Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 37
Knowledge Is Power S M Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for Energy Delivery Application of
Knowledge Is Power S M Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for Energy Delivery Application of

Knowledge Is Power SM

Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for Energy Delivery

Maintenance and Power Management for Energy Delivery Application of Pilot Schemes J. Gosalia Doble Engineering

Application of Pilot Schemes

J. Gosalia Doble Engineering Company

Pilot Protection Scheme Pilot Protection Schemes Knowledge Is Power S M Apparatus Maintenance and Power

Pilot Protection Scheme

Pilot Protection Scheme Pilot Protection Schemes Knowledge Is Power S M Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
Pilot Protection Scheme Pilot Protection Schemes Knowledge Is Power S M Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
Pilot Protection Scheme Pilot Protection Schemes Knowledge Is Power S M Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
Pilot Protection Schemes
Pilot
Protection
Schemes
Pilot Protection Scheme Pilot Protection Schemes Knowledge Is Power S M Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
Pilot Protection Scheme Pilot Protection Schemes Knowledge Is Power S M Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
Pilot Protection Scheme Pilot Protection Schemes Knowledge Is Power S M Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
Pilot Protection Scheme Pilot Protection Schemes Knowledge Is Power S M Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
Pilot Protection Scheme Pilot Protection Schemes Knowledge Is Power S M Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management

Knowledge Is Power SM

Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for Energy Delivery

End Zone Faults A C B F1 F2 G G Zone 1 setting at A
End Zone Faults
A
C
B
F1
F2
G
G
Zone 1 setting at A & B = 80% of the line length
Fault at F1:
Fault is seen in Zone 1 at A & B. Cleared instantaneously
Fault at F2:
Cleared instantaneously at station B but cleared with Zone 2
time delay from Station A.
Fault remains on the line for Zone 2 time delay
End Zone fault it is not cleared instantaneously
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
End Zone Faults : Pilot Scheme Fault on the protected line should be cleared instantaneously
End Zone Faults : Pilot Scheme
Fault on the protected line should be
cleared instantaneously :
Continuity of supply
Limit the Damage & shock to electrical system
Stability of the system
Minimize Revenue loss $$$$
Faults on the protected line including end
zone fault can be cleared by employing pilot
scheme
Each end communicates with the other end to
clear faults on the protected line instantaneously
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
Direct Transfer Trip Scheme : DTT G Signaling Signaling Channel Channel Z1 Z1 Z2 Z2

Direct Transfer Trip Scheme : DTT

Direct Transfer Trip Scheme : DTT G Signaling Signaling Channel Channel Z1 Z1 Z2 Z2 Trip
G
G
Signaling Signaling Channel Channel Z1 Z1 Z2 Z2 Trip Trip 21 Z3 Z3
Signaling
Signaling
Channel
Channel
Z1
Z1
Z2
Z2
Trip
Trip
21
Z3
Z3
G
G
Channel Channel Z1 Z1 Z2 Z2 Trip Trip 21 Z3 Z3 G 21 Knowledge Is Power

21

Knowledge Is Power SM

Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for Energy Delivery

Direct Transfer Trip Scheme : Logic Signal Receive Signal Send Z1 Z2 Trip 21 Z3
Direct Transfer Trip Scheme : Logic
Signal Receive
Signal Send
Z1
Z2
Trip
21
Z3
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
Permissive Under Reach TT Scheme Z1 G G Z2 Z1 Signal Receive Signal Send Z1

Permissive Under Reach TT Scheme

Permissive Under Reach TT Scheme Z1 G G Z2 Z1 Signal Receive Signal Send Z1 21
Z1 G G Z2 Z1
Z1
G
G
Z2
Z1

Signal

Receive

Under Reach TT Scheme Z1 G G Z2 Z1 Signal Receive Signal Send Z1 21 &
Signal Send Z1 21 & Trip Z2 Z 2t
Signal Send
Z1
21
& Trip
Z2
Z 2t
Z1 Signal Receive Signal Send Z1 21 & Trip Z2 Z 2t Knowledge Is Power S
Z1 Signal Receive Signal Send Z1 21 & Trip Z2 Z 2t Knowledge Is Power S

Knowledge Is Power SM

Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for Energy Delivery

Permissive Under Reach TT Scheme G G 52b Comm Z1 21 Z2 & Trip Z

Permissive Under Reach TT Scheme

Permissive Under Reach TT Scheme G G 52b Comm Z1 21 Z2 & Trip Z 2t
G G
G
G
52b Comm Z1 21 Z2 & Trip Z 2t
52b
Comm
Z1
21
Z2
&
Trip
Z 2t

Signal Send

Signal Receive

Z1 21 Z2 & Trip Z 2t Signal Send Signal Receive Knowledge Is Power S M
Z1 21 Z2 & Trip Z 2t Signal Send Signal Receive Knowledge Is Power S M

Knowledge Is Power SM

Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for Energy Delivery

PUTT Scheme : Caution A B G C D Fault near terminal A is not
PUTT Scheme : Caution
A
B
G
C
D
Fault near terminal A is not seen by Zone 1 at terminal B
No current flows through terminal B
Fault is seen as Zone 1 Fault at terminal A
Breaker at A trips instantaneously
Now the fault current if fed via line CD and through B.
Protection at B now sees the fault in Zone 2 but has no
permissive signal from terminal A to trip
Fault is cleared after Zone 2 timer times out.
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
PUTT Scheme : Solution A B G C D As breaker A opens the permissive
PUTT Scheme : Solution
A
B
G
C
D
As breaker A opens the permissive signal to B resets
Now the fault is fed through breakers C,D and B
Zone 2 at B picks up but has no permission from A to trip
Solution : Add a time delay on drop out on a permissive
signal receive
The drop out delay >= Zone 2 pick up time + safety margin
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
PUTT : Logic 52b Signal Receive Signal Send Z1 t d 21 & Z2 Trip
PUTT : Logic
52b
Signal Receive
Signal Send
Z1
t
d
21
&
Z2
Trip
Z
2t
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
PUTT : Limitation Z R Zone 2 Zone 1 Zs Knowledge Is Power SM Apparatus
PUTT : Limitation
Z
R
Zone 2
Zone 1
Zs
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
POTT Scheme G G Signaling Signaling Channel Channel Z1 Z1 Z2 Z2 & & Trip
POTT Scheme
G
G
Signaling
Signaling
Channel
Channel
Z1
Z1
Z2
Z2
&
&
Trip
Trip
21
21
Z3
Z3
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
POTT : Logic Signal Signal Receive Receive Z1 Z2 & 21 Z3 Knowledge Is Power
POTT : Logic
Signal Signal Receive Receive
Z1
Z2
&
21
Z3
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
POTT : Fault Resistance Coverage Zone 2 Zone 1 Zs Knowledge Is Power SM Apparatus
POTT : Fault Resistance Coverage
Zone 2
Zone 1
Zs
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
Permissive Overreach TT Scheme A B G G C D C sees Zone 2 fault,
Permissive Overreach TT Scheme
A
B
G
G
C
D
C sees Zone 2 fault, B sees zone 1 fault
Fault current flows C-D-B
D receives permission to trip from C but D sees reverse fault
Breaker B opens as it sees the fault in Zone 1
Now the fault current reverses and flows through D-C-A
D sees Zone 2 fault, C does not see fault and zone 2 resets and
stop sending permissive signal to D
If D Zone 2 picks up before Zone 2 at C resets, D can trip
If C Zone 2 is slow to reset it can trip for a fault on parallel line
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
POTT : Solution Signal Signal Receive Receive Z1 tp Z2 & 21 Z3 Apparatus Maintenance

POTT : Solution

POTT : Solution Signal Signal Receive Receive Z1 tp Z2 & 21 Z3 Apparatus Maintenance and
Signal Signal Receive Receive
Signal Signal Receive Receive
Z1 tp Z2 & 21 Z3
Z1
tp
Z2
&
21
Z3
Signal Signal Receive Receive Z1 tp Z2 & 21 Z3 Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for
Signal Signal Receive Receive Z1 tp Z2 & 21 Z3 Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for
Signal Signal Receive Receive Z1 tp Z2 & 21 Z3 Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for
Signal Signal Receive Receive Z1 tp Z2 & 21 Z3 Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for

Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for Energy Delivery

POTT Scheme :Remote Breaker Open A B G G A sees Zone 2 fault, B
POTT Scheme :Remote Breaker Open A B G G A sees Zone 2 fault, B
POTT Scheme :Remote Breaker Open A B G G A sees Zone 2 fault, B
POTT Scheme :Remote Breaker Open A B G G A sees Zone 2 fault, B

POTT Scheme :Remote Breaker Open

POTT Scheme :Remote Breaker Open A B G G A sees Zone 2 fault, B does

A

B

G
G
A B G G A sees Zone 2 fault, B does not see fault as it
A B G G A sees Zone 2 fault, B does not see fault as it
G
G

A sees Zone 2 fault, B does not see fault as it is open A can not trip instantaneously as it does not receive the permissive signal from B If the local breaker is open and receives permissive signal from remote end, the permissive signal can be Echoed back to remote breaker Now the breaker A can trip to clear the fault on the line

Knowledge Is Power SM

Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for Energy Delivery

POTT : Signal Echo Logic 52b 52b T1 T2 & & T1 timer avoid sending
POTT : Signal Echo Logic
52b 52b
T1
T2
&
&
T1 timer avoid sending Echo if breaker is tripped by other
protection
T2 avoids continuous Echo
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
POTT : Logic FSK logic Trip and Guard Freq. 21 Z2 Z3 Z1 & Knowledge

POTT : Logic

POTT : Logic FSK logic Trip and Guard Freq. 21 Z2 Z3 Z1 & Knowledge Is
POTT : Logic FSK logic Trip and Guard Freq. 21 Z2 Z3 Z1 & Knowledge Is
FSK logic Trip and Guard Freq.
FSK logic
Trip and
Guard Freq.

21

Z2

Z3

Z1

&

21 Z2 Z3 Z1 &
FSK logic Trip and Guard Freq. 21 Z2 Z3 Z1 & Knowledge Is Power S M

Knowledge Is Power SM

Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for Energy Delivery

POTT : Caution Line Trap Line Trap G G Coupling cap Coupling cap FSK logic
POTT : Caution
Line Trap
Line Trap
G
G
Coupling cap
Coupling cap
FSK logic
Trip and
Guard Freq.
FSK logic
Trip and
Guard Freq.
Guard as well as trip frequency can not be transmitted or
attenuated due to fault on the power line
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
Un Blocking Scheme POTT scheme Trip frequency must be received & guard frequency must be
Un Blocking Scheme
POTT scheme
Trip frequency must be received & guard
frequency must be lost to issue permissive signal
Un Blocking Scheme
Enhanced POTT scheme
If guard frequency is lost then permissive trip
signal is issued only for 100-150 mSecs.
If Z2 is picked up protection trip during this time
After this time permissive trip signal is only issued
if guard frequency is lost & trip frequency received
Very secure and reliable scheme
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
POTT Scheme : Weak In feed G Z1 Z2 G Fault near the remote terminal
POTT Scheme : Weak In feed G Z1 Z2 G Fault near the remote terminal
POTT Scheme : Weak In feed G Z1 Z2 G Fault near the remote terminal
POTT Scheme : Weak In feed G Z1 Z2 G Fault near the remote terminal

POTT Scheme : Weak In feed

POTT Scheme : Weak In feed G Z1 Z2 G Fault near the remote terminal is

G

Z1 Z2 G
Z1
Z2
G
G Z1 Z2 G Fault near the remote terminal is seen as Zone 2 at local

Fault near the remote terminal is seen as Zone 2 at local terminal

Needs permissive trip signal from remote end to clear the fault Remote end has a week source contributing to the fault : Z2 at remote end does not pick up and no permissive signal is sent at local end Fault on the line is not cleared instantaneously

end Fault on the line is not cleared instantaneously Knowledge Is Power S M Apparatus Maintenance

Knowledge Is Power SM

Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for Energy Delivery

POTT : Weak In Feed G Z1 Z2 Z3 G Signal Receive Echo Signal Send
POTT : Weak In Feed G Z1 Z2 Z3 G Signal Receive Echo Signal Send
POTT : Weak In Feed G Z1 Z2 Z3 G Signal Receive Echo Signal Send
POTT : Weak In Feed G Z1 Z2 Z3 G Signal Receive Echo Signal Send

POTT : Weak In Feed

POTT : Weak In Feed G Z1 Z2 Z3 G Signal Receive Echo Signal Send &

G

Z1 Z2 Z3 G
Z1
Z2
Z3
G
G Z1 Z2 Z3 G Signal Receive Echo Signal Send & Z3 Trip local Br.
Signal Receive Echo Signal Send & Z3 Trip local Br.
Signal Receive
Echo Signal Send
&
Z3
Trip local Br.
Signal Receive Echo Signal Send & Z3 Trip local Br. Knowledge Is Power S M Apparatus

Knowledge Is Power SM

Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for Energy Delivery

Blocking Scheme Simple scheme Very popular in N. America Comm. channel only sends the blocking
Blocking Scheme
Simple scheme
Very popular in N. America
Comm. channel only sends the blocking
signal to remote end to block tripping
Unlike POTT scheme where guard signal is sent
continuous
Z3 is set reverse looking
Z3 Picks up and sends the blocking signal
indicating fault is beyond the protected line
section
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
Blocking Scheme Z1 Z2 G Z3 G Fault near the remote terminal is seen as
Blocking Scheme
Z1
Z2
G
Z3
G
Fault near the remote terminal is seen as
Zone 2 at local terminal
Remote Z3 does not see the fault
No blocking signal is sent
Trip is issued after a time delay tp to clear fault
For fault beyond remote terminal
Z3 reverse looking picks up & send block singal
No trip at local terminal
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
Blocking Scheme : Logic Z1 Z2 G Z3 G Z2 Trip local Br. Z3 Signal

Blocking Scheme : Logic

Blocking Scheme : Logic Z1 Z2 G Z3 G Z2 Trip local Br. Z3 Signal Send
Z1 Z2 G Z3
Z1
Z2
G
Z3
G Z2 Trip local Br. Z3 Signal Send & tp & Signal Receive
G
Z2
Trip local Br.
Z3
Signal Send
&
tp
&
Signal Receive

Knowledge Is Power SM

Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for Energy Delivery

Blocking Vs. Permissive Scheme Knowledge Is Power SM Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for Energy
Blocking Vs. Permissive Scheme
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
Blocking Vs. POTT : Comparison Knowledge Is Power SM Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for
Blocking Vs. POTT : Comparison
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
Selection of Pilot Scheme? Deciding factors Reliability of signaling channels • N. America for 115/230
Selection of Pilot Scheme?
Deciding factors
Reliability of signaling channels
• N. America for 115/230 kV lines,
blocking scheme is used frequently
• Reliability is quite good
Operating speed
Fault clearing time requirement
System operating practice
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
Special Schemes Zone 1 extension scheme No communication channel is used Economical, Simple Used along
Special Schemes
Zone 1 extension scheme
No communication channel is used
Economical, Simple
Used along with AutoReclosing protection
95% of all the faults are transient fault
Phase distance and time over current protection in
blocking scheme
Ground distance protection has limited fault resistance
coverage
Little or not fault coverage for short line and/or strong
source
Use of time over current for ground fault provides higher
fault resistance coverage
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
Zone 1 Ext. Scheme Z1x D A BC Z1 G G 21/79 Zone 1 is
Zone 1 Ext. Scheme Z1x D A BC Z1 G G 21/79 Zone 1 is
Zone 1 Ext. Scheme Z1x D A BC Z1 G G 21/79 Zone 1 is
Zone 1 Ext. Scheme Z1x D A BC Z1 G G 21/79 Zone 1 is

Zone 1 Ext. Scheme

Zone 1 Ext. Scheme Z1x D A BC Z1 G G 21/79 Zone 1 is set
Z1x D A BC Z1 G G
Z1x
D
A
BC
Z1
G
G

21/79

Z1x D A BC Z1 G G 21/79 Zone 1 is set to over reach by
Z1x D A BC Z1 G G 21/79 Zone 1 is set to over reach by

Zone 1 is set to over reach by setting Z1x

Z1x reach of AB is set to 20% in to the line section CD If the fault occurs in line section CD, breaker A and C trips High speed Auto Reclose protection closes the breakers A & C During the same time, the Z1x reach is pulled back to Z1 If the fault is permanent on the next line section only breaker C will trip and breaker A does not trip If the fault is transient, interruption in power transfer is minimal

Knowledge Is Power SM

Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for Energy Delivery

Zone 1 Ext. Scheme : Logic & Z1 & Z1x Z1 trip. Auto Reclose In
Zone 1 Ext. Scheme : Logic
&
Z1
&
Z1x
Z1 trip.
Auto Reclose
In progress
79
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
Zone 1 Ext. Scheme: Pros and Cons Knowledge Is Power SM Apparatus Maintenance and Power
Zone 1 Ext. Scheme: Pros and Cons
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
Pilot Scheme: 21P and 50/51G Blocking scheme : 21P as discussed earlier Ground over current
Pilot Scheme: 21P and 50/51G
Blocking scheme : 21P as discussed earlier
Ground over current uses 50/51 and directional protection
Local End:
Block signal is sent to remote end by non directional ground
time over current element
The block signal is cancelled if the ground directional element
picks up for a fault on a line (Forward fault)
Remote End:
• If high set is picked up (50 HS) and directional element picked
up & block signal is received : Fault is forward
• Wait for a time delay tp for block signal to be removed from
the remote end for a forward fault
• If the block signal from the local end is cancelled then the
protection trips
• If block signal is not cancelled then fault is on the next line
section and it may trip after a time delay 51G
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
Pilot Scheme: 21P and 50/51G D A BC Z1 G G 21P 21P 50/51G 50/51G
Pilot Scheme: 21P and 50/51G
D
A
BC
Z1
G
G
21P
21P
50/51G
50/51G
Protection A and B:
Block signal is sent to remote end by high speed non dir. ground
time over current element
The block signal is cancelled by the ground directional element
Block signal is received, 50 HS with directional element picked up.
Wait for a time delay tp to see if block signal is cancelled
Once the block signal is cancelled protection A and B trips to clear
the fault on the line
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
Knowledge Is Power SM Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management for Energy Delivery
Knowledge Is Power SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery