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Knowledge Is Power SM

Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management


for Energy Delivery

Motor Protection
Basic Protective Relaying
Ed Khan

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1
Motor Protection
Types of Failures

Before we get into the protection of motors:

It is important to understand the types of


failures motors can be subjected to and their
probabilities:

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Motor Protection

Overload 30%
Contamination 18%
Single Phasing 15%
Bearing Failure 12%
Aging 10%
Rotor Fault 5%
Miscellaneous 10%

Source: ERA of UK
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Motor Protection
Some Facts:

Dramatic improvement has been made


in the weight to Horse Power ratio.

Ratio is getting even better

Hence motors are much lighter.

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Motor Protection
Some Facts:
This means the motor mass is smaller and
consequently the thermal constants are lower.

This means:
Motor heats up faster and overload capability is lower

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Motor Protection
Some Facts:
Why can’t we protect motors using simple bi-metal
type of relay in all instances:

It is still a reasonable method under steady state


conditions;
Motor starts cold runs at nearly constant load until
an emergency causes a trip.

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Motor Protection
Some Facts:
Bimetallic relays cannot duplicate transient and
cyclic conditions.

We need more detailed algorithm to adequately


Protect the motor under overload

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Motor Protection
Some Facts:
Non-organic insulating material such as glass fiber
And silicone resins provide lot of benefits:
Higher dielectric strength
Higher operating temperature
More HP per pound
Etc.

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Motor Protection
Some Facts:

Non-organic insulating material however do not take


as much abuse as the older insulating material like
cotton and varnish.

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Motor Protection
Some Facts:

Prolonged overloads
Stalling
Too frequent starting

We need good TRACKING of TEMPERATURE

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Motor Protection
Some Facts:
Motor does not have one temperature:

There is a temperature spectrum:

Stator slots
Stator iron
End Rings

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Motor Protection
Some Facts:
Synchronous motor protection as far as stator winding
is the same as induction motor

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Motor Protection

Motor Protection depends on the size


and rated voltage

Low Voltage
Motor
Protection

Across the line magnetic motor starter


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Motor Protection
Motor Protection depends on the size
and rated voltage

Low Voltage
Motor
Protection

Reversing across the line magnetic motor starter


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Motor Protection

Smaller Motors have more thermal capacity than


larger motors.

Hence, we need more elaborate protection schemes


to protect these larger motors.

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Motor Protection
Short Circuit Protection
Phase fault in the motor
circuit has to be removed
quick.
I >>
Or ANSI 50 It must distinguish between
Starting current and a
Short circuit

If starting current
approaches short circuit level
differential protection is applied
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Motor Protection
Short Circuit Protection
General Rule of thumb:

If motor KVA (or approx.


HP) = 50% of the transformer
KVA, Phase instantaneous
will work
I >>
Or ANSI 50

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Motor Protection
Short Circuit Protection
Set I>> >1.6 I LR
and < 33% of I 3ph

Time
I >>
or ANSI 50

I LR I>>
Current
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Motor Protection
Differential Protection
R

Motor
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Motor Protection
Differential Protection
Conventional
Id

Biased Differential Ir
Relay Differential normally applied
On 1500 HP and > motors
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Motor Protection
Overload and Locked Rotor Protection
Typical Motor Damage
Curve or Thermal
Capability

Time
Locked Rotor
Capability

Typical
Starting Current in Multiples of FLA
characteristic

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Motor Protection
Overload and Locked Rotor Protection
Protection Engineer needs
To know:
¾Full load current
¾Permissible continuous allowable temperature rise
¾Locked Rotor Current and permissible maximum time at
that current

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Motor Protection
Overload and Locked Rotor Protection
Three parts of the curve:

¾Lower part is rotor limited


Locked Rotor
¾Middle portion is the acceleration
Time

Capability
thermal part of the curve
¾The upper section relates to normal
overload when the motor is running
normally.

Current in Multiples of FLA

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Motor Protection
Locked Rotor Protection
A rotating motor dissipates far more heat than a motor at
Standstill because the cooling medium flows easily.

Hence motor starting is a very high duty situation.

Motors have a locked rotor capability in seconds—This is the


time you can allow the motor to remain in locked rotor
condition.
10-50 times more heat generated during stalled condition

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Motor Protection
This is the simple way of protecting the motor against
Overload
There are three parts of the motor capability
Curve:
The upper part is the capability under normal
Running overload
The middle part is the capability during motor
Time

acceleration
Protective Relay Locked Rotor Capability
Characteristics

Current in Multiples of FLA


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Motor Protection
This is the simple way of protecting the motor against
Overload
Typical Motor Damage
Curve or Thermal
Capability
Time

Protective Relay Locked Rotor Capability


Characteristics

Current in Multiples of FLA


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Motor Protection

RTDs

Embedded winding RTDs are very useful in monitoring


the temperature of the windings.
These trip independently of the other relays

Except in Numerical relays where the information


from the RTDs is used in the calculation of the
overall thermal condition of the motor.

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Motor Protection
NUMERICAL RELAY ALGORITHM
Numerical Relays have made significant improvement
To motor protection especially the overload protection.

The protection we looked at is static in nature—


No real time adjustments

Numerical relays provide real time adjustments

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Motor Protection
NUMERICAL RELAY ALGORITHM
Numerical motor protection relays are of many
Types and have different algorithms:

However, all of these address the basic short comings


Of static monitoring of the motor thermal condition.

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Motor Protection
NUMERICAL RELAY ALGORITHM.

4 Basic items considered are:

¾Thermal model curve that can be shifted up and down


based on motor thermal condition
¾Overload pickup level
¾Motor cooling time constants
¾Biasing of the thermal model based on hot cold
information and or measured stator temperature

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Motor Protection
NUMERICAL RELAY ALGORITHM.

Thermal Capacity Used is a very important


concept:

The relay calculates the thermal capacity of the motor that


has been used up. If zero capacity is left, the motor
will be shut off while running or will not be allowed
to be started if it is at standstill.

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Motor Protection
NUMERICAL RELAY ALGORITHM.

Thermal Capacity Used is a very important


concept:

The algorithm uses memory in the form of a register


Called Thermal Capacity Used.
This register is updated every power cycle using
has been used up. If zero capacity is left, the motor
will be shut off while running or will not be allowed
to start.

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Motor Protection
NUMERICAL RELAY ALGORITHM.

Another useful feature of numerical relays is its


ability to remember how long it takes for a motor
to start.
It keeps a record of last 4-5 starts and uses
the largest value as the starting time.

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Motor Protection

Load-Jam Protection
This protection comes into play when the
driven load get jammed.

When this happens we have a locked rotor


condition.
The setting for this element is in current

Set at a little less than Locked rotor setting


and an appropriate delay.
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Motor Protection

Load Loss Protection

With no PTS present, this protection is based


only on current levels.

When the load is lost current levels go down

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Motor Protection
Load Loss Protection

Set it at >no load motor current but < normal


motor load current.
Appropriate delay needs to be provided.
This delay has to be greater than starting time
of the driven load

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Motor Protection
Load Loss Protection

If Pts are applied at the motor terminal or the


bus feeding the motor, power can be used
as a monitored quantity instead of current

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Motor Protection
Current Unbalance Protection

If the terminal voltage is unbalanced, the


Current flowing in the motor will be unbalanced

Unbalanced currents contain negative sequence


Currents

Lot of heating!!!!!

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Motor Protection
Current Unbalance Protection

In thermal models used by numerical relays


Heating due to negative sequence is accounted for
However, some users prefer a separate current
balance protection

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Motor Protection
Current Unbalance Protection

There are two ways in which relays


Can calculate the unbalance:

If average current is greater than motor rated full load current


% unbalance= 100 X (I dev –I average)/ I average
Where Idev is the phase current which has the largest deviation
From I average.

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Motor Protection
Current Unbalance Protection

If average current is less than the motor rated full load current
% unbalance= 100 X (I dev –I average)/ I FLA
Where Idev is the phase current which has the largest deviation
From I average and IFLA is motor rated full load current

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Motor Protection
Current Unbalance Protection

If average current is less than the motor rated full load current
% unbalance= 100 X (I dev –I average)/ I FLA
Where Idev is the phase current which has the largest deviation
From I average and IFLA is motor rated full load current

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Motor Protection
Current Unbalance Protection

If motor current is below 20%-25% of the motor rated current


this function is automatically disabled by the numerical relays

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Motor Protection
Current Unbalance Protection

Typically 6% unbalance current flows in the motor if the


Voltage unbalance is 1%.

So if at your facility the voltage unbalance is 2% set the


Function at >12%.

A typical setting of 14% alarm and 20% trip is good


Alarm delay could be set at 9 seconds
Trip delay at 4-5 seconds is a good setting

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Motor Protection
Current Unbalance Protection

If motor current is below 20%-25% of the motor rated current


this function is automatically disabled by the numerical relays

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Motor Protection

Ground fault protection


Remove motor as quickly
as possible to limit damage

400 A

Ig>>

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Motor Protection
Ground fault protection
Two prong SOLUTION:
Use fast acting relay
Use low resistance grounding
At the source transformer

400 A

Ig>>

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Motor Protection
Ground fault protection

Core Balance CT

R
S
T

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Motor Protection

Bearing RTD is a useful tool


to monitor the temperature
of the bearing

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Motor Protection

Reactive Power Monitoring

You can monitor reactive power


in and out of the motor in the case
of synchronous motors and this
can be used to detect loss of
synchronism or loss of field
conditions

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Thank You
Any Questions?

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