
Petőfi:1970)

Kalocsay’s equally famous contribution to Esperanto is his Plena


Gramatiko de Esperanto (A Complete Grammar of Esperanto)
which he wrote with Gaston Waringhien. This work became the
international cornerstone of the language.

Kalocsay died in 1976, prompting a series of eulogies and


retrospective articles in the Esperanto press, on a scale that hadn't
been seen since Zamenhof's death.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 1 Page 3

Task 2 – précis

A What made Gyula Baghy noteworthy? Your answer should


not be more than ten words long.

B What do the following mean?

melodic, to abound, an abundance, posthumously

C Note down the key points in Baghy’s life which you would
include in a précis of fifty words.

D Write your précis.

Gyula Baghy: writer, actor and poet

Gyula Baghy (1891 - 1967) was a writer and an actor. Born in


Hungary, he learned Esperanto in 1911 and began his tireless work for
the movement during his six-year military captivity in Siberia. Baghy
was an emotionally lyrical interpreter of humanism which is often
found in Esperanto writings. For this reason he is one of the most
Esperantist of poets, someone who can only be understood with great
difficulty by outsiders. His poems are melodic, have an air of
spontaneity and abound in a rich variety of word forms peculiar to
Esperanto. Their rhythm depends on the inspiration of the moment.
His first collection of poems appeared in 1922: Preter la Vivo (Beyond
Life), which is probably also his chef d'oeuvre. Pilgrimo (Pilgrim)
followed in 1926, and La Vagabondo Kantas (The Vagabond Sings),
in 1933. The most lyrical is the former. In the latter, an abundance of
rhythm and rhyme covers gaps in inspiration and in analysis of the
theme.

In 1966 Baghy refashioned folk tales from twelve nationalities in a


volume of verse entitled Ĉielarko (Rainbow). His last collection of
poems, Autunaj folioj (Autumn Leaves), was published posthumously
in 1970. The material for much of his early poetry comes from his
experiences as a prisoner of war in Siberia following the First World
War.

Task 3 – textual discourse

A What similarities and differences are there


between Kalocsay and Baghy?

B What do the following mean?

to cease, a parallel, sporadic, acclaim, to


pan, to bring to blows

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 1 Page 4

C Write a one-sentence summary of each paragraph. What is structure of the text


as a whole? How are the three paragraphs linked?

Comparing Kalocsay and Baghy

Kalocsay and Baghy also entered the literary world at almost


the same time. In 1921 Kalocsay published his first book of
original poetry Mondo kaj Koro (World and Heart); Baghy
appeared in 1922 with Preter la Vivo (Beyond Life).

I never cease to be amazed, after listing these parallels in the


lives of the two men (who became great friends), to remark
on how different they actually were. Baghy's education was,
speaking charitably, sporadic; as the son of a family of
actors, he received a total of three years of formal schooling.
Many of his early experiences are recounted in La Teatra
Korbo (The Theatre Basket), a collection of short stories.
Kalocsay was the very model of an early Middle-European
intellectual. Baghy, after returning from the war, found his
family gone and his career as an actor permanently ruined;
Kalocsay ended up running the pathology section of his own
hospital. Baghy was a Catholic; Kalocsay was a man of the
left. Kalocsay was what we would call a success, and lived
fairly well. Baghy and his second family finally got a decent
apartment only very late in his life, and then only with the
help of the Hungarian government, so that Esperantists
visiting the 1966 World Congress in Budapest who wanted
to see their favourite author could go to his home. Kalocsay
was, at least publicly, something of a puritan. Baghy
apparently had an eye for the ladies, who in turn had an eye
for him. Kalocsay was a polyglot; Baghy spoke only
Hungarian and Esperanto.

The differences continued into their Esperanto. Kalocsay


dedicated much of his life to improving Esperanto's stock of
translated literature from Hungarian and the major Western
European languages; Baghy wrote only original material.
Kalocsay won critical acclaim; the critics panned Baghy,
whose works succeeded in only one place -- the
marketplace! Baghy wrote several practical instructional
pamphlets on Esperanto; Kalocsay was renowned as an
expert on the theory of the language. Baghy travelled around
the country teaching Esperanto; as far as I know, Kalocsay
never taught a class. And in the Word Wars, Kalocsay was
always developing Esperanto vocabulary while Baghy was
an unregenerate conservative - a situation which, far more
than any of their other differences, almost brought them to
blows.

Don Harlow

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 1 Page 5

Unit 1: teacher’s notes and answers

1A. Write up ‘Hungarians who write poems and novels in Esperanto are idiots’ on the
whiteboard. Take a quick vote to see if the students agree and disagree. In groups of three and
four, have the students debate their opinion and reasons behind their opinion. When the
students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, pool some of the ideas in open
class and briefly discuss them.

1B. Refer the students to the highlighted lexis and ask them to note down definitions for the
selected lexical items. Those students who are unaware of an item should ask classmates or
use a dictionary. You can also input definitions, if necessary. Check understanding of lexis by
concept checking.

1C. Give the students a strict two minutes to skim read the text and find out what Kalocsay
was famous for. On the expiry of the time limit, have the students compare their answer with
that of a partner. Pool ideas in open class, and note them on the whiteboard. In the event that
students omit a major area of Kalocsay’s work, refer them to the text again.

Answers to 1C – what Kalocsay is famous for

Kalocsay was famous for:


• his poetry
• being a polyglot
• his literary writing guide
• his pornography
• his translations of literary classics
• his authoritative grammar book on Esperanto

Put the students into groups of three or four and have them find a title for each paragraph.
Remind them that the title may be explicit in the text (i.e. it is a phrase from the text), or it
may be implicit (i.e. it is a non-stated generalisation about the text) When the students have
finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, pool the suggested titles in open class and
note them on the whiteboard. Whenever a student offers a title, have him/her fully explain and
justify his/her answer. Relate the answers given in this book to those provided by the students.

Answers to 3C – suggested paragraph titles

• Kalocsay: a leading Esperanto literary figure


• His early background
• The Budapest School
• His first publications
• His literary guidebook
• His pornographic writings
• His translations
• His grammar of Esperanto
• His death

1D. In open class elicit some of the ways that a paragraph can be ordered, and note answers
on the whiteboard.

Answers 1D – some examples of a possible ordering of a paragraph

chronological

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 1 Page 6

general statement followed by details


description
cause and result or vice versa
contrast or opposition

Working in the groups again, have the students examine, discuss and note down the structure
of each paragraph. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed,
pool the suggested structures for each paragraph in open class and note them on the
whiteboard. Whenever a student offers a title, have him/her fully explain and justify his/her
answer. Relate the answers given in this book to those provided by the students.

(It is worth noting that paragraph analysis work has relevance not only for the graphic
receptive skill (i.e. reading), but is also equally important for the productive skill (i.e.
writing))

Answers 1D – structure of paragraphs

First paragraph - Kalocsay: a leading Esperanto literary figure


Initial statement followed by qualification and elaboration

Second Paragraph – Kalocsay: his early background


Chronological structure with descriptive expansion of details

Third Paragraph - The Budapest School


An overall statement followed by details

Fourth paragraph - Kalocsay: his first publications


Two sentences chronologically linked with each one giving details on a theme.

Fifth paragraph - Kalocsay: his literary guidebook


A single sentence giving details of his Parnasa Gvidlibro

Sixth paragraph - Kalocsay: his pornographic writings


A more complex paragraph. It starts with statements giving details and suggesting a problem.
The paragraph ends with a possible solution.

Seventh paragraph - Kalocsay: his translations


A general statement followed by a list of examples/details

Eighth paragraph - Kalocsay: his grammar of Esperanto


A statement about his Esperanto grammatical work, followed by a comment.

Ninth paragraph - Kalocsay: his death


A statement about his death followed by results/consequences thereof.

2A. Ask in open class if anybody has heard of Gyula Baghy. If they have, then elicit the
details, and then ask the class to supplement the details from a strictly enforced two-minute
reading of the text. If they have not, which is more likely, give the students a strict two
minutes to find out as much about Baghy as they can. When the time limit has expired, pool
all the information in open class.

Ask the students, working individually, to write an answer to question, ‘What made Baghy
noteworthy?’ in not more than ten words. When they have finished, or after a reasonable time
has elapsed, have them compare their answer with that of a partner. Pool answers in open

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 1 Page 7

class. When a student offers and answer, have him/her explain and justify the answer.
(Answer: Baghy’s noteworthiness derived from his emotional Esperanto poetry)

2B. Refer the students to the highlighted lexis and ask them to note down definitions for the
selected lexical items. Those students who are unaware of an item should ask classmates or
use a dictionary. You can also input definitions, if necessary. Check understanding of lexis by
concept checking.

2C. Tell the students that they will write a précis of the paragraph on Baghy. Ask the
students, working with a partner, to make a plan of which points they wish to include in their
précis. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, have the
students compare their précis with that of another pair. If there are differences these should be
discussed.

2D. The students should now draft their précis. When the précis are finished, they should be
handed around the class for other students to read.

Answer to 2C. – sample précis

Gyula Baghy (1891 – 1967) was a writer and actor, but principally a poet in the Esperanto
language. His dedication to language started when he was prisoner in Siberia, and his
imprisonment influenced his writing. He is famous for his emotional but esoteric poetry and
for his adaptation of folk tales.

3A. By now the students will be familiar with the outline of the lives of Kalocsay and Baghy.
Refer the students to the third text which is a comparison of the lives of the two men, and ask
the students, working with a partner, to find similarities and differences between the two men.
The students could do this by writing a two-column table for the differences. When the
students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, elicit answers in open class and
note these on the whiteboard.

Answers to 3A

Similarities
Both men were Hungarian, were famous in the Esperanto movement and were more or less
contemporaries.

Differences
Kalocsay highly educated; Baghy not
Kalocsay professional job: Baghy insecure employment

Kalocsay left radical: Baghy a catholic


Kalocsay rich: Baghy not well off
Kalocsay puritanical: Baghy a ‘ladies man’
Kalocsay a polyglot: Baghy spoke only Hungarian and Esperanto
Kalocsay mainly a translator: Baghy only wrote original works
Kalocsay academic: Baghy populist
Kalocsay was no teacher: Baghy was
Kalocsay linguistic innovator in Esperanto: Baghy a conservative

3B. Refer the students to the highlighted lexis and ask them to note down definitions for the
selected lexical items. Those students who are unaware of an item should work out its
meaning from context, ask classmates or use a dictionary. You can also input definitions, if
necessary. Check understanding of lexis by asking questions.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 1 Page 8

3C. Ask the students, working individually, to sum up each paragraph in not more than one
sentence. Emphasise that the sentences should be short as the focus is on the main message
and function of the paragraphs. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time
has elapsed, have the students compare and upgrade their answers with those of a partner.
Pool, and briefly, discuss the answers in open class.

Answers to 3C – sentence summaries of the three paragraphs

First paragraph: Both men entered the Esperanto literary world in the early 1920s in
Hungary.
Second paragraph: The education, character and background of the two men were different.
Third paragraph: What the two men did with Esperanto and their approach to Esperanto
differed.

Ask the students working in pairs to discuss the structure of the text at supra-paragraph level.
When they have finished, or after a reasonable time has expired, pool the answers in open
class. Whenever a student gives you an explanation, discuss it in full.

Answers to 3C – supra-paragraph discoursal structure

The first paragraph mentions similarities between the two men, while the second and third
develops different aspects of differences between them.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 2 Page 1

Operational Proficiency Reading and Writing A – long text

2 God doesn’t play dice with the universe!

Task 1 – finding relevant information

A What are the advantages and disadvantages of


gambling. Should gambling be illegal?

B What do the following mean?


to administer, to sponsor, a stance,
an affiliate branch, to encompass.

C Read the following mission statement by the National Council on Problem


Gambling. Underline all the key points in the passage.

D Having identified the key points, list the ones which answer the following
question. What does the NCPG support but not control?

The mission of the National Council on Problem Gambling is to increase public awareness of
pathological gambling, ensure the widespread availability of treatment for problem gamblers and
their families, and to encourage research and programmes for prevention and education.

The National Council administers several nationwide programmes, including a twenty-four hour
confidential helpline, a gambling-specific certification programme for treatment professionals and
sponsors the Journal of Gambling Studies, the only academic journal in the world devoted to
problem gambling research. In addition, the NCPG sponsors regional, national and international
conferences, supports research, distributes literature and works with other organisations involved in
problem gambling issues. The National Council on Problem Gambling is a tax-exempt, non-profit
organisation that maintains a neutral stance on gambling.

The NCPG currently has thirty-four affiliate branches and numerous corporate and individual
members. They encompass the leading international experts in problem gambling policy, research,
prevention, education and treatment

Task 2 – note taking

A What do the following mean?


an onset, to exceed, to wager, prevalence, elevated, truancy, on par with

B What is the text about?

C Scan read the text in order to answer the following question. According to the text
what is the connection between gambling and other social problems?

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 2 Page 2

The National Gambling Impact Study Commission recently concluded that one of the most
troubling aspects of problem and pathological gambling is its prevalence among youth and
adolescents.

Throughout the world, many people begin gambling as children. For example in Britain
among adolescents aged thirteen and fourteen, the mean age of initiation into gambling for
social recreation or entertainment was found to be 8.3 years for boys and 8.9 years for girls.
Studies further found that 48% of juvenile problem gamblers had an age of onset before ten
years of age. American studies reveal that 60% of high school students who are problem
gamblers had gambled in the sixth grade or before. There were no problem gamblers among
those who first gambled in the twelfth grade. Another study showed that juvenile involvement
in gambling in the United States now exceeds the expected onset for their use of cigarettes,
alcohol and marijuana.

We could say then that the evidence suggests that the earlier people begin gambling, the more
likely they are to experience problems from gambling

Children routinely gamble. While the private card games and wagering on games of skill are
the most popular forms of gambling for youth, gambling on sporting events and the lottery are
also very popular. Studies show that approximately 80% of young people aged twelve to
seventeen have gambled in the last twelve months. Investigators found that the top four
average adolescent gambling prevalence rates for the last twelve months: Non-Casino Card
Games: 40%, Games of Skill: 32%, Sports Gambling: 31%, Lottery: 30%.

One young person said: "If my life was a tree, one branch would be that I'm a thief, another
branch is that I'm a liar, another being that I'm no longer in school, and another being that I no
longer have my parents trust and respect, and I'm not permitted to live in their home. But if
you cut off each of the branches you still haven't got to the root of the problem which is my
gambling."

Youth consistently show elevated rates of problem and pathological gambling compared to
adults in the general population. Studies demonstrate that young people with gambling
problems have family, academic, peer and legal problems. A review of recent studies suggests
between 9-14% of youth are classified as "at-risk" for a gambling problem, and 4-7% exhibit
criteria of pathological gambling. Several studies have shown adolescent pathological
gambling is associated with alcohol and drug use, truancy, low grades, problematic gambling
in parents, and illegal activities to finance gambling. Youth whose parents gambled
excessively had twice the number of problems with the law and twice the attempted suicide
rate than their classmates.

In a recent review of fourteen U.S. and six Canadian adolescent gambling studies, it was
found that in the past ten years the number of teenagers aged twelve to seventeen reporting
serious gambling problems has increased by 50%, from ten to fifteen percent. The age of onset
for gambling has dropped so that now, throughout America, the majority of twelve-year-olds
have already gambled.

The data also clearly show that problem gambling is a serious issue, on par with or exceeding other
well-recognised public health threats such as alcohol, marijuana and other drug use.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 2 Page 3

Task 3 – writing up notes

A What do the following mean?


tuition fees, to make ends meet.

B The following two questions have been set for a long text task.
• Why are the students gambling?
• What results does gambling have for the students?

Danny Noble, an exam candidate, has made the following notes. Write up the notes as
a connected text. (Danny does not use good grammar in all of his notes)

Students gamble. Why?


• Concerns that students in North East of England more gambling to trying to pay off
debts.
• Grants rare now or cut. Only loans
• Cilla Monk, of Newcastle University Students' Union, said - was a reflection on
problems students face trying to make ends meet.
• She said: "It is real concern if the size of a debt is making people think the only way
they can get out of it through gambling.
• to try and pay for things like rent, tuition fees, etc.

Results for students


• are gambling their whole student loan away in one night
• need help, cos get addicted to gambling. Student union offers some help.
• students get into extra debt with casino mafia people
• debt put people off going to university.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 2 Page 4

Unit 2: teaching notes and answers

1A In open class elicit from the students one advantage and one disadvantage of gambling.
Then have the students in groups of three or four discuss the issue. The groups should
additionally discuss whether gambling ought to be made illegal. When the students have
finished their discussions, or after a reasonable period of time has elapsed, pool opinions in
open class. When a students contributes an answer about the merits (or otherwise) of
prohibiting gambling, ensure that s/he fully justifies his/her position. Ensure in open class
discussion that the option of the strict regulation of gambling is also considered and explored.

1B. Refer the students to the highlighted lexis and ask them to note down definitions for the
selected lexical items. Those students who are unaware of an item should ask classmates,
work out meaning from context or use a dictionary. You can also input definitions, if
necessary. Check understanding of lexis by asking questions.

1C. Ask the students in open class what a ‘help-for-gamblers’ charity might do and briefly
discuss the responses. Give the students a strict forty-five seconds to read the extract and to
find three things which the charity does. Have the students compare their three ‘things’ with
those of a partner, and then pool answers in open class with the purpose of checking for
successful gist reading of the text.

Now have the students underline key information in the text. The criterion of what to
underline is a difficult one, but as a method of determining key information have the students
imagine that they were to write a précis of the text and had to reduce the word count by fifty
percent. The information that they would not want to omit for that purpose would probably
constitute the key information. Ask the students now to compare their underlining with that of
a partner and to discuss any substantial differences. You should monitor the pairwork to
check that key information has been identified and underlined as there is no feedback session
for this stage of the lesson.

1D. Refer the students to the question, ‘What does the NCPG support but not control?’ Ask
the students to quickly look through the text (and especially their underlined information) and
find the answer. Elicit the answer in open class.

Stress to the students that the underlining of key information (i.e. a reading for gist) is not the
same as searching for information to answer a specific questions (i.e. a scanning task).

Answer to 1D

The NCPG support but does not control the following


• research
• programmes for prevention (it supports some and controls others)
• a journal
• conferences

2A. Refer the students to the highlighted lexis and ask them to note down definitions for the
selected lexical items. Those students who are unaware of an item should ask classmates,
work out meaning from context or use a dictionary. You can also input definitions, if
necessary. Check understanding of lexis by asking questions.

2B . Give the students a strict ninety seconds in which to determine the topic of the text.
After ninety seconds have them compare their answer with that of a partner and then check in
open class that everybody has the correct answer. In the unlikely even that they haven’t, refer
them to the text again.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 2 Page 5

Answers to 2B.

The text is about young people who gamble.

2C. Have the students cover the text, and then refer the students to the question,
‘According to the text what is the connection between gambling and other social problems?’
Put the students into groups of three or four and have them debate, without reading the text,
possible answers to this question. Collect answers in open class. When a student mentions a
social problem connected to gambling, remember to have the student explain the nature of,
and the reason for, the connection.

Give the students a strict time limit of four minutes. Have them read the text and find answers
to the question in the text. Material that answers the question should be jotted down in note
form. After the permitted time has elapsed, have them compare and improve their answers
with a partner. Elicit answers in open class, and through elicitation guide students to any
information which has been omitted.

Answers to 2C.

The text states


• in the opinion of one young person gambling co-exists with theft, truancy and family
breakdown, but these factors are not the cause of his gambling
• studies have revealed a correlation between family, academic, peer and legal problems
and gambling.
• studies have also revealed a correlation between gambling and alcohol and drug use and
crime to finance gambling.

This minimalistic information is all that is in the text. It is important that an exam candidate
does not ‘elaborate’ in the answer.

3A. Refer the students to the highlighted lexis and ask them to note down definitions for the
selected lexical items. Those students who are unaware of an item should ask classmates,
work out meaning from context or use a dictionary. You can also input definitions, if
necessary. Check understanding of lexis by asking questions.

3B. This exam task tests, not only the ability of the candidates to find and note relevant
information (i.e. scanning), but also the ability of candidates to write up their notes into a
connected and well-presented text. Refer the students to the two questions that Danny Noble
has made notes for. Ask students to quickly read the question, but not the notes, and then with
a partner predict what the notes say. After a short time has elapsed, elicit one or two answers
in open class and then tell the students to read the notes.

Write up on the whiteboard ‘cohesive devices’ and elicit from the students a definition of the
term. Now elicit from the students what cohesive devices might be helpful in writing up the
notes. Note these on the whiteboard. Now have the students write up Danny Noble’s notes in
not more than two hundred words. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable
period of time has elapsed, have the students exchange their written text with that of a partner.
The receiving partner should check the text for content (i.e. is all the necessary information
included), for style (e.g.. is the text written in appropriate formal English with effective
paragraphing) and is it accurate (i.e. syntax, lexis, spelling, punctuation). The texts should be
handed back to their authors and then handed in for marking.

Answers to 3B.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 2 Page 6

A cohesive device is an item which orders/ties the text together either within the sentence or
at suprasentential / textual level.

A variety of cohesive devices could be employed. In particular the following might be


expected:
• listing, e.g. first, second, third,
• contrastive, however, nevertheless,
• of purpose, so that
• of result, therefore,

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 3 Page 1

Operational proficiency writing – transactional writing

3 Terry Boxman Complains

Task 1 – expand your exam skill

The local newspaper The Grenberg Times has just published an article which is highly critical of the
local cultural and arts centre. Terry Boxman, an uneducated friend of yours, in a state of anger has
written the following letter to the newspaper, which is badly structured and deploys inappropriate
register in places.

Dearest newspaper people,

Take back what you said about Joan Baum or they’ll be real
trouble, and the food the restaurant serves is not bad at all.

They put on excellent performances. I like the jazz and folk


music myself. So does my wife, even if my eldest son doesn’t
like it. There are also musicals and plays so don’t tell me that
there’s not enough choice for people. We pay enough for the
tickets and it isn’t our fault if the prices of everything are
going up. There’s nothing wrong with the council spending
money on people like us. Why do you have to make such a thing
about the place being dirty? It’s not that dirty.

Your article that appeared last Friday really upset me. I was
really surprised when my wife handed it to me. I know
sometimes the centre is a bit dirty but with so many people
visiting and with money for only one cleaner, what do you
expect. The director has never stolen any money from the
centre. Do you know that Joan has been a friend of my wife’s
for years? Joan is a great director.

I know everybody doesn’t like chips with everything, but they


are the best chips in the town. Your journalist Harry Kling is a
real idiot.

So don’t write such rubbish in the future.

Terry Boxman

A Re-write the letter for Terry and compare what you have written with a partner.

B Write the original article that Harry Kling wrote.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 3 Page 2

Task 2 – complaints vocabulary and writing

The Grenberg Times has the following code of practice for dealing with the public.

Without readers, we don't exist. That simple fact makes good reader relations a matter of
necessity. We expect every staff member to respond to every communication from a
reader, whether a letter, phone call or e-mail, whether a compliment or a complaint.

It is well documented that most decisions to file libel suits are made not when a story
appears, but only after the complainant feels ill-treated in trying to get a correction or just
a fair hearing from the newspaper. But our concern here is much more fundamental than
avoiding litigation. To be trusted in the community, we have to be seen as decent, caring
and courteous people. That means listening, acknowledging when we're wrong and
taking action to correct our mistakes.

When readers call to complain, listen carefully, not defensively. Try to understand
precisely what the caller is upset about and what he or she wants. If the caller isn't
satisfied after a conversation of reasonable length, offer to let him or her speak to your
supervisor or another senior editor. Any threats of legal action must be reported right
away to your supervisor, the editor or managing editor.

We do not in any circumstances, expect our staff to tolerate abusive language or


behaviour from readers. The staff are instructed to do the following
• If a caller's language becomes abusive, politely tell him or her that you want to
hear him out but that you can't listen to such language.
• If the language persists, politely ask him to call back when he's calmer, tell him
you are going to hang up, and say "goodbye" as you do so.
• Never end a call unannounced, slam a receiver down or use a profanity or
obscenity in any telephone conversation, no matter what the provocation.
• Inform your supervisor immediately as to what has happened.

A What do the following mean?


a compliment, to file a libel suit, a fair hearing. litigation, to persist, to slam, a profanity, an
obscenity

B Terry Boxman has just told you in an email that he is going to phone the editor of the
Grenberg Times and ‘give him a piece of his mind’. In no more than one hundred words, reply
to Terry’s email summarising the customer relations policies of the newspaper

Task 3 – expand your exam skill

Last month you had a major disagreement about noise with you neighbour who teaches piano in her
flat. There was also a problem with her tutees visiting the block and leaving the front door open.
Fortunately, you came to a compromise and solved the problem. To prevent any further disagreement
write a letter to your neighbour with a copy for your lawyer setting out what you have agreed as far as
you understand it from your side.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 3 Page 3

Unit 3: Teachers’ notes and answers

The supplementary tasks in this unit provide practice in genre writing as well as transactional writing.

Task 1 . Give the students a strict forty-five seconds to look through Terry Boxman’s letter in order to
determine what kind of letter it is meant to be (Answer: letter of complaint). Elicit from the class the
main features and structures of a letter of complaint and note this information on the whiteboard. Also
elicit reasons for ordering and structure of a correctly-written letter of complaint.

Answers to Task 1 - the key features of a letter of complaint

• formal layout: formal salutations and both sender and recipients address. (Note that the candidate
does not receive marks in the Euro exams for including addresses and using an appropriate
format.
• In the first paragraph the complainant should state agreed facts between the parties to orient the
other party to situation
• Then the complainant should state the facts that led to the cause of the complaint.
• Then, if necessary, the complainant should state laws, rules, conventions, etc., which justify the
complaint.
• Then the complainant should always state what s/he wants the other party to do and, if necessary,
state a time limit.
• Finally, if necessary, the complainant should state what s/he will do if the other party does not
respond as asked.

In pairs have the students look through Terry Boxman’s letter and find strengths and weaknesses in it.
Briefly note and discuss these.

Answers to Task 1 – strengths and weaknesses in Terry Boxman’s letter

• strengths: it’s forceful and balanced and we can work out the main message
• weaknesses: it does not follow the letter of complaint genre and the presentation of information is
extremely muddled. Overall the weaknesses outweigh strengths.

1A . Tell the students individually to take notes on the key points of Terry Boxman’s letter by writing
and/or underlining important information. When they have finished, or after a reasonable time has
elapsed, have them compare their notes with a partner and improve the notes by adding in ‘missed-
out’ information. Again working individually the students should re-write the letter in appropriate
letter of complaint genre and register. The drafted letter should be checked with a partner for style and
accuracy (i.e. spelling, punctuation, syntax and lexis). Collect in the letters for marking.

Answers to 1A – important points in Terry Boxman’s letter

• it is libellous to write Joan Baum , the director of the centre, has stolen money
• the programme at the centre is varied and good
• the centre is not excessively dirty
• subsidies for the centre are justified and are beneficial
• the restaurant has some positive points too.
• Harry King’s article overall is biased against the centre

1B. The second piece of writing of this supplementary task involves the article genre. (NB. Here the
article is presented as part of a transaction, i.e. article > letter of complaint > response from the
newspaper) Ask students how an article differs from a letter. Have them work in pairs and generate a
few ideas. Pool these in open class.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 3 Page 4

Answers to 1B comparison of letter and article.

• With a letter you know your target reader and can make more assumptions about what is shared
knowledge between writer and reader.
• The recipient of a letter will probably read it from beginning to end. An article has to catch the
reader’s eye and be interesting to be effective.
• Format and layout differences: headings, length,
• Style: articles display more use of metaphor, rhetorical interrogatives, and varied language and
sentence structure.

Ask the students, again in their pairs, to generate pieces of advice for article writers. Put up the
following prompt words to stimulate their discussion. (title, first paragraph, questions, direct speech,
contrasts, use of second person and final paragraph). Give the students a reasonable time to think
through their points and then pool ideas in open class. When students offer a piece of advice for article
writers, ask them the reason behind that advice. You may have input information as a majority of
students will probably not have had practice in wring articles.

Answers to 1B key features of an article

• title: ensure that the title is short and grabs the reader’s attention
• first paragraph: this should make readers want to read on
• questions: pose direct questions to the readers to make them think
• direct speech: use some instances of direct speech – but be moderate with it.
• contrasts; make contrasts and draw dramatic pictures in your writing
• use of second person: address readers directly
• final paragraph: refer to point made earlier in article and end on a strong point.

Working in pairs again, have the students imagine what Harry Kling wrote in the original article. The
students need a liberal imagination and should include extra details. Have one pair exchange their
information with another pair to ensure that all information is included. Now working individually,
have the students plan their article bearing in mind the points discussed earlier. When the students
have finished their plan, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, ask them to discuss it through with a
partner and on the basis of that discussion to make improvements.

The students are now ready to write their article. When they have finished, or after a reasonable time
has elapsed, have them swap their text with that of a partner. The receiving students should make
comments on style and correct any inaccuracies (spelling, punctuation, syntax, lexis). If necessary, a
second draft should be written. The articles can then be handed round for other students to read. The
final step is to take them in for marking.

Task 2. Ask the students to imagine that a newspaper has received a complaint from one of its readers.
Have the students, working in pairs, guess what the newspaper’s complaint policy might be. Pool these
ideas in open class. When students offer ideas have them state the reason for this policy.

Ask students to read the complaints procedure and to note down key points. The students should now
explain the procedure to their partner as well as discuss the policy’s merits and possible drawbacks.
The students’ understanding of the complaint procedure should be checked by asking questions.

2A. There are several lexical items in the complaint procedure, which may be problematic for the
students. Have the students work out any unknown lexis highlighted in the section by asking a fellow
student, working it out from context or using a dictionary. If necessary input the meaning of lexical
items. Check understanding of the items by asking questions.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 3 Page 5

2B. Ask the students what it means to give someone a ‘a piece of your mind.’ (Answer: to talk bluntly
and usually rudely to somebody). Ascertain from the students what would happen, according to the
printed guidelines, if Terry were to be abusive. Tell the students individually to determine the main
three or four pour points of the complaints’ procedure. Have them check their answers with a partner,
and if necessary discuss inter se which are the most important points.

Ask the students whether the email will be formal or informal. (Answer: informal as they are friends)
Ask whether there are any differences between an informal letter and an email. (Answer: the headings
perhaps and an email can be even more elliptical) Working individually the students should now draft
their email. When they have finished they should give it a partner to check for style and accuracy (i.e.
spelling, punctuation, syntax and lexis). Finally the text should be handed in for marking.

Task 3. The final supplementary task looks at a genre which is a particular type of formal letter; i.e.
one which is confirming in formal English an agreement between two parties who have been in
conflict. The supplementary task format here also requires the candidates to use their imagination and
background knowledge which is a quality of the ‘genre writing’ rather than ‘transactional writing’
task.

Ask the students to read the problem that existed between the neighbours. In groups of three or four
have them discuss what problems there might have been between the two parties to the dispute and the
nature of the compromise solution which might have been reached. When they have finished, or after a
reasonable time has elapsed, have the students working individually write a plan for their letter. The
plan should include notes for the layout and format, and numbered points enumerating what has been
agreed between the parties. In pairs the students should compare their plans and upgrade them on the
basis of their partner’s advice.

The students should now be given a strict thirty minutes in which to write their letter. After thirty
minutes the answers should be passed round to other students who can correct inaccuracies (spelling,
punctuation, syntax, lexis) but also and most importantly comment on the style. When the students
receive their work back pool and discuss in open class aspects of style which are contentious or about
which there is doubt. On the basis of this discussion students can prepare a final draft of their letter
which can be handed in for marking.

A book which may be particularly useful for further work on letter writing is CAE Writing Skills by
Felicity O’Dell, CUP 1996.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 4 Page 1

Operational Proficiency Reading – multiple choice reading

4 In the Grip of Dreams


Task 1 – overall meaning

A Tell your partner about one of your dreams

B What do the following mean?

proverbial, vivid, trifling remnants, to manifest, to


induce, to retain, to attain, unsusceptible.

C Write a précis of the passage in not more than fifty


words. Give the passage below a title.

D Create three believable but wrong titles for the text

Dreams by Sigmund Freud

That a dream fades away in the morning is proverbial. It is, indeed, possible to recall it. For
we know the dream, of course, only by recalling it after waking; but we very often believe that we
remember it incompletely, that during the night there was more of it than we remember. We may
observe how the memory of a dream, which in the morning was still vivid, fades in the course of the
day, leaving only a few trifling remnants. We are often aware that we have been dreaming, but we
do not know of what we have dreamed. We are so well used to the probability of a dream being
forgotten that we do not reject as absurd the possibility that we may have been dreaming even when,
in the morning, we know nothing either of the content of the dream or of the fact that we have
dreamed.
On the other hand, it often happens that dreams manifest an extraordinary power of
maintaining themselves in the memory. I have had occasion to analyse with my patients’ dreams
which they experienced twenty-five years or more previously. I can remember a dream of my own
which is divided from the present day by at least thirty-seven years, and yet has lost nothing of its
freshness in my memory. All this is very remarkable, and for the present incomprehensible.
In the first place, all those factors which induce forgetfulness in the waking state determine
also the forgetting of dreams. In the waking state we commonly very soon forget a great many
sensations and perceptions because they are too slight to remember, and because they are charged
with only a slight amount of emotional feeling. This is true also of many dream-images; they are
forgotten because they are too weak, while the stronger images in their neighbourhood are
remembered. However, the factor of intensity is in itself not the only determinant of the preservation
of dream-images. Dream-images are often rapidly forgotten although they are known to have been
vivid, whereas, among those that are retained in the memory, there are many that are very shadowy
and unmeaning. Besides, in the waking state one tends to forget rather easily things that have
happened only once, and to remember more readily things which occur repeatedly. But most dream-
images are unique experiences, This peculiarity, however, would contribute towards the forgetting
of all dreams equally. Of much greater significance is a third cause of forgetting. In order that
feelings, representations, ideas and the like should attain a certain degree of memorability, it is
important that they should not remain isolated, but that they should enter into connections and
associations of an appropriate nature. If the words of a verse of poetry are taken and mixed together,
it will be very difficult to remember them. Properly placed, in a significant sequence, one word
helps another, and the whole, making sense, remains and is easily and lastingly fixed in the memory.

continued…

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 4 Page 2

…continued

Contradictions, as a rule, are retained with just as much difficulty and just as rarely as
things that are confused and disorderly. Now dreams, in most cases, lack sense and order.
Dream-compositions, by their very nature, are unsusceptible to being remembered, so they are
forgotten because as a rule they fall to pieces the very next moment.

Task 2 – writer’s attitude

A What is a ‘lucid dream’? Have you had one?

B What do the following mean?


ferocious, to seduce, devastating, to shrink, a New Age fad, a gadget.

C Find evidence (or lack of it) in the following text for the following attitudes on the
part of the writer:
• disbelief and ridiculing of lucid dreams
• a humorous approach
• a firm and fixed opinion on the subject.
• a trivial approach to the subject

Lucid Dreams

What could it mean to be conscious in your dreams? For most of us, dreaming is something
quite separate from normal life. When we wake up from being chased by a ferocious tiger,
or seduced by a devastatingly good-looking Nobel Prize winner, we realise with relief or
disappointment that "it was only a dream."
Yet there are some dreams that are not like that. Lucid dreams are dreams in which
you know at the time that you are dreaming. That they are different from ordinary dreams is
obvious as soon as you have one. The experience is something like waking up in your
dreams. It is as though you "come to" and find you are dreaming.
Lucid dreams used to be a topic within parapsychology. Perhaps their
incomprehensibility made them good candidates for being thought paranormal. More
recently, however, they have begun to appear in psychology journals and have dropped out
of parapsychology - a good example of how the field of parapsychology shrinks when any
of its subject matter is actually explained.
Lucidity has also become something of a New Age fad. There are machines and
gadgets you can buy and special clubs you can join to learn how to induce lucid dreams.
But this commercialisation should not let us lose sight of the very real fascination of lucid
dreaming. It forces us to ask questions about the nature of consciousness, deliberate control
over our actions, and the nature of imaginary worlds.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 4 Page 3

Task 3 – lexis

A What did Frederik van Eeden do for a living?

B Find words to fit the three gaps. What parts of speech are they?

C Why are the incorrect answers incorrect?

1 A built B abandoned C minted


2 A mistake B truth C lie
3 A compulsion B doing C action

The term lucid dreaming was _1_ by the Dutch psychiatrist Frederik van Eeden in 1913.
It is something of a _2_ since it means something quite different from just clear or vivid
dreaming. Nevertheless we are certainly stuck with it. Van Eeden explained that in this
sort of dream "the re-integration of the psychic functions is so complete that the sleeper
reaches a state of perfect awareness and is able to direct his attention, and to attempt
different acts of free _3_.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 4 Page 4

Unit 4: teacher’s notes and answers

1A. Tell the class about a dream you have had. Explain how it affected you and why you think you
have remembered it. Ask the students to think of a dream they had. Check that each student has a
dream in mind, and have him/her relate the dream to a partner. Ask the students in open class whether
they can remember their dreams or not.

1B. Refer the students to the highlighted lexis and ask them to note down definitions for the selected
lexical items. Those students who are unaware of an item should ask classmates, work out meaning
from context or use a dictionary. You can also input definitions, if necessary. Check understanding of
lexis by asking questions.

1C. Ask the students whether the passage is from a newspaper article or is an academic piece of
writing. Give the students a strict ninety seconds in which to read the text and come up with an
answer. When the time has expired, have the students compare their answer with that of a partner.
Pool answers in open class. When a student offers an answer, ensure that s/he fully justifies it. In the
event that students do not have the correct answer, or are unsure of the reason for the correct answer,
refer them to the text and ask exploratory questions.

Answers to 1C – genre of the passage

The passage is from an academic article. We know this because:


• long paragraphs
• long complex sentences
• no ‘hooks’ to catch the readers’ attention, apart from the argument itself.

Ask the students to make notes on the main points of the text. When they have finished or after a
reasonable period has elapsed, have them compare their notes with a partner for the purpose of
upgrading their notes. Now, working in pairs, have the students identify key information. From that
key information the students should write a short précis in not more than fifty words. When the
students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, have the summaries handed around the
class for all to read. Elicit in open class the key pieces of information, and discuss any differences of
view.

Answers to 1C – possible précis of text

The précis should include the points in the sample below:

We often forget our dreams although we know that we have been dreaming. Dreams are forgettable
because the dream image is often weak, is not repeated and do not occur in a logical memorable
sequence. (35 words)

1D. On the basis of the précis, and in open class, have the students determine a title for text which
summarises its theme (Possible answer: Why people forget their dreams) When a student offers a title
remember to insist on a full explanation and justification from the student.

Put the students into groups of three or four, and have them create three distractor titles for the text.
Remind the students that all of the distractors should be believable and have some, but insufficient,
justification in the text. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, collect
all the distractors in open class and note them on the whiteboard. When a students suggests a
distractor, ensure that s/he explains why it is such and which part of the text it draws on.

2A. Ask in open class whether any of the students know the meaning of a ‘lucid dream.’ If none of the
students know, which is likely, give them a strict forty-five seconds in which to find the answer in the

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 4 Page 5

text. Elicit the answer in open class. (Answer: a lucid dream is a dream in which the dreamer knows
that s/he is dreaming) When the meaning of a lucid dream is clear ask the students whether they have
ever experienced one, and discuss the subject in open class.

2B. Refer the students to the highlighted lexis and ask them to note down definitions for the selected
lexical items. Those students who are unaware of an item should ask classmates, work out meaning
from context or use a dictionary. You can also input definitions, if necessary. Check understanding of
lexis by asking questions.

2C. Point out to students that a writer always displays an attitude to the material that s/he is writing
about and that this ‘attitude’ is tested in the multiple-choice reading. Have the students read the four
identified attitudes and, working individually, ask them find evidence (or lack of it) for the descriptors.
When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, have them upgrade their
answers by comparing their work with that of a partner. Pool the information in open class and discuss
any differences. Ensure that the students fully justify their answers with evidence from the text.

Answers to 2C

Disbelief and ridiculing of lucid dreams


There is little evidence for lucid dreams being such save for the mention of some people joining lucid
dream cubs and having gadgets to assist their dreaming. The object of any ridicule however is
directed at the people involved rather than the subject of lucid dreaming.

A humorous approach
There is no evidence of humour, save for the mention of the lucid dreaming clubs, etc. The tone of the
text is serious.

A firm and fixed opinion on the subject


Again there is little evidence for this view as the author, tells us that the issue forces us to ask
questions. It is possible that s/he will then come out with fixed answers, but at this point we simply
don’t know.

A trivial approach to the subject


There is no evidence showing a trivial approach as the author is clearly about to start writing an
academic article on the subject.

3A. Give the students a strict thirty-second time limit and ask them to find out from the text who
Frederik van Eeden was. Pool and check answers in open class. In the unlikely event that the students
do not know the correct answer, refer them to the text again., and guide them with appropriate
questions.

Ask the students why the term ‘lucid dreaming is misleading. (Answer: ‘lucid’ means clear, but a
‘lucid dream’ is one in which the dreamer can control his/her dream)

3B. Working in pairs, ask the students to determine the part of speech for each gap. Pool the answers
in open class. When a student offers an answer ensure that s/he fully justifies it. The students should
then, working again in pairs, find appropriate words for the gaps. Pool the answers in open class.
Discuss the merits of the lexis provided. Finally, if they have not emerged already, give the correct
word for each gap.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 4 Page 6

Answers for 3B

Gap ‘1’
The part of speech is a past participle. We know this because the gap is part of a passive construction
with the preceding word being the auxiliary ‘was’ and following the gap is a preposition phrase
stating the agent. The original word in the gap was ‘coined’

Gap ‘2’
The part of speech is a noun. We know this because it follows the indefinite article and is not followed
by a noun. The original word in the gap was ‘misnomer.’

Gap ‘3’
The part of speech is a noun. We know this because the gap ends the sentence and follows an adjective
in a prepositional phrase. The original word in the gap was ‘volition’

3C. Refer the students to the detractors. In pairs the students should note down the reasons for each
detractor being false. When they have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, the pairs of
students should compare their reasoning with that of another pair. Pool answers in open class. Ensure
that all explanations for the distractors are fully explained.

Answers to 3C

Word ‘1’
built: the phrase to build a term does not collocate
abandoned: since the term is now in use it would hardly be relevant to talk about its abandonment.
minted: the phrase to mint a term does not collocate

Word ‘2’
mistake: the term is misleading but to describe it as a mistake is too strong
truth: as the term is misleading it would be inappropriate to call it a truth
lie: ‘a lie’ suggests a deliberate falsehood and is therefore completely inappropriate

Word ‘3’
compulsion: ‘free compulsion’ would be an oxymoron which could only be used ironically
doing: ‘free doing’ does not collocate
action: the word ‘action’ does not well relate to the activity of imagination and is therefore
inappropriate.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 5 Page 1

Operational Proficiency Reading and Writing B – extended writing

5 Why speak Esperanto?


Task 1 – why Esperanto?

A Dr Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto, lived in


Poland at the turn of the century. He lived in a
community where Russian, German, Polish and
Yiddish were spoken by different people. What
problems did this cause?

B What do the following mean?

to confer, to devote, to outstrip, to attain, outright,


oppression, a benchmark, to bar, emancipation,

C Ado is a strong advocate of Esperanto and has written an essay in its defence. What
are the strengths and weaknesses of the essay?

D Re-write Ado’s essay so that any shortcomings are removed.

“People should learn Esperanto” Discuss.

Put an average citizen from each European country into one room and the reality is that
they could not communicate with one another. Esperanto has a number of qualities which make it
ideally suited to overcome that problem.
Any language such as English, which confers lifelong privileges on some while requiring
others to devote years of effort to achieving a lesser degree of competence, is fundamentally
antidemocratic. While Esperanto, like any language, is not perfect, it far outstrips other languages
as a means of egalitarian communication on a world scale.
All ethnic languages are bound to certain cultures and nations. For example, the child who
learns English learns about the culture, geography and political systems of the English-speaking
world, primarily the United States and the United Kingdom. The child who learns Esperanto learns
about a world without borders, where every country is home.
Only a small percentage of foreign-language students attain fluency in the target language.
In Esperanto, fluency is attainable even through home study. Various studies have shown that
Esperanto is useful as a preparation for learning other languages. It has also been recommended as
a core element in courses in language awareness.
The Esperanto community is almost unique as a worldwide community whose members
are universally bilingual or multilingual. Every member of the community has made the effort to
learn at least one foreign language to a communicative level. In many cases this leads to a love and
knowledge of several languages and to broader personal horizons in general.
The unequal distribution of power between languages is a recipe for permanent language
insecurity, or outright language oppression, for a large part of the world's population. In the
Esperanto community the speakers of languages large and small, official and unofficial meet on
equal terms through a mutual willingness to compromise. This balance of language rights and
responsibilities provides a benchmark for developing and judging other solutions to language
inequality and conflict.
continued…

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 5 Page 2

Every language both liberates and imprisons its users, giving them the ability to
communicate among themselves, but barring them from communication with others. Designed
as a universally accessible means of communication, Esperanto is one of the great functional
projects for the emancipation of humankind, aiming to let every individual citizen participate
fully in the human community, securely rooted in his or her local cultural and language identity
yet not limited by it.
In conclusion both practical and political factors combine in favour of a concerted effort
to promote knowledge of Esperanto. (413 words)

Task 2 – Lidia Zamenhof

A What do the following mean?

to befall, a clatter, a lullaby, to brand, to persecute, confinement

B Read Lidia’s story. What was her tragedy?

C Identity the features that define the text as a descriptive narrative.

D Choose one part of Lidia’s life and write about it in the same
genre in more detail. (The Lidia Zamenhof story is true, but you
will have to use your imagination)

Lidia’s story

On a cold winter’s day in 1904 in Bialystok in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Lidia
Zamenhof was born. Her father, Ludwig, was the internationally famous creator of Esperanto,
but the reputation and prosperity of her family gave no clues to the tragedy that was to befall her.
Sensitive little Lidia received the full and undivided attention of her parents, as both her
older brother, Adam, and her sister, Zofia, were studying medicine in Switzerland. She lived in a
safe world where her father’s typewriter stood on a small oak table in the dining room. In the
evenings it was pushed towards the light of the lamp that hung over the table. In the daytime it
worked only a few hours, but its real life began in the evening. The sound of the clatter of the
keys as her father wrote in Esperanto was the lullaby to which she drifted off to sleep.
As stubborn as she was sensitive, Lidia refused to learn Esperanto. At the age of nine her
mother, Klara, told her enough was enough and she could only join her siblings at the Esperanto
conference in Switzerland if she learnt the language. She did and became a life-long advocate of
her father’s philosophy of ‘homaranismo’, which literally means ‘human-group-member-ism’
which is the belief that communication leads to understanding and tolerance.
By the 1930s dark clouds were gathering for Esperanto speakers. Hitler had branded
Esperanto as a Jewish communist language and Esperantists were persecuted. In 1937 Lidia left
for the safety of America. But fate was against her. The following year, because she taught
Esperanto for money in the US, she was deported to Poland. After a period of confinement in the
Warsaw Ghetto, she and her sister, Zofia, were sent to the Nazi extermination camp of Treblinka
where they died in the summer of 1942. Her brother, Adam, was shot on direct orders from
Berlin. (320 words)

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 5 Page 3

Task 3 the definite article in Esperanto

A What do the following mean?

the definite article, prestige, to ponder, a sweat, to rage, immense

B Analyse the structure of the review.

C Imagine you had to adapt this review to appear in a teenage magazine. Write
the review.

Review

Saul Denman has written an excellent article illuminating the cultural and linguistic
influences on Dr Zamenhof ‘s planned language, Esperanto. His description of the multi-
lingual environment of Bialystok in the last couple of decades of the nineteenth century is
not only superbly written, but also casts a new light on the complexity of that society.
Historical and linguistic researchers owe a massive debt to Professor Denman. However,
I’d like to pick up Denman on his insufficient account on one issue.
Denman says he is surprised that Zamenhof had a definite article ‘the’ in
Esperanto. Denman writes, ‘Zamenhof at that time was concerned with the question of
whether his language should have a definite article, having noticed that his own Polish,
and also Russian (presumably the prestige language of that time and place, since
Zamenhof lived in Bialystok, then part of the Russian Empire), did not.
Yet, perhaps Denman overlooked Henri Masson’s French language account of
Zamenhof’s dream. In his dream Zamenhof was pondering this question near a forest with
his uncle Jozef and his Greek teacher, whose name was Billevitch. Zamenhof suggested
that they might find someone in the forest who could help them. Billevitch, on the
contrary, warned against going into the forest on the grounds that there were three girls in
red who wanted to harm them. Zamenhof then looked toward the forest, saw the girls in
question, and cried out, "there are THE three girls in red." Zamenhof then woke up in a
sweat, but decided that his problem had been solved.
Debate still rages over what Zamenhof’s first language was. But Zamenhof was
also a fluent speaker of a definite article language, Yiddish. Indeed, Zamenhof once
thought that Yiddish, because of its widespread use, might serve as a basis for an
international language. Zamenhof spent three years working on a Yiddish grammar, only
fragments of which have ever been published.
I hope my short review here has added to, rather than in any way subtracted from,
the immense contribution Professor Denman has made to the subject. (340 words)

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 5 Page 4

Unit 5: teachers’ notes and answers

1A . Ask in open class what students know about ‘Polish Russia’ at the end of the nineteenth
century. Pool ideas. Put the students into groups of three or four and have them discuss the
issue of living in a community where four languages are spoken. If students worry that they
know insufficient about Poland in this historical period, have them discuss the issue in general
terms.

1B . Refer the students to the highlighted lexis and ask them to note down definitions for the
selected lexical items. Those students who are unaware of an item should ask classmates,
work out meaning from context or use a dictionary. You can also input definitions, if
necessary. Check understanding of lexis by asking questions.

1C . Give the students a strict sixty-second time limit in which to find in the text three reasons
for promoting the use of Esperanto. After the time limit has expired, have the students
compare their answers with those of a partner and then pool answers in open class. Elicit from
the class, and note on the whiteboard, reasons for the study of Esperanto. Then have the
students read the essay again carefully to see which of the ideas are included in the essay.
Additionally, if there are reasons for the promotion of Esperanto in the essay which have not
been discussed so far, then elicit these and note them on the whiteboard.

Ask the students in open class for their initial impression of the essay. Briefly acknowledge
ideas, but don’t start a discussion at this stage. (Note: as will be discussed later, there are
problems with the essay, but overall this piece of writing is of a very high quality. Student
comments, therefore, should be disproportionately positive). Now in pairs, the students should
evaluate the essay noting its positive and negative points. When the students have finished, or
after a reasonable time has elapsed, pool answers in open class. When a student offers a
strength or weakness in the essay, have the student fully explain his/her point of view.

Answers to 1C – strengths and weaknesses in the essay

strengths
• the syntax, lexis, punctuation and spelling are at or above operational proficiency level.
• the essay is written in an appropriate formal style
• the essay is coherent and cohesive, especially through an effective use of paragraphing.
• the essay has an effective introduction and conclusion
• the essay does not use the first person

weaknesses
• the essay exceeds the word limit by 113 words
• the essay does not deal with any of the possible arguments against the promotion of
Esperanto
• the essay has a very simple list style which ignores prioritisation

1D . Ask the students to underline all the key points in the article. When they have done this
they should compare their underlining with those of partner and discuss any differences. Then
in pairs the students should list and discuss arguments against the promotion of Esperanto.
When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, pool student ideas in
open class. When a student offers an argument, ensure that s/he fully explains and justifies
his/her point. Now tell students to plan their essay. The plan should, anticipating the word
limit, include arguments in support of the writer’s position as well as the detailing and argued
dismissal of opposing views. Remind the students to refrain from writing in the first person.
Have the students plan their essay in some detail.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 5 Page 5

When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, ask them to explain
their plan to a partner, and, on the basis of the discussions, to amend their plans. Have the
students write their essay and remind them to keep within the word limit. When they have
finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, have them exchange their essay with that of a
partner. The receiving partner should check the essay for accuracy (syntax, lexis, spelling,
punctuation), for coherence (logical structure and presentation of argument), for cohesion
(reference and effective use of paragraphing) and for an appropriate formal style which does
not employ the first person. The students should, on the basis of feedback, amend their essay
and then hand it in for marking.

2A . Refer the students to the highlighted lexis and ask them to note down definitions for the
selected lexical items. Those students who are unaware of an item should ask classmates,
work out meaning from context or use a dictionary. You can also input definitions, if
necessary. Check understanding of lexis by asking questions.

2B . Ask the students in open class if they know who Lidia Zamenhof was. It is unlikely that
any of the students will know. Give them a strict forty-five seconds to find out the nature of
her tragedy. Elicit the answer from the class.

2C . The previous text was an essay; this one is a narrative. Ask the students working in pairs
to identify all the features of the narrative genre which are revealed in the text. When they
have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, have the pairs exchange and discuss the
genre aspects of a narrative with another pair. Now pool in open class, and note on the
whiteboard, these aspects. When a student offers an aspect ensure that s/he explains how it is
manifested in the text and why it is a part of the narrative genre. Also elicit or input any other
aspects of a narrative genre which are not manifested in the text.

Answers to 2C

Aspects of narrative genre


• the paragraphs follow chronological order
• the setting of a ‘mystery’ at the beginning of the narrative, which is not solved until the
end (i.e. what was her tragedy?)
• use of emotional and descriptive language (e.g. the clatter of keys)
• variation in sentence length and style (e.g. As stubborn as she was sensitive)
• use of metaphor (e.g. dark clouds)

2D . Ask the students to re-read Lidia’s story and to identify a part of it that interests them.
Ask them to turn to a partner and explain why they find this aspect of her story interesting.
Working individually again, have them write a short plan which includes some imaginary, but
realistic, details of that aspect of her life. When the students have finished their plans, or after
a reasonable time has elapsed, have the students write a paragraph of not more than one
hundred words. When they have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, have them
exchange their paragraph with that of a partner. The receiving partner should check the essay
for accuracy (syntax, lexis, spelling, punctuation), for coherence, for cohesion across the
paragraph and for an appropriate narrative style. Students should, on the basis of this
feedback, amend their narrative. It would be interesting at this point to circulate the
paragraphs so that all the members of the class get to see the work of the others.

3A . Refer the students to the highlighted lexis and ask them to note down definitions for the
selected lexical items. Those students who are unaware of an item should ask classmates,
work out meaning from context or use a dictionary. You can also input definitions, if
necessary. Check understanding of lexis by asking questions.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 5 Page 6

3B . Give the students a strict sixty-second time limit to answer the question, ‘What problem
was Zamenhof trying to solve?’ After the time limit has expired, have the students compare
their answer to the question with that of a partner. Elicit answers in open class. In the unlikely
even that the students do not have the correct answer, refer them to the text again. (Answer:
Zamenhof was attempting to decide whether his planned language should have a definite
article or not)

In pairs the students should identify the purpose of the review overall and of purpose of each
paragraph within the review. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has
elapsed, pool the answers in open class. When a student offers a purpose, have him/her
provide the evidence and reason for that purpose. Briefly discuss in open class whether any
other kind of paragraphing would be possible?

Answers to 3B

Overall purpose of the review


• The reviewer, while praising Denman’s article believes Denman is wrong to be surprised
that Zamenhof included a definite article in his planned language.

Purpose of the paragraphs


• first paragraph: to praise Denman’s article
• second paragraph: giving Denman’s reasons for being surprised at their being no
definite article in Esperanto
• third paragraph: how Zamenhof’s dream contribute to the inclusion of a definite article
• fourth paragraph: the role that Zamenhof’s knowledge of Yiddish might have played in
his decision to include a definite article in Esperanto
• fifth paragraph: the reviewer hopes his addition doesn’t damage Denman’s article

3C . Refer the students to the article, and have them in pairs read the article. Ask the students
to underline information which would be hard for teenagers to understand. In open class pool
this information. When a student offers a piece of information as hard to understand for
teenagers, have the student explain and justify the answer. Now, working in pairs again, have
the students re-plan the review so that it is of interest to teenagers. In addition to considering
the information, also have them pay attention to style (e.g. choice of lexis, idiom, sentence
length and structure). When they have finished, or after a reasonable period has elapsed, have
the students change places. Each student should explain his/her plan to a new partner and then
amend it on the basis of feedback. The students should now write their amended article. When
they have finished, or after a reasonable period has elapsed, have the students exchange their
teenage-friendly review with that of a partner. The receiving partner should check the review
for accuracy (syntax, lexis, spelling, punctuation), for coherence, for cohesion both within and
between the paragraphs and for an appropriate style for a review to be read by teenagers.
Students should, on the basis of this feedback, amend their review. It would be interesting at
this point to circulate the paragraphs so that all the members of the class get to see the work of
the others. Finally, collect in the reviews for marking.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 6 Page 1

Operational Proficiency Listening - short conversations

6 Holiday time
Task 1 – expand your exam skill

You are have just arrived at the reception of a holiday


accommodation company. You would like to speak to the
senior partner Mr Slovo. Write a dialogue between yourself
and the receptionist.

dialogue 1 You are very nervous because Mr Slovo is


going to interview you for a job.

dialogue 2 You are tired and bored because it is the end of the day and don’t want to talk
to Mr Slovo.

dialogue 3 You are angry because last time you had an appointment with Mr Slovo he
missed the appointment.

Read your dialogue to another pair in the class.

Task 2 – expand your vocabulary for renting property

Holiday accommodation on the island of Krm is expensive. You have just signed a contract
for renting the property for next July.

A look at the following items. Try to work out the meaning from the contract below,
from a dictionary or asking a classmate or your teacher.

a lease, a lessor, a lessee, a clause, premises, an inventory, a discrepancy, to vacate, to


forfeit, an accessory, a nuisance, to be liable, irrespective of

B Re-write the following in simpler English:

the conditions of the lease set out hereunder, a full period or any portion thereof, as
hereinbefore stated

C Write a letter to your partner explaining the key points of the lease.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 6 Page 2

The lease

I ___________________________________ (the Tenant) hereby rent the villa known as Krmna


Principala 27 at EUR 170 per day and agree to abide by the conditions of lease set out
hereunder for the period 15h00 29 June to 10h00 4 August 2004.

1. RENTAL
Rent for the above mentioned period and shall be paid to the lessor as follows:-
a) 50% of the total rental on confirmation of reservation.
b) The balance of the rental and the deposit of EUR 500 as in clause 2 payable 3 weeks in
advance before taking occupation of the premises.

2. REFUNDABLE BREAKAGE/TELEPHONE DEPOSIT


A detailed inventory exists and should be checked by the Lessee at time of taking occupation of
the premises. Any discrepancies should be reported immediately.
A breakage deposit of EUR 250 (two hundred and fifty Euro) will be paid together with the
amount referred to in Clause 1, together with the balance of payment. The Lessor will refund
this deposit, less any claim of loss or damage, as soon as possible after the Lessee’s vacation of
the unit. Should the cost of replacement or otherwise exceed the deposit amount, the deposit will
be forfeited and the Lessee agrees to pay the difference (if applicable) on demand.

3. THE PREMISES
The Lessee shall not be entitled to sub-let the premises whether for a full period or any portion
thereof without the express authority of the Lessor. -
b) The Lessee shall not house any live animals or pets on the premises.
c) It is recorded that at the same time of the Lessee taking occupation the premises are in good
state of repair and condition, and that all keys, locks, glass windows and moveable items
specified in the inventory are likewise in good order and condition.

4. INVENTORY
The premises are accepted as including all furniture, fittings and accessories in the condition in
which they are found. The inventory will have been checked prior to the arrival date. Any
shortfall or damaged article must be reported to the Agent/Owner immediately, failing which the
inventory will be assumed to be correct. After the departure date the Agent/Owner will check for
any breakages, shortages or damage.

5. CONDUCT
The Lessee shall use the premises solely for residential purpose and shall not cause or permit
any disorderly conduct of whatsoever nature in or upon the premises or do or permit any act,
matter of thing in or about the premises, which shall constitute or cause a nuisance.

6. KEYS
a) The keys for the house shall not be handed over to tenants until such time as full and final
payment of all rentals has been received.
b) The keys for the house shall be collected from, and returned to the Agent during normal
business hours, unless specific arrangements to the contrary are made.

7. CANCELLATION
No cancellation by the Lessee shall be accepted once this agreement has been signed or the
deposit payable as hereinbefore stated has been paid. The Lessee shall be liable for the full
amount as hereinbefore stated, irrespective of whether the premises are occupied for the full
period or not. The deposit shall not be refundable but shall be allocated towards the damages to
be suffered by the Lessor

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 6 Page 3

Task 3 – changes of attitude in a conversation

A Listen to the following conversation. What are Ado and Mira talking about?

B How does Mira’s mood change throughout the conversation?

C Find lexical evidence for changes in Mira’s mood.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 6 Page 4

Handout 6.1

Ado and Mira talk about their holiday

Mira comes home from work and Ado is already at


home…..

Ado Hi Mira. Did you have a good day at work?

Mira No I didn’t. It was simply awful. I think I’m going to jack in the whole thing. I
became a teacher to teach kids, not to become some insignificant piece of rubbish
in a young offender prison. Work is just depressing me these days.

Ado Well, working in a commercial law office has its bad days too…

Mira It’s not just a bad day in my case for Christ’s sake. It’s all the time.

Ado Mira, just sit down. I’ve something to tell you. I’ve booked us a holiday and paid
for it, too.

Mira Ado, darling. There’s nothing I’d like more than change the grey skies of Northern
Europe for the sun. Where are we going?

Ado I’ve booked us a place next month on Krm Island. It’s looks like a really nice place
on the net. It should give us a chance to relax a bit and get our lives back to
together.

Mira I love this. I can get on with the book I’m writing and just chill out. When have you
booked it for, Ado?

Ado The lease starts on the first Saturday in July. We are going to drive down there with
Otto and Klara who have booked the other half of the villa.

Mira What! You can’t be serious. We are not going with Otto and Klara. You’ll be
talking to Otto all the time about law, and that will leave me talking to Klara about
her stupid cosmetics business. I’m really don’t want to hear any more. I’m off to
bed now.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 6 Page 5

Unit 6: teachers’ notes, answers and tapescripts

Task 1 . Elicit from the students in open class how they might feel arriving at the reception of
a large company. Ascertain whether the nature of their business there would affect how they
feel. Ask the students in their pairs to discuss how they might feel in the following situations;
first they are arriving for a job interview, second they are tired and bored, third they are angry
because the person they wish to see has let them down in the past and has missed
appointments. Briefly pool ideas in open class.

Refer the students to task Have them write in their pairs three dialogues each showing clearly
the different attitude of the participant. While writing the students should think about
appropriate lexis, structures and intonation to express the different feelings. Remind the
students of the rubric of the short conversation task, namely that there are between three and
ten turns per conversation and no turn is longer than thirty words.

When the students have finished or after a reasonable period has elapsed, ask them to read
their three dialogues to another pair. Finally, select one of the dialogues and have several
different groups perform their dialogue in open class, so that the students can contrast a range
of different approaches.

Task 2 . Ask the students to think of some of the problems in renting a holiday property. Pool
and briefly discuss some of these ideas in open class.

2A . The lease that the students are about to read almost certainly contains unfamiliar lexis.
Key lexical items have been highlighted. Either pre-teach them or have the students work
them out from their context in the lease, by using a dictionary or by asking classmates. Check,
through asking questions, that students have understood the meaning of the items.

2B . Write up on the whiteboard the sentence, ‘I had lunch, thereafter I went for a walk.’ Ask
students to re-write the sentence without employing the item ‘thereafter’ (Answer:
afterwards, then, after that, after which). Ensure that the students are fully aquatinted with the
structure, and then ask them why the word ‘thereafter’ is strange in the usage on the
whiteboard and inquire how it is normally used. (Answer: thereafter, herein, etc. are
normally only used in formal and especially legal English).

Ask the students to re-write the three highlighted sentence fragments. When they have
finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, have them compare their answers with those
of a partner. Pool the answers in open class, and discuss any problems arising.

Answers to 2B

the conditions of the lease which are set out below in this document
a full period of any portion of a full period
as was stated above in this document

2C . Have the students read the lease, and individually make notes on the important
provisions of each of the sections. They should then compare their notes with those of a
partner. In open class elicit the provisions and note them on the whiteboard. Ensure that the
students fully understand their meaning and elicit/input simpler and more colloquial ways of
expressing these ideas.

Tell the students that they have to write a letter to their partner (spouse, etc) outlining what
they have agreed to in the lease. The letter should contain the important details, but should be
informal.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 6 Page 6

Answers to 2C

Information to be included in the letter.

Villa on Krm Island. 170 EUR per day. Booked from 29 June to 4 Aug. Must pay 50% of rent
immediately, balance and deposit (EUR 500) must pay 2 weeks before start of holiday.

There’s an inventory to be checked with agent. EUR 250 breakages deposit. We can’t let out
any of it without their permission, have animals there. Must keep in good condition. No noisy
parties.

We can’t cancel, now we’ve booked.

3A . Inform the students that they are about to hear a dialogue between two people, Ado and
Mira. In the first listening they should attempt to find answers to the following:
• What is the main topic of Ado and Mira’s conversation?
• What is the relationship between Ado and Mira?
• What do Ado and Mira do for a living?
When the students are quiet and ready, play the listening text. Then have students compare
their answers with a partner. Elicit answers in open class. Avoid giving immediate feedback
so that you can ascertain that each pair has the correct answers. In the event of several pairs
having incorrect answers, play the tape in whole or part again, and guide the students through
questions to the correct answer.

Tapescript for 3A

Ado Hi Mira. Did you have a good day at work?

Mira No I didn’t. It was simply awful. I think I’m going to jack in the whole thing. I became
a teacher to teach kids, not to become some insignificant piece of rubbish in a young
offender prison. Work is just depressing me these days.

Ado Well, working in a commercial law office has its bad days too…

Mira It’s not just a bad day in my case for Christ’s sake. It’s all the time.

Ado Mira, just sit down. I’ve something to tell you. I’ve booked us a holiday and paid for
it, too.

Mira Ado, darling. There’s nothing I’d like more than change the grey skies of Northern
Europe for the sun. Where are we going?

Ado I’ve booked us a place next month on Krm Island. It’s looks like a really nice place
on the net. It should give us a chance to relax a bit and get our lives back to together.

Mira I love this. I can get on with the book I’m writing and just chill out. When have you
booked it for, Ado?

Ado The lease starts on the first Saturday in July. We are going to drive down there with
Otto and Klara who have booked the other half of the villa.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 6 Page 7

Mira What! You can’t be serious. We are not going with Otto and Klara. You’ll be talking
to Otto all the time about law, and that will leave me talking to Klara about her
stupid cosmetics business. I’m really don’t want to hear any more. I’m off to bed now.

Answers to 3A

Topic: being fed up / going on holiday. Relationship: husband/wife, boyfriend/girlfriend.


Jobs: Mira is a teacher; Ado is a lawyer

3B . Working in pairs, ask the students, as far as they can remember, to recall Mira’s change
of mood. When they have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, briefly pool
answers in open class. When the students are quiet and ready, play the text again and have
students confirm or adapt their opinion. Discuss any matters arising in open class.

Answers to 3B

Beginning: depressed and fed up. Middle: happy and enthusiastic. End: disappointed and
angry

3C . Give the students individually a copy of the photocopiable page with the tapescript (PRF
3.1). Have them find individually instances of lexis in the tapescript that indicates Mira’s
mood. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, have them
compare and upgrade their answers by comparing their work with that of a partner. Pool ideas
in open class and note relevant lexis on the whiteboard. When a student offers an item of lexis
as indicative of Mira’s mood, ensure that the student explains his/her answer, and, if
necessary, have the answer discussed in open class.

Answers to 3C

Mira depressed and fed up

simply awful – to jack in – an insignificant piece of rubbish – depressing – it’s all the time

Mira happy and enthusiastic

darling – there’s nothing I’d like more – I love this – just chill out -

Mira disappointed and angry

What! – you can’t be serious – her stupid cosmetics business – I really don’t want to hear any
more – I’m off to bed

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 7 Page 1

Operational Proficiency – making notes

7 Restless Legs
Task 1 – selective note taking

A What do you need to do to get a good sleep? Discuss the


issue with your partner.

B What do the following mean?


to take s.th on board, the snooze alarm, caffeine, bulb

C Take notes from Dr Mann’s speech.

Task 2 – listening for specific information

A What are the five senses and how might they affect sleep?

B What do the following mean?


a dimmer switch, an old chestnut, a night-cap

C Listen to more of Dr Mann’s speech. The question will concern the five senses.

Task 3 – writing up notes

A What do you think it is like suffering from restless legs syndrome (RLS), particularly
when sleeping. What could sufferers do to alleviate their symptoms?

B Dr Mann has recently given a lecture on RLS. Ado has taken notes on the lecture.
From his notes answer the following question: ‘What can sufferers of RLS do when
they have restless legs in bed?

Restless Legs
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a discomfort in the
legs.
Relieved by moving or stimulating the legs.
This feeling is difficult to describe and Symptoms:
tingling or prickling sensation.

When occurs?
Riding in a car
Watching TV
Reading
Inactivity, sitting (in a theatre for example)
Lying in bed trying to fall asleep

What you can do about it.


Getting up and walking around
Taking a hot shower
Rubbing the legs

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 7 Page 2

Periodic Limb Movements


One variation of RLS is Periodic Limb Movements in
Sleep (PLMS).
Involves leg movements or jerks which typically
occur every 20 to 40 seconds
Causes sleep to be disrupted.
Movements typically reported by the bed partner.
Leaves the person with excessive daytime sleepiness.

Simple test for Restless Legs


Do you feel that in some way your sleep is not
refreshing or restful?
Do your legs ache prior to bed or when getting up?
Does your bed partner report that you kick them
during the night?
Sufferers should see their doctor

C Write a summary of RLS (100 – 150 words). Notice how much more information is
in the summary compared with the answer to the question above.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 7 Page 3

Unit 7: Teachers’ notes, answers and tapescripts

1A Tell the students, working in pairs, to note down as much good advice as they can about
getting a good sleep. Pool the ideas in open class and briefly discuss them.

1B . Refer the students to the highlighted lexis and ask them to note down definitions for the
selected lexical items. Those students who are unaware of an item should ask classmates,
work out meaning from context or use a dictionary. You can also input definitions, if
necessary. Check understanding of lexis by asking questions.

1C . Tell the students that they will hear part of a radio talk given by Dr Mann. Ask the
students to take notes as necessary. Inform the students that, after having heard the recording
once, they will be required to answer a written question on the relation of food and drink to
sleep. When the students are quiet and ready play the recording.

Have the students compare their notes with those of a partner. After some time has elapsed,
give the students the following question: ‘When should you eat chocolate?’
Give the students a strict thirty seconds in which to write their answer, and then have them
briefly compare their answer with that of a partner. Pool answers in open class. (Answer:
people should eat chocolate in the morning)

Now ask the students to look back to their notes. According to the pre-listening notification of
the question area, the students knew their question would relate to food and drink. Ask the
students to cross out from their notes anything that does not relate to food and drink.
Ascertain in open class, what proportion of the student’s note taking was superfluous. Advise
students to only take notes on those matters which have a bearing on the question area.

Tapescript to 1C

Rebecca Well, on today’s programme our speaker today is Dr Ben Mann from the
national sleep institute. Welcome, Dr Mann.

Dr Mann Thank you, Rebecca, and hello everybody. Well, sleep is a subject that we are
all interested in. You should wake up refreshed in the morning without the
use of an alarm clock and feel energetic all day. If for some reasons you
don’t, you may find some good tips in my talk this morning.

What a lot of people don’t take on board is that sleep is as important as food
and air. Quantity and quality are very important. Most people need between
7.5 to 8.5 hours of uninterrupted sleep. If you want to press the snooze alarm
in the morning, the truth is you are not getting the sleep you need. This could
be due to not enough time in bed, external disturbances, or a sleep disorder.
You should go to a sleep clinic and find out.

My first piece of advice is to tell you to keep regular hours. Try to go to bed
at the same time and get up at the same time every day. Getting up at the
same time is most important. Getting bright light, like the sun, when you get
up will also help. Try to go to bed only when you are sleepy. Bright light in
the morning at a regular time should help you feel sleepy at the same time
every night.

Need I tell you to stay away from stimulants like caffeine. This will help you
get deep sleep which is most refreshing. If you take any caffeine, take it in the
morning. Avoid all stimulants in the evening, including chocolate, caffeinated
sodas, and caffeinated teas. They will all delay your sleep.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 7 Page 4

Now lets turn to your bed. Use the bed just for sleeping. Avoid watching TV,
using laptop computers, or reading in bed. Bright light from these activities
may inhibit sleep. If it helps to read before sleep, make sure you use a very
small wattage bulb to read. A 15-watt bulb should be enough.

2A . Elicit in open class the five senses and note them on the whiteboard. Working in pairs,
have the students discuss how the five senses impinge on sleep. Ask them to discuss what the
most favourable conditions are for sleep with regard to the five senses. Ask them to consider
which sense impinges most and which least on the ability to sleep. When the students have
finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, pool the ideas in open class and briefly
discuss them.

2B . Refer the students to the highlighted lexis and ask them to note down definitions for the
selected lexical items. Those students who are unaware of an item should ask classmates,
work out meaning from context or use a dictionary. You can also input definitions, if
necessary. Check understanding of lexis by asking questions. (N.B. An old chestnut is
something that has been said and/or argued for years.)

2C . Tell the students that they will now hear more of Dr Mann’s speech. Inform them that the
question will concern the effect of the senses on sleep. When all the students are quiet and
ready, play the recording. After the recording, give the students the question: ‘According to
Dr Mann, what role do the senses of feeling and sound have on sleep?’ Give the students a
strict one hundred and twenty seconds in which to write down the answer. At the expiry of the
time limit have the students compare and upgrade their answer with a partner. Pool answers in
open class. If there is any dispute as to the correct answer, then replay the relevant parts of the
recording to iron out problems. Again, raise the issue of superfluous note taking – i.e. students
taking notes from the speech that do not bear on the senses of sound and touch.

Tapescript to 2c

Rebecca Now Doctor Mann, you were talking about the relationship between light and
sleep.

Dr Mann Yes, that’s right. You should think about light more generally. Avoid bright
light around the house before bed. Using dimmer switches in living rooms
and bathrooms before bed can be helpful. But don’t forget to switch your
dimmer switches to maximum brightness for morning routines. That’s
important too.

Looking at stress and exercise now. It’s silly to get stressed if you feel you are
not getting enough sleep. It will just make matters worse. Just recognise the
fact that you will sleep eventually. Avoid exercise near bedtime; it doesn’t
help. In fact don’t exercise for at least three hours before bed.

Don't go to bed hungry. You should have a light snack, and avoid a heavy
meal before bed. Bedtime routines are helpful for good sleep.

One thing to do is to avoid looking at the clock if you wake up in the middle
of the night. It can cause anxiety and doesn’t help. But if you can't get to
sleep for over 30 minutes, get out of bed and do something boring in dim light
till you are sleepy.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 7 Page 5

Don’t overlook the obvious things. Keep your bedroom at comfortable


temperature and if f you have problems with noise in your bedroom you can
use a white noise generator. A fan will do the trick.

I should now consider that old chestnut of alcohol. You should know that the
"night cap" has a price. Alcohol may indeed help you to get to sleep but it
will cause you to wake up throughout the night. You may not notice it.
Sometimes people snore only if they have had some alcohol or may snore
more loudly if they already snore.

Now, finally, lets turn to that contentious issue of snoring. If you have a
sleeping partner, ask whether he or she notices any snoring, leg movements
or pauses in breathing. Note this information and consult a doctor. You may
have a sleep disorder or you may just need to increase your awareness about
your own sleeping habits. Remember – and I can’t emphasise this more
strongly – if you have any concerns see your doctor.

Rebecca Thank you Dr Mann

Answers to 2C – feeling and sound in relations to sleep

Inappropriate temperatures, hunger or overindulgence disturb your sleep. Noise can disturb
your sleep, but white noise can assist.

3A . Write up ‘restless leg syndrome’ on the whiteboard, and ask in open class what it is.
(Answer: it is a disorder when someone feels uncomfortable unless moving his/her legs). Ask
whether this disorder is a serious medical one or is a joke. (Answer: the syndrome is a
recognised decease). In pairs, ask the students to discuss what they think it is like suffering
from restless leg syndrome, particularly when sleeping. Also, ask the students to discuss what
steps could be taken to deal with the syndrome. When the students have finished, or after a
reasonable time has elapsed, pool the opinions in open class and briefly discuss them.

3B . Give the students a strict ninety seconds to read through Ado’s notes and to remember as
much of the information as they can. At the expiry of the time limit, have the students turn
over the page. In open class pool as much information about RLS as the students can
remember.

Now refer the students to the question: ‘What can sufferers of RLS do when they have restless
legs in bed?’ Give the students a strict ninety seconds in which to write the answer. When the
time limit has expired, have the students compare and upgrade their answer with that of a
partner. Pool answers in open class. In the unlikely event that the students do not have the
correct answer, refer them to the text again. (Answer: The sufferer can get up, walk around,
have a hot shower and rub his/her legs). Remind students that in this task the candidate
obtains the mark by making points which contain required information and do not get
recognition for the accuracy or ‘beauty’ of their English.

3C . Ask the students, working individually, to look at Ado’s notes and arrange them so that
they can be written up in a summary of 100-150 words. When the students have finished, or
after a reasonable time has elapsed, have the students discuss their plan with a partner. Have
the students write up their notes and hand them in for marking.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 8 Page 1

Operational Proficiency – radio/TV programme

8 Bigger and Better?


Task 1 – writing a multiple choice question

Listen to Mr Relph who is an international consultant at a leading firm of


management consultants. Write a multiple-choice question which tests detailed
understanding of what he has said.

Task 2 – determining attitude

Listen to Mr Jenner, senior partner in a leading firm of management


consultants, talking about his attitude to globalisation. What kind of manner
does he have on the tape?

Respond to the following opinions in colloquial English.

“I think Mr Jenner really cares about helping ordinary people around the
world.

“Mr Jenner is obviously muddled in his views”

“Jenner is a criminal”

“Mr Jenner’s clearly a rational modern man”

“Mr Jenner is very difficult to understand”

Task 3 – a trade union response

What does Mr Fischer say about globalisation? Take notes and reconstruct
his speech.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 8 Page 2

Unit 8: teachers’ notes, answers and tapescripts

Task 1 . In open class remind the students that Mr Relph works for a firm of management
consultants as an international consultant. Ask the students what views they think Mr Relph
might hold on globalisation and discuss these in open class. Ask the students to listen to Mr
Relph. Tell them that, after listening to Mr Relph, the students will be asked to summarise his
views in a single sentence.

Have the students write a summarising sentence in pairs and then pool the answers in open
class. It is important that the students have understood the main thrust of Mr Relph’s views,
so play the text again if necessary. Once the gist has been understood, have the students listen
again and have them record all the points that Mr Relph makes in note form. Having done this
the students should compare their answers with a partner to ensure that nothing has been
omitted. In open class, check by means of posing questions, that the students have all the
information contained in Mr Relph’s short speech.

Ask the students working in pairs to write a multiple-choice question on the text on a piece of
paper. There should be clear evidence of why the correct answer is correct and clear evidence
of why the three distractors are false. The multiple-choice questions should be handed round
the room for other students to do and to check that they work as questions.

Tapescript for Task 1

Well thank you for inviting me onto the programme. I very much work at the practical end as
far as globalisation is concerned so I’m less worried about the theoretical and academic
issues. My firm sees globalisation as an opportunity and as a challenge. The opportunity is to
extend our business systems throughout the world. The challenge is negotiating with, and
overcoming the cultures in other countries that throw up barriers to business. I know there
are people who say that globalisation hurts underdeveloped economies and the poor. Well,
maybe they’re right but I work for the business side. Personally globalisation means profits,
but also a lot of time spent on aeroplanes as I travel around the globe.

Answer to Task 1

A possible summarising sentence could be: “Mr Relph, who is practically engaged in
globalisation through management consultancy, believes that globalisation is a business
challenge and opportunity.

Task 2 . In the previous listening the students were concerned in the final analysis with the
details of what Mr Relph was saying. In this listening practice the students will concentrate
more on a commentator’s manner. Tell the students that they will hear Mr Jenner who is the
senior partner in the management consultancy. Ask the students to listen to Mr Jenner and
listen in particular for how his opinions differ from those of Mr Relph.

Elicit in open class differences between the opinions of the two men. It may be necessary to
replay the text several times to draw out all the points.

Ask the class to think of as many adjectives as they can find to describe Mr Jenner’s attitude.
(Answer: arrogant, uncaring, dismissive, selfish, etc.). When a student offers an answer, be
sure to insist that the student explains and justifies his/her answer from the text. Ask the
students to look through the remarks in their book and for each one they should write a
comment of no more than twenty-five words. Ask the students to compare their responses

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 8 Page 3

with those of a partner, and then pool and discuss them in open class. Bear in mind that in part
the responses are subjective, but that does not prevent a discussion of the reasons for those
responses.

Tapescript for Task 2

Well I haven’t got much time to answer your question, but it seems obvious to me, and to most
sensible people, that globalisation is simply a fact of economic development. There are a lot
of silly people running around saying, “Oh, the poor! Traditional industries are closing and
causing unemployment.” Well, what’s new? I’m a business planner and I’m in the market to
make money. For me that’s where the issue starts and where it finishes.

Answers to Task 2

The views of Relph and Jenner are quite similar. They differ in that in that Jenner is arrogant
(e.g. I have little time for this interview) whereas Relph is polite (thank you for inviting me…).
Jenner is dismissive of those affected by globalisation (Well, what’s new) whereas Relph is
simply uninterested.

Task 3 . Inform the students that the final speaker that they will hear is Mr Fischer. The
students should guess his occupation on the basis of his contribution to the radio programme.
When the students have settled play the recording.

Have the students discuss the likely occupation of Mr Fischer in pairs, and then collect ideas
in open class. Although the answers are subjective, ensure that when a student offers an
opinion it is fully explained and justified. It may be interesting at this point to ask students to
compare Mr Fischer’s views with those of Mssrs Relph and Jenner. A follow up task would
be for students to write a dialogue of a radio discussion between the three men.

Returning to the task in hand, have the students listen again and take notes on what Mr
Fischer says. In groups of three or four have the students compare and upgrade their notes.
They should attempt to relate to each other in as much detail as possible what Mr Fischer has
said. Then have the students listen to the recording again and have them add additional details
which they overlooked before. Now give the students a few minutes in their groups to
reconstruct what Mr Fischer said word-for-word and as accurately as possible. When the
students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, read the tapescript slowly to the
students so they can compare what they have written with the original. Bear in mind that
while it is the purpose of the exercise to include all the information in the same style, it is not
expected that the students will be able to replicate completely Mr Fischer’s words.

Tapescript for Task 3

I think two things really have to be disentangled. I’m very much in favour of internationalism
but very much against globalism. The former is the ideas of people from different countries
working together to solve international problems like pollution and poverty. The latter in
effect amounts to the right of business to avoid democratic control in one country and simply
move to another. Globalism is not only creating ever-increasing levels of inequality in the
world, but it is also undermining democracy and workers’ organisations.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 9 Page 1

Operational Proficiency Grammar and Vocabulary - dictation

9 Josefa the Polyglot


Task 1 – dictogloss

A You will hear a dictation entitled, ‘Josefa the


polyglot’ What do you think it is about?

B Listen and note down (if it helps you to remember)


key words from the dictation. Tell the story as you
can remember it to your partners and make some
more notes.

C Listen again and upgrade your notes. Now in your group write the dictation as near to
the original as you can.

Task 2 – grammar words and reduced vowels

A What is the difference between lexical and grammatical words? Give some examples
of each.

B You will hear more about Josefa in a dictation. Unfortunately, all the grammatical
words have been omitted? Write down the content words and then fill in the
grammatical words.

C What is a ‘reduced vowel?’ Write down the phonemic transcription for all the
grammatical words as they would pronounced in connected speech.

Task 3 – working with connected speech

A Josefa says, ‘ I adore French and


Italian. We have to learn languages.’
Write the words of the sentences in
citation form.

B What are the following?

assimilation, intrusive sounds,


elision, sound linking and
reduced vowels

C Find instances of assimilation,


intrusive sounds, sound linking and
reduced vowels in Josefa’s utterance,
‘I adore French and Italian. we have to
learn languages.’

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 9 Page 2

Unit 9: teachers’ notes, answers,

1A . Ask the students in open class what a polyglot is. (Answer: it is a person who speaks
several languages) Tell the students to imagine how Josefa came to speak several languages.
Ensure that each student has composed an idea, and then have him or her exchange ideas with
a partner. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, pool ideas
in open class and briefly discuss them.

1B . Tell the students that they will hear a short text about Josefa. The students may make
one-word notes, if they find it helpful to do so, but the main purpose of the exercise is to
determine the gist and main points of the text. When the students are quiet and ready, play the
text. On completion of the listening, have the students make detailed notes on the text as soon
afterwards as possible. When they have finished making their detailed notes, have them in
groups of three or four compare and upgrade their notes.

1C . Tell the students that they will hear the text again, and this time they should update and
improve their notes. When the students are quiet and ready, play the text. On completion of
the listening, have the students in their group write an ‘as-near-to-the-original-as-possible’
version of the text. Tell each group to appoint a secretary to undertake the writing. When the
students have finished give feedback by reading the text slowly. The students should
concentrate only on differences in meaning between the text and the source text. Draw the
students attention to the fact that it is possible to express the same meaning with different
syntax and lexis. It thus follows that in a dictation the students need to pay attention to the
actual words as well as meaning.

Tapescript for 1A-C – dictogloss dictation

Josefa the polyglot

Josefa is by all accounts an excellent linguist. Strangely, her mother tongue is Esperanto,
because when her Hungarian mother and Brazilian father met it was their only shared
language. The family lived in France, so she rapidly learnt this language at school, and it was
only in her mid teens that she acquired her parents’ first languages. English was a
compulsory language at school, which she mastered with ease, but at university she studied,
German and Russian. In fact she has never left university as now she has a professorship in
the Slavonic department. As a hobby she has supplemented her father’s Portuguese and her
French with two further Latin languages, Italian and Spanish, and can now read comfortably
in over ten European languages. Once she was asked how she came to grips with new
languages so quickly, and was it simply a question of having a fantastic memory. She told the
reporter that once she had learnt three different languages, she was able to see patterns
which enabled her to learn a another at greater speed.

2A . Ask the students working in pairs to form a short definition, with a couple of examples
of lexical and grammatical words. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time
has elapsed, pool the definitions and examples in open class. When a student offers a
definition or an example, insist that it is fully explained and justified.

2B . Tell the students that they will hear a short dictation in which all the grammatical words
will be omitted. When the students are quiet and ready, play the text reminding the students
that each gap may contain more than one grammatical word. Ask the students to fill in the
gaps with appropriate grammatical words. When the students have finished, or after a
reasonable time has elapsed, have the students compare and upgrade their answers with those
of partner. Pool the answers in open class. When a student offers words for a gap, ensure that
s/he explains why the word is appropriate. For feedback play the original version on the tape.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 9 Page 3

Answers to 2B

Version with grammatical words gapped (first tapescript)

Josefa *** further complicated *** life *** having *** Greek husband *** trying *** learn
Dutch *** couple met *** lives *** Netherlands. (New sentence) Dutch *** vital language
*** family *** young son, Nico, *** attending *** Dutch school.

The gapped words are highlighted (second tapescript)

Josefa has further complicated her life by having a Greek husband who is now trying to learn
Dutch as the couple met and lives in the Netherlands. Dutch is a vital language for the family
as their young son, Nico, is now attending a Dutch school.

2C . Precisely because not every grammatical word can be deduced from context, but must be
heard exactly, the pronunciation of grammatical words requires focus. Write up ‘reduced
vowel’ on the whiteboard and seek a definition. If a student offers a definition elicit an
example. If no definition or example is forthcoming input them. (Answer: a reduced vowel is
one in the length is shortened and the quality altered particularly as a result of connected
speech. An example would be ‘can’ pronounced /kæn/ in a stressed position, but as /kWn/
in reduced form.)

Put the phonemic chart on the whiteboard, and then ask the students to write all the
grammatical words in the passage in phonemic script as they would be pronounced in
connected speech. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed,
have the students compare and upgrade their answers with those of a partner. For feedback,
have the students individually write the phonemic transcriptions on the whiteboard, and also
have them pronounce each word. If a student mistranscribes, pronounce the word yourself
exactly as it has been mistranscibed to illustrate the error. If students do not know the
pronunciation of certain words, elicit correct pronunciations in open class or input a correct
pronunciation yourself.

Answers to 2C

has - /həz/ to ñ /tə/ for the - /fə ∂ə/


her - /hə/ as the - /əz ∂ə/ as their - /əz ∂eə/
by - /aˆ/ and - /ən/ is now - /ˆz na¨/
a - /ə/ in the - /ˆn ∂ə/ a - /ə/
who is now - /hu…z na¨ is a - /ˆz-ə/
/

3A . Write the following onto the whiteboard the following utterance of Josefa, ‘I adore
French and Italian. We have to learn languages.’ Ask the students in open class what ‘citation
form’ means. If nobody knows, input the answer and give an example. (Answer: citation form
is how a word is phonemically transcribed when is uttered individually and not in connected
speech).

Ask the students, working individually, to transcribe phonemically word-by-word in citation


form the sentences on the whiteboard. Be ready to help by clearly articulating the words to
individual students and reminding the students of the pronunciation of the phonemes. When
the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, have them compare and
upgrade their answer with that of a partner. For feedback, ask for volunteers to come up and
write the two sentences phonemically on the whiteboard. If the students make a mistake, erase

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 9 Page 4

what is wrong and invite the students to correct it. Continue until a correct transcription is on
the whiteboard.

Answers to 3A

I adore French and Italian. We have to learn languages.

/aˆ ə«dø… frentß ænd ˆ«tæljən/ /wi… hæv tu… l±…n «læ˜˝wˆdΩˆz/

3B . Write up the following terms on the whiteboard: ‘assimilation,’ ‘intrusive sounds,’


‘elision,’ ‘sound linking,’ and ‘vowel reduction.’ Taking them one by one, invite definitions
for them. When a student offers a definition, continue to elicit until the definition is complete
and clear examples have been given. Be prepared to input information.

Answers to 3B

assimilation: this is when one phoneme in proximity to another changes on account of the
other, (e.g. ‘bed’ + plural marker ‘s’ becomes /bedz/ because of the influence of the voiced
/d/ forces the /s/ to be voiced and become /z/. As this is an instance of an earlier
phoneme influencing a later one it is called ‘progressive assimilation.’

intrusive sounds: sometimes it is difficult to glide from one phoneme to another, so English
speakers add a phoneme. For example the phrase ‘law and order’ is pronounced
/lø… (r)ən-ø…də/ with an intrusive /r/.

elision: In connected speech some consonant phonemes, particularly if neighbouring two


other consonant phonemes, tend to be elided. For example the /d/ in ‘and’ in ‘fish and
chips’ is elided to the pronunciation is /fˆß-ən t߈ps/. The /-/ shows the sound linking.

sound linking: This occurs when a final consonant phoneme of one word is ‘linked onto the
following word. (In most cases the following word starts with a vowel or /l/ or /r/.) In the
case of the phrase ‘fish and chips’ the /ß/ in /fˆß/ is linked onto the /ə/ in /ən/. The whole
phrase is written: /fˆß-ən t߈ps/. Sound linking is shown here by the use of a dash.

vowel reduction: In connected speech many vowels, particularly in grammatical words, are
reduced in length and change in quality. The reduced vowel sounds are /ə/, /ˆ/and
/¨/. For example in the sentence ‘You can be good’ ‘you’ reduces from /ju…/ to/j¨/, ‘can
‘reduces’ from /kæn/to /kən/and ‘be’ from /bi…/to /bˆ/. The whole sentence is
transcribed, /j¨ kən bˆ ˝¨d/.

3C . Refer the students again to the two-sentence utterance by Josefa, ‘I adore French and
Italian. We have to learn languages.’ Ask the students, working in pairs, to write the sentences
in phonemic script again, but this time adjusting the script to take account of connected
speech features. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, have
the pairs compare and upgrade their transpiration with that of another pair. Invite students to
write up their transcription onto the whiteboard and invite comment and/or correction on its
content. Continue until the transcription is correct. It is also important to ensure that the whole
class understands the identified connected speech features in the sentences. This should be
checked by asking questions of the class. To end the lesson, students could be asked to say the
sentences focussing on the connected speech features. While this activity is in progress, move
around the class and monitor the students’ production.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 9 Page 5

The activities in this unit have only scratched the surface and provided the tools for decoding
connected speech with special reference to grammatical words. Further work should include a
more systematic examination of the many words that could appear in a dictation and could be
decoded through connected speech analysis.

Answers to 3C . The transcription of the sentences taking account of connected speech


features is:

/aˆ(j) ə«dø… frenß-ən-ˆtæljWn/ /wˆ həf tə l±…n læ˜wˆdΩˆz/

assimilation: /hæv/becomes /həf/on account of the /t/in /tə/being unvoiced. This is an


instance of regressive assimilation, where a subsequent letter affects a preceding one.

intrusive sounds: /aˆ/ and /ə«dø…/ are aided in pronunciation by an intrusive /(j)/

elision: /frentß/becomes /frenß/and /ænd/becomes /ən/

sound linking: /frenß-ən-ˆt«æljən/ The dash represents sound linking.

vowel reduction: /ænd/becomes /ən/, /wi…/ becomes /wˆ/, /hæv/becomes /həf/and


/tu…/becomes /tə/

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 10 Page 1

Operational Proficiency Grammar – multiple choice gap fill

10 Comrade Joe Slovo


Task 1 – working with phrasal verbs

A Fill in the gaps in the following text

Joan had to _1_ after Maya, who was off school sick,
so she wanted to _2_ off her driving test until the
following week. When she asked for a postponement
she had to _3_ to an angry secretary who couldn’t
_4_ up with changes to her schedule.

B Define the following grammatical terms.

phrasal verb, (in)separable phrasal verb, (in)transitive


verb, preposition, adverbial particle.

C Classify and explain the four phrasal verbs 1 – 4 in the text above.

Task 2 – working with collocations

A What do the following mean?

oration, to assemble, to traverse, legacy, to emulate,


vitality, to bid, indelible, acumen, to endow, to
confine, implementation

B Read the following funeral oration given by the former


president of South Africa, Nelson Mandela. Who was Joe
Slovo?

C The text has been altered so that a number of collocations


are wrong (identified by being in bold) Correct the
collocational errors.

Funeral oration for Joe Slovo given by


Nelson Mandela
We are assembled to mourn the exit of a leader, a patriot,
a father, a fighter, a negotiator, an internationalist, a
theoretician and an organiser. Indeed, it is the combination
of all these qualities so splendidly in one individual,
which made Comrade Joe Slovo the large African
revolutionary that he was.

continued

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 10 Page 2

continued

Men and women of rare qualities are few and hard to come by. And when they depart, the sense of
loss is made the more profound and the more difficult to manage.

Yet we do pull comfort, Comrade Joe: - from the knowledge that the greater part of the journey
that was the excitement of your life has been traversed: - from the knowledge that you left a
legacy which we shall all strive to emulate; - from the knowledge, Comrade Joe, that you continue
to live in each one of us through your force of example, vitality of spirit and passion for justice.

Today, as the nation bids you last farewell, we are at the same time celebrating a life lived to the
full; the richness of which touched the hearts of millions and made an indelible stain on the
history of our country. When future generations look back on the 1994 breakthrough, they will be
justified in saying: Uncle Joe was central in making it happen.

When the working people start enjoying, as a right, a ceiling over their heads, affordable medical
care, quality education and a rising standard of living, they will be right to say, Comrade Joe was a
chief architect who helped lay the foundation for a better life.

Comrade Joe Slovo was one of those who taught us that individuals do not make history. Yet, in
each generation there are a few individuals who are provided with the acumen and personal
bearing which enable them to direct the course of events.

Comrade Joe Slovo belonged in that category. In that sense he was a peculiar species, an
institution. To reflect on Joe's contribution is, therefore, to retrace the evolution of South African
politics in the past half-century.

Such is the life we celebrate today: a life not so much of white generosity to the black people of
our country; for Joe Slovo did not see himself as a white South African but as a South African. He
was a full part of the democratic majority, doing together with them for a just and democratic
order.

Comrade Joe Slovo lived the life not merely of a theoretician, confined to the boardroom and
library. He was at all stages of struggle there at the forefront, making ideas, and there too, in their
implementation.

Task 3 – meaning in context

A What do the following words mean?

seminal, to obliterate, to draft, to initiate, hapless, ‘kith-and-kin,’ to fathom, the


wretched, to extol, abundance, an attribute, to spur, to engender, incisiveness, verve,
a portfolio.

B What kind of work did Joe Slovo do?

C The funeral oration for Joe Slovo continues. In the text marked in bold there are
alternatives. Based on the meaning of the text you should choose the correct one.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 10 Page 3

It is precisely because of his seminal contribution to the liberation


struggle that Comrade Joe Slovo was loved / hated by those
struggling for freedom.

Though the defenders of apartheid sought to promote / obliterate his


memory, the struggling people knew that he was an effective and
skilful Chief of Armed Operations; they knew that he was a loved and
respected Chief of Staff; they knew that he planned and inspired
many special operations of the people's army that shook the
foundations / surface of the apartheid establishment. They knew too
that he was at the core / edge of collectives that drafted many
Strategy and Tactics documents of the movement.

The most central factor in his approach to struggle on any front was
the confusing / understanding of the political situation, the balance
of forces and thus the approaches necessary to advance that struggle.
Thus he was able to appreciate changes in the objective conditions
and initiate discussions on changes to the tactics to be applied. He
knew when to compromise. Yet he always / never compromised his
principles. He was a militant. Yet a militant who knew how to plan,
assess concrete situations and emerge with rational solutions to
problems.

The advocates of racial superiority / inferiority could not understand


how Slovo could be part of the liberation struggle and operate under
the leadership of the hapless inferiors they despised. But Joe took part
in struggle as a(n) superior / equal, as part of the people. The
defenders of national oppression could not understand why Slovo
would seek to end the dominance of his racial 'kith and kin'. But Joe's
kin was all humanity, especially the very poor / rich.

The champions of privilege and concentration of wealth could not


fathom why Slovo identified with the affluent / wretched of the
earth. But Joe knew that these were the creators of wealth and they
deserved their fare share.

It is the tragedy of South Africa that his humanity, pragmatism and


industriousness were realised by many, particularly among the white
community, only after close on to 40 years of an artificial silence
imposed on him by constant banning / promotion. And it is a
tragedy still, that these qualities are extolled by some, as if they were
new.

Let it be said loud / quiet and clear today, that the qualities Slovo
demonstrated in abundance in the past few years were the same
attributes that spurred him to struggle, the qualities that drove him to
join / leave the liberation movement and the qualities that he helped
engender in these organisations.

We in the Government of National Unity know intimately what a


vacuum Minister Joe Slovo's departure has left in our midst. We shall
miss not only his indecision / incisiveness, experience and verve. We
are conscious that it is given to a few to so ably combine theory and
practice, as Joe demonstrated in his unemployment / portfolio.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 10 Page 4

Unit 10: teacher’s notes and answers

1A . Ask the students to look at the text without filling in any of the gaps, and then quickly
question the students in open class on its contents. Have the students fill in the gaps and
compare their answers. Give feedback in open class bearing in mind that several answers may
be possible. For the purpose of subsequent work, have the students alter their answers to the
‘official’ ones in the answer key.

Answers to 1A

1. look, 2. put, 3. listen, 4. put.

1B . The grammatical terms presented here cover the key concepts for an analysis of phrasal
verbs. Put the students into groups of three or four and have them, as best they can, define the
terms. Remind them in each case to provide at least one example to illustrate their point. Elicit
definitions and examples from the class. When somebody offers an accurate and appropriate
definition, have him/her note it on the whiteboard. Ask questions throughout to check
understanding.

Answers to 1B

Phrasal verb: this is a verb with a lexical core followed by an adverbial particle in which the
particle changes (not qualifies) the meaning of the lexical verb. In the sentence ‘War broke
out in 1914.’ the phrasal verb ‘to break out’ has an entirely different meanings from the
simple verb ‘to break.’

Separable phrasal verb: this is a verb which permits a grammatical object to be placed
between the lexical verb and its adverbial particle. In the sentence, ‘Living in the country, she
picked the language up quickly,’ the object ‘ the language’ can be inserted between the
lexical verb and participle. (It should be noted that if the object were a pronoun then it must
be so inserted.) By contrast an inseparable phrasal verb is one which does not permit such a
separation even for pronouns. The following sentence is incorrect, * He was so angry that he
went his gun for.

Transitivity: this is a feature that relates to verbs. Some phrasal verbs are necessarily
intransitive in that they cannot take an object; e.g. She always turns up late. (Such verbs are
necessarily inseparable) Other phrasal verbs are transitive and require an object; e.g. We
turned down his offer. The fragment *We turned down… makes no sense.

Preposition: this is a word that begins, and is an integral part of, a prepositional phrase.
Prepositions indicate location, time, movement, case, etc. The fact that a verb governs a
dependent preposition (e.g. to bet on, to listen to) does not make it a phrasal verb. This point
is often not understood by students. The syntactical distinction can be seen in the following
sentences:

I bet on the horses. What do you bet on? On what do you bet? (verb + prep.)

I turn on the radio. What do you turn on? *On what do you turn? (verb + part.)

In the above examples it can be seen that the dependent preposition continue to front the noun
phrase (i.e. here the interrogative pronoun ‘what’), but the adverbial particle can only remain
within the verb phrase.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 10 Page 5

Adverbial particle: this is word that modifies the verb, but has no clear meaning in itself. In
other words adverbial particles are grammatical, not lexical, adverbs.

It is not necessary that the students understand these terms as precisely as they are described
here, but the teacher should understand them thoroughly so that any student difficulties can
be addressed.

1C. Ask the students, on the basis of the analysis of phrasal verbs just undertaken, to classify
and explain the four phrasal verbs in the passage. Have them do this in pairs and then discuss
in open class. When a student offers a classification of a phrasal verb, ensure that he/she fully
explains and justifies the classification. You can use this stage of the lesson to clear up any
major remaining misunderstandings.

Answers to 1C

1. ‘To look after’ is a transitive inseparable phrasal verb. 2. ‘To put off’ is a transitive
separable phrasal verb. 3. ‘To listen to’ is a verb and dependent preposition. ‘To put up with’
is a transitive inseparable phrasal verb (to put up) followed by a dependent proposition
(with).

2A . In this section the students will be working on collocations through a text of a funeral
oration, for a leading African National Congress comrade, Joe Slovo, given by former South
African President, Nelson Mandela. There are several lexical items that require clarification.
Have the students find the meaning of the highlighted lexical items. The students may do this
though working out meaning from context, consultation with other members of the class or by
using a dictionary. Check student understanding by asking questions and input if necessary.

2B . Give the students a strict time limit of ninety seconds, and tell them to find out as much
information about Joe Slovo as they can. After the ninety seconds has elapsed, have them
exchange information with a partner and then pool information in open class. Briefly discuss
any issues which arise.

2C . Through asking questions ensure that the students fully understand the meaning of
‘collocation’ Inform them that all the highlighted words are synonyms for the original word,
but none collocate in the text. The students should do their best to work out the original
words. The task should be done in pairs. When the students have finished, or after a
reasonable time has elapsed, invite the students’ solutions. It is important that when students
offer a correct answer that the whole collocational structure is elicited and noted on the
whiteboard. Be prepared to give considerable input here.

Answers to 2C

paragraph 1: passing / great


paragraph 2: draw / passion
paragraph 3: final / mark
paragraph 4: roof
paragraph 5: endowed / rare
paragraph 6: acting
paragraph 7: generating

3A . In this section the students will be working with meaning in context. The material
consists of further extracts from Nelson Mandela’s speech. There is a considerable amount of
problematic lexis in the text. Have the students find the meaning of the highlighted lexical
items. The students may do this though working out meaning from context, consultation with

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 10 Page 6

other members of the class or by using a dictionary. Check student understanding by asking
questions and input if necessary.

3B . Give the students a strict ninety seconds to find in the text the jobs that Joe Slovo had.
When they have finished have them compare their answers with a partner, and then collect
answers in open class. When a student offers an answer, have him/her find evidence in the
text.

Answers to 3B

• Joe Slovo was chief of staff and of operations for MK, the military wing of the African
National Congress
• Joe Slovo was a minister in the south African government

3C . Have the students read the text again more thoroughly and make notes. In pairs the
students should relate the message of the text to each other. When they have finished, they
should look at the highlighted alternatives and on the basis of the meaning of the passage - as
gleaned from the text overall as well as the surrounding sentences – the students should
choose the correct alternative. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has
elapsed, check the ideas in open class. When students offer an answer they should also furnish
the class with explanation based on the meaning of the text.

Answers to 3C

paragraph 1: loved
paragraph 2: obliterate / foundations / core
paragraph 3: understanding / never
paragraph 4: superiority / equal / poor
paragraph 5: wretched
paragraph 6: banning / loud / join
paragraph 7: incisiveness / portfolio

Final point. As a summary it is worth pointing out that phrasal verbs, dependent prepositions,
collocations and fixed expressions (not covered here) operate at the level of the clause.
Meaning in context concerns cognisance of the whole text as well as sentence meaning.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 11 Page 1

Operational Proficiency Grammar and Vocabulary – modified cloze

11 Betho whye lowenack! (Happiness, be with you)

Task 1 – identifying grammatical words

A Where is Cornwall?

B What do the following mean?


a scholar, proto-, an Indo-European language,
Celtic, to evolve.

C What do the following grammatical terms mean. Give an example of each.

pronoun, relative pronoun, article, conjunction, quantifier, auxiliary verb, modal auxiliary
verb, primary adverb,

D Identify the part of speech of all the words in bold, and analyse the grammatical
structure in which they are used.

The Cornish are a Celtic people, who in ancient times inhabited all of Cornwall, Devon and
West Somerset. The Cornish are probably the same people who have lived in Cornwall since
the introduction of farming around 3000 BC. The start of farming in Cornwall may also indicate
the start of what some scholars now term 'proto Indo-European', from which the Celtic
languages and other related groups of languages began evolving.

Task 2 – grammatical structure

A Where were/are the following languages spoken?

Welsh, Breton, Scots Gaelic, Irish, Manx

B How is Cornish related to other Celtic languages?

C In the text below the items in bold are wrong.


Correct them and provide reasons for your answers.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 11 Page 2

Around 2000 BC, the Celtic languages started to split away towards the other members of the Indo-
European group in languages. By 1200 BC Celtic civilisation, a heroic culture with its own laws but
religion, was reaching its heights. It is from this period whether the most famous Celtic legends have
believed to have originated. Among 1500 BC and the first encounters with the Romans (around 350
BC), the Celtic languages might believed to have split into two distinct groups, the 'p' and 'q' Celtic
branches. Cornish, Welsh and Breton (to who Cornish is most closely related) are a three remaining
'p' Celtic languages. Irish, Scots Gaelic and Manx being the 'q' Celtic tongues.

Task 3 – meaning in context

A What happened to minority languages in Europe in the nineteenth century?

B What do the following mean?


encroachment, stigma, to revive

C Look at the passage below and choose the correct alternative.

Cornish developed independently into/from a modern European language until the


seventeenth century, after which it came under pressure from the encroachment of English.
No/Several factors contributed to the decline of Cornish: the introduction of the English
prayer book, the rapid introduction of English as a language of commerce and most/not
particularly the stigma associated with Cornish, which became to be considered as a
language only spoken to/by the poor. Cornish died out as a native language after/in the late
19th century, with the last/first Cornish speaker believed to have lived in Penwith. In the
same period, however/therefore, Henry Jenner was reviving Cornish at the academic level.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 11 Page 3

Unit 11: Teachers’ notes and answers

1A . Ask the students in open class in which country Cornwall is to be found. (Answer:
England) Now ask the students where in England Cornwall is and what it is like. It would be
helpful to have a map and some pictures. Ask the students whether any of them have been
there and, if anyone has, briefly hear their travel stories.

Answers to 1A

Cornwall is the extreme south-west of England. The county is surrounded on three sides by
the sea and has many sea cliffs, picturesque bays and much moorland. Its traditional
industries were mining and fishing, but now the leading industry is tourism. Cornwall’s
traditional language and culture as well as its distance from London have given the county a
distinctive identity.

1B . Elicit in open class what the highlighted items mean. When a student offers a definition,
check understanding in the class through asking questions. With certain items elaboration and
discussion may be helpful.

Answers to 1B

a scholar: someone who studies a subject in a serious and academic way


proto-: the one from which others are designed/descended
an Indo-European language: a family group of languages (including Germanic Romance,
Celtic and Slavic languages) Hungarian is not Indo-European.
Celtic: a family of languages which includes Cornish, Breton, Welsh, Irish, Scottish and
Manx.
to evolve: to develop over time, e.g. human evolution.

1C . Put the students into groups of three or four. Tell each group that they should provide a
definition and an illustrative example of each grammatical term. Each group should appoint
one member to act as secretary and note down the answers of the group. When the group has
finished its work, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, pool the definitions in open class.
Ensure any definition which is offered is comprehensive and coherent. Ensure, through asking
questions, that all members of the class fully understand the definitions.

Answers to 1C

Only outline definitions are given here. Teachers should refer to the many available grammar
books for fuller definitions, analysis and exemplification.

pronoun: a pronominal item is a word that substitutes for, and refers to, another lexical item.
Examples of pronouns are personal (he, she us), demonstrative (those, that), interrogative
(who, which), relative (which, whom, that), etc.
article: articles indicate definiteness and number of nouns (the, a,)
conjunction: conjunctions join words, phrases, clauses and sentences. If they join elements of
equal rank they are coordinative (and, but), otherwise they are, they are subordinative (e.g. a
subordinate conjunction fronting a subordinate clause)
quantifier: they are usually adjectival and signal the notion of quantity in relation to a noun
(both, three, all)
auxiliary verb: these verbs mark tense, aspect, negation and interrogation for the main verb
(do, have)
modal auxiliary verb: these show the mood of the main verb e.g. possibility, permission,
obligation, prediction,(e.g.must, can, might)

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 11 Page 4

primary adverb: primary adverbs are those which are not derived from other parts of speech
(now, then , so)

1D . Refer the students to the text. Give the students forty-five seconds to read the text and
remember as much factual information from it as they can. When the time limit has expired,
briefly pool all the information in open class. Working in pairs, ask the students to identify the
word class of the highlighted items and to analyse their use in context. When the students
have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, elicit answers in open class. When a
student offers an answer, have him/her explain the evidence for a word being of a specific
word class, and analyse the structure within which the item is used.

Answers to 1D

‘a’ is the indefinite article.. It is used here to show that the Cornish are but one of the Celtic
peoples.
‘who’ is the personal nominative relative pronoun, the antecedent of which is ‘a Celtic
people’ the complement of the main clause.
‘all’ is pronominal referring in quantity to Cornwall
‘and’ is a co-ordinating conjunction linking the two noun phrases, Devon and West Somerset.
‘are’ is a copular verb which places the subject (the Cornish) ‘within’ the lexical space of the
complement (the same people who…)
‘have’ is an auxiliary verb linked with the main verb ‘to live.’ Here it marks present tense and
perfect aspect for the main verb to show that Celtic people lived in the past and still live in
Cornwall.
‘in’ in this context is a preposition of place. It tells us that Celtic people live within the area
of Cornwall.
‘The’ is the definite article. It is used here to show one particular start of farming.
‘may’ is a modal verb used here to indicate possibility. The author wishes to indicate
‘possibility’ for the start of farming affecting a language development.
‘also’ in this context is a additive sentence adverb which links the start of farming in the
previous sentence to the start of farming in this sentence.
‘now’ is a primary adverb of time which, in the text, shows that the current name given to a
language is proto Indo-European.

2A . Ask the students in open class if they know where any of the highlighted languages are
spoken. If a student offers a place, ask him/her to specify the name of the place and its
location. Also, elicit from the student any information about the current state of these
languages. The input of information may be required.

Answers to 2A

Welsh: spoken by about fifteen percent of the population of Wales, mostly in the north.
Breton: extinct language once spoken in the Brittany Peninsular of France
Scots Gaelic: spoken in Scotland, but nearly extinct.
Irish: spoken in remoter parts of Ireland. It is the official language of the Republic.
Manx: an extinct language once spoken on the Isle of Man (a semi-autonomous island in the
Irish Sea between England and Ireland)

2B . Give the students a strict thirty second time limit and ask them to answer the question,
‘How is Cornish related to other Celtic languages?’ When the time limit has expired, elicit
answers in open class. In the unlikely event that the students have not found the answer, refer
them to the text again.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 11 Page 5

Answer to 2B

Cornish is a member of the ‘p’ group of Celtic languages along with Breton and Welsh. The
remaining Celtic languages are ‘q’ type.

2C . Ask the students whether the highlighted items in the text are primarily grammatical or
lexical. (Answer: grammatical). Point out to the students that all the highlighted grammatical
words are the correct parts of speech, but are syntactically incorrect. Working in pairs, the
students should, for each incorrect item, discuss the reason for the item being incorrect and
come up with a correct replacement grammatical word. When the students have finished, or
after a reasonable time has elapsed, pool the answers and suggestions in open class. When a
student offers and an explanation for a grammatical word being incorrect, ensure that the
explanation is comprehensive and comprehensible. Also ensure that the students give a full
explanation for why the ‘correct replacement words’ are valid.

Answers to 2C

‘towards’ ‘To split away towards the other members’ simply makes no sense in the context of
Cornish relating to its sister languages. Only the opposite makes sense with Cornish splitting
away from…
‘in’ The relationship between ‘group’ and ‘languages’ in this context cannot be linked by the
locative preposition ‘in.’ and make any sense. The relationship is ‘language group’ meaning
‘a group of languages’
‘but’ If ‘religion’ were to be excluded not added to the noun phrase, then ‘not’ would be
necessary, i.e. ‘but not religion.’ the correct answer is ‘and.’
‘whether’ The slot held by the incorrect ‘whether’ has to be held by ‘that’ which introduces
the noun clause. In this sentence the introductory ‘it’ is an empty subject.
‘have’ The fragment, ‘Celtic legends have believed to have originated…’ is meaningless as
Celtic legends can’t be the agents of a belief except in a metaphorical/personification sense.
But this sense is contradicted by ‘to have originated.’ ‘Celtic legends,’ therefore, are the
patient (i.e. the semantic object) of what people believe. The correct auxiliary, therefore, for
the passive construction is ‘are.’
‘Among’ The prepositional phrase ‘among 1500 BC and the first encounters with the
Romans’ makes no sense as the preposition ‘among’ is basically locative not temporal. The
preposition to link the two time points is ‘between.’
‘might’ The modal auxiliary ‘might’ has to be followed by a bare infinitive verb, so it is for
that reason incorrect here. ‘Celtic languages,’ as was explained above, are the subject of a
passive construction so the correct item for the gap is ‘are.’
‘who’ The relative pronoun ‘who’ cannot be correct here because it cannot be the
complement of a preposition (it would have to be ‘whom’) Since its antecedents are inanimate
the correct relative pronoun is ‘which.’

3A . Elicit from the students in open class minority languages that were spoken in the
nineteenth century. Discuss their fate and government policy in relation to them.

Answers to 3A

Governments in the nineteenth century followed a policy of promoting the national language
and often put restrictions on minority languages. Trade and industrialisation often
undermined minority languages.

3B . Refer the students to the highlighted lexis and ask them to note down definitions for the
selected lexical items. Those students who are unaware of an item should ask classmates,

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 11 Page 6

work out meaning from context or use a dictionary. You can also input definitions, if
necessary. Check understanding of lexis by asking questions.

3C . Give the students a strict sixty seconds in which to read the text in order to find out the
reasons for the decline of Cornish. Pool answers in open class. In the unlikely event that the
students are unable to identify all the answers, refer them to the text again.

Answers to Answers to 3C – reasons for the decline of Cornish

• the introduction of the Prayer Book in English


• English as the language of commerce
• stigma attached to Cornish as it was a language spoken mainly by the poor

Refer the students to the text. Throughout the text there are highlighted alternative
grammatical words. In each case syntactically both are possible, but only one makes sense in
terms of global meaning. Have the students individually decide which grammatical word is
correct. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, have the
students compare their answers with those of a partner and discuss and resolve any
differences. Pool the answers in open class. When a student offers an answer, remember to
have him/her justify and explain his/her answer.

Answers to 3C

into, Several, most, by, in, last, however

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 12 Page 1

Operational Proficiency Mediation – Dialogues

12 I’ll tell you, then you tell him

Task 1 – Inflated functional language

Your teacher will give you and your partner separate


worksheets. Do not look at your partner’s worksheet.

Task 2 – Making a mediation dialogue

A In your groups make a dialogue, act it out and discuss it.

B Put your dialogue onto tape.

C Write an answer key for your mediation dialogue.

D You will receive a mediation dialogue task on tape from another group. Do it.

E Get your answer key, and mark your work.

Task 3 – Practice exam task

A Do the task

B Mark the task and discuss it.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 12 Page 2

PRF 12.1.1
Task 1 – Inflated functional language – Student’s pages

WORKSHEET “A”
a) Read the sentence below. Find the “message”, and write the words that are absolutely
necessary to convey the basic meaning on a separate piece of paper.

If I’m not greatly inconveniencing you, I’d be very


grateful if you would be so good as to pass the salt and
just then without much ado attend to the matter in hand.

b) Pair up with someone who has a WORKSHEET “B”. Swap your small pieces of papers
with the basic messages. Try to complete them to a polite, full, “high level” English
sentence.
c) Look at the phrases below, and choose a few of them to “blow up” your sentence as much
as possible.

to start dealing
and if if it’s all the
with this
you don’t same to you
mind

when circumstances for God’s sake


are a little more
it would be a
favourable
lot better

from my point
of view
I hope you
I mean this is understand
really awful

Well…
never ever

With your partner look at the original sentences on both worksheets. Compare them with all the
previous sentences you have written. What do you think of each? Does the “basic” version
really convey the message? Which of them would you use? Why? Try to imagine situations for
the others!

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 12 Page 3

PRF 12.1.2
WORKSHEET “B”
a) Read the sentence below. Find the “message”, and write the words that are absolutely
necessary to convey the basic meaning on a separate piece of paper.

If it’s all the same to you and if you don’t mind, it would be a lot
better from my point of view to start dealing with this when
circumstances are a little more favourable.

b) Pair up with someone who has a WORKSHEET “A”. Swap your small pieces of papers
with the basic messages. Try to complete them to a polite, full, “high level” English
sentence.
c) Look at the phrases below, and choose a few of them to “blow up” your sentence as much
as you find it is possible.

because I need attend to the


it so much matter in hand
please

if you’d be so good as You would, will


to you?

so, why don’t


you if I’m not greatly
I’d be very inconveniencing you
grateful

pass the salt and just then well …


without much ado

d) With your partner look at the original sentences on both worksheets. Compare them with
all the previous sentences you have written. What do you think of each? Does the “basic”
version really convey the message? Which of them would you use? Why? Try to imagine
situations for the others!

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 12 Page 4

PRF 12.2.1
Task 2 – Making a mediation dialogue – Student’s pages

a) In groups find a situation where a Hungarian speaker and an English speaker has to
communicate. Write a dialogue of three Hungarian and three English turns:

1. Hungarian

2. English

3. Hungarian

4. English

5. Hungarian

6. English

b) Your teacher will give you a cassette and a tape recorder. Record your dialogue.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 12 Page 5

PRF 12.2.2

c) Now write the “Answer key” – that is the main messages from your dialogue in the table
below.

Write in
1 English
Write in
2 Hungarian
Write in
3 English
Write in
4 Hungarian
Write in
5 English
Write in
6 Hungarian

d) Swap tapes with another group. Play the tape you got, stop after each turn and write the
translations of the main messages in the Answer Sheet below. Do not write full sentences,
translate only the basic meaning.

Write in
1 English
Write in
2 Hungarian
Write in
3 English
Write in
4 Hungarian
Write in
5 English
Write in
6 Hungarian

e) Get together with the group who wrote the other dialogue. Pair up with someone from the
other group. Swap answers and mark each-other’s work. Discuss your answers and marks.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 12 Page 6

PRF 12.3.1
Task 3 – Practice exam task

Mediation A Task One: Dialogues – Questions 1-6

• Help your friend who doesn’t speak English. Mediate between the two people.
• If the person speaks in English, translate into Hungarian. If the person speaks in Hungarian,
translate into English. The first two have been done for you.
• Do not translate every word. Translate only the basic meaning.

• Each person will talk five times. You will hear each line twice. There will be a fifteen
second pause between each line for you to write down the translation.
• At the end of the conversation you will have two minutes to check what you have written.
• Remember, you will not have time to translate everything you hear.

Example Write in Example: I’d like to report a theft - (my bag) has been cut from my
1 shoulder – on the underground this morning – by the time I realised it –
English the thief had already got off

Example Write in Example: már megint! – egész rablási hullám söpört végig – a
2 környéken mostanában – jobb, hogy nem ellenkezett – komolyan meg is
Hungarian sérülhetett volna – kitöltené ezt az űrlapot?

Write in
1 English

Write in
2 Hungarian

Write in
3 English

Write in
4 Hungarian

Write in
5 English

Write in
6 Hungarian

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 12 Page 7

PRF 12.3.1.2

C1/C2 TEST6: MEDIATION Part A – ANSWER KEY


• Give one mark for each distinct piece of information that is present. (Divided by a dash –
in the answer key)
• If the meaning is clear, the mark is awarded. The use of both third person and first person
is acceptable.
• The meaning may be conveyed using different words from those used in the answer key.
• Errors of grammar and spelling are not penalised if the meaning is still clear.

I’d like to report a theft - (my bag) has been cut from my
Write in
Ex 1 shoulder – on the underground this morning – by the time I
English
realised it – the thief had already got off
már megint! – egész rablási hullám söpört végig a Score
Write in környéken mostanában – jobb, hogy nem ellenkezett -
Ex 2
Hungarian komolyan meg is sérülhetett volna – kitöltené ezt az
űrlapot? Max
Certainly - 1. although my English is not good enough
Write in for this - but I want to write this report anyway – 2. I’m
1 really annoyed about this incident – so is this such a
2
English
dangerous area?
Nem hiszem – 3. ha valaki betartja az elemi
Write in elővigyázatossági szabályokat – zsúfolt vonatokon – 4.
2 az ember könnyű préda a rablásokhoz – a vállon viselt
2
Hungarian
kézitáskákat – viszik el leggyakrabban
5. I’ve learnt my lesson – but I don’t think you can be
Write in prepared for everything – 6. that might happen to you -
3 let’s see – place, date, time, missing values – 7. here we
3
English
are, it’s ready
8. szóval tulajdonképpen nem vesztett el semmi
Write in igazán fontosat – ahogy látom, még az iratait sem – sok
4 turistát rabolnak ki – 9. mert általában mindig minden
2
Hungarian
iratukat és pénzüket magukkal hordják
I’m more careful than that – 10. (I keep my values) in my
Write in inner pocket – I’m reporting this incident – just because I
5 want you to know about it – 11. the more details you
2
English
have the more easily (you can find those people)
12. természetesen tudnunk kell róla – 13. ha
Write in
6 bűneset történik – hogy jobban védhessük önöket – 14. 3
Hungarian megtesszük, ami tőlünk telik

Total 14/2=7

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 12 Page 8

PRF 12.3.3

Tapescript and a possible translation for the dialogues

Dialogue Possible translation


Jó napot kívánok. Egy lopást szeretnék Good morning. I’d like to report a theft.
bejelenteni. Ma reggel, a földalattin My bag has been cut from my shoulder on
Ex1
késsel levágták a vállamról a táskámat. the underground this morning. By the time I
Mire észbe kaptam, a tolvaj már leszállt. realised it the thief had already got off.
Oh, again! There have been a spate of Már megint! Egész rablási hullám söpört
muggings in the area recently. But I végig a környéken mostanában. Azért azt
Ex2 think it’s good you didn’t resist. You hiszem, jobb, hogy nem ellenkezett.
could have got badly hurt. Could you Komolyan meg is sérülhetett volna.
fill in this form, please? Kitöltené ezt az űrlapot, kérem?
Certainly, although my English is not good
Hogyne, bár az én angolom ehhez nem
enough for this … But I want to write the
elég … De mindenképp meg akarom
1 report anyway, because I’m really annoyed
írni a jelentést, mert nagyon bosszant az
about this incident. So is this such a
eset. Szóval ilyen veszélyes környék ez?
dangerous area?
I don’t think it is, if you take the Nem hiszem, ha valaki betartja az elemi
normal precautions. On crowded trains elővigyázatossági szabályokat. A zsúfolt
2 you are an easy target for snatching. vonatokon, az ember könnyű préda a
Handbags on the shoulder are the most rablásokhoz. A vállon viselt kézitáskákat
common objects to be stolen. viszik el a leggyakrabban.
Hát, én is tanultam az esetből. De azt
Well, I’ve learnt my lesson. But I don’t
hiszem, azért mindenre, ami érheti az
think you can be prepared to everything that
embert, nemigen lehet felkészülni.
3 might happen to you. Let’s see: place, date,
Nézzük csak: helyszín, dátum, időpont,
time, missing values…. Well, here we are,
hiányzó értékek… . Na, tessék, készen
it’s ready.
van.
Thank you. Let me see … so actually
Köszönöm. Lássuk csak ... Szóval
you didn’t lose anything really
tulajdonképpen nem vesztett el semmi
important as far as I can see … not
igazán fontos dolgot, ahogy látom … még
4 even your papers! Many tourists are
az iratait sem! Sok turistát rabolnak ki, mert
mugged, because they usually have all
általában mindig maguknál hordják az
their papers and money with them all
összes iratukat és pénzüket.
the time.
Ó, én ennél én óvatosabb vagyok! Az
Well, I’m more careful than that! I keep my
értékeimet a belső zsebemben hordom.
values in my inner pocket. I’m reporting
Inkább csak azért jelentem be az esetet,
5 this incident just because I want you to
hogy tudjanak róla. Gondolom, minél
know about it. The more details you have
több adatuk van, annál könnyebb
the easier you find these people I think.
megtalálni ezeket az embereket.

Certainly. Thank you for your help. Így van. Köszönöm a segítségét.
We definitely need to know if a crime’s Természetesen tudnunk kell róla, ha
6
happened in order to be able to protect bűneset történik, hogy jobban védhessük
you better. We try to do our best … önöket. Megtesszük, ami tőlünk telik…

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 12 Page 9

Unit 12: Teachers notes and answers

Task 1 – Inflated functional language. Put the students into pairs and give one partner
Worksheet A (See Student’s Pages, PRF 12.1.1 ) and the other partner Worksheet B. (PRF
12.1.2) Tell the students not to show their worksheet to their partner. Prior to distribution, fold
the worksheets so students cannot see the speech bubbles.

1A Refer the students to the ‘inflated’ request highlighted in the text box. Ask them to extract
the core functional/informational element and to write it down on a small slip of paper. Monitor
closely, and check that all the students have managed to get the key content from those
pompous phrases, but don’t give feedback to the whole class.

Answers to 1A
Don’t provide answers at this point, but for reference possible answers are:

Worksheet A: Pass the salt now.


Worksheet B: I want to do this later, not now.

1B Have the students swap their slip of paper with their partner. Now ask the students to rewrite
the simple instruction so that it sounds more polite. In this activity the students should not have
reference to speech bubbles on their work sheet. As there is no feedback at this stage, monitor
the students while they are working to ensure that appropriate, if not accurate, work is being
done.

Answers to 1B
Possible answers:

Worksheet A: Would you pass me the salt, please?


Worksheet B: I’d rather do this another time, if you don’t mind.

1C Ask the students to unfold their worksheet, and refer them to the functional exponents in the
speech bubbles. Check by asking questions that the students understand the meaning of the
functional exponents. If they do not, input the meaning. Now by using the functional
exponents, have the students further ‘inflate’ their ‘raw imperative’ which their partner gave
them. Ask the students to provide several versions using the functional exponents

1D Now have the students exchange their worksheets with a partner and ask them to compare
their ‘inflated’ requests with the original. Working again with their partner, have them list the
‘inflated requests’ from most ‘pompous/formal’ to the least. Then ask the pairs to imagine
contexts in which each of the requests would be appropriate. When the students have finished,
or after a reasonable time has elapsed, elicit in open class the connection between particular
functional exponents of request and specific situations. When a connection is introduced into
class discussion, make sure it is fully explored.

Task 2 – Making a mediation dialogue. This task will take at least forty-five minutes. The
task requires a tape recorder with a recording facility and a blank tape. Ideally one set of
equipment is needed for every three students, but one set for every five is acceptable. The task

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 12 Page 10

gives a deep insight of how the dialogue task works, and recording their own dialogues can
provide the students with a motivating and engaging form of practice.

2A Divide the class into groups of at least three persons, but ensuring that each group has
access to a set of technical equipment. Hand out task sheet (Student’s pages PRF 12.2.1.).
Elicit in open class situations in which mediation might take place; e.g. two people meet at a
party, doctor and foreign patient, etc. Each group should choose one such situation and then
prepare a dialogue sequence on the sheet. When the students have finished ask them to take on
the roles of the English speaker, the Hungarian speaker and the mediator; any remaining
students in the group play the role of note-taker(s). The students then act out the dialogue, and
the note-takers should write comments on the delivery and pronunciation. After the reading
aloud and feedback from the note-takers, the whole group agree on a final version and they
write this down. Monitor closely and help them make the final version, which will be recorded.

2B Hand out blank tapes and tape recorders. Send the groups to different rooms, if possible,
where the students should record their dialogues. Monitor the groups as far as possible and
assist with intonation and pronunciation problems. On the completion of the recording, have the
students return to the classroom.

2C Have the students construct an answer key for their dialogue in the blank table on PRF
12.2.2. First, ask them to underline all the information chunks in the dialogue, and then have
them ring the fourteen most important information chunks. To gain a point for each information
chunk, those doing the task must convey the key meaning content of the chunk.

2D Have the students exchange their tape with that of another group. Each group should now,
as a group, do the dialogue task that they have received. Remind the students that the fifteen-
second writing time is not provided for on the tape, so the students will have to stop the tape to
give them time to write. Before the students start the exercise they should first listen to the
whole dialogue without interruption.

2E Each group should now receive the answer key from the group that prepared the dialogue.
The groups should mark their dialogue and then discuss any issues arising with the group that
prepared the dialogue. In open class elicit comments, problems and experience.

Task 3 – Practice Exam Task

3A The students will now do a full mediation dialogue task. Distribute the task sheet PRF
12.3.1 to the students. When the students are quiet and ready play the text.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 12 Page 11

3B Distribute the answer key (PRF 12.3.2) and have the students mark their own work for
immediate feedback. When the students have finished, hand out the tapescript (PRF 12.3.3). In
pairs the students should peruse the tapescript to see how the marking chunks relate to the key
information contents in the tapescript. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable
time has elapsed, elicit and discuss ideas on this subject in open class.

In the course of the class discussion explain to the students that the “significant” information
chunks are chosen by statistical methods that guarantee valid measurement, so they shouldn’t
worry about not that some chunks are easier than others. Also remind the students that more
than eight points means pass in that task.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 13 Page 1

Operational porficiency mediation – English to Hungarian Translation

13 Say it in Hungarian
Task 1 – Running translation

A Run to the wall. Read the slip of paper, run back to your partner
and translate it.

B Put the lines in order, and make a complete Hungarian text.

C Improve the text and make it more Hungarian.

D Compare your final Hungarian text with the complete English


one.

E Compare your final Hungarian text with the model translation.

Task 2 – Chain translation

A Translate your text into Hungarian and give it to another pair. When you get a
translation from another pair translate it into English.

B Are there any idioms, expression or vocabulary which are problematic?

Task 3 – Practice exam task and marking

A Translate the text below into Hungarian.

B Mark the text according to the marking key.

Task 4 - Coherence and cohesion

A Answer the questions on your worksheet with a partner.

B Check and discuss your answers with your teacher, and the class.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 13 Page 2

Task 1 – Running translation – Student’s pages


PRF 13.1.1
Deafening Snow

Not much is quieter than falling snow – but fish


might disagree.
--------------------------------------------------------------
New research shows that as each snowflake hits
water,
--------------------------------------------------------------
it traps a bubble of air just beneath the surface.
--------------------------------------------------------------
The vibrating bubble makes a sound like a scream
in the range of 50 to 200 kilohertz,
--------------------------------------------------------------
which is inaudible to humans but similar to rain on
a metal roof to certain sea life.
--------------------------------------------------------------
Snow sound has up to now always got in the way
of ocean scans
--------------------------------------------------------------
used by oceanologists for fish migration studies.
--------------------------------------------------------------
But now scientists know to stop scan work in
snowstorms
--------------------------------------------------------------
or at least filter out the huge noise they make.

(text adapted from National Geographic July 2001)

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 13 Page 3

PRF 13.1.2

Deafening Snow

Not much is quieter than falling snow – but fish might disagree.
New research shows that as each snowflake hits water, it traps a
bubble of air just beneath the surface. The vibrating bubble
makes a sound like a scream in the range of 50 to 200 kilohertz,
which is inaudible to humans but similar to rain on a metal roof
to certain sea life. Snow sound has up to now always got in the
way of ocean scans used by oceanologists for fish migration
studies. But now scientists know to stop scan work in
snowstorms or at least filter out the huge noise they make.

___________________________________________________

PRF 13.1.3

Fülsiketítő hó

Kevés dolog csöndesebb, mint a hulló hó – a halak azonban


lehet, hogy nem értenének egyet ezzel az állítással. A legújabb
kutatások szerint ahányszor egy-egy hópehely ráhullik a vízre,
csapdába ejt egy-egy kis légbuborékot közvetlenül a felszín
alatt. Ez a buborék azután emberi füllel nem is hallható 50-
200 kilohertz erősségű, a maga sávjában szinte sikolyként
érzékelhető rezgést kelt, amely a tengeri élővilág egy részének
olyan hatású lehet, mintha eső dobolna a fém háztetőn. A hó
hangja azelőtt mindig megzavarta az óceán-radarokat,
amelyekkel a kutatók a halak vándorlását vizsgálják. De mára
a tudósok már tudják, hogy hóviharban abba kell hagyni a
radarozást, vagy legalább ki kell szűrni a hóesés keltette
hatalmas zajt.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 13 Page 4

Task 2 – Chain translation – Student’s page


PRF 13.2.

TEXT A - English

Rafael did not come to Hungary with the intention of falling in love. His first night in
Budapest was a major shock. Never had he been to a country where every word, written or
spoken, eluded him. It was while trying to arrange accommodation at the hotel reception that
he met Sari. She was not the receptionist on duty at the time, but she overheard the fractured
attempts at communication going on between Rafael and the aging receptionist, Gustav.

___________________________________________________________________________________

TEXT B - English

Sari was not a woman to fall in love easily. She valued her work and independence and was
of the opinion that men threatened her hard-won freedom. She reflected over such matters
from time to time as she worked in the small accounts office behind the hotel reception. It
was about mid-day one Tuesday when she got up to go to the reception desk to ask old
Gustav for a receipt, when she saw Rafael approaching the reception desk.

_____________________________________________________________________

TEXT A - Hungarian

Rafael nem azzal a szándékkal érkezett Magyarországra, hogy bárkibe is beleszeressen. Első
estéje Budapesten igazi soklként érte őt. Még soha nem járt olyan országban, ahol minden
írott, vagy kimondott szó megfoghatatlan volt számára. Sárival akkor találkozott, miközben a
szállását próbálta elintézni a szálloda recepciójánál. Nem ő volt éppen a szolgálatben lévő
recepciós, de meghallotta, Rafaelnek az idösödő Gusztávval folytatott töredezett társalgási
kísérleteit.

___________________________________________________________________________________

TEXT B – Hungarian

Sári nem az a nő volt, aki könnyen szerelembe esett. Nagyra becsülte a munkáját és az
önállóságát és az volt a véleménye, hogy a férfiak csak veszélyeztetik kemény munkával
megszerzett szabadságát. Időnként elgondolkozott az ilyesmiről, miközben a szálloda
recepciója mögötti kis pénztárban dolgozott. Egy keddi napon délben éppen felállt, hogy
odamenjen a recepcióhoz és elkérjen egy számlát az öreg Gusztávtól, mikor meglátta Rafaelt,
amint a pulthoz közeledik.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 13 Page 5

Task 3 – Practice exam task and marking – Student’s pages


PRF 13.3.1

Translate the text into Hungarian. You may use your dictionaries in this task.

Money Laundering

HUNGARY'S geographic location has made it an easy target for money


laundering by international organised crime groups, such as that led by
Russia's Andrej Megalovich, who allegedly laundered billions of dollars
from a base in Budapest.

Megalovich abruptly disappeared from Hungary in 1999 following the


formation of a "super" financial market watchdog and the establishment of a
special FBI task force in Budapest. There is still an FBI warrant out on the
Russian.

The country has recently become one of the most effective in Europe in
combating money laundering, according to Péter Kovács, managing director
of the State Financial Supervisory Board (PSZÁF) and the appointed
Government Commissioner in charge of the nation's fight against money
laundering.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 13 Page 6

PRF 13.3.2.
PÉNZMOSÁS – Sample translation

Magyarország földrajzi helyzete folytán kézenfekvő terepe lett az olyan nemzetközi bűnszervezetek
pénzmosási tevékenységének, amilyen például az orosz Andrej Megalovics vezette csoport, melyet
azzal vádolnak, hogy egy budapesti bázison keresztül dollár-billiókat mosott tisztára.

Megalovich hirtelen eltűnt Magyarországról 1999-ben, miután egy „szuper” pénzpiaci felügyelet
alakult, és az FBI is Budapestre telepítette erre szakosodott egységét. Az orosz még most is FBI
körözés alatt áll.
Az ország az utóbbi időben a legeredményesebbek egyike lett Európában a pénzmosás elleni
küzdelemben Kovács Péter, a PSZÁF ügyvezető igazgatója, a téma kormánymegbízottja szerint.

Marking for content


• Candidates receive one mark for each one of the following pieces of meaning that is clearly
expressed.
• The information can be present in any order.
• Do not mark for linguistic accuracy. Mark only for presence of information.
• The words here in this table are only a guide to target meanings – NB these exact words are not
required.
• Only the chunks in bold are marked

Information mark
1 1 (Mo) földrajzi helyzete folytán 1
2 2 kézenfekvő terepe lett 1
3 pénzmosás
4 3 az olyan, úgy mint, mint például 1
nemzetközi bűnszervezetek
5 az orosz A.M. vezette csoport
6 4 akit azzal vádolnak 1
7 egy budapesti bázison keresztül
8 dollár-billiókat
9 mosott tisztára
10 5 hirtelen eltűnt Magyarországról 1
11 6 miután/azt követően, hogy megalakult 1
12 egy „szuper” pénz/ tőkepiaci felügyelet
13 az FBI Budapestre telepítette
14 7 erre szakosodott egységét 1
15 még most is
16 FBI körözés alatt áll
17 az utóbbi időben
18 8 a legeredményesebbek egyike lett Európában 1
19 a pénzmosás elleni küzdelemben
20 K. P., a PSZÁF ügyvezető igazgatója
21 9 a téma kormánymegbízottja 1
22 szerint.
Total max. 9
Overall language mark max. 5
Total max. (9+5) / 2=7

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 13 Page 7

Task 4 – Coherence and cohesion – Student’s pages


PRF 13.4.
COHERENCE AND COHESION

A Try to define the terms coherent and cohesive.

B Read the following sentences, then write their letters (A or B) in the


appropriate box of the grid below.

(1) “While the snowman kicked the middle back of the cloud, they all were
drinking her chairs, in spite of the huge cage.”

(2) “There was strong wind that day. A roof tile was blown off. Peter was having
his usual evening walk. The tile fell on Peter’s head. There was a traffic jam.
It took an hour for the ambulance to get to the hospital.

Coherent, but not cohesive

Cohesive but not coherent

C Coherence and cohesion are examples of discourse features. Read the two
definitions of the term discourse below. Some grammar words are missing, fill
them in.

“Discourse _1_ any stretch of language which has _2_ used to communicate
something and is felt to be coherent (and may, or may not happen to correspond to
_3_ correct sentence or a series of correct sentences). “ (Guy Cook: Discourse OUP
1993:6)

(Discourse is…) “A general term for examples of language use, i.e. language which
has been produced as a result of an act _4_ communication. Whereas grammar
refers _5_ the rules a language uses to form grammatical units such as CLAUSE,
PHRASE, and SENTENCE, discourse refers to larger units of language such _6_
paragraphs, conversations, and interviews.” (Longman Dictionary of Language
Teaching and Applied Linguistics:111)

D In pairs try to make the two sentences in point A both cohesive and coherent.
Compare your solutions with another pair and discuss how you had to change
the sentences.

E In the table below you find the names of some common cohesive devices.
Read the sentences below, and find out how the underlined words achieve
cohesion within the sentences. Write their numbers in the grey boxes of the
table.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 13 Page 8

PRF 13.4.

Substitution
Repetition
Lexical chain
Temporal
Adversative
Linkers
Additive
Causative

1. A: Would you mind opening the window?


B: No, I wouldn’t.

2. They live in a small house outside the town. It has only two bedrooms.

3. A: Is eight o’clock OK?


B: Yes, see you then.

4. Bicycles are fantastic vehicles. You can easily take fifteen miles per hour
on two wheels.

5. We all wanted to see the new Schwarzenegger film, but Ann didn’t like the
idea at all.

6. The car broke down, so we took a taxi.

7. They bought some bread and milk.

F Now write the following linkers in the blank boxes of the table:

also, even so, hence, on the other hand, first, moreover, as a result, however,
moreover, meanwhile, therefore, later.

Can you add some more?

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 13 Page 9

Unit 13: Teachers’ notes and answers

Task 1 -Running translation


1A. Make one copy of the “Deafening Snow” slips page (See Student’s pages, PRF
13.1.1 above) Cut it up so that you have nine slips of paper. Append these around the
classroom. Put the students into pairs. One member of the pair is required to run to
one of the slips of paper, read it and then return to his/her partner. With the aid of
his/her partner, the content of the slip should be translated into Hungarian and the
partner should note the translation on a piece of paper. The members of the pair
should then reverse roles and the activity repeated using one of the other slips of
paper appended to the wall. The sequence is repeated until the contents of all nine
slips of paper have been translated.

Monitor the activity closely. If a pair has completely misunderstood a piece of text
provide help, but do not correct minor mistakes or mistakes relating to style at this
stage.

Answers to 1A – translation of the pieces that are on the wall

Fülsiketítő hó

First piece
Kevés dolog csöndesebb, mint a hulló hó – a halak azonban lehet, hogy nem
értenének egyet ezzel az állítással.

Second piece
A legújabb kutatások szerint ahányszor egy-egy hópehely ráhullik a vízre,

Third piece
csapdába ejt egy-egy kis légbuborékot közvetlenül a felszín alatt.

Fourth piece
Ez a buborék azután olyan rezgést kelt, amely egy 50-200 kilohertz erősségű sikolyhoz
hasonlítható,

Fifth piece
amely emberi füllel nem hallható, de egyes tengeri élőlények számára olyan hatást
kelt, mintha eső dobolna egy fém háztetőn.

Sixth piece
A hó hangja azelőtt mindig megzavarta az óceán-radarokat,

Seventh piece
amelyekkel a kutatók a halak vándorlását vizsgálják.

Eighth piece
De mára a tudósok már tudják, hogy hóviharban abba kell hagyni a radarozást,

Ninth piece
vagy legalább ki kell szűrni a hóesés keltette hatalmas zajt.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 13 Page 10

1B. Have the students put the nine pieces of information in a logical order to form a
coherent text in Hungarian. During this activity the students have the opportunity to
ascertain the difference between the chunks as isolated utterances and the whole text,
in which coherence and cohesion operate at a whole-text level. While the students are
working, help them find cohesive devices and other discourse features. At the end of
this stage you can list these features on the board. (Task 4 will involve further work
with discourse, coherence and cohesion).

1C. Now, with the students working again in their pairs, ask the students to forget
about the English original. Have them read the full Hungarian text , and determine
whether it sounds really Hungarian, or whether it has instances of source language
interference or word-by word translations that reflect English idioms or phrases, but
do not sound natural in Hungarian. Replace them with more natural sounding
Hungarian options.

1D. Give the students the complete English version (Student’s pages, PRF 13.1. 2.)
Have them determine whether their translations convey all the basic messages. The
students should then make any necessary changes. Discuss in open class any changes
made. Also consider the difference between translating something orally or in writing.
Emphasise that at their high language level most difficulties of any written translation
come from the complexity of the sentences, and the different structures of the two
languages. Encourage them to change the structures or even the sequence of the
information chunks, while conveying the same message as the original text and
maintaining the same register, style or general atmosphere.

1E. Now give the students the model Hungarian translation (Students’ pages, PRF
13.1.3) Have the students underline where they found different forms of translation
and ask the students to discuss the differences in pairs. Pool the differences, and in
open class try to agree in a “very best” final version. When a student offers a
translation, ensure that s/he fully justifies his/her position.

Task 2 Chain translation

2A. Put the students in pairs. Hand out alternately an ‘A’ to one pair and a ‘B’ text to
the next. At this stage hand out only the English version. These are to be found in the
Students’ Pages, PRF 13.2. Have students write down a quick translation, and pass it
to their partner. Then they all translate these texts back from Hungarian to English.
When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, have them
compare this new English text with the original version. The students should focus
their attention on those pieces of information which have altered in the translation
process. Attention should also be directed to changes in style. Pool these points in
open class, and discuss them.

2B. The students should then make a list of idioms, expressions or words that are of a
higher level compared to theirs. In open class pool this on the whiteboard and clarify
them

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 13 Page 11

Task 3 Practice exam task


3A. Refer the students to the text on Student’s pages PRF 13.3.1. Have the students,
working individually, translate the text into Hungarian. Students may use their
dictionaries for this task. When they have finished have them compare their answer
with that of a partner and then have them upgrade their answer.

3B. Hand out the model translation on the Students’ Pages PRF 13.3.2. Have the
students, working in pairs, note differences between their translation and that of the
model. Those differences which the students do not understand, or think may be
incorrect, should be especially noted and raised in open class.

Attention should now turn towards the marking key on Students’ Pages 13.3.2. Elicit
in open class how the marking scheme works. Where the information cannot be
harvested from eliciting, input the necessary information. On the basis of the marking
scheme, the students should then mark their work.

Answers to 3B – how the marking scheme works

• Not all of the lines are marked. Only those selected lines in bold.
• To get the point the students, need not get the exact words, but only the message
contained in those words
• Spelling and punctuation do not count.
• Five marks are given for the overall quality of Hungarian produced. Then the
total of the marks for the correct chunks and the language are divided by two, so
the maximum score is seven in this task.

Task 4 Coherence and cohesion

4A. Hand out copies of the worksheet on the Students’ Pages PRF 13.4. Ask the
students, working in pairs, to define the terms ‘coherence’ and ‘cohesion’. When the
students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, pool their definitions in
open class. When a student offers an opinion, ensure that it is accompanied by
explanation and examples. If necessary, input information yourself.

Answers to 4A. – defining coherence and cohesion

• A text is coherent, when it conveys a logical sequence of ideas or events, and


forms a meaningful unity.
• A text is cohesive, when the ideas or events are connected to each other by certain
linguistic tools called “cohesive devices”, e.g. linking words or phrases,
pronouns, different forms of reference, etc.

4B. Have the students, working individually, decide to which descriptor in the box
each of the two sentences applies. When the students have finished, have them
compare their answer with that of a partner. Elicit the answers in open class. When a
student offers an answer, ensure that s/he explains and justifies it.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 13 Page 12

Answers to 4B (p. XXX) – matching task

Coherent but not cohesive is text (2). Cohesive but not coherent is text (1).

4C. Have the students, working individually, look at the two definitions. When they
think they understand them, they should fill in the gapped grammatical words. When
the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, pool answers in
open class. Briefly examine any mistakes. Bear in mind that the sole purpose of the
gaps is to ensure that the students read the text carefully.

Answers to 4C.

1. is, 2. been, 3. a, 4. of, 5. to, 6. as.

4D. The students, working in pairs, should now try to reconstruct the two sentences in
4B so that they are both coherent and cohesive. The students my well have to use their
imagination to import meaning. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable
time has elapsed, they should compare their work with that of another pair. The
various approaches should be pooled, discussed and evaluated in open class. (Note
that in sentence (1) they have to change the content words. On the other hand in
sentence (2) they have to link the sentences together by cohesive devices that can
easily be listed.)

Dictate the models answer for the second sentence to the students. Have the students,
working in pairs, underline all the discoursal words and explain their function. When
the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, pool the ideas in
open class. When a student offers a function for a discoursal item, ensure that s/he
fully explains the function.

Answers to 4D. – making two sentence coherent and cohesive

• The first sentence is so incoherent/meaningless that any coherent reformulation of


it is justifiable.
• A possible answer: There was a strong wind that day, so a roof tile was blown off.
While Peter was having his usual evening walk, the tile fell on his head. As there
was a traffic jam, it took an hour for the ambulance to get to the hospital.

that – a deictic item placing the event in time


so – causative linker
while – temporal linker
his – pronominal substitution (in both cases)
the – definite article with an anaphorical reference
As – causative, introducing a clause of reason
it – pronoun exophoric substitution for ‘the journey’
the – definite article with reference to ‘the ambulance Peter was in’ and ‘the hospital
Peter went to’

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 13 Page 13

4E. Refer the students to the table which contains a list of types of discoursal devices.
Have the students, working in pairs, provide definitions for the terms. When the
students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, pool the definitions in
open class. When a student offers a definition, ensure that the role of the discoursal
device is fully explained and examples are given. Where necessary, input information.

Answers to 4E – definitions of discoursal terms

Substitution: this refers to when a pronoun stands in for a lexical item


Repetition: this is where a part of speech is repeated and ‘shares’ the syntax. (E.g. I
want a coffee, a banana, a piece of cheese and an apple)
Lexical chain: this is where a lexical item is subsequently referred to a synonym
Temporal: this a linker which relates parts of the text chronologically
Adversative: this is a linker which opposes or contrasts two parts of the text
Additive: this is a linker which combines or adds two or more parts of the text
Causative: this is a linker which relates cause and effect within a text

Refer the students to the seven utterances or exchanges. Have the students, working
individually, classify the discoursal devices and match them to the terminological
labels. When they have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, have the
students compare and discuss their answers with a partner. Pool the answers in open
class. When a student offers an answer, ensure that the classification is fully
explained.

Answers to 4E – classifications of utterances/exchanges

See the table below

4F. Refer the students to the discoursal items which are highlighted. Have the
students, working individually, classify them. When they have finished, or after a
reasonable time has elapsed, have the students compare and discuss their
classifications with a partner. Pool the answers in open class. When a student offers
an answer, ensure that the classification is fully explained.

Answers to 4E-F – cohesive devices table

Substitution 2
Repetition 1
Lexical chain 4
Temporal 3 first, meanwhile, later
Adversative even so, on the other hand,
5
Linkers however
Additive 7 also, moreover,
Causative 6 as a result, hence, therefore

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 14 Page 1

Operational Proficiency Mediation – Hungarian to English Translation

14 Hey, give us a lift


Task 1 – Warmer translation game

A In your groups read the Hungarian words or phrases on the slips you get from your
teacher and try to give English equivalents. If there is no way to give a one word
translation, think of other ways.

B With the help of your teacher compare and discuss the translations and agree in “best
ones”. Discuss the major difficulties you had to face while doing this task.

Task 2 – Jigsaw translation

A Look quickly through the text which your teacher has


given you. What is the text about?

B Turn over your paper, and compare your general


understanding of the text with your partner’s.

C Translate the Hungarian pieces of test into English.

D Compare your translation with the translation on your


partner’s sheet.

Task 3 – Working with Hunglish

A Quickly read the text on the worksheet. What is the native language of author?

B Write the Hungarian or English version of the text. (Your teacher will tell you which)

C In groups discuss your translation. Try to improve it. Note problems you have in
translating.

D With your partner, compare the Hungarian and English versions. Try to find
differences of meaning.

Task 3 – Translation problems

A List some major problems in translating from Hungarian to English.

B Write some sentences in Hungarian which would be problematic to translate into


English.

C Give the sentences to a partner to translate.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 14 Page 2

PRF 14.1
Task 1 – Warmer translation game – Student’s pages

Words for translation1

ÉRETTSÉGI LÁNGOS

GANG
BALLAGÁS
(FÜGGŐFOLYOSÓ)

SZALONNASÜTÉS CSÁRDA

ALUDTTEJ PALOTÁS

NÉNI HÁZMESTER

1
The words, the descriptions and the translations are adapted from the book“Hungary and the
Hungarians, The Keywords. A concise dictionary of facts, and beliefs, customs, usage & myths”.
István Bart, Corvina, 1999
Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre
C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 14 Page 3

PRF 14.2.1
Task 2 - Jigsaw translation - Student’s pages
Worksheet for student A

Read the following letter and translate the Hungarian sentences into English. When
you’ve finished, pair up with a student B, and check your work.

Dear Monika,
I’m so excited I just have to write to tell you m latest news! I am about to become a
flat owner.
A szüleim végre eldöntötték, hogy eladják a családi házat és vesznek két kisebb
lakást: egyet nekem és egyet maguknak.

I have been looking through ads for weeks and have finally found two possible flats,
which are both ideal in their own way but quite different.
Az első egy régi, 1920-as években épült ház második emeleten van, egy nagy és
nagyon szépen rendben tartott kerttel.

The neighbours are elderly and seemed friendly and helpful. According to the owner
of the flat, they are really relaxed about having parties and people coming and going
in the building.
A lakásban van egy hálószoba, egy nappali, egy helyes de elég pici konyha és egy
regi fürdőszoba, ami ugyan nagy mertekben felújításra szorul, viszont nagyon
megéri, mert olyan szép.

The other flat is completely different. It was built two years ago and is very modern
with all the nice comforts of a new flat: floor heating, built-in shelf system and an
open kitchen area.
Világos és nagyon tágas, amit én szintén nagyon szeretek. A szomszédokkal itt is
találkoztam, fiatalok és barátságosnak tűntek.

So you see, I can’t make up my mind. Please come and see these flats with me – I’d
really like you to tell me what you think.
Nagyon várom, hogy jelentkezz!
Sok puszi,
Kati

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 14 Page 4

PRF 14.2.2

Task 2 - Jigsaw translation - Student’s pages


Worksheet for student B

Read the following letter and translate the Hungarian sentences into English. When
you’ve finished, pair up with a student B, and check your work.

Kedves Monika
Olyan izgatott vagyok, el kell, hogy meséljem a legújabb híreket! Hamarosan lakástulajdonos leszek.

My parents have finally decided to sell the family house and buy two smaller flats – one for me and
one for themselves.

Hetek óta nézem a hirdetéseket, és végre találtam két lehetséges lakást, ami mind a kettő tökéletes a
maga módján, de elég különbözőek

The first one is on the second floor of an old building, built in the 1920’s, with a big and very well-kept
garden.

A szomszédok idősek, kedvesnek és barátságosnak tűntek. A tulaj szerint nagyon lazák bulikkal
kapcsolatban, és ha emberek jönnek-mennek a házban.

In the flat there is a bedroom, a living room, a nice but fairly small kitchen and an old bathroom, which
is badly in need of renovation but it’s worth it because it’s so pretty.

A másik lakás teljesen különböző. Két éve épult, és nagyon modern, egy új lakás minden kényelmével
ellátva: padlófűtés, beépített polcrendszer és egy nyitott konyha.

It is light and spacious, which I also really like. I have met the neighbours here as well and they are
young and seemed friendly.

Szóval érted, hogy nem tudok dönteni. Légyszi gyere, és nézd meg a lakásokat velem – nagyon
szeretnem tudni, hogy mi a véleményed.

I’m really looking forward to talking to you,


Love,
Kati

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 14 Page 5

PRF 14.3.1
Task 3 Working with Hunglish - Student’s pages

Let’s beszéljünk Hunglish!

DRIVER: Szép nap, isn’t it?


PASSENGER: Igen, lovely.
DRIVER: Még hány more kilometres?
PASSENGER: Hang on egy sec, megnézem a map. (megnézi) Kilencven.
Nézd, ott egy hitch-hiker. Let’s megállunk neki.
DRIVER: Nem way, Jim. Ezek a hitch-hikerek are mind the same.
Vagy ageing hippik, akik bore you halálba, vagy psycho
angol foci huligánok.
PASSENGER: Te vagy a boss.
DRIVER: Let’s csak vezessünk on, és pretend hogy nincs ott.
PASSENGER: Like mondtam, te hívod a shots. (NAGYON LOUD
BANG!) Jaj!! Mi a hell volt ez?
DRIVER: Damn és blast! Egy blowout. Megállok a kemény
shoulderon.
PASSENGER: Ez serious? I mean, van spare kerék?
DRIVER: Of course van.
PASSENGER: Akkor jó then.
DRIVER: Ó, de nincs benne air.
PASSENGER: Well, then hívd az AA.
DRIVER: Nem vagyok member.
PASSENGER: What a kár. Úgy néz ki, hogy stuck here vagyunk.
DRIVER: Úgy.
PASSENGER: Kösz egy bundle.
DRIVER: I know! Flag downolhatok egy másik kocsit. Biztos lesz egy
pumpjuk.
PASSENGER: Off te mész, okos clogs.

( a driver kiszáll, és waves az ő arms)

DRIVER: Ez nem use, senki sem akar stopni.


PASSENGER: Talán próbáld showing nekik a te leg.
DRIVER: Nagyon funny.
PASSENGER: Várj csak! Itt jön egy likely-looking kocsi.
DRIVER: Ez nem túl likely-looking, tele van hippivel.
PASSENGER: Ó, tényleg, so it van. (eközben a kocsi passes őket, valaki
shouts valami rude)
DRIVER: Milyen impolite! Ki volt that?
PASSENGER: Ki? A hitch-hiker, akit earlier láttunk.
DRIVER: Some emberek!

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 14 Page 6

PRF 14.3.2
Task 3 Working with Hunglish - Student’s pages

BESZÉLJÜNK MAGYARUL! - A possible Hungarian translation

VEZETŐ: Szép napunk van, nem igaz?


UTAS Igen, gyönyörű.
VEZETŐ: Még hány kilométer?
UTAS Várj egy pillanatra, megnézem a térképen. Kilencven. Nézd,
ott egy stoppos. Áljjunk meg neki!
VEZETŐ: Nem létezik, Jim. Ezek a stopposok mind egyformák. Vagy
öreg hippik, akik halálra untatnak, vagy lökött angol
focihuligánok.
UTAS Te vagy a főnök.
VEZETŐ: csak hajtsunk tovább, mintha ott se lenne.
UTAS Már mondtam, te osztod a lapokat. (Nagyon hangos
durranás) Jaj!! Mi a fene volt ez?
VEZETŐ: Ördög és pokol! Egy durrdefekt. Megállok a padkán.
UTAS Nagy baj van? Vagy van pótkerék?
VEZETŐ: Persze, hogy van.
UTAS Akkor jó.
VEZETŐ: Ó, de nincs felfújva.
UTAS Hát akkor hívd a Sárga Angyalt.
VEZETŐ: nem vagyok tag.
UTAS Milyen kár. Akkor úgy néz ki, hogy itt ragadtunk.
VEZETŐ: Úgy.
UTAS Na, kösz.
VEZETŐ: Tudom már! Leinthetnék egy másik kocsit. Biztos lesz egy
pumpájuk.
UTAS Rajta, okostojás.

(A vezető kiszáll, és integet)

VEZETŐ: Semmi értelme, senki sem akar megállni.


UTAS Talán mutasd meg nekik a lábadat.
VEZETŐ: Nagyon vicces.
UTAS Várj csak! Itt jön egy bizalomgerjesztő kocsi.
VEZETŐ: Ez nem valami bizalomgerjesztő, tele van hippivel.
UTAS Ó, tényleg tele van. (Eközben a kocsi elhagyja őket, valaki
odakiált egy durvát)
VEZETŐ: Milyen bunkók! Ki volt ez?
UTAS KI? Hát a stoppos, akit korábban láttunk.
VEZETŐ: Micsoda alakok vannak!

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 14 Page 7

PRF 14.3.3
Task 3 Working with Hunglish - Student’s pages

LET’S SPEAK ENGLISH! - A possible English translation:

DRIVER: Nice day, isn’t it?


PASSENGER: Yes, lovely.
DRIVER: How many more kilometres?
PASSENGER: Hang on a sec, I’ll look at the map. (he looks) Ninety.
Look, there’s a hitch-hiker. Let’s stop for him.
DRIVER: No way, Jim. These hitch-hikers are all the same. Either
ageing hippies who bore you to death, or psycho English
football hooligans.
PASSENGER: You’re the boss.
DRIVER: Let’s just drive on and pretend that he’s not there.
PASSENGER: Like I’ve said, you call the shots. (a very loud bang) Wow!
What the hell was that?
DRIVER: Damn and blast! A blowout. I’ll stop on the hard shoulder.
PASSENGER: Is it serious? I mean, have you got a spare wheel?
DRIVER: Of course I have a spare.
PASSENGER: All right then.
DRIVER: OH, but there is no air in it.
PASSENGER: Well, then call AA or RAC.
DRIVER: I’m not a member.
PASSENGER: What a pity. It looks as if we were stuck here.
DRIVER: Yes.
PASSENGER: Thanks a bundle.
DRIVER: I know! I could flag down another car. They will have a
pump.
PASSENGER: Off you go, clever clogs!

(The driver gets out and waves his arms in the air.)

DRIVER: No use, nobody would stop.


PASSENGER: Try to show them your leg.
DRIVER: Very funny.
PASSENGER: Wait. Here comes a likely-looking car.
DRIVER: It’s not really likely-looking, it’s full of hippies.
PASSENGER: Oh, yes, it is. (The hippy car passes them, someone shouts
something rude)
DRIVER: How impolite! Who was that?
PASSENGER: Who? The hitch-hiker we saw earlier.
DRIVER: Some people!

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 14 Page 8

Unit 14: Teachers’ notes and answers

Task 1 – Warmer translation game

For a warmer divide the class into two groups and distribute to the groups an equal
number of slips on which are written those Hungarian lexical items for which no
English equivalents exist (e.g.mákosguba, üvegestánc). See the Student’s Pages,
PRF 14.1. Give the students a couple of minutes to work out an English “translation”
for each, that could be used in a longer text translated from Hungarian into English. In
most cases they won’t be able to do it in one or two words, but will have to create
some longer definitions or explanations. Tell them that this is possible, but the task is
not writing definitions, but translating, that is mediating the meaning of these words
into a different language and culture. Students then read their translations in turns to
the other group one by one, and guess what the original terms on the slips are. You
can give points for good guesses, and make a competition out of this activity.

Possible answers:

LITERAL POSSIBLE
DESCRIPTION
TRANSLATION TRANSLATION

Final examination taken by


‘school leaving exam’
ÉRETTSÉGI ’maturity test’ 18-year-olds before they
‘baccalaureate’
leave secondary school.
Secondary school leavers
on their last day at school
‘sauntering’ slowly march around all
‘school leaving
BALLAGÁS ‘wandering’ the decorated rooms and
ceremony’
‘strolling’ corridors singing songs as
part of their farewell
ceremony
Slices of bacon and onion
are put on the ends of sharp
SZALONNASÜTÉS ‘bacon roast’ ‘barbecued bacon’
freshly cut twigs, and are
roasted on a campfire.
A delicious, quivering,
jelly-like substance made
ALUDTTEJ ‘sleeping milk’ of non-boiled or ‘sour milk’
pasteurised milk left over
from the day before.
( this is a good
The form of address used example for a word
by children when talking to that can’t be
‘older sister’ every adult female, translated at all. You
NÉNI
‘aunt’ whether relative or have to find forms
stranger, e.g. ‘tanító néni’ like “Mrs …”, that
= ‘aunt teacher’ are appropriate in the
given context.
A big handful of yeast
LÁNGOS ‘flame cake’ dough flattened out by ‘fried dough’
hand and fried in oil

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 14 Page 9

Corridor that runs


GANG around the courtyard of
‘hanging corridor’ ‘external landing’
(FÜGGŐFOLYOSÓ) old apartment houses,
one on each floor.
They used to stand
along the road for
CSÁRDA ’wayside inn’ ’inn’
weary travellers to
spend the night there.
An old Hungarian
dance with three-
PALOTÁS ‘palace dance’ ’Hungarian dance’
quarter or four-eighths
rhythms.
The all-powerful
caretaker,
representative of the
landlord, or later the
HÁZMESTER ’master of the house’ Council, who was ‘concierge’
responsible for the
cleanliness, the piece
and order of an
apartment building.

Task 2 Jigsaw translation

2A. Put the students into pairs. Hand out face down from an “A” sheet (see
Student’s’ pages 14.2.1) to one member of the pair and a “B” sheet (Student’s’
pages 14.2.2) to the other. Give the students a strict time limit of forty-five seconds
and have them find the gist of the text.

2B. On the expiry of the time limit, have the students turn over their paper. Ask them
to discuss the gist of the text with their partner. As no open class feedback will be
sought, monitor the discussions to ensure that the students under stand the text. In the
unlikely event that they do no, allow further reading time and ask questions to clarify
the meaning.

2C. Ask the students working individually to translate the parts of the text in
Hungarian into English into the spaces provided. The students may use their
dictionaries. Remind them to check their work.

2D. Ask the students to work with their partner. Have them compare and discuss their
written translations with the “correct” printed form on their partner’s sheet. Monitor
the student while they are working and collect difficulties. Note these on the
whiteboard and discuss them in open class. Pay particular attention to problems
arising from incorrect use of dictionaries.

Task 3 Working with Hunglish

3A. Inform the students that this activity helps learners realise the differences between
translating from or into a foreign language. It also makes clear that the translation of a
text word by word is not possible because the two different language structures
require different ways of expressing the same thing.
Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre
C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 14 Page 10

Refer the students to the text on their sheet (Student’s’ pages 14.3.1). Ask the
students working in pairs to decide the native language of the writer of the text. When
they have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, pool answers in open class.
When a student offers an answer ensure that s/he explains and justifies it.

It should be pointed out to the students that The Hungarian fragments are mirror
translations of English terms and idioms. It is possible to recognise the syntax and
idiom of English behind them. This is exactly the source of fun here: these mirror
translations sound odd in Hungarian. As a result it is easy to translate the Hungarian
into English, whereas the other way round basic changes in the structure have to be
made.

Answer to 3A
The text “Let’s beszéljünk Hunglish” was written by a native English speaker, Chris
Dalton, a former teacher of IH Budapest.

3B. Put the class into pairs. Ask one member of the pair to write the English version
of the text, and the other member to write the Hungarian version. Stop the students
after a reasonable time has elapsed.

2C. Put the students into groups of three or four with all the members in any one
group having either the English or Hungarian version. Ask the students in each group
to try to agree on the best translation. While the students are working, monitor the
group and collect problems and issues for later work in class.

3D. Put the students into new pairs such that a student who has a Hungarian version is
paired with a student with the English version. Ask the students to compare the two
scripts and discuss possible differences (meaning, register, etc). Now hand out the
translations provided on the Student’s’ pages PRF 14.3.2 and PRF 14.3.3 and ask
the students to compare translations with the ‘official’ translation. In open class
discuss any problems or issues arising.

Task 4 Possible problems

4A. Put the students into groups of four. Elicit one problem that students face in
translating from Hungarian to English. When a student offers an answer, have him/her
fully explain the reasons for the problem and note the problem on the whiteboard.
Now, ask the students to list other such problems and discuss them in their groups.
While the students are working, monitor their conversations and intervene with points
and suggestions where necessary.

4B. Ask the students to work individually. Have the students write three or four
sentences in Hungarian which are difficult to translate into English. You should assist
where required.

4C. Ask the students to exchange their sentences with another member of class. The
receiving student should translate the received sentences into English. On completion
s/he should discuss his/her work with a third student. Finally the students should pair
up with the donor and discuss the translations. Any problems or issues arising should
be noted on the whiteboard and discussed in open class.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 14 Page 11

POSSIBLE DIFFICULTIES
Translating words/phrases from Hungarian to English
• Words often cover concepts that do not exist, or exist in a different way in the other culture. In these cases
a simple word by word translation may not mean anything or may not mean the same thing for the reader
of the translation. Dictionaries often don’t help in these cases.

Translating whole sentences or longer texts from Hungarian to English


• In this special case the main difficulty is not in understanding the source text, but in finding the
appropriate language for the target text.
• The two languages have very different lexical features. Inappropriate use of dictionaries might cause
problems.
• English has delicate structural features to express ideas in a very dense and precise way. The conscious
use of the tense system and the different participles help a lot to make the translation sound more
“English”. The simplest solution is usually the most elegant and natural one.
• Hungarian texts are less regulated in terms of formality and register. Hungarian learners have to make
extra effort to learn these subtle rules, but as soon as they know the actual “bricks” – special phrases and
expressions of a certain genre -, they find writing and translation tasks far easier.
Translating texts from English to Hungarian
• Students at that high level have to develop the ability of de-coding the very complex and multi-layered
sentence patterns of English.
• “Hunglish” text as a result – source language interference, word by word translations of idioms, English-
type sentence patterns, etc.
• Disregarding context of words found in the dictionary – mistranslations

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 15 Page 1

Operational Proficiency speaking - interview

15 Why do you think you’re suitable?

Task 1 – role play interview

Your teacher will give you a role and you will be interviewed. It’s important that everything
you say does not apply to you.

Task 2 – interview with Mr Jenner

Sarah White is twenty-one and is looking for her first job in a management consultancy after
leaving university. Below are some of the questions, which the senior partner, Mr Jenner, will
ask her. Prepare her answers, but be careful because Mr Jenner is trying to catch her out.

1 How has your education prepared you for a position as a


trainee management consultant?

2 Which courses that you took will contribute the most to


your effective performance in this job?

3 What was the single most important lesson that you took
part in at school or university?

4 What do you like the most about a career in


management consultancy?

5 Do you have any reservations about a career in


management consultancy?

6 Why did you choose the college that you attended?

7 Why did you select to write your dissertation on


nineteenth century business models?

8 Tell us about your extra-curricular activities at school


and university.

9 What aspects of your education will assist you in


working for this firm?

10 If we were to ask your teachers which was your most


outstanding quality, what woud they say?

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 15 Page 2

Task 3

Read the following short article by Hector Jenner on job interviews.

Cracking Interviews
My name is Hector Jenner, and I can show you for a small fee
how you can crack interviews and get the job offer you deserve. I
have over twenty-five years of human resources management
experience with companies of all sizes, from multi-nationals to
start-ups, in a variety of industries including biotechnology,
software engineering, high tech, publishing, sales, aerospace, and
charities. I have personally interviewed thousands of candidates
at all levels, and have hundreds of useful stories and tips to pass
along, all of which I have included in my recent book.

Let me tell you four things.

First, companies are looking for people to solve their problems,


so they will hire you, if they truly believe in your ability to help
them.

Second if your answers are too brief, you may leave your
interviewer unsatisfied and irritated but if you talk too much
during an interview you will make your interviewer want to get
rid of you as soon as possible, even if you are the best candidate
for the job.

Third, saying what an interviewer wants to hear, rather than


giving a truthful answer, may end up in a stressful and
unsatisfying job for you.

Finally, almost every salary offer is negotiable if the interviewers


feel they've got their ideal candidate.

A job interview is an intimidating process, and even the most


self-confident, outgoing, and friendly person can easily give the
impression of being tongue-tied and incompetent. The best
solution to this common problem is to come to the interview
prepared, knowing exactly what to expect. And that’s where I
come in!

A What do the following mean?


a fee, to crack s.th, human resources, charity, to intimidate

B Imagine that your are interviewing Mr Jenner. Write your questions and role-
play the interview.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 15 Page 3

Unit 15: Teachers’ notes and answers

Task 1 . Give each student in the class a profession which is completely different from their
actual profession. Ask each student to imagine that s/he has worked in that profession for
twenty years. Put the students into pairs and have one interview the other. Remind the
students to answer each question in such a way that the answer does not apply to him or
herself in real life. Knowing that the interviewed student cannot say anything that is true
about him or herself, the interviewing student must try to ‘tie his/her classmate into knots.’
After a reasonable time has elapsed reverse the roles and repeat the process. In open class
elicit and briefly discuss any difficulties that interviewed students found themselves in.

Task 2 . Tell the students to close their books and ask them to imagine they are applying for a
job in a management consultancy. Ask students in open class what kinds of activities a
management consultancy engages in, and note responses on the whiteboard. Now in pairs
students should think of questions that an applicant for a trainee’s post would be asked in an
interview. When they have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, pool the questions
in open class. When a student offers a question ask why the employer would ask it.

Have the students now look through the list of questions in the task. Ask whether any surprise
them. If the students are surprised by any question, ask why the question is surprising and
attempt in open class to derive reasons for the question being asked.

Divide the class into two halves, i.e. a right hand side and a left-hand side, if sitting in a
horseshoe or semicircle. Those on the left are Sarah White (if they are male they can be Leo
White) Those on the right are Mr Jenner (if they are female they can be Ms Jenner).
Emphasise that that Sarah is looking for her first job and must try to make the best of having
no experience in management consultancy. She must find answers to all of Mr Jenner’s
questions. Mr Jenner will ask the printed questions but in response to each of ‘Sarahs’
answers he will ask a follow-up question which is designed to be a difficult as possible. In
groups the ‘Mr Jenners’ must prepare their supplementary questions, and the ‘Sarahs’ must
prepare their supplementary answers. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable
time has elapsed, one ‘Sarah’ must pair up with one ‘Mr Jenner’ and they should role-play the
interview. After the interview the students should collect their experiences in open class.

Task 3 . Ask the students in open class whether any of them have been to a job interview. If
most of the students have been to a job interview, have them tell their partner about the
experience. If only a few have, then discuss the experience in open class. Have the students in
pairs draw up pieces of advice to give to candidates going to a job interview. When the
students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, ask the students to read the
short article by Mr Jenner to find his pieces of advice and compare them with their own. Pool
Mr Jenners advice in open class.

Answers to Task 3 – Mr Jenner’s advice to applicants

• make companies believe they need you to solve their problems


• don’t make your answers to brief or too long
• tell the truth, not what the interviewer wants to hear
• negotiate your salary.

3A . Ask the student to find these items of lexis in the text and, working with a partner, to
determine their meaning. Students may have recourse to a dictionary or may guess the words
from context. Check the students’ understanding by asking questions in open class and, if
necessary, input the information.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 15 Page 4

3B . Remind the students that Mr Jenner has spent over twenty-five years in management
consultancy, and then ask them what some of his experience might have been. Elicit and
discuss in open class their responses. Have the students, working individually, write four or
five questions to ask Mr Jenner. Put the students in groups of four and each group should
elect one person to be Mr Jenner. Mr Jenner should first introduce himself by answering the
questions he himself wrote and then should answer in detail the questions from the other
students in the group. To finish the activity all the information about all the Mr Jenners could
be pooled in open class.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 16 Page 1

Operational Proficiency Speaking - presentation

16 Game Show Junk


Task 1 - noticing

A Do you enjoy watching game shows?

B What do the following mean?

facile, puerile, panache, intrinsic, axiomatic


C Analyse the structure and underline all the
language of organisation in Ado’s
presentation.

D Analyse the strengths and weaknesses of Ado’s presentation

“Game shows are junk television” How far do you agree with statement?

Examiners, Mira – my presentation today is on the subject of game shows, and


seeks to address the question of whether they are merely junk television. The
argument I would like to advance today is ‘yes indeed’ most game shows are
rubbish, but not all of them.

I think perhaps the first issue is for us to ask ourselves is what we mean by rubbish
television. Essentially, junk television is a combination of gossip, simplistic stories
and facile games which are just enough to engage the viewers’ attention without
requiring any thought or mental energy on the viewers behalf. Most game shows, it
seems to me, fall into this junk TV category.

Let me give an example to show what I mean. The now highly popular TV game
show Question Runner. The questions are really simple and easy to answer like,
‘What is the capital of France?’ so viewers can feel good because most of them
usually know the answers. The real interest is watching the over-weight and
middle-aged participants run to the corner with the correct answer in a desperate
effort to win a mere twenty euros. The last one to get there, and those going to the
wrong corners, are excluded from the game.

I’d like to make another point about this. Even so-called puerile game shows can
have a kind of panache, if done well. Junk television, however, is cheap television,
and so many of these game shows have inexperienced hosts and do little to pre-
filter the participants. Often the camera work is poor. Interruptions from
advertisements every ten minutes further diminish the show. The end product is
rightly described as junk.

Yet – and coming to my main point here – I see no intrinsic reason why game
shows have to be classified almost axiomatically as junk television. Think for a
second of Your Question. In this programme carefully screened people answer
questions from academics on their chosen subject. The programme is well made
and there is every opportunity for viewers to familiarise themselves with topics
about which they knew little. Since points are awarded, this is clearly a game show,
but you would be hard pushed to call it junk television.

Well to pull my arguments together and recapitulate I would say this. It’s certainly
the case that most game shows are junk TV, but not all – and they don’t have to be.
Thank you.
Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre
C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 16 Page 2

Task 2 – presentation production

A You have been given the following topic, “Game shows are fun to watch’ Make notes
for your presentation.

B Give your presentation, and discuss improvements.

Task 3 – notes, comments and questions

A Take notes on the following extract from Mira’s presentation. Write a question and a
comment.

B Answer other students comments or questions

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 16 Page 3

Unit 16: teacher’s notes, answers and tapescripts

1A . In open class elicit some game shows which the students watch or know about. Ask the
students whether they enjoy watching them. When a student offers an opinion, ensure that it is
fully explained.

1B . Refer the students to the highlighted lexis and ask them to note down definitions for the
selected lexical items. Those students who are unaware of an item should ask classmates,
work out meaning from context or use a dictionary. You can also input definitions, if
necessary. Check understanding of lexis by asking questions.

1C . Ask the students to cover the text of Ado’s presentation. Write up the following question
on the whiteboard, ‘Does Ado think that game shows are junk television?’ Play the tape and
have the students listen. After the listening, have the students compare their answer with that
of a partner. Elicit answers in open class. In the event that the students have misunderstood
the presentation, play it again in parts directing the students to a correct answer. (Answer:
Ado believes that most, but not all, game shows are junk television.)

Refer the students to the tapescript of Ado’s presentation. The transcript is organised into six
paragraphs. Ask the students, working in pairs, to determine the function and/or message of
each paragraph. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, pool
answers in open class. When a student identifies the purpose or function of a paragraph, have
him/her fully explain and provide evidence from the text for his/her answer.

Ask the students, working individually, to underline the sentences, phrases and words which
structure the presentation. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has
elapsed, have the students upgrade their answers with the help of a partner. Pool answers in
open class and note signposting / structure language on the whiteboard. When a student offers
a piece of language, ensure that s/he fully explains the function of the language.

Tapescript for 1C – Ado’s presentation

Exam In this part of the test, you are both going to give the presentations you prepared
earlier. Which statement have you decided to talk about?

Ado My presentation’s entitled, ‘ Game shows are junk television’

Exam Good. Mira, I’d like you to listen and take notes. You may ask questions and make
comments after the presentation. Ado, you may use your notes but please do not read
aloud from them. You may start when you are ready and I will stop you after about
two minutes. All right? You have thirty seconds to look through the information and
your notes.

Ado OK, I’m ready, so I’ll start.

Examiners, Mira – my presentation today is on the subject of game shows, and seeks
to address the question of whether they are merely junk television. The argument I
would like to advance today is ‘yes indeed’ most game shows are rubbish, but not all
of them.

I think perhaps the first issue is for us to ask ourselves is what we mean by rubbish
television. Essentially, junk television is a combination of gossip, simplistic stories
and facile games which are just enough to engage the viewers’ attention without
requiring any thought or mental energy on the viewers behalf. Most game shows, it
seems to me, fall into this junk TV category.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre


C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 16 Page 4

Let me give an example to show what I mean. The now highly popular TV game show
Question Runner. The questions are really simple and easy to answer like, ‘What is
the capital of France?’ so viewers can feel good because most of them usually know
the answers. The real interest is watching the over-weight and middle-aged
participants run to the corner with the correct answer in a desperate effort to win a
mere twenty euros. The last one to get there, and those going to the wrong corners,
are excluded from the game.

I’d like to make another point about this. Even so-called puerile game shows can
have a kind of panache, if done well. Junk television, however, is cheap television,
and so many of these game shows have inexperienced hosts and do little to screen the
participants. Often the camera work is poor. Interruptions from advertisements every
ten minutes further diminish the show. The end product is rightly described as junk.

Yet – and coming to my main point here – I see no intrinsic reason why game shows
have to be classified almost axiomatically as junk television. Think for a second of
Your Question. In this programme carefully screened people answer questions from
academics on their chosen subject. The programme is well made and there is every
opportunity for viewers to familiarise themselves with topics about which they knew
little. Since points are awarded, this is clearly a game show, but you would be hard
pushed to call it junk television.

Well to pull my arguments together and recapitulate I would say this. It’s certainly
the case that most game shows are junk TV, but not all – and they don’t have to be.
Thank you.

Exam Thank you, Ado. Mira, you may make any comment, or ask any questions now.

Answers to 1C – paragraph functions

First paragraph
clarifying the topic of the presentation

Second paragraph
defining junk television

Third Paragraph
giving an example of a game show which is junk television

Fourth Paragraph
amplification of the point made in the previous paragraph

Fifth Paragraph
some game shows are not junk TV

Sixth Paragraph
conclusion of argument

Answers to 1C – signposting language

The most important signposting / structural language that Ado uses is listed below.

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First Paragraph
Examiners, Mira – my presentation today is on the subject of…..
The argument I would like to advance today is…..

Second Paragraph
I think perhaps the first issue is for us to ask ourselves is what we mean by…

Third Paragraph
Let me give an example to show what I mean.

Fourth Paragraph
I’d like to make another point about this.

Fifth Paragraph
Yet – and coming to my main point here –

Sixth Paragraph
Well to pull my arguments together and recapitulate I would say this.
Thank you.

1D . Ask the students, working in pairs, to identify strengths and weaknesses in Ado’s
presentation. When they have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed, pool answers in
open class.

Answers to 1D – strengths and weaknesses of Ado’s presentation

Ado’s presentation is of a high standard and most student comment should reflect this.

Strengths
• all the material is directed towards answering the question
• there is a clear and logical structure
• use of appropriate formal English
• wide range of lexis and syntax

Weaknesses
• does not refer to any counter arguments

2A and B . Write up the topic for the presentation onto the whiteboard. Ask the students,
working individually, to prepare a plan in notes of their presentation on this topic. Remind
them to note down signposting / structure language. When they have finished, or after
reasonable time has elapsed, have the students form groups of three. Each student should give
his/her presentation to the other two. Listening students should check the presentation for
relevance of material, appropriacy of style, lexical and syntactical range and accuracy and for
effectiveness of delivery. Presenters should also be reminded to make eye contact with all
listeners and not speak too fast. During the presentations monitor the students and make notes
so that any shared problems can be addressed after this stage of the lesson.

There are steps that can be taken to work with defective presentation if the students are
willing. If a student’s presentation is defective in some way, it may be helpful to record it and
play it back to the class. The students should, in open class, identify the faults and suggest
improvements. A particular problem might be that the presentation sounds ‘flat’ in which case
a recording could lead to a discussion about which key words need to be stressed, asking
rhetorical questions with rising intonation, etc. The student could then re-record his/her
presentation and improvements could be discussed.

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3A . Tell the students that they will now hear part of Mira’s presentation. Ask the students to
identify the likely title of the presentation. Ask the students to compare their answer with that
of partner. Pool answers in open class. In the event that the students do not know a probable
and realistic title for the presentation, play the recording again and in parts directing the
students to an answer. (Answer: television is addictive)

Now play Mira’s presentation again and have the students take notes on the text focussing on
points that are important for the presentation and which are interesting or controversial. At the
end of the listening, have the students compare their notes with those of a partner. Have the
students discuss the reasons behind their selection. In open class pool and compare the main
points which were noted. Remember to have students explain the reasons behind their noting
of a particular point.

Have the students right one question and one comment based on their notes. Draw the
student’ attention to the fact that the question/comment and response session lasts only one
minute. The students’ question and comment should be in good English and only take about
five seconds to deliver.

Tapescript for 3A – extract from Mira’s presentation

Mira …much depends, no doubt, on how one seeks to define addiction. The chemical
addiction of nicotine for instance seems entirely absent in gluing oneself to the TV
set. Yet, of course at another level television is undoubtedly psychologically addictive.
Perhaps the best example of that is the soap opera, which entices the viewer into an
unresolved narrative to which he, or more usually she, returns daily engrossed but
never satisfied. Television permits easy relaxation and is relatively cheap which has
the effect of its being a near universal in every house.

3B . When the students have drawn up their question and comment they should prepare to
present them to a partner for a response. Remind the students that the whole session will only
last a minute. Questions and comments should not exceed five seconds each and responses
should not be more than twenty-five seconds.

Tell the students that they will hear Ado’s question and comment on Mira’s presentation. Ask
the students to note Ado’s question and comment, and then play the tape. The students should
now check their answers with those of a partner. Pool answers in open class. Tell the students
to now listen again and make notes of Mira’s responses. On completion of the tape, the
students should compare their answers with a partner before checking in open class.

The students should now make their own earlier prepared questions and comments to a
partner. Remind the students to remain within the time limits. While the students are doing
this activity, monitor carefully to pick up on any problems. At the end of the activity address
these problems.

Tapescript for 3B – question and comment session

Exam Thank you, Mira. Ado, you may make any comment or ask questions now.

Ado A question first. Using your implied definition of psychological addiction, is there any
form of human activity which is not so addictive?

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Mira Ado, I think the point is not the activity in itself, but the ever-present psychological
state of the performer of the activity. Let me take an example to clarify my point. A
man likes cutting his hedge. Now this activity is not normally thought of being
addictive in any sense. Yet, I can imagine circumstances in which he becomes fixated
on his hedge: how straight it is, dense it is and so on. In that sense I see even hedge-
cutting as potentially psychologically addictive. Does that answer your question,
Ado?

Ado Yes, thanks, Mira. A quick comment. Television is more addictive than heroine is.

Mira I don’t think we’ve really got sufficient time to do justice to that one. Heroine’s
chemically addictive and is far more disabling for its victims than television. Heroine
users are in a sub-culture which magnifies psychological addiction. So no, I don’t
agree with that.

Exam OK, thank you.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 17 Page 1

Operational Proficiency speaking – collaborative speaking

17 Any fool can teach, but it takes a wise man to learn


Task 1 – relating the picture to a theme

A Look at the picture below and describe it. How does the picture relate to the theme of
education

B In your group, list all the ways in which the picture ‘comments’ on education. Could
the students in this picture be learning a foreign language?

Task 2 – teaching a foreign language

A You are now approaching a new task ‘Teaching children a foreign language.’ Think
of three images that you would include.

B Choose one of the images and draw it. Now describe it to your partner who will draw
it from your description.

Task 3 – negotiating language

A Look at the following dialogue between Ado and Mira


and identify language that is used for negotiation.
Much of the language is only used formally. Identify
formal vocabulary.

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Tapescript of a discussion between Ado and Mira

Ado Well, Mira, shall we focus our discussion on which of these images best encapsulates the
idea of children grappling with a foreign language? Where would you like to start in
discussing that?

Mira Yes, thanks, Ado. Can I pick up on this picture here? To me it symbolises a highly positive
attitude to language learning. The children are clearly engaged in an interactive activity
which is motivating them to communicate in the language. Would that accord with your
first impression of the picture?

Ado Yes, up to a point Mira. I can see where you are coming from. But let’s think about the
perspective of someone who knows nothing about modern language learning techniques.
Would their cognitive decoding correspond with that of someone outside the teaching
profession.

Mira Sorry, to interrupt, Ado, but I think you’re about to make a very powerful point here.

Ado Well, let me make the point, if I may, and we’ll see if you agree with it. The point is this:
as far as our pedagogical ignoramus is concerned, what he or she can see is a load of kids
running around the classroom and it looks as if no language learning is going on at all.

Mira So, your point, Ado, puts us in a real dilemma. On the one hand the dynamic classroom
image is a highly positive one from a pedagogic point of view, yet it might undermine the
notion of learning in some people’s minds.

Ado Yes, Mira, I think that is an accurate recapitulation of my argument, so I surmise that this
difficulty reluctantly compels us to exclude the image, and we need to consider the others.
Is that your view, too?

Mira Pretty much. Now lets turn, if we may to the second picture…

B Look at the tapescript, identify, explain and evaluate the uses of synonymy.

C Now get together in threes. Evaluate the effectiveness of the pictures you drew for a
book entitled ‘Towards children learning a foreign language.’

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 17 Page 3

Unit 17: teachers’ notes, answers and tapescripts

1A . Give the students a few minutes to make notes on the picture for the purpose of giving a
description. It is only necessary to give casual help, as the students will not have to perform
this task in the exam. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time has elapsed,
have the students relate their description to a partner.

Write ‘education’ on the whiteboard and elicit one or two ways in which the picture relates to
aspects of education. Then, in their pairs, have the students generate further connections and
then discuss the nature of those connections. The students should now move into new pairs
and discuss the manner and the extent to which the picture illustrates aspects of education. As
there is no feedback from this session you should monitor the pairs closely and note any
shortcomings in the students’ discussions for use later in the lesson or later in the course.

Ask the students in open class whether the students in the picture could be learning a foreign
language. When a student gives a reply, remember to have him / her justify and explain the
response.

Ask the students whether they used the same language to describe the picture as they did to
talk about the manner and extent to which the picture illustrated the theme of education. In
open class elicit and discuss differences. Stress to the students in unambiguous terms that in
the exam the students will never be called upon to simply describe a picture, but always relate
it to a theme.

2A . Ask the class to imagine three children who are learning a foreign language. They are
called Anna, Ben and Cecile; all of them live in different countries. Tell the students to close
their eyes and imagine Anna. In silence and in their heads the students should answer
questions of the following kind: how old is she? What does she look like? What is her
classroom like? What is happening in her lesson at the moment? What is she doing right now?
When you are sure that the students have a clear image in their head, have them write five
words that sum up the image in their heads. Then repeat the process for Ben and Cecile.

2B . The students should now be given a few minutes in which to draw their image of one of
the imaginary students: Anna, Ben or Cecile. When they have finished, or after a reasonable
time has elapsed, each student should pair up with one on the other side of the room who has
not seen his/her picture. Without disclosing pictures, the students should sit back to back. One
student should describe his/her picture to his/her partner. The partner may not look at the
picture, but may ask questions. When the picture is complete, or after a reasonable time has
elapsed, the describer should show the picture to the drawer. The roles should now be
reversed and the activity repeated.

3A . Write up on the whiteboard the term ‘conversation turn’ and elicit a definition from the
students. (Answer: in a conversation any one piece of uninterrupted conversation by one
participant constitutes a conversation turn). Write up the following two-turn conversation on
the whiteboard, and ask how many turns there are in the conversation. (Answer: there are two
turns) Now elicit from the students the discourse features of the conversation, both those
which are present and those which should be present but are lacking. You will probably have
to input information.

Ado I really love learning Esperanto


Mira My meal’s totally cold

Answer to 3A - analysis of the two-turn conversation.

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Obvious the biggest problem in this conversation is the lack of coherence (i.e. the
conversation makes no sense) although this might not be true in a certain micro-context
where there is shared knowledge between the speakers. For instance, Mira might be saying
through mentioning her meal that it is more important for her to eat at that moment than
discuss Esperanto with Ado. In the exam, however, there are not likely to be such micro-
contexts and we are only concerned with explicit coherence. The candidates should not
require the assessor to look at pictures in order to create coherence in the conversation.
Candidates should, therefore, employ an elaborated speech code.

In a properly functioning conversation we would see instances of where a speaker can


surrender a turn (e.g. by asking a question to the other party) and can seize a turn (e.g. by
interrupting, exploiting a pause, by answering a question). A well-structured conversation
also has reference to make the conversation cohesive. Reference in the text can be anaphoric
(i.e. refer back to something earlier in the text), cataphoric (i.e. refer forward to something
ahead in the text) or be exophoric (i.e. refer to something outside the text).

An idealised form of the above two-turn conversation which embodies these points might be.

Ado Just as a matter of interest, Mira, I really enjoy learning Esperanto. Does that
surprise you at all?

Mira It’s an interesting issue, Ado. At this point, however, I desperately need to eat so we’ll
have to delay our conversation on the topic. Sorry, but is that all right?

NB This conversations ‘jars’ a little as it employs formal English to describe what is


probably an informal situation. This, however, is a separate issue to questions of
turn-taking, coherence and cohesion.

By this point in the lesson the students should have an understanding of the following aspects
of conversational discourse: turn-taking, coherence and cohesion. Refer the students to the
question: ‘What is the main problem that candidates have with the picture?’ Give the students
a strict sixty seconds to answer the question and then have them read the text. Have the
students compare their answer with that of a partner and then pool answers in open class. The
students should have the correct answer, but if not refer them to text again. (Answer: what it
depicts means different things to different people.

Now the students should consider the issue of turn-taking where the students negotiate the
right to speak and develop the conversation. Have the students underline structures and
chunks which are involved in that process. When the students have finished, or after a
reasonable period has elapsed, have the students compare and uprgrade their answers with a
partner. Pool answers in open class. When a student offers a piece of negotiating/turn-taking
language ensure that s/he explains how that piece of language functions in terms of managing
discourse.

Answer to 3A – identifying discourse management language (turn-taking/negotiation)

Ado Well, Mira, shall we…

Ado takes the turn but immediately involves Mia

Where would you like to start in discussing that?

Ado surrenders the turn to Mira.

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C1 Extra Teaching Material - Unit 17 Page 5

Mira Yes, thanks, Ado. Can I pick up on this picture here?

Mira accepts the turn and responds to Ado

Would that accord with your first impression of the picture?

Mira surrenders the turn to Ado, and refers back to theme of the discussion.

Ado Yes, up to a point Mira. I can see where you

Ado takes the turn and refers to what Mira has just said

Mira Sorry, to interrupt, Ado, but I

Mia interrupts to take the turn

Ado Well, let me make the point, if I may, and we’ll see if you agree with it.

Ado uses Mira’s pause to recapture his turn, but acknowledges what she says.

Mira So, your point, Ado, puts us in a real dilemma.

Mira uses a pause in Ado speech to capture the turn. She acknowledges Ado’s point and
examines an implication of it.

Ado Yes, Mira, I think that is an accurate recapitulation of

Ado now uses a pause in Mira’s speech to capture the turn and confirms what Mira has
said. Interrupting to confirm the other party’s point is more acceptable than
interrupting to develop or contradict the other speaker’s utterance.

Is that your view, too?

Ado checks with Mira that they agree.

Mira Pretty much. Now lets turn, if we may to the second picture…

Mira gives a final confirmation of agreement to Ado, and then suggests that they move
onto another issue.

Answer to 3A - formal vocabulary

List of formal language


To accord with – to agree/go along with
Cognitive decoding - understanding
Pedagogical ignoramus- a person who knows nothing about teaching
Recapitulation – to repeat
To surmise - guess
To compel us to- to make us

3B . Write up on the whiteboard the term ‘synonymy.’ Elicit definitions in open class.
(Answer: it refers to a situation in which two lexical items have highly similar meaning in a
particular context). It is important to emphasise that synonymy is context dependent. In the

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following example ‘Esperanto’ and ‘language’ are linked by hyponymy, but in the context
function as synonyms.

We had to learn Esperanto. The language was easy but ugly,


Ask the students in open class to consider why synonymy is used in speech and in writing.
(Answer: to vary the language in a text for interest, and often a synonym expands the
meaning either literally or metaphorically)

Have the students working in pairs identify instances of the use of synonymy in the text and
to analyse its effect in each case. When the students have finished, or after a reasonable time
has elapsed, pool answers in open class. When student offers an answer, ensure that s/he fully
explains the relationship between the synonyms and the effect on the text by the use of
synonymy. Input instances of synonymy, if necessary, and elicit reasons for the speakers’
choice of synonyms.

Answers to 3B

This key does not cover the several instances in the dialogue where Ado and Mira ask each
other’s opinions or seek agreement.

discussion – to pick up on something


grappling – learning
impression – perspective –
problem – dilemma –
children – kids
point – argument – notion
can see – cognitive decoding
interactive - dynamic

There may be other instances in the dialogue, but the most important task is to have the
students realise how synonymy works in a text.

3B . Put the students into groups of three. The three students should pool the pictures they
drew earlier. Two of the students should evaluate the effectiveness of the pictures in light of
the of the points brought out from the Ado/Mira dialogue. The third student should listen to
the conversation and take notes on the strengths and weaknesses of the students’ discussions
in terms of relevance, coherence, and cohesion. When the two students have finished, or after
a reasonable time has elapsed, the observer should give feedback to the two speakers. The
activity should be repeated a second time with another student acting as an observer.

Copyright 2007 Euro Examination Centre