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Your Best Choice for

Simulation of
Optical Communication
Systems & Optical
Networks

Photonics

CAD

User’s Manual
Version 1.6

All Optical Technology


All Optical Technology

Korea Techno Complex, Korea University

126-16, 5Ka, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-ku


Address
Seoul, 136-701, Korea

82-2-3290-3233, 4088
Tel
82-2-924-9710
Fax
jcj@aotech.co.kr
Email
Home page http://www.aotech.co.kr/
AO Technology:
AO Technology ㈜ 에이오 테크놀러지
Korea Techno-complex 서울 성북구 안암동 5 가 126-16
Korea University 고려대학교
126-16, 5Ka, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-ku
한국종합산학연구원
Seoul, 136-701, Korea
Tel: 82-2-3290-3233, 4088
Fax: 82-2-924-9710 전화: 02-3290-3233, 02-3290-4088
Email: jcj@aotech.co.kr 팩스: 02-924-9710
Home page: http://www.aotech.co.kr/

Sales outside Korea Sales inside Korea


NetOptics
대전광역시 서구 만년동 386
골드벤처타워 918

전화: 042-611-7550
팩스: 042-611-7560

Technical Support:

Prof. Jichai Jeong 정 지채 교수


Microwave Photonics Lab. 서울 성북구 안암동 5 가 1 번지
College of Communications and 고려대학교 정보통신대학
Information
전파통신공학과
Dept. of Radio Communications Eng.
Korea University 전화: 02-3290-3233
1, 5Ka, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-ku 팩스: 02-924-9710
Seoul, 136-701, Korea
Tel: 82-2-3290-3233
Fax: 82-2-924-9710
Email: jcj@korea.ac.kr
URL: http://pulse.korea.ac.kr/

© 2002 AO Technology. All rights reserved. Reproduction of this manual is strictly prohibited
without the written consent of AO Technology. Information in this manual is subject to change
without notice and does not represent a commitment by AO Technology.
© AO Technology, 2002

Contents

Contents.........................................................................................................................................i

1. Introduction .............................................................................................................................1

1.1 System requirements ........................................................................................................1

1.2 Installing Photonics CAD.................................................................................................2

1.3 Starting Photonics CAD ...................................................................................................2

2. Getting Started.........................................................................................................................3

2.1 Main window....................................................................................................................3

2.1.1 Menu ......................................................................................................................3

2.1.2 Tree.........................................................................................................................4

2.1.3 Toolbar ...................................................................................................................5

2.1.4 Status bar................................................................................................................7

2.1.5 Zoom in and zoom out ...........................................................................................7

2.1.6 Moving the focus of a workspace ..........................................................................9

2.1.7 Keyboard..............................................................................................................10

2.1.8 Simulating schematics.......................................................................................... 11

2.2 Starting design of new schematics .................................................................................12

2.3 Drawing schematics .......................................................................................................13

2.3.1 Dragging and dropping tools................................................................................13

2.3.2 Flipping tools .......................................................................................................15

2.3.3 Changing parameters of selected tools.................................................................15

2.3.4 Making connections between tools ......................................................................16

2.3.5 Copy and paste .....................................................................................................17

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2.4 Saving and loading your project created on the window................................................19

2.5 Making your own projects or tools using input and output ports...................................19

2.6 Simulating schematics....................................................................................................21

2.7 Result windows ..............................................................................................................21

2.7.1 Result windows ....................................................................................................22

2.7.2 Menu in result widow...........................................................................................23

2.7.3. Changing axes .....................................................................................................27

3. Transmitter Models ...............................................................................................................28

3.1 Electrical signal generator ..............................................................................................28

3.1.1 Electrical signal generator for dual electrodes .....................................................28

3.1.2 Electrical signal generator for single electrode ....................................................32

3.1.3 Analog signal generator........................................................................................34

3.2 Model of DFB laser........................................................................................................35

3.2.1 Complete DFB laser model from rate equations..................................................35

3.2.2 Analytical DFB laser model .................................................................................46

3.2.3 Ideal DFB laser model for CW sources ...............................................................49

3.3. Time domain Fabry-Perot laser model ..........................................................................50

3.4 Model of LiNbO3 external modulators...........................................................................58

3.4.1 Ideal LiNbO3 external modulator .........................................................................58

3.4.2 Analytical LiNbO3 external modulator.................................................................60

3.4.3 Measured LiNbO3 external modulator .................................................................63

3.5 EAMI-DFB lasers...........................................................................................................65

3.5.1 Complete EAMI-DFB laser model from rate equations ......................................65

3.5.2 Analytical EAMI-DFB laser model .....................................................................79

3.6 Model of mode locked laser ...........................................................................................85

3.7 Transmitter model using measured LI curve form laser diodes for analog applications 87

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3.8 Tunable EAMI-DBR lasers from rate equations ............................................................90

3.9 Transmitter model using measured pulse pattern and chirping ....................................103

4. Receiver Models ...................................................................................................................107

4.1 Types of receivers.........................................................................................................107

4.1.1 PIN diodes..........................................................................................................107

4.1.2 APD.................................................................................................................... 110

4.2.3 EDFA preamplifier + PIN .................................................................................. 112

4.2 Frequency response of PD to power amplifier ............................................................. 116

4.2.1 Butterworth filter................................................................................................ 116

4.2.2 Bessel-Thomson filter ........................................................................................ 118

4.2.3 Measured frequency response of receivers ........................................................ 119

5. Fiber Models ........................................................................................................................121

5.1 Nonlinear characteristics of fibers................................................................................121

5.1.1 Self-phase modulation (SPM) and cross-phase modulation (XPM) ..................121

5.1.2 Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS)...................................................................124

5.1.3 Polarization mode dispersion (PMD).................................................................126

5.1.4 Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) ...............................................................128

5.2 Various types of Fibers .................................................................................................131

5.2.1 Single Model Fiber.............................................................................................131

5.2.2 Dispersion compensating fiber...........................................................................141

5.2.3 Dispersion shifted fiber ......................................................................................142

5.2.4 Non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (+), non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (-) and

generalized non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber .............................................................143

5.2.5 TrueWave Fiber and TrueWave RS fiber ...........................................................144

5.2.6 LEAF Fiber ........................................................................................................146

5.2.7 Measured Fiber Types ........................................................................................147

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5.2.8 Bidirectional Fiber .............................................................................................149

6. Model of Passive Components ............................................................................................155

6.1 Electrical filter..............................................................................................................155

6.2 Attenuator .....................................................................................................................159

6.3 Delay line .....................................................................................................................160

6.4 Long period fiber Bragg grating...................................................................................161

6.5 Short period fiber Bragg gratings .................................................................................170

6.6 Optical filter .................................................................................................................179

6.7 Isolator..........................................................................................................................181

6.8 Connector .....................................................................................................................182

6.9 Coupler .........................................................................................................................183

6.10 Combiner ....................................................................................................................184

6.11 Splitter ........................................................................................................................185

6.12 Phase Shifter...............................................................................................................186

7. Model of Functional Components ......................................................................................188

7.1 Multiplexer ...................................................................................................................188

7.2 Demultiplexer...............................................................................................................191

7.3 Add/Drop Multiplexer ..................................................................................................193

7.4 Time Domain Demultiplexer........................................................................................196

7.5 Differentiator ................................................................................................................198

7.6 Rectifier........................................................................................................................199

7.7 Space switch .................................................................................................................200

7.8 OXC .............................................................................................................................204

7.8.1 OXC with Sp/Com (Splitter and Combiner) ......................................................204

7.8.2 OXC with Mux/Demux (Multiplexer and Demultiplexer) ................................205

7.8.3 OXC LM (Link modular)...................................................................................207

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7.8.4 OXC WM (Wavelength modular) ......................................................................208

7.9 AWG.............................................................................................................................209

7.10 Optical Packet Switch ................................................................................................212

7.10.1 Input-Buffered Optical Packet Switch (IBOPS) ..............................................212

7.10.2 Output-Buffered Optical Packet Switch (OBOPS) ..........................................214

7.10.3 Broadcast and Select Optical Packet Switch (BSOPS) ....................................215

7.10.4 Wavelength Routed Optical Packet Switch (WROPS) ....................................217

7.11 FEC Encoder ..............................................................................................................219

7.12 FEC Decoder ..............................................................................................................224

7.13 Phase Modulator.........................................................................................................226

7.14 PMD compensator......................................................................................................227

7.15 PMD emulator ............................................................................................................235

8. Model of Wavelength converters ........................................................................................237

8.1 XGM (cross gain modulation) method.........................................................................237

8.2 XPM (cross phase modulation) method .......................................................................244

8.3 FWM method in time domain ......................................................................................248

8.4 FWM method in wavelength domain ...........................................................................257

9. Optical amplifiers ................................................................................................................262

9.1 C-band EDFA ...............................................................................................................262

9.1.1 Gain block model ...............................................................................................262

9.1.2 Spectrally resolved model ..................................................................................263

9.2 L-band EDFA ...............................................................................................................274

9.3 Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers ...............................................................................277

10. Port and Repeated Link ....................................................................................................281

10.1 Input port ....................................................................................................................281

10.2 Output port .................................................................................................................282

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10.3 Repeated link..............................................................................................................284

11. System Viewers...................................................................................................................286

11.1 Oscilloscope ...............................................................................................................286

11.1.1 Pulse shape .......................................................................................................286

11.1.2 Eye diagram .....................................................................................................287

11.2 Eye opening penalty ...................................................................................................288

11.3 Error detector..............................................................................................................290

11.4 Eye margin..................................................................................................................295

11.5 Eye contour.................................................................................................................299

11.6 ASE spectrum of EDFAs ............................................................................................302

11.7 Q Factor ......................................................................................................................304

11.8 Chirp viewer ...............................................................................................................305

11.9 Spectrum analyzer ......................................................................................................306

11.10 Vrms viewer..............................................................................................................308

11.11 BER Calculator.........................................................................................................309

11.12 Optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) viewer ...........................................................312

12. Device Viewer and Data Storage ......................................................................................314

12.1 Photon / Carrier viewer ..............................................................................................314

12.2 Effective refractive index (neff) viewer .......................................................................316

12.3 LI / LV Characteristics ...............................................................................................317

12.4 Lasing spectrum of DFB lasers ..................................................................................318

12.5 Frequency response of DFB lasers .............................................................................319

12.6 Waveguide analysis using effective index method (EIM) ..........................................322

12.7 Long period fiber Bragg grating viewer.....................................................................326

12.8 Short period fiber Bragg grating viewer.....................................................................326

12.9 Optical Signal Storage................................................................................................327

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13. Sample Simulations ...........................................................................................................330

13.1 Single channels...........................................................................................................330

13.2 WDM channels...........................................................................................................342

13.3 Bidirectional transmissions ........................................................................................353

13.4 Analog and CATV transmissions................................................................................358

14. Insertion of Icon and Library into Photonics CAD ........................................................361

14.1 Generating dll file.......................................................................................................361

14.1.1 Getting started ..................................................................................................361

14.1.2 Generating source codes of dll.........................................................................362

14.1.3 Generated files .................................................................................................366

14.1.4 Creation of main program ................................................................................367

14.1.5 Modification of toolbar button .........................................................................373

14.2 Finalizing user’s library..............................................................................................374

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1. Introduction

Photonics CAD is a user-friendly simulator capable of accurately predicting optical

transmission performance of digital and analog optical networks based on the

experimentally confirmed optical component models, and characteristics of optical

devices and components with varying physical and material parameters. This simulation

tool provides savings of cost and time for development of systems and devices from the

accurate prediction of transmission performances in optical transmission systems and

operating characteristics of optical devices. Photonics CAD is capable of handling Tbps

data transmissions and bi-directional transmissions in ring networks. It can simulate

performance of all optical networks including more functional optical components

related to optical cross-connect switches and photonic packet switches.

1.1 System requirements

To use Photonics CAD, the following computer system is required:

IBM PC or compatible

128MB of RAM of RAM (256MB preferred to simulate fiber non-linearity)

50MB of hard-drive disk space

CD-ROM driver

MS Windows 95, 98, NT, XP, or 2000

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1.2 Installing Photonics CAD

To install the Photonics CAD, insert the Photonics CAD CD-ROM disk in your CD-

ROM driver. Run setup.exe by double-clicking and then follow the instructions in the

installing program:

If you want to continue the setup, click the NEXT button.

① If you agree to the Software License, click the YES button.

② Enter the serial number.

③ Select the Destination Folder using the Browser, and then click the NEXT

button.

④ Click the NEXT button.

⑤ If the setup is completed, click the Finish button.

1.3 Starting Photonics CAD

Photonics CAD is started in Windows from the file manager by changing the

directory that contains the executable file and double clicking the ‘Photonics CAD.exe.’

A hard key provided by AO Technology should be installed in the printer port in your

computer. It’s recommended to make an icon for ‘Photonics CAD.exe’. To start the

simulator, construct your schematic related to transmission systems or devices by drag

and drop from the ‘Tool’ box.

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2. Getting Started

2.1 Main window

To draw schematics, you should open a new workspace window at first. You can also

create several workspace windows to draw.

Fig. 2.1 -1 Workspace window

2.1.1 Menu

The display and operation of the menu in schematics follow a standard window layout

and operation. You can run the schematic and arrange the result windows.

Fig. 2.1.1 -1 Menu

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Through the ‘File’ menu, we can make new schematic, open schematic, save and print

a schematic. The ‘Edit’ menu includes the function of ‘copy and paste’. The ‘View’ and

‘Tools’ menus explain components and devices used for Photonics CAD. We can start the

simulation with the ‘Run’ menu and arrange the display of simulation results with the

‘Window’ menu. The ‘Help’ menu shows the version of Photonics CAD.

After simulation, if the ‘Window’ menu is selected, submenu will appear. In the

‘File’ menu, we can export the simulated raw data into an ASCII file. With the ‘Setting’

menu, we can change the axis and the color of result windows. Also, the ‘Window’ menu

includes the function of window arrangement.

Following sections will explain these functions in detail.

2.1.2 Tree

The tree can display different levels of hierarchy and several schematics that are saved

in Photonics CAD. You can select the schematic that you want and can use the schematic

in the current project window.

Fig. 2.1.2 -1 Tree

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2.1.3 Toolbar

The Toolbar icons provide shortcuts for initiating common actions. When you move

the cursor onto an icon, the status bar shows the operation of the icon.

Fig. 2.1.3 -1 Toolbar

Also, many toolbars are created with the dll files in Photonics CAD. The toolbars

are divided into transmitters, receivers, fibers, optical amplifiers, wavelength converters,

functional blocks, passive components, repeated link, system viewers, and device

viewers.

Fig. 2.1.3 -2 Transmitters

Fig. 2.1.3 -3 Receivers

Fig. 2.1.3 -4 Fibers

Fig. 2.1.3 -5 Passive components

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Fig. 2.1.3 -6 Functional blocks

Fig. 2.1.3 -7 Wavelength converters

Fig. 2.1.3 -8 Optical amplifiers

Fig. 2.1.3 -9 Port and Repeated link

Fig. 2.1.3 -10 System viewers

Fig. 2.1.3 -11 Device viewers and data storage

If the question mark toolbar is clicked, we can show following dialog box.

Fig. 2.1.3 -12 Information of Photonics CAD

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2.1.4 Status bar

The status bar is located at the bottom of the workspace window and shows a

message of the operation and the current state of the workspace window. If the schematic

is run, the status bar shows a progress of simulation of the schematic. Therefore, we can

find the progress state of simulation through the status bar.

Fig. 2.1.4 -1 Status bar

2.1.5 Zoom in and zoom out

Photonics CAD provides a zoom in/out function through the ‘Zoom In’ and ‘Zoom

Out’ commands of the ‘View’ menu. Clicking the ‘Zoom In’ command enlarges the

schematic by 200% and clicking the ‘Zoom Out’ command reduces it by 50%. The

maximum and minimum sizes we can obtain are 400% and 50% of the original schematic

size, respectively.

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Fig.2.1.5-1 Zoom In/Out commands of ‘View’ menu

Fig.2.1.5-2 50% of the original schematic size (minimum size)

Fig.2.1.5-3 original schematic size

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Fig.2.1.5-4 200% of the original schematic size

Fig. 2.1.5-5 400% of the original schematic size (maximum size)

2.1.6 Moving the focus of a workspace

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Fig. 2.1.6-1. Moving the focus of a workspace

We can move the focus of a workspace as shown in Fig. 2.1.6-1 using the two

methods in the following:

1) Move the scroll bar directly.

2) Lay the mouse cursor at the region shaded in blue in Fig. 2.1.6-1 and the focus

of a workspace moves automatically. If you put the mouse cursor at the right,

left, upper and bottom sides in that region, the focus moves right, left, up and

down, respectively.

2.1.7 Keyboard

You can edit a schematic using the keys in the keyboard of your computer. “Ctrl +

C”, “Ctrl + V”, “Ctrl + N”, “Ctrl + O”, “Ctrl + S” and “Ctrl + P” are used to copy, paste,

new, open, save and print respectively.

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Keyboard Function
Ctrl + C Copy
Ctrl + V Paste
Ctrl + N New
Ctrl + O Open
Ctrl + S Save
Ctrl + P Print

Fig. 2.1.5 -1 Key function

2.1.8 Simulating schematics

If you made your own schematic, you can simulate it. To simulate that schematic,

you can select the ‘Analysis’ command from the ‘Run’ menu. Then, the simulation starts

and the progress state are shown in the status bar.

Fig 2.1.8 -1 Analysis submenu from the ‘Run’ menu

If you run the schematic, a new dialog box appears. Through this dialog box, we can

change the number of sampling points in optical signals in the time domain and the range

of ASE noise. Because the number of sampling points may affects your simulation results

such as numerical errors in optical signals, you need to use enough sampling points.

Photonics CAD suggests a proper number of sampling points, which appears

automatically on this dialog box. Note that larger number of sampling points takes longer

simulation execution time and more memories. If the number of sampling points exceeds

220, simulation execution time and memories are required prohibitively.

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Fig 2.1.8 -2 Dialog box in the ‘Run’ menu

2.2 Starting design of new schematics

To start the schematic editor, you can double-click on the ‘MFC_DB_B.exe’ icon.

Then, an empty window page is showed up. If you already use the schematic page, click

the ‘New File’ icon to start a new schematic.

Fig. 2.2 -1 New schematic icon

Fig. 2.2 -2 New project icon

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2.3 Drawing schematics

The following sections 2.3.1~2.3.5 explain how to draw schematics.

2.3.1 Dragging and dropping tools

There are two methods for dragging and dropping tools. One is to use the toolbar

button and the other is to use the ‘Tools’ menu. We’ll drag and drop oscilloscope using

the two methods in the following.

1) Using the toolbar button

Fig 2.3.1-1. Dragging and dropping an oscilloscope using the toolbar button

① Move the cursor onto the toolbar button labeled with an oscilloscope. Leave the

cursor on the button for several seconds and a message box will appear to be giving a

brief description of that button. This message is called ‘ToolTip’ and is available for

all the toolbar buttons.

② Click on the left mouse button to call an oscilloscope.

③ If you move the cursor into the workspace, the oscilloscope icon appears on the

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workspace.

④ When you have picked a position, click on the left mouse button to fix the

oscilloscope icon.

2) Using the ‘Tools’ menu.

Fig 2.3.1-2. Dragging and dropping an oscilloscope using the ‘Tools’ menu

① Move the cursor onto the ‘Tools’ menu and click on the left mouse button.

② If you left-click tools menu, you can see various tool types (Transmitter,

Receiver, Fiber, Optical Amplifiers, Wavelength Converters, Functional Blocks,

Passive Components, Port, Repeated Links, System Viewers, Device Viewers).

To select an oscilloscope, move the cursor onto ‘Oscilloscope of System Viewer’

and click on the left mouse button.

③ If you move the cursor into the workspace, the oscilloscope icon appears on the

workspace.

④ When you have picked a position, click on the left mouse button to fix the

oscilloscope icon.

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2.3.2 Flipping tools

During drawing schematics, we sometimes need to flip tools. We’ll flip the

combiner in the following.

Fig 2.3.2-1. Flipping combiner

① Drag and drop combiner on the workspace.

② If you move the cursor on to the combiner icon and click on the right mouse button,

the pop-up menu appears.

③ Then clicking the ‘Flip’ command flips the combiner icon.

2.3.3 Changing parameters of selected tools

The following example which is changing parameters for a PIN receiver explains

how to change parameters of a tool selected by double clicking the icon.

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Fig 2.3.3-1. Dialog box of input parameters for PIN receiver

① There are two methods to display dialog box of input parameter for tools.

Move the cursor onto the PIN receiver icon on the workspace and

Double-click the left mouse button. Or

Click on the right mouse button. If you do so, a pop-folder appears. Move

the cursor onto the Properties at the pop-folder and click on the left mouse

button.

② Change the parameter of input parameter for the PIN receiver as you want
and then click ‘yes’ button.

2.3.4 Making connections between tools

The next step is to connect the tools together. Our goal is to make the schematic as

shown in Fig 2.3.4-1.

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Fig 2.3.4-1 Example schematic for making connections

① Put the cursor on the end point of the upper arrow for ESG(double)1. If you

do so, the shape of the cursor changes from an arrow to a rectangular. Click

on the left mouse button at that point. After clicking, if you were to move the

cursor somewhere else, the shape of the cursor would change to a pencil and

the line would continue to stretch to the new point.

② Move the cursor onto the start point of the upper arrow for MZ Mod 1.

When the shape of the cursor changes from a pencil to a rectangular, click

on the left mouse button. If the connection is established successfully

between two points, a node will be generated at each point.

③ Connect all the remaining parts as shown in Fig 2.3.4-1.

2.3.5 Copy and paste

It is highly likely that after you compose a schematic, you will need to copy or paste

it. To copy and paste follows the following three processes:

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① Selecting the tool(s) or area(s) involved.

Selecting a single tool: Click on the tool you want to copy. Notice it

becomes highlighted in red to indicate that the tool is selected.

Selecting multiple tools: Click and hold the left mouse button and then drag

the cursor to create a rectangle. All the tools completely contained in the

rectangle will become selected. Also, notice that they become highlighted in

red to indicate that tools are selected.

② Copy what you select.

There are three methods to copy what you select.

Move the cursor onto one of the tools you select and click on the right

mouse button. Then a pop-folder shows up, where click the ‘Copy’

command.

Click the ‘Edit’ menu, where click the ‘Copy’ command.

Press Ctrl+C key.

③ Paste what you copy.

There are also three methods to paste.

Move the cursor onto the empty workspace and click on the right mouse

button. Then, a pop-folder shows up, where click the ‘Paste’ command.

When what you copy appear(s), move the cursor onto the position where

you want to paste and click on the left mouse button to fix them (it).

Click the ‘Edit’ menu, where click the ‘Paste’ command. If you move the

cursor onto the workspace, what you copy appear(s). Move the cursor onto

the position where you want to paste and click on the left mouse button to

fix them (it).

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Press Ctrl+V key. When what you copy appear(s), move the cursor onto the

position where you want to paste and click on the left mouse button to fix

them (it).

2.4 Saving and loading your project created on the window

To save a schematic, you can click the ‘Save’ icon or use the key function ‘Ctrl + S’

or choose the ‘Save’ from the ‘File’ menu. If it is a new schematic, you can enter a file

name where the new schematic will be saved.

To open your saved schematic, you can click the ‘Open’ icon or use the key function

‘Ctrl + O’ or choose the ‘Open’ from the ‘File’ menu.

Fig. 2.4 -1 ‘Save’ icon

Fig. 2.4 -2 ‘Open’ icon

2.5 Making your own projects or tools using input and output

ports
You can make your own projects or tools using input and output ports. First, you

make a schematic that you want. If the schematic has the input (the output), input port

(output port) is combined. Then, save the schematic and the new project item will appear

in the tree. The new project item is dragged using the left button of mouse in the

schematic window and you can make your own tools thorough this work.

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Fig. 2.5 -1 Schematic you have saved as ‘port-test’

Fig. 2.5 –2 Project ‘port-test’ made newly in ‘Project created by user’ folder of the tree

Fig. 2.5 -3 Create your own tools or projects

If you move the cursor onto project icon and double-click on the left mouse button,

you can see the composition of projects.

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2.6 Simulating schematics

If you made your own schematic, you can simulate it. To simulate that schematic,

you can select the ‘Analysis’ submenu from the ‘Run’ menu. Then, the simulation starts

and then the progress state can be shown in the status bar. The detail is described in

section 2.1.8

Fig. 2.6 -1 ‘Analysis’ submenu from the ‘Run’ menu

2.7 Result windows


The following sections 2.7.1~2.7.3 explain the windows displaying simulated results

briefly.

Fig 2.7-1 Example of result windows

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2.7.1 Result windows

A result window shows calculated results and other parameters on each viewer after

or during signal propagation through optical fibers. The result window in Fig 2.7.1-1

shows the eye diagram on the oscilloscope.

Fig 2.7.1-1 Example of a result window – eye diagram

If you want to change the properties of the x or y axis, move the cursor onto x or y

axis and double-click on the left mouse button. The input dialog box for properties of the

axis of graph (look figure 2.7.2-3) will appear. And you can extend the region you want

to watch in detail. Click and hold the left mouse button and then drag the cursor to create

a rectangle on that region. Click to undo.

There are lines, the meaning of lines and some values in the right side of the result

window. When you double-click the line, input dialog box for properties of colors of

graph (look figure 2.7.2-4) will appear. And double-clicking the values displays the

information window showing the values.

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2.7.2 Menu in result widow

Result window has three menus: ‘File’, ‘Setting’, and ‘Window’.

File menu

Fig 2.7.2-1 commands of File menu

Export data into ASCII file: export calculated raw data into an ASCII file

and store them in the location you indicate.

Print: print the active window.

Setting menu

Fig 2.7.2-2 commands of Setting menu

Axis: change the scaling, grid, title, and format of X or Y-axis using this

command.

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Fig 2.7.2-3 Input dialog box of properties for the axis of graph

Color: change the color of background or the name, color, type,

thickness and text of the lines using this command.

Fig 2.7.2-4 Input dialog box for properties of colors in graph

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Window menu

Fig 2.7.2-5 commands of Window menu

Cascade: display all of the result windows in cascade.

Fig 2.7.2-6 Display of all the result windows in cascade

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Tile: display all of the result windows simultaneously in tile format.

Fig 2.7.2-7 Display all the result windows in tile

Windows: display the window you select.

Fig 2.7.2-8 window of Window command

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2.7.3. Changing axes

To change properties of axes, you can use the ‘Axis’ command of the ‘Setting’ menu

or double-click the axis you want to change.

Fig 2.7.3-1 Input dialog box for changing properties of axes

Description of input dialog box for changing properties of axes

Parameter Description
Auto Scaling Auto scaling
Scaling
Manual Scaling Require minimum and maximum values
Major Grids Show major grids
Number of Major Number of major grid. Limited to 20.
Grid
Minor Grids Show minor grids
Number of Minor Number of minor grids per major grid. Limited
Grids to 4.
Unit Unit of the value on the axis
Represent the value on the axis
Engineering Form
in the engineering form (exponentially)
Tile and
Format Field Width Field width
Precision Precision of the value on the axis
Title of Axis Change the title and font of the axis

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3. Transmitter Models

Transmitters convert electrical signals to optical ones for transmission through

optical fibers. Distributed-feedback Bragg grating (DFB) lasers, Fabry-Perot (FP) lasers,

electroabsorption modulator integrated (EAMI) DFB lasers, LiNbO3 external modulators,

EAMI-DFB laser based tunable lasers, soliton pulses, and measured transmitter

characteristics can be used in the transmitter for optical transmission systems. For optical

components for transmitters, large signal analysis including the extinction ratio and the

frequency chirping are modeled and used in Photonics CAD to generate optical pulses

propagated through optical fibers.

3.1 Electrical signal generator

3.1.1 Electrical signal generator for dual electrodes

Icon

Theory

The frequency characteristics of a raised cosine signal consists of a flat portion and

a roll-off portion that has a sinusoidal form as follows:

 1 / 2W , 0 ≤ f < f1

P ( f ) = 1 / 4W , f 1 ≤ f < 2W − f1 (3.1.1-1)
 0, f ≥ 2W − f1

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where the frequency parameter f1 and the bandwidth W are related by

f1
α = 1− (3.1.1-2)
W

The parameter α is called the rolloff factor, which indicates the excess bandwidth over

the ideal solution of the ideal Nyquist channel, W. The time response p (t ) is the

inverse Fourier transform of the function P ( f ) .

 sin (2πWt )  cos(2παWt ) 


p (t ) =   2 2 
(3.1.1-3)
 2πWt  1 − 16α W t 
2

A super Gaussian shape can be used to model the effects of steep leading and

trailing edges on dispersion-induced pulse broadening. The equation of a super Gaussian

pulse is given by

 1 t 
2m

p (t ) = exp −    (3.1.1-4)
 2  T0  

where m controls the degree of the edge sharpness.

Input dialog box

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Fig. 3.1.1-1 Input dialog box of pulse shapes for electrical signal generator for dual
electrodes

Fig. 3.1.1-2 Input dialog box of parameters for electrical signal generator for dual
electrodes

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Description of parameters for electrical signal generator for dual electrodes

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Data rate Data Rate 10 Gb/s
No. of bits Total number of data bits 27 bits
Select a data format from NRZ, RZ, or
Data format NRZ
Clock signal
Raised Cosine Raised cosine shape as an output pulse
-
Pulse shape
Super Gaussian Super Gaussian shape as an output pulse
-
Pulse shape
Sine Pulse Sine shape as an output pulse shape -

Square Pulse Square Pulse as an output pulse shape -


Super Gaussian Degree of edge sharpness of super
3
Factor Gaussian pulse
Pulse width ratio
Pulse width ratio for the bit period 1
for the bit period
Degree of edge sharpness of raised cosine
Rolloff Factor 1
pulse
0000100100110
User’s PRBS PN sequence defined by user
100111………..
Automatic 5 bit
delayed PRBS Automatically generate 5 bit delayed
-
generation between PRBS between WDM channels
channels
V1_offset Offset voltage of electrode 1 (Q) 0V

V2_offset Offset voltage of electrode 2 (Q bar) 2V

V1_pp Peak to peak voltage of electrode 1(Q) 2V


Peak to peak voltage of electrode 2
V2_pp 2V
(Q bar)
Use duobinary Use duobinary precoder for optical
-
precoder duobinary transmissions

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3.1.2 Electrical signal generator for single electrode

Icon

Theory

The theory of electrical signal generator for single electrode is described in 3.1.1.

Input dialog box

Fig. 3.1.2 -1 Input dialog box of pulse shapes in the electrical signal generator for
single electrode

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Fig. 3.1.2 -2 Input dialog box of parameters for electrical signal generator for single
electrode

Description of parameters for electrical signal generator for single electrode

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Data rate Data Rate 10 Gb/s
No. of bits Total number of data bits 27 bits
Select a data format from
Data format NRZ
NRZ, RZ, or Clock signal
Raised Cosine Raised cosine shape as an
-
Pulse output pulse shape
Super Gaussian Super Gaussian shape as an
-
Pulse output pulse shape
Sine shape as an output
Sine Pulse -
pulse shape
Square Pulse as an output
Square Pulse -
pulse shape
Super Gaussian Degree of edge sharpness of
3
Factor super Gaussian pulse
Pulse width ratio Pulse width ratio for the bit
1
for the bit period period
Degree of edge sharpness of
Rolloff Factor 1
raised cosine pulse

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PN sequence inputted by
User’s PRBS 00001001001101001111……….
users
Automatic 5 bit
Automatically generate 5
delayed PRBS
bit delayed PRBS between -
generation
WDM channels
between channels
V_offset Offset voltage of electrode 2V
Peak to peak voltage of
V_pp 2V
electrode

3.1.3 Analog signal generator

Icon

3.1.3.1 Multi-tone signal generator

Theory

The equation used for a single tone signal is

f(t) = A 1 cos(2 π f 1t ) (3.1.3.1 -1)

In order to generate multi-tone signals, signals should be combined using the

multiplexer after each signal generation.

Input dialog box

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Fig. 3.1.3.1 -1 Input dialog box of input parameters for multi-tone signal generator

Description of parameters for multi-tone signal generator

Parameter Description Default Value/Units


Number of channels for Analog signal
No. of channels 2
generator
Channel
Channel spacing 1.25 MHz
spacing
Oscillation
Oscillation frequency of channel 1 1851.25 MHz
frequency
Avg. power Average power of one channel 25 dBm

3.2 Model of DFB laser

3.2.1 Complete DFB laser model from rate equations

Icon

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Theory

Single-wavelength semiconductor lasers undoubtedly play an important role as light

sources for long-haul high-bit-rate optical communication systems both in direct intensity

modulation and in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) transmissions. In these

systems, the light sources require superior spectral properties (spectral sharpness and

stability) such as low wavelength chirping under high-speed modulation and narrow

static spectral linewidth. A number of large-signal dynamic DFB laser models have been

developed including the longitudinal spatial hole-burning (z-HB) and the gain saturation

which affect the chirp behavior under direct current modulations. Among the models, a

large-signal dynamic DFB laser one based upon the transfer matrix method (TMM) has

the core capability to analyze various device structures.

In Photonics CAD, large-signal analysis for DFB lasers is necessary with using the

time dependant TMM to calculate optical pulse waveforms, the extinction ratio, and the

frequency chirping in DFB lasers by self-consistently solving the pulse propagation

equation and rate equations. The time dependent TMM has been proposed for the

purpose of characterizing multi-electrode DFB lasers [3.2.1-1]. In order to simulate more

realistic DFB lasers, the propagation part of the transfer matrix is modified using the

pulse propagation equation that describes the propagation of pulses in DFB lasers. The

evolution of slowly varying amplitude A(z, t) inside DFB lasers is governed by the pulse

propagation equations [3.2.1-1, 2]:

∂ A( z , t ) 1 ∂ A( z , t ) i 1
+ = − α Γ g m A( z , t ) + gA( z , t ) + µ ( z , t ) (3.2.1-1)
∂z vg ∂t 2 2

where A(z, t) is the normalized pulse envelope such that |A(z, t)|2 represents the optical

power, α is the chirp parameter which accounts for carrier-induced index changes, vg is

the group velocity, Γ is the confinement factor, gm is the material gain, and g is the net

gain. Seeding of the traveling-wave amplitudes can be done with the use of lumped

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spontaneous emission-type input flux µ(z, t):

µ ( z , t ) = β Γ R SP δ (t − t ' )δ ( z − z ' )× (v g E w Across ) (3.2.1-2)

where β is the spontaneous coupling factor, RSP the spontaneous emission rate

assuming bimolecular recombination (c 2 N 2 ), δ(x) the δ function, EW the photon energy,

and Across the cross sectional area of the active layer.

To consider the interaction between the carrier density N and the photon density S,

the cavity is divided into a number of small sections, and the rate equation is solved in

each section as

∂N i I
= − N i (c1 + c2 N i + c3 N i2 ) − v g Γg m i S i (3.2.1-3)
∂t qV

where index i corresponds to a different section, I is the injection current, V is the active

volume, q is the electronic charge, and c1 , c2 , and c3 are related to recombination

constants.

The average photon density S i is calculated by

| A i | 2 + | A i +1 | 2 + | B i | 2 + | B i +1 | 2
Si = (3.2.1-4)
2 v g E Across

where Ai is the amplitude of forward-traveling wave and Bi that of backward-traveling

wave.

In order to model the asymmetric gain profile, the gain spectrum is assumed to be

cubic and the material gain is approximated to

a 0 ( N i − N 0 ) − a1 (λ − λ p ) 2
g m i (N i , λ ) = (3.2.1-5)
1+ ε S

where a0 and a1 are the gain constants, λp is the gain peak wavelength assumed to shift

linearly with the carrier density, and ε is the gain compression factor. The net gain is

given by:

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g i = Γg m i − α loss (3.2.1-6)

The effective refractive index is related to the carrier density by

λ
nei = ne 0 − Γ α a0 N (3.2.1-7)

where neo is the refractive index without current injection.

The lasing wavelength is obtained by the minimizing technique on | a22 | where a22 is

an element of the overall transfer matrix for the structure given by the product of the

subsection transfer matrices. The Bragg wavelength is obtained from [3.2.1-2].

∆ne
λB = λB0 + λB0 (3.2.1-8)
ne 0

where λB0 is the Bragg wavelength when the current is not injected and ∆ne the

average of the carrier-induced index changes for the whole structure given by [3.2.1-2].

1
∆ne =
NS
∑ ∆n ( N )
i
e i (3.2.1-9)

The summation is carried out all over the subsections, where NS is the total number of

subsections.

A rectangular effective refractive index profile in a DFB structure is shown in Fig.

3.2.1-1. The coupling coefficient of the structure and the Bragg wavelength given by the

Bragg condition are obtained by [3.2.1-3]-[3.2.1-5]:

(n2 − n1 ) 4 neff l
κ= , λB = (3.2.1-10)
2 l neff m

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Λ l=Λ
n 2i 2

n 1i
n(z )

.. .. ... .. ... .. ..

p −1
nAR n 1eff 2
n eff i
n eff neff n effp nHR

z
 n1, i = neff , i (1 − κ l )

 n2, i = neff , i (1 + κ l )

Fig. 3.2.1-1 Grating structure in DFB lasers

where m is the Bragg order considered equal to 1 in this connection, and

neff = (n1 + n2 ) / 2 . It is obvious that when the parameters κ, λB, and neff of a structure

are given, n1, n2 , and l, the parameters of equivalent periodic structure can be found from

Eq. (3.2.1-10).

Ai-1(t) Ai (t) Ai+1(t)


Output signal
PSIG atλ SIG
• • • • • •

Bi-1(t) Bi (t) Bi+1(t)

HR • • • • • •
AR
ni-1 Ni-1 ni Ni ni+1 Ni+1
• • • • • •
gm, i-1 gm, i gm, i+1

Fig. 3.2.1-2 Schematic of the modified TMM-based dynamic DFB laser model

In order to perform a dynamic analysis of DFB lasers, a model based on TMM is

developed by using the modified transfer matrix:

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 a (t ) ⋅ a 21 (t ) a12 (t ) 
 a11 (t ) − 12
 E A (t + ∆t ) a 22 (t ) a 22 (t )   E A (t ) 
 E (t + ∆t )  =  a (t )

1   E B (t + 1)
(3.2.1-11)
 B   − 21
 a 22 (t ) a 22 (t ) 

Fig. 3.2.1-2 shows the schematic of the modified TMM-based dynamic DFB-laser

model. Assuming that various material and structural parameters remain unchanged

throughout section i in a time from t to t+Δt, the output amplitudes A i+1 and B i at time

t+Δt can be calculated from the input amplitudes A i and B i+1 at time t by Eq. (3.2.1-11).

Transfer matrix elements amn(t) of a section i are obtained from ni, Ni, gmi, and αi at time t.

Typical buried-heterostructure (BH) DFB-LD operating at 1.55µm is considered in

this simulator. Also, 1.3µm DFB lasers can be modeled by changing some material

parameters explained in below.

Calculated and measured pulse pattern and chirp are shown below Fig. 3.2.1.-4 and

Fig.3.2.1.-5. These calculated results are similar to the measured data.

Fig. 3.2.1-3 Calculated pulse shapes and chirping in DFB lasers

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Optical Power [Arb. Unit]


0.12

Wavelength Chirp [nm]


0.09

0.06

0.03

0.00

-0.03

-0.06
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4

Time [ns]

Fig. 3.2.1-4 Measured pulse shapes and wavelength chirping in DFB lasers
Optical Power [Arb. Unit]

0.12
Wavelength Chirp [nm]

0.09

0.06

0.03

0.00

-0.03

-0.06
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4

Time [ns]

Fig. 3.2.1-5 Calculated pulse shapes and wavelength chirping in DFB lasers

If you want to simulate at 1300nm wavelength range, the above parameters should

be modified in the simulation. The modified parameters are the ‘Gain peak wavelength’

and the ‘Delta n_12’. The gain peak wavelength is changed from 1580 to 1330nm. The

‘Delta n_12’ is changed from –0.001725 to –0.0006915.

Fig. 3.2.1-6, 7, and 8 show the input dialog box of the device and material

parameters, and simulation conditions. You can easily change the default values in the

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input dialog box.

Input dialog box

Fig. 3.2.1-6 Input dialog box for physical parameters in the complete DFB laser

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model from rate equations

Fig. 3.2.1-7 Input dialog box for material parameters in the complete DFB laser
model from rate equations

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Fig. 3.2.1-8 Input dialog box for other parameters in the complete DFB laser model
from rate equations

Description of parameters for Complete DFB lasers model from rate equation

Default Value /
Parameter Description
Units
Grating period Half length of a grating pitch 0.1125 µm

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Real part of differential refractive


Delta n (real) -0.001
index
Imaginary part of differential refractive
Delta n (imag) 0.001
index
Average n_eff Average refractive index (n1+n2)/2 3.45
Active layer
Active layer width of DFB laser 1.5 µm
width
Active layer
Active layer thickness of DFB laser 0.12 µm
thickness
Optical
confinement Optical confinement factor 0.3
factor
R_front_facet Front facet reflectance 1%
R_rear_facet Rear facet reflectance 70 %
Phase_front_facet Grating phase of front facet 0 deg.
Phase_rear_facet Grating phase of rear facet 150 deg.
Ao Material gain constant 2.5 × 10-20 m2
A1 Material gain constant 1.5 × 1019 m-3
A2 Material gain constant 2.7 × 10-32 m4
No Carrier density at transparency 9 × 1023 m-3
Eff. Loss Effective loss ( α loss ) 2500 m-1
C1 Recombination rate 2500000 s-1
C2 Recombination rate 1 × 10-16 s-1
C3 Recombination rate 3 × 10-41 s-1
Alpha parameter Alpha parameter ( α ) 5
Wavelength for Gain peak wavelength ( λ peak ) 1.58 × 10-6 m
peak gain
Gain compression
Nonlinear gain compression factor ( ε ) 1.5 × 10-23 m3
factor
Length of section Length of each divided section 22.5 um
No. of divided
Number of sections in DFB laser 20
sections
I_bias Bias current of steady state condition 0 mA
Electrical
confinement Electrical confinement factor 0.9
factor
Fiber coupling
Fiber coupling loss 1 dB
loss
Impedance Matching impedance for DFB laser 50 ohm

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References

[3.2.1-1] M. G. Davis and R. F. O’Dowd, "A Transfer Matrix Method Based Large-Signal

Dynamic Model for Multi- electrode DFB Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,

vol. 30, pp. 2458-2466, Nov. 1994.

[3.2.1-2] G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral

broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum

Electron., vol. 25, pp. 2297-2306, Nov. 1989.

[3.2.1-3] Gunnar Bjork and Olle Nilsson, “A New Exact and Efficient Numerical Matrix

Theory of Complicated Laser Structures: Properties of Asymmetric Phase-Shifted

DFB Lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-5, pp. 140-146, Jan. 1987.

[3.2.1-4] Hans Bissessur, “Effects of Hole Burning, Carrier-Induced Losses and the

Carrier-Dependent Differential Gain on the Static Characteristics of DFB Lasers,”

J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 1617-1630, Jan. 1992.

[3.2.1-5] Orfanos, Thomas Sphicopoulos, A. Tsigopoulos, and C. Caroubalos, “A

tractable above-threshold model for the design of DFB and Phase-shifted DFB

lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 27, pp. 946-956, 1991.

3.2.2 Analytical DFB laser model

Icon

Theory

The complex electrical field E(t) at the laser output is given by

E (t , z ) = A(t , x ) exp[ − j (ω 0 − ω c )t + φ (t )] (3.2.2-1)

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A (t , z ) = P ∑ a k g ( t − kT , z ) (3.2.2-2)
k

where A(t) is the field envelope, ω 0 is the optical carrier frequency, P1 is the optical

peak power for a "1" pulse , T is the pulse duration, and ak is the pseudorandom bit

sequence (PRBS) taking values of "0" and "1".

The chirp of transmitters using DFB lasers is analyzed by using the time dependent

phase φ (t ) in Eq. (3.2.2-1). For directly modulated lasers, the time-dependent

frequency change ∆f (t ) (chirp) is given in terms of optical power as

α d 2
(3.2.2-3)
∆ f (t ) = − ( ln E ( t , z = 0 ) )
4 π dt

where α is the linewidth enhancement factor. For semiconductor lasers, the α -

parameter varies between 2 and 8, depending on the laser structure. Integration of the

instantaneous frequency yields the phase used in Eq. (3.2.2-1).

α 2
φ ( t ) = − 2π ∫ ∆ f ( t ) dt =
2
ln E ( t ) . (3.2.2-4)

The A(t,z) is used for the non-linear Schrodinger equation to calculate pulse

distortions.

Fig. 3.2.2-1 Calculated pulse shapes and chirping from the analytical DFB laser
model using the Super Gaussian pulse shape

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Input dialog box

Fig. 3.2.2 -2 Input dialog box of parameters for the analytical DFB laser

Description of parameters for analytical DFB laser

Parameter Description Default value / Units

Lasing wavelength Lasing wavelength 1.55 µm

Average power Average power of laser output 0 dBm

Chirp parameter Chirp parameter 5

Extinction ratio Extinction ratio 10 dB

References

[3.2.2-1] M.Schiess, “Chirp and Dispersion Compensation in Nonlinear Fibers for High

Bit-Rate IM/DD Systems,” ECOC, Paper We18, pp. 481-484, 1994.

[3.2.2-2] Govind P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd, Academic Press.

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3.2.3 Ideal DFB laser model for CW sources

Icon

Theory

The output of the ideal DFB laser model is considered to be continuous wave (CW).

Therefore a time dependent field E(t) can be obtained from the below Eq. (3.2.3-1).

E (t ) = P exp( j 2πf c t ) (3.2.3 -1)

where P is the average power, and f c is the carrier frequency which can be obtained

from the lasing wavelength.

Input dialog box

Fig. 3.2.1 -1 Input dialog box of parameters for the ideal DFB laser model

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Description of parameters for ideal DFB laser model

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Lasing wavelength Lasing wavelength 1.55 µm
Optical output
Average power of laser output 0 dBm
power of laser

3.3. Time domain Fabry-Perot laser model

Icon

Theory

With the advantage of relative low-cost, multi-longitudinal Fabry-Perot laser diodes

are widely used in optical communication systems. However, the multi-mode

characteristics limit the speed or the distance in transmission and the spontaneous

emission noise can trigger the laser to oscillate in side-modes under intensity modulation

conditions [3.3-1], [3.3-2].

Even though the transient response of laser diodes has been widely reported, most

studies are concentrated on single mode laser diodes for high-speed communications.

Also some published reports treated multi-longitudinal laser diodes dealt with them as

nearly single mode cases [3.3-3]-[3.3-5]. Besides, the frequency chirp usually

investigated in single mode lasers to understand the broadening of a propagating pulse in

high-speed transmission has been of relatively low interests in multi-mode laser diodes

[3.3-6]-[3.3-8]. In the view of the gain spectrum, the frequency shift (chirp) of modes can

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change the effective gain. The random spontaneous noise term, an important factor for

multi-mode excitation, needs to be included in the simulation and should be considered

as a stochastic process.

The laser cavity is split into uniform sections with the forward and reverse

propagating electric fields which have amplitude and phase information. Within a section

all the relevant parameters are assumed to be homogeneous. A restriction on the sections

is that they must all have the same length ∆z = vg ∆t. The forward and reverse input fields

in section i at a given time t become



F i [ t ] = tF i −1 [ t − 1] + rR i [ t − 1] (3.3-1)


R i [t ] = tR i +1 [t − 1] + rFi [ t − 1] (3.3-2)

where r is the reflection coefficient and t is the transmission coefficient. Fi-1[t-1] and

Ri+1[t-1] are the forward and reverse output fields in sections i-1 and i+1, respectively, at

time t-1. In a time domain model [3.3-9], the output fields of a digital filter are given by

the convolution of input field and impulse response h[n] of the filter.
∞ ∧
F i [t ] = ∑ F [ t − n ] h[ n ]
n=0
i
(3.3-3)

∞ ∧
R i [t ] = ∑ R [ t − n ] h[ n ]
n=0
i (3.3-4)

The frequency-dependent gain at the center gain frequency ω0 with the section

length ΔL is modeled using the second order Lorentzian digital filter which has a peak

amplitude gain

g (ω 0 ) = exp{ b Γ ( N i ( t ) − N 0 ) ∆ L / 2} (3.3-5)

where b and Γ are the differential gain and confinement factor, respectively, and N0 is

the transparency carrier density. The phase shift term caused by changes in carrier density

is multiplied to the amplitude gain. The phase shift calculated from the carrier density

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and the α - parameter is given by

φ = −α b Γ∆ LN i (t ) / 2 (3.3-6)

Nonlinear gain is also included with the use of the gain compression factor (1+εS)

where ε=2×10-17cm3. To find an effective refractive index and a confinement factor

depending on the structure of laser diodes in a section, the effective index method is used

[3.3-10]. The effective index method is included in Photonics CAD to calculate modes in

dielectric waveguides in chapter of device viewer. The effective refractive index and the

confinement factor have been calculated to be 3.26 and 0.32, respectively. The effective

refractive index is changed by the variation of carrier density with the relation of [3.3-11]

dn
neff (i , t ) = neff (i , t − 1) + Γ N i (t − 1) (3.3-7)
dN

The photon density Si[t] in section i and the output power P(t) from the right-hand

side facet are given by

S i [t ] = ( Fi [t ]2 + Ri [t ]2 ) / hv (3.3-8)

P ( t ) = hv ⋅ w ⋅ d ⋅ S [ t ]v g (3.3-9)

where hν is the average photon energy, w the width, and d the depth of the active layer in

lasers. The dynamics of a semiconductor laser are modeled by the noise driven rate

equation for carrier density.

dN i (t ) I v Γ b ( N i ( t ) − N 0 ) S i (t )
= − ( AN i (t ) + BN i (t ) 2 + CN i (t ) 3 ) − g (3.3-10)
dt qV 1 + ε S i [t ]

The random spontaneous emission process [3.3-12], [3.3-13] is modeled by the

Gaussian white noise term Φ(t) with zero mean and correlation <Φ(t)iΦ(t′)i> = δ(t-

t′)nspbΓ(Ni(t)-N0)hν. It yields the mean photon number emitted by spontaneous

emission and fluctuation. The effect of radiative and nonradiative carrier generation and

recombination noise in the rate equation for Ni(t) is neglected since it is negligible

52
© AO Technology, 2002

compared with the photon density fluctuations.

Calculated pulse patterns and chirp:

2.00E+018 20

1.80E+018
15
Carrier Density (cm )
-3

Output Power (mW)


1.60E+018

10

1.40E+018

5
1.20E+018

1.00E+018 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
time (nsec)

Fig. 3.3-1 Pulse pattern and carrier density of FP lasers

current pulse

200
Frequency (GHz)

mode 1
mode 2
-200 mode 3
mode 4
mode 5

-400
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
time (nsec)

Fig. 3.3-2 Frequency change of each mode in FP lasers during modulations

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Calculated analog signals:

Optical power
Injection current

Time

Fig. 3.3-3 Optical pulse shape of FP lasers output with the injection current

Input dialog box

Fig. 3.3-4 Input dialog box of parameters for the FP laser model for digital links

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© AO Technology, 2002

Fig. 3.3-5 Input dialog box of material parameters for the FP laser model

Description of modeling parameters used for FP lasers

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Lasing
Lasing wavelength 1.31 µm
Wavelength
No. of divided
Number of divided sections 10
sections
Cavity length Laser cavity length 300 µm
Active layer
Active layer width 1 µm
width
Active layer
Active layer thickness 0.15 µm
thickness
Front facet
Front facet reflectance 0.3
reflectance
Rear facet
Rear facet reflectance 0.7
reflectance
Injection
Injection current 10 mA
current
Laser
Laser impedance 50 Ω
impedance

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C1 Recombination rate 1 × 108 s-1


C2 Recombination rate 1 × 10-10 m3s-1
C3 Recombination rate 3 × 10-29 m6s-1
No Transparency carrier density 1 × 1018 cm-3
Alpha
The α -parameter 5
parameter
Effective Loss Effective waveguide loss 20 m-1

References

[3.3-1] M. M. Choy, P. L. Liu, and S. Sasaki, “Origin of modulation-induced mode

partition and Gb/s system performance of highly single mode 1.5µm distributed

feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 52, pp. 1762-1764, 1988.

[3.3-2] J. C. Cartledge and A. F. Elrefaie, “Threshold gain difference requirements for

nearly single-longitudinal-mode lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 704-

715, 1990.

[3.3-3] A. Valle, P. Colet, L. Pesquera, and M. San Miguel, “Transient multimode

statistics in nearly single-mode semiconductor lasers,” IEE Proc. Part J, vol. 140,

pp. 237-242, 1993.

[3.3-4] J. C. Cartedge, “On the probability characterization of side mode fluctuations in

pulse-modulated nearly single-mode semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum

Electron., vol. 26, pp. 2046-2051, 1990.

[3.3-5] A. Mecozzi, A. Sapia, P. Spano, and G. Agrawal, “Transient multimode dynamics

in nearly single-mode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 27, pp. 332-343,

1991.

[3.3-6] J. C. Cartledge, G. S. Burley, “The effect of laser chirping on lightwave system

performance,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 7, pp. 568-573, 1989.

[3.3-7] O-K. Kwon, J-I. Shim, “The effects of longitudinal gain distributions on the static

and the dynamic properties in a λ/4 phase-shifted DFB laser,” IEEE J.

56
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Quantum Electron., vol. 34, pp. 225-232, 1998.

[3.3-8] B. W. Hakki, “Evaluation of transmission characteristics of chirped DFB lasers in

dispersive optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 964-969, 1992.

[3.3-9] D. D. Marcenac and J. E. Carroll, “Quantum-mechanical model for realistic

Fabry-Perot lasers,” IEE Proc. Part J, vol. 140, pp. 157-171, 1993.

[3.3-10] J. Buus, “The effective index method and its application to semiconductor

lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 18, pp. 1083-1089, 1982

[3.3-11] K. Inoue, “Blue frequency shift due to external light injection in a distributed-

feedback laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 67, pp. 1518-1520, 1988.

[3.3-12] A. E. Siegman, “Excess spontaneous emission in non-Hermitian optical systems.

I. Laser amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 39, pp. 1253-1263, 1989.

[3.3-13] A. E. Siegman, “Excess spontaneous emission in non-Hermitian optical systems.

II. Laser oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 39, pp. 1264-1268, 1989. A. E. Siegman,

“Excess spontaneous emission in non-Hermitian optical systems. II. Laser

oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 39, pp. 1264-1268, 1989.

[3.3-14] Jeungyun Ko, Yunbum Kim, Hyunjae Yoon, Insik Park and Jichai Jeong

"Missing modes in 1.3um InGaAsP/InP uncooled Fabry-Perot lasers and their

effect on Transmission," accepted for Optical and Quantum Electronics

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3.4 Model of LiNbO3 external modulators

3.4.1 Ideal LiNbO3 external modulator

Icon

Theory

When v1 (t ) and v2 (t ) are applied to each electrode of the Mach-Zehnder type

LiNbO3 external modulator, the modulator output electric field is expressed by [3.4.1 -1].

E0  jπv1 (t )  E0  jπv2 (t ) 
Eout = exp  + exp  (3.4.1 -1)
2  Vπ  2  Vπ 

where E0 the incoming electric field and Vπ the switching voltage of the modulator. It

is assumed that the device is biased at the midpoint of its transfer characteristic curve.

Fig. 3.4.1 –1 Calculated output pulse shape of the ideal LiNbO3 external modulator

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© AO Technology, 2002

Input dialog box

Fig. 3.4.1 -2 Input dialog box of ideal LiNbO3 external modulator

Description of parameters for ideal LiNbO3 external modulator

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Switching voltage of modulator
Switching Voltage 4V
(Vπ )
Power ratio divided between upper
Asymmetry Ratio 1
and lower arm

References

[3.4.1 -1] SungKee Kim and Jichai Jeong, "Transmission performance on frequency

response of receivers and chirping shape of transmitters for 10 Gb/s LiNbO3

modulator based lightwave systems," Optics Comm., vol.175, pp.109-123, 2000.

59
© AO Technology, 2002

3.4.2 Analytical LiNbO3 external modulator

Icon

Theory

The linewidth enhancement factor or chirp parameter, α can be expressed by two

methods: one is proposed by Koyama and Iga [3.4.2 -1], and the other is calculated by

the voltage ratio applied to both electrodes [3.4.2 -2]. The two chirp parameters are given

by

dφ (t ) dt
Model 1 : α = 2S (t ) ⋅ ⋅ (3.4.2 -1)
dt dS (t )

and

V A − VB
Model 2 : α~ = (3.4.2 -2)
V A + VB

where φ(t) and S(t) are the instantaneous phase and intensity of the optical output, and VA

and VB are peak voltages applied to A and B electrodes, respectively.

In the case of chirping model 1, by the definition of the chirp parameter α in Eq.

(3.4.2 -1), the electric field of the modulator output is given by

α 1
j ∫ 2 ⋅ S ( t )dS (t )
E out =| E out | e jφ
= E 0 cos(cos ω t )e (3.4.2 -3)

From the definition of m and α~ in Eq. (3.4.2 -2), the electric field of modulator

output for chirping model 2 is

π π
~ j { − mα~ cos ωt }
E out = E 0 cos(cos ωt )e 4 4 (3.4.2 -4)

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Fig. 3.4.2 -1 Calculated output pulse shape and chirping. Chirping model 1 is used
for the negative chirp parameter with the extinction ratio of 12dB

Fig. 3.4.2 -2 Calculated output pulse shape and chirping. Chirping model 2 is used
for the negative chirp parameter with the extinction ratio of 12dB

61
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Input dialog box

Fig. 3.4.2 -3 Input dialog box of parameters for the analytical LiNbO3 external
modulator model

Description of parameters for analytical LiNbO3 external modulator

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Chirp Model 1 Chirping model 1 (Eq. 3.4.2 -1) -
Chirp Model 2 Chirping model 2 (Eq. 3.4.2 -2) -
Raised cosine shape as an
Modulation Model 1 output pulse shape of LiNbO3 -
modulator
Super Gaussian shape as an
Modulation Model 2 output pulse shape of LiNbO3 -
modulator.
Chirp Parameter α-parameter 0
Extinction Ratio Extinction ratio 12 dB
Insertion loss by LiNbO3
Insertion Loss 3 dB
modulator
Parameter which controls
Super Gaussian factor the degree of edge sharpness of 3
super Gaussian pulse

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References

[3.4.2 -1] F. Koyama and K. Iga, “Frequency chirping in external modulators,” J.

Lightwave Technol., vol. 6, pp. 87-92, 1988.

[3.4.2. -2] A. H. Gnauck, S. K. Korotky, J. J. Veselka, J. Nagel, C. T. Kemmerer, W. J.

Minford, and D. T. Moser, “Dispersion penalty reduction using an optical

modulator with adjustable chirp,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 916-

918, 1991.

3.4.3 Measured LiNbO3 external modulator

Icon

Theory

From measured characteristics of LiNbO3 external modulators, the optical output

pulse can be determined by the measured extinction ratio and the measured rise/fall times.

Fig. 3.4.3 -2 Calculated output pulse shape and chirping. Chirping model 1 is used
for 0.1Åpeak chirp with the extinction ratio of 12dB

63
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Fig. 3.4.3 -3 Calculated output pulse shape and chirping. Chirping model 2 is used
for 0.1Åpeak chirp with the extinction ratio of 12dB

Input dialog box

Fig. 3.4.3 -4 Input dialog box of parameters for the measured LiNbO3 external
modulator model

64
© AO Technology, 2002

Description of parameters for analytical LiNbO3 external modulator

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Chirp Model 1 Chirping model 1 (Eq. 3.4.2 -1) -
Chirp Model 2 Chirping model 2 (Eq. 3.4.2 -2) -

Extinction Ratio Extinction ratio 12 dB

Peak chirp; for positive chirp


input positive value, and for
Peak Chirp 0.1Å
negative chirp input negative
value
Rise/Fall Time Rise and fall times of output pulse 45 ps
Insertion loss by LiNbO3
Insertion Loss 3 dB
modulator

3.5 EAMI-DFB lasers

In recent years, electroabsorption modulators have been attractive as transmitters for

high bit rates and long haul optical fiber transmission systems because they have some

advantages not only of a small negative chirp but also of the compactness and

polarization control elimination through the monolithic integration with a DFB laser.

3.5.1 Complete EAMI-DFB laser model from rate equations

Icon

Theory

Large signal chirp in electro-absorption modulators integrated with distributed

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feedback (EAMI-DFB) laser are caused by the combination of the two phenomena. One

is the phase modulation in a modulator (= intrinsic modulator chirp). It is due to the

refractive index change induced by variation of the absorption coefficient. It affects the

wavelength shift at the rising and falling edges. The other is the lasing wavelength shift

in a laser since the carrier density fluctuates by the optical feedback and the electrical

coupling (= laser chirp) [3.5.1-1], resulting in a difference of the lasing wavelengths

between a mark power level and a space power level.

Fig. 3.5.1-1 shows the structure of EAMI-DFB lasers [3.5.1-10]. Along the

longitudinal direction, a DFB laser is integrated with a modulator including a waveguide

region. Fig. 3.5.1-2 is schematically illustrating the wave propagation in EAMI-DFB

lasers. It is possible for the time dependent TMM to involve not only forward traveling

waves but also backward reflected waves, and to consider the spatial hole burning, as the

overall structure is divided into a number of small sections.

risolation
I bias
f V mod + Vbias
HR coating
AR coating

RLD Rmod
LLD Ltr Lmod

DFB laser Waveguide modulator

Fig. 3.5.1-1 Schematic showing cross-sectional view of an EAMI-DFB laser

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Ai-1 Ai Ai+1
... ...
Bi-1 Bi Bi+1

Fig. 3.5.1-2 Schematic illustrating wave propagation on the time-dependent


TMM-based large signal dynamic EAMI-DFB model

The DFB laser can be modeled by interpreting grating structure with the transfer

matrix [3.5.1-2]. In section 3.2.1, the DFB model is explained in detail. To apply TMM to

the modulator as well as the laser, we modify the propagation part of the transfer matrix

as follows

∂ A ( z, t ) 1 ∂ A ( z , t ) 1
+ = − Γα(1 − iα chirp ) A(z, t ) (3.5.1-1)
∂z vg ∂t 2

where A(z,t) is the normalized pulse envelope such that |A(z,t)|2 represents the optical

power, vg is the group velocity, and Γ is the confinement factor. The chirp parameter is

defined by [3.5.1-3].

4π ∆n (λ, V )
α chirp (λ, V) = × (3.5.1-2)
λ ∆α(λ, V )

The absorption spectrum is assumed to be the Lorentzian function rather than

calculating the exact absorption spectrum by the Schrödinger equation [3.5.1-4]. The

absorption coefficient depends on wavelengths and drive voltages due to the quantum-

confined Stark effect.

α p (V ) × (∆λ(V ) / 2) 2
α (λ , V ) = (3.5.1-3)
(λ − λ p (V)) 2 + (∆λ (V) / 2) 2

where αp(V) is the peak absorption coefficient { αp(V) = α0× (1+V/24) }, λp(V)

represents the wavelength with the peak absorption coefficient { λp(V) = λp0 – 4×10-
9
×V }, and ∆λ(V) stands for the spectral broadening { ∆λ(V) = (10-1.28×V3)×10-9 }.

The change of refractive index can be calculated from the change of the absorption

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coefficient through the Kramers-Kronig relation [3.5.1-5].


λ2 ∆α(λ, V)
∆n (λ, V) = 2 P
2π −∞ λ2 − λ ′2
dλ ′ ∫ (3.5.1-4)

where symbol P represents the Cauchy principal value.

Fig.3.5.1-3 shows calculated absorption coefficients and refractive index changes

(∆n) as a function of applied voltage with Eq.(3.5.1-3) and (3.5.1-4). When the applied

voltage is higher than –0.5 V, ∆n increases by decreasing the drive voltage. In this case,

the chirp parameter becomes positive, as expected from Eq.(3.5.1-2). However, when the

applied voltage is lower than –0.5 V, ∆n reduces by decreasing the drive voltage and the

chirp parameter becomes negative.

0.008
300000
0.006

250000
Absorption Coefficient [/m]

0.004

200000 0.002

150000 0.000
∆n
100000 -0.002

-0.004
50000

-0.006
0
-0.008
-4 -2 0 2
Applied Voltage [V]

Fig. 3.5.1-3 Calculated absorption coefficient (solid line) and refractive index
change (∆n) (dotted line) in modulators as a function of bias voltage

In the waveguide region, the absorption was ignored since it was not important to

determine large signal chirp, and the refractive index was linearly interpolated between

the refractive index of the laser section and the modulator section. The length of a

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waveguide region plays a significant role in changing the laser chirp since the phase of

optical wave shifts through the waveguide region. The reflectivity at the end of the laser

section has a phase term since it is very difficult to control the grating phase at the end of

DFB lasers. It is also a very important parameter determining characteristics of large

signal chirp in the laser section. In addition, the drive voltage of modulators changes the

bias current of the laser due to imperfect isolation between the laser and the modulator.

We include the effect of electrical coupling with containing isolation resistance as shown

in Fig. 3.5.1-1 [3.5.1-6]. For example, the modulator drive voltage of 2 V and isolation

resistance of 2 kΩ causes the leakage current of 1mA from the modulator to the laser.

In order to perform a dynamic analysis of EAMI-DFB lasers, we obtained the time-

dependent TMM from the conventional TMM [3.5.1-7].

 a ( t )a 21 ( t ) a 12 ( t ) 
 a 11 ( t ) − 12
A i +1 ( t + ∆t )  a 22 ( t ) a 22 ( t )  A i ( t ) 

 =   (3.5.1-5)
B i ( t + ∆t )  a 21 ( t ) 1  B i +1 ( t )
 − 
 a 22 ( t ) a 22 ( t ) 

where AI(t) and BI(t) are the normalized slowly varying envelopes of forward and

backward traveling waves at section I and time t. amn(t) is the element of the conventional

transfer matrix. At each section and time, it is obtained by gain coefficient, carrier density,

and refractive index change for the laser section, and by absorption coefficient and

refractive index change for the modulator section. Assuming that all parameters remain

unchanged through each section in the time interval t to t+∆t, we can calculate the output

fields AI+1 and BI at a time t+∆t from the input fields AI and BI+1 at a time t using

Eq.(3.5.1-5).

Large signal chirp of EAMI-DFB lasers was separately calculated as the laser chirp

and the modulator chirp. The intrinsic modulator chirp was obtained by differentiating

the phase of field to the time { -1/(2π)×(dφ/dt) } [3.5.1-5], while the DFB laser chirp was

acquired by calculating the lasing wavelength with the maximum transmittance from the

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© AO Technology, 2002

total transfer matrix of the laser section [3.5.1-8].

In order to justify the accuracy of our model, the calculated chirp was compared

with the measured chirp for 10Gbps EAMI-DFB lasers. The time resolved chirp was

measured by a scanning optical monochromator and a digital scope [3.5.1-9]. The

measured chirp was similar to the calculated chirp with the adjusting of some parameters

related to the laser and the modulator. Fig. 3.5.1-4 and 3.5.1-5 show the measured chirp

and the calculated chirp with Rmod = 0.7 %, risolation = 2 kΩ, Ltr = 135 µm, and φ = π/45.

Fig. 3.5.1-4 shows the case of positive chirp with the bias voltage of 0 V and the peak-to-

peak modulation voltage of 2 V. Fig. 3.5.1-5 shows the case of negative chirp with the

bias voltage of –1.5 V and the peak-to-peak modulation voltage of 2 V. By only changing

the bias voltage in our EAMI-DFB laser modules, the calculated chirp is in good

agreement with the measured chirp. The small deviation between the measured and

simulated data is probably attributed to neglect capacitance coupling between modulator

and laser, and the effect of impedance mismatching between device and drive circuit.

Once all the parameters are set for chirp calculation at a certain bias voltage, the chirp

can be estimated at any bias voltage without changing the parameters.

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0.2 Measured Data

0.1

0.0

Optical Power [a.u]


-0.1
Chirp [Å]

-0.2

0.2 Simulated Data

0.1

0.0

-0.1

-0.2

1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8


Time [ns]

Fig. 3.5.1-4 Measured (upper) and calculated (lower) data with Vbias = 0 V, V mod =
2Vpp, Rmod = 0.7 %, r isolation = 2 KΩ, Ltr = 135 µm, and φ = π/45

0.2 Measured Data

0.1

0.0

-0.1 Optical Power [a.u]


Chirp [Å]

-0.2

0.2 Simulated Data

0.1

0.0

-0.1

-0.2

1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8


Time [ns]

Fig. 3.5.1-5 Measured (upper) and calculated (lower) data with Vbias = -1.5 V, V mod
= 2Vpp, Rmod = 0.7 %, r isolation = 2 KΩ, Ltr = 135 µm, and φ = π/45

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© AO Technology, 2002

Input dialog box

Fig. 3.5.1- 6 Input dialog box of physical parameters of the laser section in the
complete EAMI-DFB laser model from rate equations

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Fig. 3.5.1- 7 Input dialog box of physical parameters of the modulator section in
the complete EAMI-DFB laser model from rate equations

73
© AO Technology, 2002

Fig. 3.5.1- 8 Input dialog box of material parameters of the laser section in
complete EAMI-DFB laser model from rate equations

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© AO Technology, 2002

Fig. 3.5.1- 9 Input dialog box of material parameters of the modulator section in
the complete EAMI-DFB laser model from rate equations

75
© AO Technology, 2002

Fig. 3.5.1- 10 Input dialog box of other parameters in the complete EAMI-DFB
laser model from rate equations

Description of parameters for complete EAMI-DFB laser model from rate equations

Default Value /
Parameter Description
Units
Grating period Half length of a grating pitch 0.1125 µm
Real part of differential refractive
Delta n (real) -0.001725
index
Imaginary part of differential refractive
Delta n (imag) 0
index
Average n_eff Average refractive index (n1+n2)/2 3.45
Active layer
Active layer width of DFB laser 1.5 µm
width

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Active layer
Active layer thickness of DFB laser 0.12 µm
thickness
Optical
confinement Optical confinement factor 0.3
factor
R_rear_facet Rear facet reflectance 70 %
Phase_rear_facet Grating phase of rear facet 150 deg.
Grating phase
between laser and Grating phase between laser and
waveguide 0 deg.
waveguide section
section
n_eff Effective refractive index of modulator 3.424
R_front_facet Front facet reflectance 0%
Ao Material gain constant 2.5 × 10-20 m2
A1 Material gain constant 1.5 × 1019 m-3
A2 Material gain constant 2.7 × 10-32 m4
No Carrier density at transparency 9 × 1023 m-3
Eff. Loss Effective loss ( α loss ) 2500 m-1
C1 Recombination rate 2500000 s-1
C2 Recombination rate 1 × 10-16 s-1
C3 Recombination rate 3 × 10-41 s-1
Alpha parameter Alpha parameter ( α ) 5
Wavelength for Gain peak wavelength ( λ peak ) 1.58 um
peak gain
Gain compression
Nonlinear gain compression factor ( ε ) 1.5 × 10-23 m3
factor
Wavelength for
Wavelength for absorption peak 1.525 um
absorption peak
Delta_lambda Delta lambda for absorption 0.01 um
Max_absorption Maximum absorption 300000 m-1
I_bias_DFB Bias current of steady state condition 40 mA
Electrical
confinement Electrical confinement factor 0.9
factor
Fiber coupling
Fiber coupling loss 1 dB
loss
Isolation resistance between laser and
R_isolation 10 Kohm
modulator
No. of laser Number of divided sections in DFB
20
sections laser section
No. of waveguide Number of divided sections in
6
sections waveguide section

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No. of modulator Number of divided sections in


8
sections modulator section
Length of section Length of each divided section 22.5 um

References

[3.5.1-1] Dietrich Marcuse, “DFB laser with attached external intensity modulator,”

IEEE J. of Quantum Electron., vol.26, No.2, pp.262-269, Feb. 1990.

[3.5.1-2] I. Orfanos, Thomas Sphicopoulos, A. Tsigopoulos, and C. Caroubalos, “A

tractable above-threshold model for the design of DFB and phase-shifted DFB

lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron., vol.27, No.4, pp.945-956, Apr. 1991.

[3.5.1-3] Fumio Koyama, and Kenichi Iga, “Frequency chirping in external modulators,”

J. Lightwave Technol., vol.6, No.1, pp.87-92, Jan. 1988.

[3.5.1-4] Andreas Ahland, Dirk Schulz, and Edgar Voges, “Efficient modeling of the

optical properties of MQW modulators on InGaAsP with absorption edge

merging,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron., vol. 34, No.9, pp. 1597-1603, Sep 1998.

[3.5.1-5] L. M. Zhang and J. E. Carroll, “Semiconductor 1.55 µm laser source with

gigabit/second integrated electroabsorptive modulator,” IEEE J. of Quantum

Electron., vol.30, No.11, pp.2573-2577, Nov. 1994.

[3.5.1-6] Masayuki Yamauchi, Tomoaki Kato, Tatsuya Sasaki, Keiro Komatsu, and

Mitsuhiro Kitamura, “Requirements for modulator-integrated DFB LD’s for

penalty-free 2.5-Gb/s transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.13, No.10,

pp.1948-1954, Oct. 1995.

[3.5.1-7] Yonggyoo Kim, Hanlim Lee, Sungkee Kim, Jeongyun Ko, and Jichai Jeong,

“Analysis of frequency chirping and extinction ratio of optical phase conjugate

signals by four-wave mixing in SOAs,” accepted for IEEE J. of Select. Topics

Quantum Electron.,

[3.5.1-8] M. G. Davis and R. F. O’Dowd, “A transfer matrix method based large-signal

78
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dynamic model for multielectrode DFB lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron.,

vol.30, No.11 pp.2458-2466, Nov. 1994.

[3.5.1-9] Jichai Jeong and Y. K. Park, “Accurate determination of transient chirp

parameter in high speed digital lightwave transmitters,” Electron. Lett., vol.33,

no.7, pp.605-606, 1997.

[3.5.1-10] Yonggyoo Kim, Hanlim Lee, Jaehoon Lee, Jaeho Han, T.W.Oh, and Jichai

Jeong, “Chirp characteristics of 10Gbps electro-absorption modulator integrated

DFB lasers”, IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. Vol. 36, No. 8, pp. 900-908 Aug.

2000.

3.5.2 Analytical EAMI-DFB laser model

Icon

Theory

The linewidth broadening factor α is defined as α=∆n′/∆n″, where ∆n′ and ∆n″ are

the relative changes of the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index in an optical

device, respectively. The α-parameter varies with input electrical signals according to the

following relation [3.5.2-1].


α= (V − Vz ) (3.5.2-1)
dV

where V is the reverse applied voltage, and Vz is the voltage where the chirp is zero.

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The extinction ratio of an electroabsorption type semiconductor modulator generally

becomes a nonlinear relation, as shown in Fig. 3.5.2-1 and Fig. 3.5.2-2. The power

intensity, Popt , of the modulated output light is given by (3.5.2-2) or (3.5.2-3), which can

be selected through dialog box. The unit of the power intensity can be selected either mW

or dBm using the same P-V curve.

Popt / Po = exp[ − (V / V o ) a ]( mW ) (3.5.2-2)

Popt / Po = {20 exp[−(V / Vo ) a ] − 20}(dB) (3.5.2-3)

where Po is the effective intensity of the input light considering the device insertion loss,

and Vo and a are constants. The instantaneous power intensity Popt and the phase φ of the

modulator output light are related as [3.5.2-2].

dφ α dPopt
= ⋅ (3.5.2-4)
dt 2 Popt dt

Therefore, the amplitude of the electric field E(t) in the output light is expressed as

E (t ) = Popt
1/ 2
⋅ exp[ j (ω ot + φ )] (3.5.2-5)

where ωo is the angular frequency of the input light to the modulator.

To get the proper simulation results, default values of the electrical signal generator

(V_offset, V_pp) have to be converted to the value with which you want to simulate,

because it is used to the other transmitter, too.

To obtain the extinction ratio about 10dB using Eq. (3.2.2-3), the default value of the

electrical signal generator must be changed as following:

Voffset = − 1.7V , V pp =1V

The output power can be normalize as normalized average power, if the check

button ‘Normalize’ is checked.

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Fig. 3.5.2-1 Transfer characteristics of EAMI-DFB lasers by Eq. (3.2.2-2)

Fig. 3.5.2-2 Transfer characteristics of EAMI-DFB lasers by Eq. (3.5.2-3)

Transfer characteristics can be changed by measured data. In order to insert

measured data, the name of the data file should be ‘*.dat’ and the format of the data file

should be like this:

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0 0 0 2.6

-0.2 -0.05 -0.2 2.15

-0.4 -0.46 -0.4 1.82

-0.6 -1.51 -0.6 1.39


: : : :

Column 1 Column 2 Column 1 Column 2

Applied Voltage Output Power Applied Voltage Chirp parameter

in V scale in dB scale in V scale

Fig. 3.5.2-3 Measured data’s format of the P-V and α-V transfer characteristics

Input dialog box

Fig. 3.5.2-4 Input dialog box of parameters for EAMI-DFB lasers (analytical
model)

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Fig. 3.5.2-5 Input dialog box of P-V transfer characteristics for EAMI-DFB lasers
(analytical model)

Fig. 3.5.2-6 Input dialog box of Alpha-V Transfer Characteristics in EAMI-DFB lasers
(analytical model)

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Description of parameters for EAMI-DFB lasers (analytic model)

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Wavelength Lasing wavelength 1.55µm
Normalize output power according to a
Normalize -
average power
Normalized
Average power to be normalized 0dBm
Avg. Power
-1.4 for low mesa
See Fig. 3.5.2-1, Fig. 3.5.2-2 and waveguide
V0
Eq. (3.5.2-2), Eq. (3.5.2-3) -1.3 for high mesa
waveguide
3 for low mesa
Absorption See Fig. 3.5.2-1, Fig. 3.5.2-2 and waveguide
coefficient (a) Eq. (3.5.2-2), Eq. (3.5.2-3) 4 for high mesa
waveguide
Select power unit dBm or mW for P-V
Power Unit dBm
transfer characteristics
Use Eq. (3.2.2-2) for P-V transfer
mW -
characteristics of analytical model
Use Eq. (3.2.2-3) for P-V transfer
dBm -
characteristics of analytical model
Voltage where
Voltage where the chirp is zero -1.3V
chirp is zero
Slope of chirp Slope of the α-parameter vs. voltage 2
Analytical Transfer characteristics
-
model using analytical model
Measured
Transfer characteristics
characteristics -
using measured data
(by user)

References

[3.5.2 -1] G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, New York: Academic Press, 1989.

[3.5.2 -2] Christian Hentschel, Fiber Optics Handbook, 2nd, Hewlett Packard.

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3.6 Model of mode locked laser

Icon

Theory

The existence of fiber solitons is the result of a balance between group-velocity

dispersion (GVD) and self-phase modulation (SPM), both of which limit the performance

of fiber-optic communication systems when acting independently on optical pulses

propagating through the fiber. When optical pulse with a narrow pulse width and a high

peak power propagates through the anomalous region of the fiber, SPM and GVD can

cooperate in such a way that the SPM-induced chirp is adequate to cancel the GVD-

induced broadening of the pulse. The optical pulse would then propagate undistorted in

the form of solitons.

In order to make narrow pulse trains, CW mode locking can be used. In this case,

for either slow or fast saturation forms, the output electric field is expressed as a

hyperbolic secant function [3.6-1].

E (t ) = E0 sech (t / τ p ) (3.6-1)

Note that the parameter τp in this function is not the FWHM. The FWHM is related

to τ (FWHM)=1.76×τp.

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1.2

Norm alized Output Power


0.8

0.4

0.0

0 200 400 600 800 1000

Tim e (ps)

Fig. 3.6-1 Calculated pulse pattern of mode-locked lasers

Input dialog box

Fig. 3.6 -2 Input dialog box of parameters for the mode-locked laser model

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Description of parameters for mode-locked laser model

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Full width half maximum of a
FWHM of pulse 3.5 ps
soliton pulse
Peak pulse power Peak power of the soliton pulse 3 dBm
Wavelength Lasing wavelength 1.55 µm
Data rate Reciprocal of pulse period 10 GHz

References

[3.6-1] H. A. Haus, C. V. Shank, and E. P. Ippen, “Shape of passively mode-locked laser

pulses,” Opt. Commun., pp. 29-31, 1975.

3.7 Transmitter model using measured LI curve form laser

diodes for analog applications

Icon

Theory

Since subcarrier multiplexing systems use many subcarriers, the nonlinearity of

laser diodes affects the system performance of analog links. The nonlinear effect in laser

diodes can be observed immediately by using measured L-I curves and the

intermodulation products will be predicted.

The output P of laser diodes is expressed as a polynomial in current, I [3.7-1].

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P ( I) = a 0 + a 1 I + a 2 I 2 + a 3 I 3 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ (3.7-1)

where I is the drive current, and the coefficients a0, a1, a2, and a3 are obtained from the

minimized difference between P(I) and PM(I), measured data.

min{< PM (I) − P(I) >} (3.7-2)


ai

The coefficients of the polynomial can be found by the least mean square algorithm.

It is possible for this model to estimate not only harmonic and intermodulation distortions

but also adjacent channel power ratios [3.7-2].

Fig. 3.7-1 shows the results of two-tone tests. To improve resolution of FFT,

windows such as Hamming, Hanning, and Blackman are used [3.7-3]. Therefore, it is

possible to estimate intermodulation distortion below –100dB.

Data format of measured LI curve:

In order to insert measured LI curve data, the name of the data file should be *.dat.

0.05 0.1

0.1 0.12

0.15 0.13

0.2 0.14

: :

Column 1 Column 2

Driving current Optical power

in mA scale in mW scale

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Normalized Power Spectrum [dB]


-20

-40

-60

-80

-100

-120

1.846 1.848 1.850 1.852 1.854 1.856 1.858

Frequency [GHz]

Fig. 3.7-1 Two-tone test of laser diodes using FFT with the Blackman window

Input dialog box

Fig. 3.7 -2 Input dialog box of parameters for the measured LI curve laser model

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Description of parameters for measured LI curve

Parameter Description Default Value/ Units


Lasing
Lasing wavelength 1.55 µm
wavelength
Input
Input Impedance of a transmitter 50 Ω
Impedance
Alpha
Alpha parameter 6
Parameter
Load L-I curve Choose LI curve (default) or LI curve
LI curve (default)
data (by user)

References

[3.7-1] James C. Kaly, “Fiber Optic Intermodulation Distortion,” IEEE Trans. Commun.,

vol. COM-30, pp. 1954-1958, Aug. 1982

[3.7-2] Makoto Shibutani, Toshihito Kanai, Watani Domom, Katsumi Emura, and Junji

Namiki, “Optical Fiber Feeder for Microcellular Mobile Communication Systems

(H-015),” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 11, pp. 1118-1126, Sept. 1993

[3.7-3] Alan V. Oppenheim, Discrete time signal processing, Prentice Hall, 1989

3.8 Tunable EAMI-DBR lasers from rate equations

Icon

Theory

The model is based on the time-dependent transfer matrix method (TMM).

A. SOA and gain region of DBR lasers

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The evolution of slowly varying amplitude A(z,t) inside SOAs and gain region is

governed by the pulse propagation equation [3.8-1]:

∂ A ( z, t ) 1 ∂ A ( z , t ) i 1
+ = − α Γ g m A( z, t ) + gA(z, t ) (3.8-1)
∂z vg ∂t 2 2

where A(z,t) is the normalized pulse envelope such that |A(z,t)|2 represents the optical

power and α is the linewidth enhancement. vg is the group velocity, Γ is the

confinement factor, gm is the material gain , and g is the net gain.

To consider the interaction between the carrier density (N) and the photon

density (S ), we divide the SOA into a number of small sections, and solve the rate

equation in each section as [3.8-1]

∂N i I
= − N i (c1 + c 2 N i + c3 N i2 ) − v g Γg m iSi (3.8-2)
∂t qV

where index i corresponds to different sections, index w refers to different optical

input signals, I is the injection current, V is the active volume, q is the electronic

charge, and c1 , c2 , and c3 are related to recombination constants.

The average photon density S i is calculated by [3.8-1]

| A i |2 + | A i+1 |2 + | B i |2 + | B i+1 |2
Si = (3.8-3)
2 v g E A cross

where Ai is forward-traveling wave amplitude, Bi is backward-traveling wave

amplitude, E is photon energy, and Across is the cross sectional area of the active layer.

B. Bragg reflector region of DBR lasers

The Bragg reflector region can be modeled by interpreting a grating structure with

the transfer matrix [3.8-2]. The transfer matrix for one corrugation period can be

obtained from the matrices of a homogeneous waveguide and a refractive index step.

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 n1 + n 2 n1 − n 2   n 2 + n1 n 2 − n1 
 2n 2 n1 e γ 2l
0   2n 2 2 n 2   eγ 1 l 0 
[Tp ] =  1
      (3.8-4)
 n1 − n 2 n1 + n 2  0 e −γ 2 l   n 2 − n1 n 2 + n1  0 e −γ 1l 
 2n 2n1   2n 2n 2 
 1  2

where n1 and n2 are the refractive indices, and γ1 and γ2 are the complex propagation

constants in the two refractive index regions. The real part of γ is determined by the

gain coefficients. The imaginary part of γ depends on the refractive index and affects

the phase shift of the optical wave. γ is obtained from Eq.( 3.8-1). The transfer

matrix for one section can be calculated from M (= number of corrugation periods in

one section) power of the transfer matrix for a single corrugation period {[T]i =

[Tp]M} to analyze a grating structure.

C. Electroabsorption modulator

To apply TMM to the modulator, we modify the propagation part of the transfer

matrix as follows [3.8-2]:

∂ A ( z, t ) 1 ∂ A ( z, t ) 1
+ = − Γα (1 − iα chirp ) A(z, t ) (3.8-5)
∂z vg ∂t 2

where A(z,t) is the normalized pulse envelope such that |A(z,t)|2 represents the

optical power, vg is the group velocity, and Γ is the confinement factor. The chirp

parameter in the modulator is defined by αchirp( λ,V) = (4π/λ) {∆n( λ,V)/ ∆α( λ,V)}. We

assume the absorption spectrum to be Lorentzian function [3.8-2]. The absorption

coefficient depends on the wavelength and drive voltage due to the quantum-

confined Stark effect. The change of the refractive index can be calculated from the

change of the absorption coefficient through the Kramers-Kronig relation.

D. Time-dependent TMM

In order to perform a dynamic analysis of EAMI-DFB lasers, we modify the time-

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dependent TMM from the conventional TMM [3.8-1]:

 a ( t )a 21 ( t ) a12 ( t ) 
 a11 ( t ) − 12
A i+1 ( t + ∆t )  a 22 ( t ) a 22 ( t )  A i ( t ) 
B ( t + ∆t )  =    (3.8-6)
 i  a 21 ( t ) 1  Bi+1 ( t )
 − 
 a 22 ( t ) a 22 ( t ) 

where Ai(t) and Bi(t) are the normalized slowly-varying envelopes of the forward

and backward traveling waves at section i and time t. amn(t) are the elements of the

conventional transfer matrix. In the time-dependent model, the complex propagation

constant varies in time, and as a result, amn(t) will also be functions of time.

Assuming that all parameters remain unchanged throughout each section in the time

interval t to t+∆t, we can calculate the output fields Ai+1 and Bi at a time t+∆t from

the input fields Ai and Bi+1 at a time t.

We used a little different transfer matrix according to the structure due to the

change of the complex propagation constant and the refractive index. Therefore, we

can accurately calculate pulse shapes and large signal chirps though the longitudinal

cavity of EA-DBR laser with integrated SOA varies diversely.

E. Chirp calculation

The modulator chirp was obtained from differentiating a phase of electric fields to

time { -1/(2π)×(dφ/dt) } in the modulator section [3.8-2], while the laser chirp was

acquired from calculating the lasing wavelength with the maximum transmittance

from the total transfer matrix of the at SOA and DBR laser section [3.8-2]. Therefore,

our model can accurately estimate the total chirp in tunable EAMI-DBR lasers as

compared to the other models.

Calculated pulse pattern is shown below Fig. 3.8-1.

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Fig. 3.8-1 Calculated pulse pattern

Fig. 3.8-2 Input dialog box of structure for the tunable EAMI-DBR laser model for rate
equations

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Fig. 3.8-3 Input dialog box of physical parameters of the grating section for the tunable
EAMI-DBR laser model for rate equations

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Fig. 3.8-4 Input dialog box of material parameters of the grating section in the tunable
EAMI-DBR laser model from rate equations

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Fig. 3.8-5 Input dialog box of physical parameters of the gain section in the tunable
EAMI-DBR laser model from rate equations

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Fig. 3.8-6 Input dialog box of material parameters of the gain section in the tunable
EAMI-DBR laser model from rate equations

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Fig. 3.8-7 Input dialog box of parameters of the modulator section in the tunable EAMI-
DBR laser model from rate equations

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Fig. 3.8-8 Input dialog box of other parameters in the tunable EAMI-DBR laser model
from rate equations

Description of parameters for tunable EAMI-DBR lasers from rate equations

Default Value /
Parameter Description
Units
1st region Selection of types of the 1st region 3 (modulator region)
2nd region Selection of types of the 2nd region 2 (gain region)
3rd region Selection of types of the 3rd region 1 (grating region)
4th region Selection of types of the 4th region 2 (gain region)
5th region Selection of types of the 5th region 0 (not used)
6th region Selection of types of the 6th region 0 (not used)
Number of divided sections for each
No. of sections 6/20/11/19/0/0
region

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Injected current Injected current for each region 0/20/5/30/0/0 mA


Length of section Length of each divided section 22.5 um
Grating period Half length of a grating pitch 0.1137 µm
Real part of differential refractive
Delta n (real) -0.0016
index
Imaginary part of differential refractive
Delta n (imag) 0
index
Average n_eff Average refractive index (n1+n2)/2 3.45
Active layer
Active layer width of DFB laser 1.5 µm
width
Active layer
Active layer thickness of DFB laser 0.12 µm
thickness
Optical
confinement Optical confinement factor 0.35
factor
Ao Material gain constant 2.7 × 10-20 m2
A1 Material gain constant 1.5 × 1019 m-3
A2 Material gain constant 2.7 × 10-32 m4
No Carrier density at transparency 1 × 1024 m-3
Eff. Loss Effective loss ( α loss ) 2500 m-1
C1 Recombination rate 2500000 s-1
C2 Recombination rate 1 × 10-16 s-1
C3 Recombination rate 3 × 10-41 s-1
Alpha parameter Alpha parameter ( α ) 20
Wavelength for Gain peak wavelength ( λ peak ) 1.57 um
peak gain
Gain compression
Nonlinear gain compression factor ( ε ) 4 × 10-24 m3
factor
n_eff Effective refractive index 3.45
Active layer
Active layer width of DFB laser 1.1 µm
width
Active layer
Active layer thickness of DFB laser 0.049 µm
thickness
Optical
confinement Optical confinement factor 0.1
factor
Ao Material gain constant 9 × 10-20 m2
A1 Material gain constant 1.5 × 1019 m-3
A2 Material gain constant 2.7 × 10-32 m4
No Carrier density at transparency 1 × 1024 m-3

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Eff. Loss Effective loss ( α loss ) 2500 m-1


C1 Recombination rate 100000000 s-1
C2 Recombination rate 8 × 10-17 s-1
C3 Recombination rate 1 × 10-40 s-1
Alpha parameter Alpha parameter ( α ) 3
Wavelength for Gain peak wavelength ( λ peak ) 1.57 um
peak gain
Gain compression
Nonlinear gain compression factor ( ε ) 4 × 10-24 m3
factor
Wavelength for
Wavelength for absorption peak 1.525 um
absorption peak
Delta_lambda Delta lambda for absorption 0.01 um
Max_absorption Maximum absorption 300000 m-1
n_eff Effective refractive index of modulator 3.424
Electrical
confinement Electrical confinement factor 1
factor
Fiber coupling
Fiber coupling loss 0 dB
loss
R_front_facet Front facet reflectance 0.0001 %
R_rear_facet Rear facet reflectance 90 %

Reference

[3.8-1] Hanlim Lee, Hyunjae Yoon, Yonggyoo Kim, and Jichai Jeong, “Theoretical study

of frequency chirping and extinction ratio of wavelength-converted optical signals

by XGM and XPM using SOAs,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electron.,, Vol. 35,

No. 8, pp. 1213-1219, Aug. 1999.

[3.8-2] Yonggyoo Kim, Hanlim Lee, Jaehoon Lee, Jaeho Han, T.W.Oh, and Jichai Jeong,

“Chirp characteristics of 10Gbps electro-absorption modulator integrated DFB

lasers”, IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. Vol. 36, No. 8, pp. 900-908 Aug. 2000.

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3.9 Transmitter model using measured pulse pattern and

chirping

Icon

Theory

A transmitter model sometimes cannot represent the real transmitter used in the

system. In Photonics CAD, the transmitter model can be replaced by measured pulse

patterns and chirping from the real transmitter so that one can accurately estimate the

transmission performance for one’s interested transmission systems. The measured data

file format is shown below to import measured chirping and pulse patterns. In this case,

one can include experimental chirping and pulse patterns to observe the pulse

propagation in optical fibers.

The measurement setup is schematically shown in Fig. 3.9-1. 10 or 20Gbit/s

Ti:LiNbO3 modulator-based transmitters are driven with large electrical PRBS NRZ data

with the word length of 27-1. The 10Gbit/s transmitter has a Mach-Zehnder

interferometer type modulator, so the sign and the magnitude of the transient chirp of

transmitters can be varied with adjusting the voltage ratio applied to two electrodes. The

time resolved frequency chirp was measured by a scanning optical monochromator and a

digital oscilloscope. Both are controlled by a personal computer (PC). Digital data of the

optical power distribution in the time domain for each filtered wavelength are stored in

the PC and the time resolved transient chirp and optical output pattern are reconstructed

from the stored digital data. Fig. 3.9-2 shows the measured optical output data

(corresponding to the bit sequence of 1100110101011011110) from the 20Gbit/s

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transmitter and their time resolved frequency chirping.

Fig. 3.9-1 Configuration of chirp measurement setup and transmitter with adjustable
chirp. Att; electrical attenuator, PMF; polarization maintaining fiber, DFB
lasers; packaged DFB laser with built-in isolator, and EDFA; Er-doped
fiber amplifier

a)

b)

Fig. 3.9 -2 Measured output data and time resolved frequency chirping of
20Gbit/s transmitter driven by large signal 27-1 NRZ PRBS data:
(a) Measured output pulses and (b) Time resolved chirping data

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Input dialog box

Fig. 3.9 -3 Input dialog box of parameters for the measured transmitter model

Description of parameters for the measured transmitter model

Parameter Description Default Value / Units


Select a data type out of measure
Data File Measured Data
data and stored data
Enter filename of measured data
File name -
or stored data
Wavelength Wavelength of signal 1.55 µm
Average output power of
Avg. power 0 dBm
transmitters
00001001001101001111
01110000111111100011
10110001010010111110
PRBS pattern Insert the PRBS pattern 10101000010110111100
11100101011001100000
11011010111010001100
10001000
Select a data format out of NRZ,
Data Format NRZ
RZ and Clock signal

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The file format for the measured data of measured transmitter model (*.dat):

1st Row 1st Column 2nd Column

Data rate in Hz Number of bits

1e10(tab) 32(enter)

0(tab) 0.21349(tab) 0(enter)

0.78125(tab) 0.21349(tab) 6.9E-5(enter)

From 1st Column 2nd Column 3rd Column

2nd Row Time in ps Magnitude of Chirp in Angstrom

Optical power in mW

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4. Receiver Models

Receivers convert optical signals into electrical ones to recover information data.

Receivers have enough bandwidth of amplifiers to adopt optical signals and a decision

circuit for digital transmission to reshape pulses. For digital applications, receivers can be

modeled as a filter and a noise generator to determine BER, electrical EOP, or eye margin

from transmitted data. Decision circuits should also be modeled to accurately estimate

BER. This chapter describes noise characteristics of photodetectors and frequency

responses of receivers (PD to power amplifier). Based on noise characteristics and

frequency responses, BER characteristics can be estimated by including the decision

circuit model.

4.1 Types of receivers

4.1.1 PIN diodes

Icon

Theory

Time-averaged signal photo current Is can be determined from the average optical

power Prec at the input of the receiver as

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e
Is = ⋅ Prec (4.1.1-1)

where e is an electric charge and hv a photon energy. For PIN receivers, shot and receiver

circuit noises are dominant. The noise terms are given by [4.1.1-1].

+
N shot ( mark ) = 4eI s (1 − cisi ) Be (4.1.1-2)


N shot ( space) = 4eI s cisi Be (4.1.1-3)


d < i2 > 2
N rec = ∫ H ( f )df (4.1.1-4)
0
df

where Nshot is shot noise, Nrec receiver circuit noise, Be bandwidth of receiver, and H(f)

+ −
receiver characteristics. cisi and cisi are the normalized eye closure of electrical pulse

at mark (“1”) and space (“0”), respectively. All noises are considered to be uncorrelated,

thus the total noise is given by the sum of all noise components as

N tot = N shot (mark , space) + N rec (4.1.1-5)

Input dialog box

Fig. 4.1.1-1 Input dialog box of parameters for the PIN diode model

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Description of parameters for PIN diodes

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Butterworth filter model as a
Butterworth filter frequency response characteristic of -
receiver
Bessel-Thomson filter model as a
Bessel-Thomson
frequency response characteristic of -
filter
receivers
Measured filter
Measured frequency response -
(default: 10GHz)
Measured filter
Measured frequency characteristics -
(by user)
Filter order for the Butterworth filter
Filter order 4
and the Bessel-Thomson filter
3dB bandwidth of
3dB bandwidth of a filter 10 GHz
filter
Ic Receiver circuit noise 17 pA/(Hz)0.5
Quantum Quantum efficiency of a
1
efficiency photodetector
Id Dark current of a photodetector 0 nA

References

[4.1.1-1] R. J. Nuyts, L. D. Tzeng, O. Mizuhara, and P. Gallion, “Effect of transmitter

speed and receiver bandwidth on the eye margin performance of a 10-Gb/s optical

fiber transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 532-534,

1997

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4.1.2 APD

Icon

Theory

For APD receivers, shot and receiver circuit noises are dominant. The noise terms

are the following:

N shot (mark ) = 4eM 2 FA I s (1 − cisi+ ) Be (4.1.2-1)

N shot ( space) = 4eM 2 FA I s cisi− Be (4.1.2-2)


d < i2 > 2
N rec = ∫ H ( f )df (4.1.2-3)
0
df

where M is the multiplication factor and FA the excess noise factor of APDs. The excess

noise factor is given by [4.1.2-1]

FA ( M ) = k A M + (1 − k A )(2 − 1 / M ) . (4.1.2-4)

For APDs, electrons initiate the avalanche process and α h < α e , k A = α h / α e . If

holes initiate the avalanche process and α h > α e , k A is defined as k A = α e / α h . All

noises are considered to be uncorrelated, thus the total noise is given by the sum of all

noise components as

N tot = N shot (mark , space) + N rec (4.1.2-5)

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Input dialog box

Fig. 4.1.2-1 Input dialog box of parameters for the APD model

Description of parameters for APD

Default value
Parameter Description
/ Units
Butterworth filter model as a frequency
Butterworth filter -
response characteristic of receiver
Bessel-Thomson Bessel-Thomson filter model as a frequency
-
filter response characteristic of receivers
Measured filter
Measured frequency response -
(default:10GHz)
Measured filter (by
Measured frequency characteristics -
user)
Filter order for the Butterworth filter and the
Filter order 4
Bessel-Thomson filter
3dB bandwidth of
3dB bandwidth of a filter 10 GHz
filter

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Ic Receiver circuit noise 17 pA/(Hz)0.5


Quantum efficiency Quantum efficiency of a photo-detector 1
Id Dark current of a photo-detector 0 nA
Multiplication
Multiplication factor of APD 10
Factor(M)
Impact ionization
Impact ionization factor of hole 116.4 cm-1
factor (hole)
Impact ionization
Impact ionization factor of electron 26.39 cm-1
factor (electron)

References

[4.1.2-1] R. J. McIntyre, "Multiplication noise in uniform avalanche diodes," IEEE Trans.

Electron Devices, vol. ED-13, p. 164, 1966.

4.2.3 EDFA preamplifier + PIN

Icon

Theory

The EDFA preamplifier and PIN configuration is a very effective way to improve

the receiver sensitivity by optically amplifying the incoming signal before the signal is

incident on a photodetector [4.2.3-1]. If the optical amplifier in receivers is a noise-free

device, the receiver sensitivity measured at the input of the optical amplifier is, in

principle, improved proportional to the net gain of the optical amplifier. Unfortunately,

optical amplifiers produce undesired amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noises

which, according to classical analysis, cause electrical beat noises during square-law

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detection at the photodetector. The noise terms of EDFA preamplifier receivers are the

following [4.2.3-2].

+
N shot ( mark ) = 4eI s (1 − cisi ) Be (4.2.3-1)


N shot ( space) = 4eI s cisi Be (4.2.3-2)

N shot ( ASE ) = 2eI sp Be (4.2.3-3)

2 Be ( 2 Bo − Be )
N sp − sp = I sp (4.2.3-4)
2 Bo2

+ Be
N s − sp ( mark ) = 4 I s I sp (1 − cisi ) (4.2.3-5)
Bo

− Be
N s − sp ( space) = 4 I s I sp cisi (4.2.3-6)
Bo


d < i2 > 2
N rec = ∫ H ( f )df (4.2.3-7)
0
df

where Ns-sp and Nsp-sp are the signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous

beat noise, respectively. Isp is the ASE noise photocurrent ( = 2nsp (G − 1)hνBo ), nsp the

amplifier spontaneous emission factor, G the amplifier gain, and Bo an optical bandwidth.

All noises are considered to be uncorrelated, and then the total noise is given by the sum

of all noise components as

N tot = N shot (mark , space) + N shot ( ASE ) + N s − sp (mark , space) + N sp − sp + N rec

(4.2.3-8)

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Input dialog box

Fig. 4.2.3-1 Input dialog box of parameters for the EDFA+PIN receiver model

Fig. 4.2.3-2 Input dialog box of pre-amplifier parameters for EDFA+PIN receiver
model

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Description of parameters used for EDFA+PIN receivers

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Butterworth filter model as a
Butterworth filter frequency response characteristic of -
receiver
Bessel-Thomson filter model as a
Bessel-Thomson filter frequency response characteristic of -
receivers
Measured filter
Measured frequency response -
(default:10GHz)
Measured filter (by
Measured frequency characteristics -
user)
Filter order for the Butterworth filter
Filter order 4
and the Bessel-Thomson filter
3dB bandwidth of
3dB bandwidth of a filter 10 GHz
filter
Ic Receiver circuit noise 17 pA/(Hz)1/2
Quantum efficiency of a photo-
Quantum efficiency 1
detector
Id Dark current of a photo-detector 0 nA
EDFA gain of an EDFA
Gain 15 dB
(gain and noise block model)
Noise figure of an EDFA
Noise figure 4
(gain and noise block model)
3dB passband width 3dB passband width of filter 50 GHz
Insertion loss Insertion loss of filter 0 dB

Reference

[4.2.3-1] C. R. Gilles, E. Desurvire, J. L. Zyskind, and J. R. Simpson, “Noise

performance of Er-doped fiber amplifier pumped at 1.49um and application to

signal preamplification at 1.8Gb/s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 367-

369, 1989.

[4.2.3-2] SungKee Kim and Jichai Jeong, "Transmission performance on frequency

response of receivers and chirping shape of transmitters for 10 Gb/s LiNbO3

modulator based lightwave systems," Optics Comm., vol.175, pp.109-123, 2000.

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4.2 Frequency response of PD to power amplifier

Theory

A receiver consists of a photodetector and preamplifier front-end followed by a

power amplifier and a decision circuit. The photodetector and preamplifier front-end and

power amplifier can be modeled into an electrical low-pass filter. Usually, three different

receiver filters are provided in Photonics CAD: the Butterworth filter, the Bessel-

Thomson one, and an experimentally measured frequency response of the receiver.

Especially, the last provides better prediction on BER characteristics, closer to the

measured ones.

Generally, the transfer function of a low-pass filter is defined by

K
H( f ) = (4.2-1)
Pn ( jf / B)

where K is the maximum value of H(f), B the 3-dB bandwidth, and Pn(jf/B) the n-th order

complex polynomial. The filter characteristics are determined by what polynomial is used.

4.2.1 Butterworth filter

Theory

In Eq. (4.2-1), if Pn is the Butterworth polynomial, the filter has the same

characteristics of the Butterworth filter, which provides the flattest possible passband

response for a given filter order. The table 4.2.1-1 lists the Butterworth polynomials from

n=1 to n=10, using the normalized variable p=jf/B.

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Table 4.2.1-1 Butterworth polynomials

N Pn(p)
1 p +1

2 p2 + 2 p + 1

3 p3 + 2 p 2 + 2 p + 1

4 p 4 + 2.613 p 3 + 3.414 p 2 + 2.613 p + 1

5 p 5 + 3.2361 p 4 + 5.2361 p 3 + 5.2361 p 2 + 3.2361 p + 1

6 p 6 + 3.8637 p 5 + 7.4641 p 4 + 9.1416 p 3 + 7.4641 p 2 + 3.8637 p + 1

7 p 7 + 4.4940 p 6 + 10.0978 p 5 + 14.5918 p 4 + 14.5918 p 3 + 10.0978 p 2 + 4.4940 p + 1

8 p8 + 5.1258p7 + 13.1371p 6 + 21.8462p5 + 25.6884p 4 + 21.8462p3 + 13.1371p 2 + 5.1258p + 1


p 9 + 5.7588 p 8 + 16.5817 p 7 + 31.1634 p 6 + 41.9864 p 5 + 41.9864 p 4 + 31.1634 p 3 + 16.5817 p 2 +
9
5.7588 p + 1
p10 + 6.3525p9 + 20.4317p8 + 42.8021p7 + 64.8824p6 + 74.2334p5 + 64.8824p 4 + 42.8021p3 +
10
20.4317p 2 + 6.3525p + 1

Calculated frequency response of filters:

Fig. 4.2.1-1 Frequency response of the 4th order Butterworth filter with the 3dB
frequency bandwidth of 10.3GHz

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4.2.2 Bessel-Thomson filter

Theory

In Eq. (4.2-1), if Pn is the Bessel polynomial, the filter has the same characteristics

of the Bessel-Thomson filter, which provides the linear phase response for a given filter

order. Table 4.2.2-1 lists the Bessel polynomials from n=1 to n=10 using the normalized

variable p=jf/B. For the Bessel-Thomson filter, 3dB-bandwidth must be adjusted by the

compensating factor c and Eq. (4.2-1) can be rewritten by

K
H ( f ) bessel = (4.2.2-1)
Pn ( jf /( B / c))

Table 4.2.2-1 Bessel polynomials

N Pn(p)
1 p +1

2 p2 + 3 p + 3

3 p 3 + 6 p 2 + 15 p + 15

4 p 4 + 10 p 3 + 45 p 2 + 105 p + 105

5 p 5 + 15 p 4 + 105 p 3 + 420 p 2 + 945 p + 945

6 p 6 + 21 p 5 + 210 p 4 + 1260 p 3 + 4725 p 2 + 10395 p + 10395

7 p 7 + 28 p 6 + 378 p 5 + 3150 p 4 + 17325 p 3 + 62370 p 2 + 135135 p + 135135

8 p8 + 36p7 + 630p6 + 6930p5 + 51975p4 + 270270p3 + 945945p2 + 2027025p + 2027025


p 9 + 45 p8 + 990 p 7 + 13860 p 6 + 135135p 5 + 945945p 4 + 4729752p 3 + 16216200p 2 +
9
34459425p + 34459425
p10 + 55p9 + 1485p8 + 25740p7 + 315315p6 + 2837835p5 + 18918900p4 + 91891800p3 +
10
310134825p2 + 654729075p + 654729075

Table 4.2.2-2 lists the compensating factor c according to the filter order [4.2.2-1]

N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

C 1.00 1.36 1.75 2.13 2.42 2.70 2.95 3.17 3.39 3.58

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Fig. 4.2.2-1 Frequency response of the 4th order Bessel-Thomson filter with the
3dB frequency bandwidth of 10.3GHz

Reference

[4.2.2-1] Weinberg, Network Analysis and Synthesis, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962.

4.2.3 Measured frequency response of receivers

Theory

Frequency responses of receivers including the PD to the main amplifier can be

measured and stored as the ASCII file format. Using the measured frequency response of

a receiver, calculated BER characteristics can be predicted closer to the measured ones.

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Fig. 4.2.3-1 Measured frequency response of a 10Gb/s receiver

Data file format for measured frequency response of receiver (filename: *.dat):

0.2300e+009 1.02000 0.10


0.2400e+009 0.90000 0.110
: : :

Column 1 Column 2 Column 3

Frequency step Real part of Imaginary part of

in Hz frequency response frequency response

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5. Fiber Models

Transmission through optical fibers (standard single mode fiber, dispersion

compensation fiber, and dispersion-shifted fiber) can be simulated using the nonlinear

Schrödinger equation. Regardless of fiber types, any fibers can be modeled by changing

the parameters related to them

5.1 Nonlinear characteristics of fibers

5.1.1 Self-phase modulation (SPM) and cross-phase modulation (XPM)

Theory

When optical waves propagate inside a fiber, fiber non-linearity occurs in the form

of SPM and XPM. In wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) systems, optical

intensity variations of an optical wave propagating in an optical fiber link change the

refractive index of the fiber because the refractive index of the transmission medium

depends on optical intensity. This gives rise to nonlinear effects such as self- and cross-

phase modulation that, in conjugation with dispersion, result in signal distortions [5.1.1-

1]. In other words, the optical phases of waves are modulated by self- and cross-phase

modulation. XPM is always accompanied by self-phase modulation and occurs because

the effective refractive index of a wave depends not only on the intensity of that wave but

also on the intensity of other co-propagating waves. In particular, SPM and XPM can

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limit the distance and the capacity because the group velocity dispersion (GVD) converts

the XPM-induced phase modulation (PM) to intensity modulation (IM) in intensity

modulation-direct detection (IM-DD) WDM systems [5.1.1-2].

The SPM and XPM are modeled by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. For

simplicity, consider two optical waves co-propagating in a single-mode optical fiber. Let

A j ( z , t ) be the slowly varying complex field envelope of each wave normalized to

2
make A j equal to the instantaneous optical power. The resulting propagation for

A j ( z , t ) is given by [5.1.1-3]

∂A j
∂z
+ β1 j
∂A j
∂t
i
+ β2 j
2
∂ 2 Aj α j
∂t 2
+
2
A j =
in 2ω j
c
f jj A j [ 2
+ 2 f jk Ak
2
]
(5.1.1-1)

where k ≠ j , β 1 j = 1 / v gj , v gj is the group velocity, β 2 j is the GVD coefficient,

and α j is the loss coefficient. The overlap integral f jk is defined by

∞ ∞
2
∫ ∫ F ( x, y )
2
j Fk ( x, y ) dxdy
f jk = − ∞− ∞
(5.1.1-2)
∞ ∞
2  ∞ ∞ 
∫ ∫ j   ∫ ∫ Fk ( x, y ) dxdy 
2
F ( x , y ) dxdy
 −∞−∞  −∞−∞ 

The two terms on the right-hand side term of Eq. (5.1.1-1) result from the nonlinear

refractive index. The first term leads to self-phase modulation, and the second term

results in XPM.

Let’s consider two optical waves with the same polarization. The nonlinear

Schrödinger equation is expressed by [5.1.1-4]

∂A j
∂z
+
1 ∂A j α j
v gj ∂t
+
2
A j = iγ j [A j
2
+ 2 Ak
2
]A j (5.1.1-3)

where γ j = (2πn 2 ) /(λ j Aeff ) is the nonlinear coupling coefficient of wave j, λ j is the

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optical wavelength of wave j and Aeff is the effective core area of the fiber. The general

solution of the nonlinear differential equation (5.1.1-3) can be expressed as

z − αz
A j ( z , t ) = A j (0, t − ) exp( ) exp[iφ j ( z , t )] (5.1.1-4)
v gj 2

where

1 − e −αz z z
2
z
z
2

φ j ( z, t ) = γ j  A j (0, t − ) A j (0, t − ) + 2 ∫ Ak (0, t − + d jk z ' ) e −αz ' dz '
 α v gj v gj v gj 
 0

(5.1.1-5)

is the phase shift caused by SPM and XPM, and d jk is the walk-off parameter. The

definition of d jk is given by

λj
d jk = (v gj ) −1 − (v gk ) −1 = ∫ D(λ )dλ (5.1.1-6)
λk

where D is the dispersion coefficient.

References

[5.1.1-1] Lutz Rapp, "Experimental Investigation of Signal Distortions Induced by Cross-

Phase Modulation Combined with Dispersion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.., vol.

9, pp. 1592-1594, Dec. 1997

[5.1.1-2] Adolfo V. T. Cartaxo, "Impact of Modulation Frequency on Cross-Phase

Modulation in Effect in Intensity Modulation-Direct Detection WDM Systems,"

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.., vol. 10, pp. 1268-1270, Sep. 1998

[5.1.1-3] G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 1995.

[5.1.1-4] Ting-Kuang Chiang, Nobuyuki Kagi, Michel E. Marchic, Leonid G. Kazovsky,

"Cross-Phase Modulation in Fiber Links with Multiple Optical Amplifiers and

Dispersion Compensators," J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 249-260, March

1996.

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5.1.2 Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS)

Theory

Stimulated Raman scattering is a nonlinear parametric interaction between light and

molecular vibrations. Light launched in an optical fiber is partially scattered and

downshifted in frequency. The change in optical frequency corresponds to the molecular-

vibrational frequency. SRS is similar to stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), but can

occur in either the forward or backward direction. The Raman gain coefficient is about

three orders of magnitude smaller than the Brillouin gain coefficient, so in a single-

channel system the SRS threshold is about three orders of magnitude larger than the SBS

threshold. However, the gain bandwidth for SRS, on the order of 12THz or 100nm, is

much larger than that for SBS. Thus, SRS can couple different channels in a WDM

system and gives rise to the crosstalk.

Fig. 5.1.2-1 shows the Raman gain in fused silica fibers at 1.5 ㎛. Due to SRS in a

WDM system, signals at longer wavelength are amplified by shorter-wavelength signals,

which lead to the degradation of the shorter wavelength signals. SRS couples channels

separated in wavelength by up to 120nm, and the interaction is stronger between

channels further apart from each other. For an n-channel WDM system, the SRS effect

can be modeled by using the following nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

∂Am ∂A i ∂ 2 Am 1 ∂ 3 Am α m
+ β1 m + β 2 − β3 + Am
∂z ∂t 2 ∂ t2 6 ∂ t3 2

 N
2  m −1 g N
ω g 
= iγ  Am + 2 ∑ An  Am + ∑ mn An − ∑ m mn An  Am (5.1.2-1)
2

 n =1, n ≠ m   n =1 2 Aeff n = m +1 ω n 2 Aeff 

where g mn is the Raman gain coefficient between channels.

In regenerated systems, SRS causes a power penalty in the short-wavelength

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channels [5.1.2-1]. By neglecting dispersion and looking at the worst case of marks being

transmitted on all channels, one can obtain the very simple result that the product of total

power and total bandwidth of an unrepeatered WDM system cannot exceed 500GHz-W

to guarantee a penalty for the shortest wavelength channel lower than 1 dB [5.1.2-2].

[N ⋅ Ps][(n − 1) ⋅ ∆f ] < 500GHz ⋅ W (5.1.2-2)

where n is the number of channel, Ps is the power per channel, and ∆f is the

bandwidth per channel.

-12
7x10 cm/W
Normalized Gain Cross Section

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700


-1
Channel Separation (cm )

Fig. 5.1.2-1 Raman gain coefficient versus frequency shift for fused silica at a
pump wavelength of 1.5um. 1cm-1 = 30GHz.

References

[5.1.2-1] A. Tomita, “Crosstalk caused by stimulated Raman scattering in single mode

wavelength-division multiplexed systems,” Opt. Lett., vol.8, p842, 1983.

[5.1.2-2] A. R. Chraplyby, “Limitations on lightwave communications imposed by

optical-fiber nonlinearities,” J. of Lightwave Technol., vol.8, p1548, 1990.

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5.1.3 Polarization mode dispersion (PMD)

Theory

Polarization effects have historically played a minor role in the development of

lightwave systems. The primary reason for this is that commercial optical receivers detect

optical power rather than the optical field, and the receivers are insensitive to polarization.

In recent years, the importance of polarization in lightwave systems has grown as a result

of two developments. First, the optical amplifier has dramatically increased the optical

path lengths achievable with single mode fibers and at the same time increased the

number of optical elements that lightwaves encounter in a path. As a result, small effects

such as polarization mode dispersion and polarization-dependent loss (PDL) can

accumulate in a span to the point where they become an important consideration for

lightwave system developers. The second reason that polarization effects have become

important is that transmitter and receiver technologies have pushed the capacity of

optical fibers to their limit, even in relatively short spans. This has occurred through

dramatic increases in bit rates in digital systems and through the rapid advancement of

analog transmission techniques in video distribution systems.

In the single mode fiber, an optical wave of arbitrary polarizations can be

represented as the linear superposition of two orthogonally polarized HE11 models. In the

ideal fiber, the two HE11 modes are degenerate in terms of their propagation properties

owing to the cylindrical symmetry of the waveguide. Real fibers, however, contain some

amount of anisotropy owing to an accidental loss of the circular symmetry. This loss

occurs either through noncircular waveguide geometry or a nonsymmetrical stress field

in the glass. In either case, the loss of circular symmetry gives rise to two distinct HE11

polarization modes with distinct phase and group velocities.

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r r
The PMD model is described by the dispersion vector Ω = ∆τq̂ , where ∆τ = Ω

and q̂ is the direction of one of the two orthogonal principal state of polarization (PSP)

of the fiber. In a first-order approximation both ∆τ and q̂ are frequency independent,


r
i.e., Ω = ∆τ 0 q̂0 , where ∆τ 0 is the differential time delay between two input signals

polarized along the two PSPs. In a second-order approximation


r r r
Ω(ω ) = ∆τ 0 qˆ 0 + (∆τ ′qˆ 0 + 2k ∆τ 0 )ω , where ∆τ ′ = ∂∆τ / ∂ω and 2k = ∂qˆ / ∂ω ,

where the derivatives are evaluated at the central frequency. Second-order effects are

represented by the linear DGD frequency dependence ∆τ ′ and by a linear PSP rotation
r
with constant angular rate 2k [5.1.3-2].

By applying the upper modeling method into each section of the fiber through an

unitary matrix, the time domain output field vector is obtained as

xout (t ) =
1
{(aur ∗ r +
(
+ bu ) xout (t + ∆τ 0 / 2) + xout

(t − ∆τ 0 / 2) )
2 2
r +
(
+ au xout (t − 2k + ∆τ 0 / 2) − xout

(t − 2k − ∆τ 0 / 2) ) (5.1.3-1)
r∗ +
(
+ bu xout (t + 2k + ∆τ 0 / 2) − xout

(t + 2k − ∆τ 0 / 2) )}
r
where a = exp[ jθ ] cos(ε + π / 4 ) and b = exp[− jθ ] cos(ε − π / 4 ) , u = [1, j ] , and

∫ (X { ( ) } )exp( jωt ) dω .
1 ∞
xout (t ) ± = (ω ) exp(−αz ) exp j − β (ω ) z ± ∆τ ′ω 2 / 2

in
−∞

The behavior of PMD is of a statistical nature, as a result of the randomness of the

birefringence variations along the fiber due to changes of temperature, stress or aging. It

can be shown that if the fiber length is much longer than the correlation length of the

disturbances that cause the change of symmetry in fiber geometry and stress, the

differential group delay between the two principal states of polarization (PSPs) follows a

Maxwellian probability density function [5.1.3-2]. PMD is defined as the mean

differential group delay, and increases with the square root of the transmission distance

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[5.1.3-3]:

PMD = D p L (5.1.3-2)

where PMD is measured in ps , D p in ps / km and L in km . The PMD model

assumes that the fiber is a cascade of many short pieces of constant length z h and

constant birefringence ∆n [5.1.3-4].

References

[5.1.3-1] G. P Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Academic Press, New York, 1989.

[5.1.3-2] Cristian Francia, Frank Bruyere, Denis Penninckx, and Michel Chbat, “PMD

second-order effects on pulse propagation in single-mode optical fibers,” IEEE

Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1739-1741, 1998.

[5.1.3-3] J. Zhou, M. J. O'Mahony, "Optical transmission system penalties due to fiber

polarization mode dispersion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., pp.1265-1267, 1994.

[5.1.3-4] P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyuk, and H. H. Chen, “Stability of solitons in randomly

varying birefringent fibers,” Optics Lett., Vol. 16, pp. 1231-1233, 1991.

5.1.4 Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS)

Theory

Stimulated Brillouin scattering is a nonlinear effect which arises through interaction

between electromagnetic light waves and acoustic waves in a medium. In an optical fiber,

the transmitted signal power saturates due to the generation of a strong backscattered

optical wave, when input signal power is larger than a certain threshold power. The

strong backscattered optical wave is frequency downshifted with respect to the input

signal by an amount of the acoustic wave frequency, and it is called the Stokes wave. The

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physical mechanism of SBS is like that; in fiber, the sound or acoustic waves cause

vibrations in the glass lattice that makes up the fiber core. These vibrations make

localized refractive index variations which scatter photons. Light from intense forward

propagating signals can provide a gain for backward-propagating Stokes signals due to

the refractive index variations [5.1.4-1].

For simulation of SBS, a simple analysis is used in [5.1.4-2] including the effect of

the spontaneous emission. It is assumed that the pump signal is represented as an average

amplitude spectrum A p(ω,z) where ω stands for the optical frequency, and the stokes

signal, A s(z), is a CW signal and contains only one 11GHz down shifted frequency

component. So, the equations including the SBS effect are expressed as:

∂Ap (ω , z ) α gB β
Ap (ω , z ) − Ap (ω , z ) As ( z ) δ (ω − ω c ) − i Ap (ω , z )
2
=−
∂z 2 2 Aeff 2

(5.1.4-1)

2
∂As ( z ) α g β Ap (ω c , z )
= As ( z ) − B As (z ) Ap (ω c , z ) − i
2
(5.1.4-2)
∂z 2 2 Aeff 2 As ( z )

where ωc is the carrier frequency of the pump signal, gB is SBS gain, and βi is

spontaneous emission parameter.

For solving the equation (5.1.4-1) and (5.1.4-2), the initial value of A s(z=0) should

be calculated. For the calculation of A s(z=0), the coupled differential equations that are

used initially are as follows:

∂Ap (ω c , z ) α gB β
Ap (ω c , z ) − Ap (ω c , z ) As ( z ) − i Ap (ω c , z )
2
=−
∂z 2 2 Aeff 2

(5.1.4-3)

2
∂As ( z ) α g β Ap (ω c , z )
= As ( z ) − B As (z ) Ap (ω c , z ) − i
2
(5.1.4-4)
∂z 2 2 Aeff 2 As ( z )

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These equations are solved with the assumption that A s(z=L)=0. L is selected to 50

km. When the initial value of A s(z=0) has been calculated, the nonlinear Schrödinger

equation for A p(ω,z) is used, including SBS effect in equation (5.1.4-1) and (5.1.4-2)

∂Ap (ω , z )
= (D + N + S )Ap (ω , z ) (5.1.4-5)
∂z

where

2
N = jγ A p

gB β
As ( z ) δ (ω − ω c ) − i
2
S =−
2 Aeff 2

α β β 
D =− − j 2 ω 2 + 3 ω 3 
2  2 6 
2
∂As (z ) α g β Ap (ω c , z )
= As (z ) − B As ( z ) Ap (ω c , z ) − i
2
(5.1.4-6)
∂z 2 2 Aeff 2 As ( z )

This model simplifies the SBS effect, including the main physical effect of SBS and

the depletion of the signal carrier wave.

References

[5.1.4-1] Daniel A. Fishman and Jonathan A. Nagel, “Degradations due to stimulated

Brillouin scattering in multigigabit intensity-modulated fiber-optic systems”, J. of

Lightwave Technol., vol.11, p1721, 1993.

[5.1.4-2] A. Djupsjobacka, G.Jacobsen, and B. Tromborg, “Dynamic stimulated brillouin

scattering analysis”, J. of Lightwave Technol., vol.18, p416, 2000.

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5.2 Various types of Fibers

5.2.1 Single Model Fiber

Icon

Theory

Optical signal transmission through the single mode optical fiber is considered to be

nonlinear, dispersive, and lossy. Therefore, the evolution of a slowly varying pulse

envelope A(t) can be obtained from the nonlinear Schrödinger equation [5.2.1-1].

∂A ∂A i ∂2 A 1 ∂3 A a
= − β1 − β 2 2 + β 3 3 − A + iγ | A |2 A (5.2.1-1)
∂z ∂t 2 ∂t 6 ∂t 2

where β1 is the inverse group velocity, β2 and β3 the first- and second-order group

velocity dispersions, a the absorption coefficient, and γ (=N2ωo/cAeff) the non-linearity

coefficient ( N 2 is the nonlinear coefficient and Aeff is the effective core area). The

pulse envelope A is normalized such that | A |2 represents the optical power. The

nonlinear Schrödinger equation of Eq. (5.2.1-1) is a nonlinear partial differential equation

that does not generally lend itself to analytic solution. This equation can be solved by the

split-step Fourier method [5.2.1-1].

Analytical model of dispersion parameters β 2 and β 3 for the standard single mode

fiber

When an electromagnetic wave interacts with bound electrons of a dielectric

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material, the medium response in general depends on the optical frequency ω. This

property, referred to as chromatic dispersion, manifests through the frequency

dependence of the refractive index n(ω). On a fundamental level, the origin of the

chromatic dispersion is related to the characteristic response frequency where the

medium absorbs the electromagnetic radiation through oscillations of bound electrons.

Far from the medium resonance, the refractive index is well approximated by the

Sellmeier equation [5.2.1-1].

B jω
m 2
(5.2.1-2)
n 2 (ω ) = 1 + ∑
j

j =1 ω j
2
−ω 2

where ωj is the resonance frequency and Bj the strength of the jth resonance. The sum in

Eq. (5.2.1-2) extends over all material resonance that contributes to the frequency range

of interest. In the case of optical fibers, the parameters Bj and ωj which depend on the

core constituents are obtained experimentally by fitting the measured dispersion curves to

Eq. (5.2.1-2) with m=3. For bulk fused silica, these parameters are found to be B1 =

0.6961663, B2 = 0.4079426, B3 = 0.8974794, λ1 = 0.0684043µm, λ2 = 0.1162414µm, and

λ3 = 9.896161µm, where λj = 2πc/ωj and c is the velocity of light in vacuum.

Fiber dispersion plays a critical role in propagation of short optical pulses since

different spectral components associated with the pulse travel at different speeds given by

c/n(ω). Even when the nonlinear effects are not important, dispersion-induced pulse

broadening can be detrimental for optical communication systems. In the nonlinear

regime, the combination of dispersion and nonlinearity can result in a qualitatively

different behavior. Mathematically, the effects of fiber dispersion are accounted for by

expanding the mode-propagation constant β in a Taylor series around the center

frequency ω0:

ω 1 (5.2.1-3)
β (ω ) = n (ω ) = β 0 + β 1 (ω − ω 0 ) + β 2 (ω − ω 0 ) 2 + L
c 2

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where

 d m β  ( m = 0,1, 2,....) (5.2.1-4)


β =  
m 
 dω
m
ω =ω 0

The pulse envelope moves at the group velocity ( v g = β 1 − 1 ) while the parameter

β 2 is responsible for pulse broadening. Parameters β 1 and β 2 are related to the

refractive index n and its derivatives as follows

1  dn  ng 1 (5.2.1-5)
β1 = n +ω = =
c  d ω  c v g

1  dn d 2n  ω d 2n λ3 d 2n (5.2.1-6)
β2 =  2 +ω  ≅ ≅
 dω dω 2 c dω 2π c 2 d λ 2
2
c 

dβ 2 (5.2.1-7)
β3 =

where ng is the group index.

Fig. 5.2.1-1 Variation of refractive index n and group index ng with wavelength for
fused silica

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Fig. 5.2.1-2 Variation of β 2 and d12 with wavelength for fused silica

Fig. 5.2.1-1 and 5.2.1-2 show the variation of n, ng, and β 2 with wavelength λ

for fused silica using Eqs. (5.2.1-2), (5.2.1-5), and (5.2.1-6). The most notable feature is

that β 2 vanishes at a wavelength of about 1.27µm and becomes negative at longer

wavelengths. The wavelength at which β 2 = 0 is often referred to as the zero-dispersion

wavelength λ D . However, it should be noted that dispersion does not vanish at λ = λ D .

Pulse propagation near λ = λ D requires the inclusion of the cubic term in Eq. (5.2.1-3).

Such higher order dispersive effects can distort ultrashort optical pulses both in the linear

and nonlinear regimes. Their inclusion is, however, necessary only when the pulse

wavelength λ approaches λ D within a few nanometers.

The curves shown in Fig. 5.2.1-1 and 5.2.1-2 are for bulk fused silica. The

dispersive behavior of actual glass fibers generally deviates from that shown in these

figures for the following two reasons. First, the fiber core may have small amounts of

dopants such as GeO2 and P2O5. Eq. (5.2.1-2) should be used with parameters appropriate

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to the amount of doping levels. Second, because of the dielectric waveguide, the effective

mode index is slightly lower than the material index n(w), with the reduction itself being

ω dependant. This results in a waveguide contribution that must be added to the

material contribution to obtain the total dispersion [5.2.1-3].

Dchr = DMaterial + DWaveguide (5.2.1-8)

DWaveguide = λ (n1 − n 2 )
d 2b (5.2.1-9)
c dλ2

where n1 is the refractive index of the core, n2 that of the cladding, and b the spot diameter.

The main effect of the waveguide contribution is to shift λ D slightly toward a

longer wavelength; λ D = 1 . 31 µ m for typical fibers. Fig. 5.2.1-3 shows the measured

total dispersion of a single-mode fiber. The plotted quantity is the dispersion parameter D

commonly used in fiber-optics literature in place of β 2 . It is related to β 2 as

d β 1 2π c λ d 2n (5.2.1-9)
D = = − β 2 ≅
d λ λ 2 c d λ 2.

Fig. 5.2.1-3 Variation of D with wavelength for fused silica

The nonlinear effects in optical fibers can manifest a qualitatively different behavior

depending on the sign of the dispersion parameter β 2 or D

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dβ1 d  1  dv g
β2 = =   = − 1 (5.2.1-10)
dω dω v  vg dω
2
 g 

where β 2 is generally referred to as the group-velocity dispersion parameter. For

wavelengths such that λ < λ D , β 2 > 0 (see Fig. 5.2.1-2) the fiber is said to exhibit

normal dispersion. In the normal-dispersion regime, the higher frequency (blue-shifted)

components of an optical pulse travel slower than the lower ones (red-shifted). By

contrast, the opposite occurs in the so-called anomalous-dispersion regime in which β 2

< 0. As seen in Fig. 5.2.1-2, silica fibers exhibit anomalous dispersion when the light

wavelength exceeds the zero-dispersion mark ( λ < λ D ). The anomalous-dispersion

regime is of considerable interest for the study of nonlinear effects because it is in this

regime that optical fibers can support solitons through the balance between dispersive

and nonlinear effects.

An important feature of chromatic dispersion is that pulses at different wavelengths

propagate at different speeds inside the fiber because of the group-velocity mismatch.

This feature leads to a walk-off effect that plays an important role in the description of

nonlinear phenomena for two or more overlapped optical pulses. Fig. 5.2.1-2 shows the

variation of d12 with wavelength (λ) for fused silica. In the normal-dispersion regime

( β 2 >0), a longer-wavelength pulse travels faster, while the opposite occurs in the

anomalous-dispersion region. The group-velocity mismatch plays an important role in the

case of nonlinear effects such as cross-phase modulation.

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Input dialog box

Fig. 5.2.1-4 Input dialog box of effects for the SMF model

Fig. 5.2.1-5 Input dialog box of linear parameters for the SMF model

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Fig. 5.2.1-6 Input dialog box of nonlinear parameters for the SMF model

Fig. 5.2.1-7 Input dialog box of numerical parameters for the SMF model

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Fig. 5.2.1-8 Input dialog box of PMD parameters for the SMF model

Description of parameters for single mode fiber

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Nonlinear refraction
Include nonlinear refraction effects No
effects
Stimulated Raman
Include stimulated Raman scattering No
scattering
Stimulated Brillouin
Include stimulated Brillouin scattering No
scattering
Polarization mode
Include polarization mode dispersion No
dispersion
Fiber length Transmission length of fiber 30 km
Discrete model, continuous model, or
Dispersion Discrete model
measured value
D Dispersion value 17.0 ps/nm/km
0.05936
D slope Dispersion slope value
ps/nm2/km
Reference wavelength of fiber
Ref. wavelength 1.55 µm
parameters
Constant value, analytic model, or
Fiber loss Constant value
measured value
Constant fiber loss Fiber loss 0.22 dB/km
Rayleigh coef. Rayleigh coefficient 0.8

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IR coef. 1 IR coefficient 1 6.65 ×1012


IR coef. 2 IR coefficient 2 52.62
Other loss Other loss 0 dB/km
Effective core area Effective core area 78 µm2
Nonlinear coef. Nonlinear coefficient 1.3 × 10-20 m2/W
Peak Raman gain Peak Raman gain coefficient 5×10-14 m/W
SBS gain SBS gain (gB) 5×10-11 m/W
Spontaneous emission
Spontaneous emission parameter
parameter (at 4.296×10-8 m-1
(at L=50km)
L=50km)
Use the Random
Include the random variable No
Variable
0 degree (fast axis
Incident angle Incident angle
of PSPs)
PMD coefficient PMD coefficient 0.3 ps/ km
Mean of 2k Mean of 2k 2.2 degree/GHz
Deviation of 2k Deviation of 2k 1.1 degree/GHz
User defined seed User defined seed 1
DGD Differential group delay 1.75 ps
DGD frequency
DGD dependent on frequency 0.1 ps/GHz
dependence
Constant angular rate of linear PSP
2k 2.2 degree/GHz
rotation
Step size limitation Limit step size No
Maximum step Maximum step 1000 m
Maximum phase
Maximum phase difference 0.1 m
difference

References

[5.2.1-1] G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, New York: Academic Press, 1989.

[5.2.1-2] Jichai Jeong, et al, “10Gb/s transmission performance for positive- and negative

chirped transmitters with the self-phase modulation effect,” IEEE Photon.

Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 1307-1309, 1998.

[5.2.1-3] Christian Hentschel, Fiber Optics Handbook, 2nd, Hewlett Packard.

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5.2.2 Dispersion compensating fiber

Icon

Theory

Optical signal transmission through the dispersion compensating fiber can be

calculated by the same method as that of the single mode fiber. The typical parameters of

the dispersion compensating fiber are listed in the following table.

Input dialog box

Same as that of the single mode fiber

Description of parameters for dispersion compensating fiber

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Discrete model, continuous
Dispersion Discrete model
model, or measured value
Constant fiber loss Fiber loss 0. 59 dB/km
D Dispersion value -86.59 ps/nm/km
D slope Dispersion slope value -0.135 ps/nm2 /km
Effective core area Effective core area 35 µm2
Nonlinear coef Nonlinear coefficient 2.69 × 10-20 m2/W
Other parameters are the same as those of single mode fiber

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5.2.3 Dispersion shifted fiber

Icon

Theory

Optical signal transmission through the dispersion-shifted fiber can be calculated by

the same method as that of single mode fiber. The typical parameters of dispersion-

shifted fiber are listed in the following table.

Input dialog box

Same as that of the single mode fiber

Description of typical parameters for dispersion-shifted fiber

Parameter Description Default value / units


Discrete model, continuous
Dispersion Discrete model
model, or measured value
Constant fiber loss Fiber loss 0.25 dB/km
D Dispersion value 0 ps/nm/km
D slope Dispersion slope value 67.0 × 10-3 ps/nm2 /km
Effective core area Effective core area 60.0 µm2
Nonlinear coef. Nonlinear coefficient 1.3 × 10-20 m2/W
Other parameters are the same as those of the single mode fiber

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5.2.4 Non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (+), non-zero dispersion-shifted

fiber (-) and generalized non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber

Icon

Non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (+)

Non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (-)

Input dialog box

Same as that of the single mode fiber

Theory

Optical signal transmission through non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (+), non-zero

dispersion-shifted fiber (-), and generalized non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber can be

calculated by the continuous value based on that of the single mode fiber. All parameters

except for dispersion and dispersion slope are identical to those of single mode fiber. The

typical parameters except for dispersion and dispersion slope are listed in the following

table. Dispersion and dispersion slope of the non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (+), the

non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (-), and the generalized non-zero dispersion-shifted

fiber are shifted from those of single mode fibers. Dispersion values of the non-zero

dispersion-shifted fiber (-), the non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (+), and the generalized

non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber are equal to zero at 1.51 µm, 1.59µm, and an arbitrary

wavelength defined by user, respectively.

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Description of parameters for non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (+), non-zero dispersion-

shifted fiber (-) and generalized non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Discrete model, continuous
Dispersion Continuous model
model, or measured value
D Dispersion value Calculated value
Effective core area Effective core area 78 µm2
Nonlinear coef. Nonlinear coefficient 1.4 × 10-20 m2/W
Other parameters are the same as those of the single mode fiber

5.2.5 TrueWave Fiber and TrueWave RS fiber

Icon

TrueWave fiber TrueWave RS fiber

Theory

TrueWave fiber and TrueWave RS fiber are the products of Lucent Technologies.

The dispersion values of these fibers are fitted from the data sheet shown in Fig. 5.2.5-1.

Typical parameters are shown in the following table.

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12
TrueWave Fiber
TrueWave RS Fiber
10

Dispersion (ps/km-nm)
8

0
1.52 1.54 1.56 1.58 1.60 1.62 1.64
Wavelength (µm)

Fig. 5.2.5-1 Variation of D with wavelength for TrueWave fiber and TrueWave RS
fiber

Input dialog box

Same as that of the single mode fiber

Description of parameters for TrueWave fiber and TrueWave RS fiber.

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Continuous value vs.
Dispersion parameter Continuous value
wavelength
Constant fiber loss Fiber loss 0.22 dB/km
D Dispersion value Shown in Fig. 5.2.5-1
Effective core area Effective core area 55 µm2
Nonlinear coef. Nonlinear coefficient 1.4 × 10-20 m2/W
Other parameters are the same as those of the single mode fiber

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5.2.6 LEAF Fiber

Icon

Theory

The LEAF Fiber is the products of Corning. The dispersion values of these fibers

are fitted from the data sheet shown in Fig. 5.2.6-1. Typical parameters are shown in the

following table.

12

10
Dispersion (ps/km-nm)

0
1.52 1.54 1.56 1.58 1.60 1.62 1.64
Wavelength (µm)

Fig. 5.2.6-1 Variation of D with wavelength for LEAF fiber

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Input dialog box

Same as that of single mode fiber

Description of parameters for LEAF fiber.

Parameter Description Default value / Units

Discrete model, continuous model,


Dispersion Continuous model
or measured value

Constant fiber loss Fiber loss 0.22 dB/km


D Dispersion value Shown in Fig. 5.2.6-1
Effective core area Effective core area 72 µm2
Nonlinear coef. Nonlinear coefficient 1.4 × 10-20 m2/W
Other parameters are the same as those of the single mode fiber

5.2.7 Measured Fiber Types

Theory

For the simulation of an optical fiber with arbitrary characteristics, this program

provides the procedure of importing the arbitrary characteristics of an optical fiber from a

file. The parameters of fiber characteristics supporting in this program include continuous

D parameter, and attenuation. The unit of D parameter is ps/km/nm and that of

attenuation is dB/km. The format of the file should be consistent with the providing file

format. One can make a project file for imported characteristics of special fibers and then

store in the tree menu. One can use it later by just drag and drop on the window.

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Input dialog box

Fig. 5.2.7-1 Input dialog box of linear parameters for the measured fiber model

Data file format for measured fiber type (filename: *.dat):

1.541 17.73 .05936 0.266


1.542 17.74 .05937 0.267
: : : :

Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4

Wavelength D parameter D slope parameter Attenuation

in um in ps/km/nm in ps/nm2 /km dB/km

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5.2.8 Bidirectional Fiber

Icon

Theory

In future communication networks, bidirectional transmissions may be desirable for

the capacity enhancement of existing systems, and construction of reconfigurable and

low cost links. In the economical aspect, bidirectional WDM transmission systems are

attractive since they could reduce not only the use of fiber by a factor of two, but also the

number of passive components such as splitters in bidirectional multi-channel passive

optical networks. Transmitting bidirectionally over a single fiber can double the capacity

of an installed unidirectional link.

Using bidirectional fibers in Photonics CAD, one can evaluate the system

degradations due to the crosstalk from the multiple Rayleigh backscattering (RB) in

bidirectional transmission systems. The power and field analysis for optical signal

transmissions over fibers were performed using the iterative method and the coupled

non-linear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) to analyze propagation characteristics with

including RB.

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∆L
Es

ERB

L
0 ∆L z − ∆L z z + ∆L

Fig. 5.2.8-1 Schematic of modeling the Rayleigh backscattering in fiber. The light
scattered from each section travels back to the beginning point and
sums up

Refractive index variations arisen from compositional fluctuations occurring during

drawing fibers give rise to RB. For the analysis of backscattered signals, a two-

dimensional fiber model was used in Fig. 5.2.8-1. A fiber with the L is divided by N s

scatter sections, where ∆L = L / N s is defined as the minimum fiber length.

A linearly polarized electrical field of the transmitted signal is given by its complex

amplitude vector:
r r
E s (t , z ) = p s As (t , z ) exp[ j (ω 0 t + φ (t ))] (5.2.8-1)

r
where the Jones vector p s indicates the state of polarization of the field, As ( t , z ) is

the field envelope, ω 0 is the optical carrier frequency, and φ (t ) describes the phase

noise of transmitter outputs. If we define the fraction of the scattered field from a section

located at z , which is guided in backward direction as ∆ρ(z) , the backscattered signal


r
∆Eb (t , z ) arrived at the fiber input facet from a scatter section located at z is given by

[5.2.8-1].

r r 2z  α 
∆ E b ( t , z ) = M ( z ) E s (t − ) exp  − ( + jβ ) ⋅ 2 z  ∆ρ ( z ) (5.2.8-2)
υ gr  2 

where the fiber attenuation coefficient α , the group velocity υ gr , and the propagating

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constant β . The unitary Jones matrix M ( z ) describes the change of the polarization

state of the electric field propagating along the z axis [5.2.8-2]. Therefore the total

backscattered field at the fiber input facet is the superposition of the field contributions

from the each scatter section:

r Ns r
E b ( t ) = ∑ ∆ E b (t , n s ∆ L ) (5.2.8-3)
ns =1

From statistical analysis, the mean backscattered intensity is given by

Sα s
I b = 2σ 2 I s(1 − e −2αL ) / 2α = ⋅ (1 − e −2αL ) ⋅ I s = Rbs I s (5.2.8-4)

where σ 2 is the variance of ρ ( z ) , α s is the attenuation coefficient due to the

Rayleigh scattering, S is the recapture factor, and Rbs denotes the intensity RB

coefficient [5.2.8-2].

For the bidirectional signal propagation in fibers, the iterative method was used to

solve the two-point boundary problem [5.2.8-3]. In such cases, equations describing the

signal propagation in the forward direction contain amplitudes of the backward-

propagating signals and vice versa. For the field analysis, the slowly varying electric field

output pulse of the modulator is applied to NLSE to obtain the pulse propagation

characteristics over the nonlinear, dispersive, and lossy fiber. The signal and noise

interactions were included during propagation in fibers. From the iterative method used

in the fiber model, both the singly and doubly amplified RBs were considered during

propagation of signals. Bidirectional fiber icon contains an optical fiber and two

circulators like Fig. 5.2.8-2.

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optical fiber

circulator

Fig. 5.2.8-2 Schematic of bi-directional fiber icon

For the bidirectional signal propagation in fibers, the iterative method was used to

solve the two-point boundary problem. In such cases, equations describing the signal

propagation in the forward direction contain amplitudes of the backward-propagating

signals and vice versa. The following two-stage numerical scheme for both the power and

field analysis has been developed.

At the first stage, the bidirectional power analysis is performed, with the two-point

boundary problem being solved using the iterative algorithm.

dPi +
dz
[ ]
= −α i Pi + + η i Pi − + ∑ g ik Pk+ + Pk− Pi + (5.2.8-5)
k ≠i

dPi −
dz
[ ]
= +α i Pi − − η i Pi + − ∑ g ik Pk+ + Pk− Pi − (5.2.8-6)
k ≠i

For the field analysis, the power distributions Pm ( z ) with the fiber length found at the

first step are substituted into the coupled NLSE. The slowly varying electric field

output pulse of the modulator is applied to NLSE to obtain the pulse propagation

characteristics over the nonlinear, dispersive, and lossy fiber.

∂A i α i ∂A i j ∂ 2 Ai 1 ∂ 3 Ai
+ Ai + β1 + β2 − β3
∂z 2 ∂t 2 ∂t 2 6 ∂t 3

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 2 K
2  i −1 g K
ω g ik 
= jγ  A i + 2 ∑ A k  A i +  ∑ ik A k − ∑ i A k  A i (5.2.8-7)
 k =1, n ≠ i   k =1 2 Aeff k = i +1ω k 2 Aeff 

To solve these equations, the split-step Fourier method was used.

Input dialog box

Fig. 5.2.8-3 Input dialog box of parameters for the bi-directional fiber model

Other input dialog boxes are the same as those of the single mode fiber

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Description of parameters for bidirectional fiber

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Rayleigh Rayleigh backscattering level
-32 dB
Backscattering Level in optical fiber
Isolation Isolation of circulator 50 dB
Number of steps for power
Number of steps 20
analysis
Number of iterations for
Iterations 10
power analysis
Frequency resolution for
Frequency resolution 40 GHz
power analysis
Other parameters are the same as those of single mode fiber

References

[5.2.8-1] Ping Wan and Jan Conradi, “Impact of Double Rayleigh Backscatter Noise on

Digital and Analog Fiber Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 288-297,

Mar. 1996.

[5.2.8-2] Peter Gysel and Roland K. Staubli, “Statistical Properties of Rayleigh

Backscattering in Single-Mode Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, no. 4, pp.

561-567, Apr. 1990.

[5.2.8-3] A. Lowery, O. Lenzmann, I. Koltchanov, R. Moosburger, R. Freund, A. Richter,

S. Georgi, D. Breuer, and H. Hamster, “Multiple Signal Representation

Simulation of Photonic Devices, Systems, and Networks,” J. Selected Topics

Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 282-296, 2000

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6. Model of Passive Components

Passive components provide to monitor or process optical signals in optical

networks. To monitor or process optical signals, electrical filter, optical attenuator, delay

line, long period and short period fiber Bragg gratings, optical filter, optical isolator,

connector, coupler, combiner, splitter, and phase shifter are modeled. For all optical

networks, more passive components will be continuously added.

6.1 Electrical filter

Icon

Theory

The role of electrical filters is the same as that of optical filters. But these filter

electrical signals. The filter characteristics of electrical filters are very similar to those of

optical filters. In this section, only the Chebychev filter characteristics are described. For

other filter characteristics, please refer to section 4.2 for details of the filter

characteristics.

Generally, the complete transfer function of a low-pass filter with the Chebychev

filter characteristics are defined by

H
H (s) = (6.1-1)
Vn ( s )

where H is the maximum value of H(s) and Vn(s) the n-th order complex polynomial.

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Table 6.1-1 Chebychev polynomials Vn in expanded form Vn=sn+bn-1 sn-1+…+b1s+b0

n Vn(s)
1 1.0024
2 0.6449s+0.7079
3 0.5972s2+0.9283s+0.2506
4 0.5826s3+1.1691s2+0.4048s+0.1770
5 0.5744s4+1.4150s3+0.5489s2+0.4079s+0.0626
6 0.5707s5+1.6628s4+0.6906s3+0.6991s2+0.1634s+0.0442
7 0.5684s6+1.9112s5+0.8314s4+1.0518s3+0.3000s2+0.1462s+0.0157
8 0.5669s7+2.1607s6+0.9719s5+1.4667s4+0.4719s3+0.3208s2+0.0565s+0.0111
9 0.5659s8+2.4101s7+1.1123s6+1.9439s5+0.6789s4+0.5835s3+0.1314s2+0.0476s+0.0039
0.5652s9+2.6597s8+1.2526s7+2.4834s6+0.9211s5+0.9499s4+0.2492s3+0.1278s2+0.018
10
0s+0.0028

Fig. 6.1-1 Frequency response of the 4th order Chebychev filter with the 3dB
frequency bandwidth of 10.0GHz

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Measured frequency response of electrical filter

Frequency responses of electrical filter can be measured and stored as the ASCII file

format.

Fig. 6.1-2 Measured frequency response of a 10Gb/s receiver

Data file format for measured frequency response of electrical filter (filename: *.dat):

0.2300e+009 1.02000 0.10


0.2400e+009 0.90000 0.110
: : :

Column 1 Column 2 Column 3

Frequency step Real part of Imaginary part of

in Hz frequency response frequency response

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Input dialog box

Fig. 6.1-3 Input dialog box of electrical filter

Description of parameters for electrical filter

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Lowpass filter Lowpass filter response -
Bandpass filter Bandpass filter response -
Butterworth filter model as a
Butterworth filter -
frequency response characteristics

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Bessel-Thomson filter model as a


Bessel-Thomson filter -
frequency response characteristic

Raised cosine filter model as a


Raised cosine filter -
frequency response characteristic

Chebychev filter model as a


Chebychev filter -
frequency response characteristic
Measured filter Measured frequency response -
Measured frequency response
Measured filter (by user) -
by user
Filter order for the Butterworth
Filter order filter or the Bessel-Thomson filter 4
or the Chebychev filter
Degree of edge sharpness of
Rolloff factor 0.5
raised cosine filter
3dB bandwidth of filter 3dB bandwidth of a lowpass filter 10 GHz
3dB passband bandwidth of a
3dB passband bandwidth 0.2 GHz
bandpass filter
Center frequency of a bandpass
Center frequency 3 GHz
filter

6.2 Attenuator

Icon

Theory

Optical power in a fiber or electrical power can be varied by the attenuator.

Adjusting optical power through the attenuator prevents receivers or amplifiers from

being saturated.

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Input dialog box

Fig 6.2-1 Input dialog box of attenuators

Description of parameters for attenuator

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Attenuation Attenuation factor 0 dB

6.3 Delay line

Icon

Theory

A delay line is used to delay optical signals or electrical signals. Amounts of delay

can be controlled by number of either bits or time.

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Input dialog box

Fig. 6.3 -1 Input dialog box of parameters for the delay line model

Description of parameters used for delay lines

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Delay Bit Delay bit 0 bit
Delay Time Delay time 0s

6.4 Long period fiber Bragg grating

Icon

Theory

In long period gratings (also called transmission gratings), the coupling in between

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modes traveling in the same direction occurs [6.4-1]. Also, cascaded fiber gratings have

been studied as prominent filter devices for DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division

Multiplexing) communication systems. When several identical gratings are cascaded in

series with a regular distance, the transmission spectrum is revealed to have a series of

regularly spaced peaks, suitable for multi-channel filters. The analytic solution is

obtained by diagonalizing the transfer matrix of each unit composed of a single grating

and a grating-free region between adjacent gratings. The spectrum of the device is simply

described with the number of cascaded gratings and a single parameter that has the

information of the phase difference between the modes. Adjusting the strength of a single

grating can control the intensity of each grating. The separation between adjacent

gratings determines the spacing between the peaks. Cascading more gratings can increase

the finesse of the peaks [6.4-2].

If a beam propagates along a lossless waveguide extended to the z-axis, the

transverse electric field of the guided beam can be expressed as a linear sum of the

transverse electric fields of its ideal normal modes,


Et ( x, y, z; t ) = ∑ al (z )Elt ( x, y )e −iωt (6.4-1)
l =0

where al ( z ) is the modal amplitude of the l -th order ideal mode, which includes the z-

directional variation, and E lt ( x, y ) is the cross sectional field distribution of the mode.

It is generally accepted that each resonant peak of LPG, written in a single mode fiber,

results from the grating-induced power exchange between the fundamental core mode

and the corresponding cladding mode of the fiber. In a practical LPG device, the spectral

separation between resonant peaks are wider enough than the bandwidth of individual

peak, so that coupling to other cladding modes can be neglected in simulating the

spectrum. Therefore, considering only the coupling between the fundamental core mode

and the v -th order cladding mode, which satisfy the phase matching condition, is

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enough to calculate the spectrum of LPG. The phase matching condition is given by


β 2 = β1 + m (6.4-2)
Λ

where β = (2π / λ )neff is the mode propagation constant, Λ is the periodicity of the

grating. Since β 2 > 0 for transmission grating, we can predict the resonant wavelength

of the long period grating as

λ = (neff 1 − neff 2 )Λ (6.4-3)

For co-propagating coupling at a given wavelength, evidently a much longer grating Λ

is required than for counter-propagating coupling.

When the beam passes through an LPG of length d, from the standard coupled-mode

theory, just after passing the grating, the modal amplitudes of the fundamental core mode

a co and the coupled v -th order cladding mode a clv are given as

β +β v  i d
K
  iθ d 
aco (d ) i co cl d
 e 2
0  ⋅ te 2 ir  ⋅ a co (0 )
 a v (d ) = e
2
(6.4-4)
− d   a v (0 )
K iθ
 cl   −i d  
 0 e 2   ir * te 2   cl 

where we have defined

β co propagation constant of the core mode

β clv propagation constant of the v -th order cladding mode

K grating momentum or grating constant as K = 2π / Λ

r cladding mode amplitude after a grating given as r = (κ / s )sin sd

t core mode amplitude after a grating given as t = 1 − rr *

δβ phase mismatch or detuning given as δβ = β co − β clv − K

κ coupling coefficient of a single LPG

and

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s 2 = κκ * + (δβ / 2)
2

 δβ 
θ = 2 tan −1  tan sd  (6.4-5)
 2s 

After passing the grating of length d, if the beam propagates a grating-free region of

length L further, the modal amplitudes become

a co (d + L ) e iβcoL 0  a co (d )
 a v (d + L ) =  ⋅ v  (6.4-6)
  a cl (d )
iβcoL
 cl   0 e

Although there is no power exchange between modes in the grating-free region,

there exists phase gain of each mode due to the free propagation between gratings.

Substituting equation (6.4-4) for equation (6.4-6) yields

aco (d + L ) i co cl N ( d + L )  a co (0 )
v
β +β

 a v (d + L ) = e Q v 
2
(6.4-7)
 cl   acl (0)

with the system matrix Q of the unit defined as

 iθ +2ϕ i
ϕ

Q =  te ϕ ire 2
θ +ϕ
 (6.4-8)
 * −i 2 −i 
ir e te 2

where the new phase term ϕ is defined as

ϕ ≡ (β co − β clv )L + Kd (6.4-9)

The unit transfer matrix Q represents the mode coupling of the beam that has passed

through the grating of the length d and then the grating-free region of length L,

successively. Therefore, when several gratings of an equal strength are cascaded with an

equal separation, the modal amplitudes after passing N gratings simply given as

aco ( N (d + L )) a (0)


v
β +β
aco  i co cl N ( d + L )
av  ≡  a v ( N (d + L )) = e 2
Q N  cov  (6.4-10)
 cl  N  cl   acl (0 )

By multiplying the unit matrix Q by N times, the modal amplitudes of any cascaded

LPGs can be calculated.

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Generally, the initial condition of equation (6.4-10) is that the input beam incidents

only from the core part of a fiber, thus we can set

aco (0 ) 1
 a v (0 ) = 0 (6.4-11)
 cl   

Then the modal intensities of cascaded N gratings are given as square of the norms

of the modal amplitudes, i.e.,

 TN   aco ( N (d + L )) 
2

R  ≡  v 2 (6.4-12)
 N   acl (N (d + L )) 

The complete coupling to the cladding mode (called critical coupling) occurs when

the coupling coefficient becomes the critical one κ c defined as

κ c d ≡ π / (2 N ) (6.4-13)

Calculated transmittance of cascaded long period gratings is shown in Fig. 6.4-1.

Fig. 6.4-1 Calculated transmittance of cascaded long period fiber gratings

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Input dialog box

Fig. 6.4 -2 Input dialog box of parameters for long period fiber grating model

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Fig. 6.4 -3 Input dialog box of modulation parameters for long period fiber grating
model

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Fig. 6.4 -4 Input dialog box of simulation parameters for long period fiber grating
model

Description of parameters for long period fiber grating

Parameter Description Default value / Unit


Total length of fiber
Total device length 20mm
grating region
Grating period Grating period 500µm
Core refractive index with
Core refractive index 1.46
no grating
Cladding refractive
Cladding refractive index 1.4569
index
Surrounding refractive
Surrounding refractive index 1.0
index
The ratio of the The ratio of the coupling
coupling coefficient to coefficient to the critical 1.0
the critical coupling coupling

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DC refractive index of the


DC index perturbation 0
Perturbation
No cascaded LPG Single section long period
-
(LPGs type select) grating is selected

Cascaded N LPGs Cascaded N long period


-
(LPGs type select) gratings are selected

Phase shifted LPGs Phase shifted long period


-
(LPGs type select) gratings are selected
The number of The number of cascaded LPGs
6
cascaded LPGs or phase shifted LPGs
The separation between
The length of the
adjacent gratings for cascaded 60mm
grating free-region
N LPGs
The amount of the The amount of the phase shift
0 degree
phase shift for the phase shifted LPGs

Number of sections per Number of plotting points per


20
nm nm for LPFG viewer

Start wavelength for LPFG


Start wavelength 1500nm
viewer

Stop wavelength for LPFG


Stop wavelength 1600nm
viewer

Reflectance Use reflectance as filter


-
(Output type select) characteristics

Transmittance Use transmittance as filter


-
(Output type select) characteristics

References

[6.4-1] Turan Erdogan, Member, IEEE, “Fiber Grating Spectra,” IEEE Journal of

Lightwave Technology, Vol. 15, No. 8, pp.1277, Aug. 1997

[6.4-2] Byeng Ha Lee, Young-Jae Kim, Young-Joo Chung, Won-Taek Han, and Un-Chul

Paek, Nonmembers, “Analytic Solution for Cascaded Long-Period Fiber

Gratings,” IEICE Transaction Electronics, Vol. E84-C, No. 5, May 2001

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6.5 Short period fiber Bragg gratings

Icon

Theory

Coupled mode theory is a good tool for obtaining quantitative information about the

diffraction efficiency and spectral dependence of fiber gratings. In the ideal mode

approximation to the coupled mode theory, we assume that the transverse component of

the electric field can be written as a superposition of the ideal modes labeled j (i.e., the

modes in an ideal waveguide with no grating perturbation), such that

[
E t ( x, y, z , t ) = ∑ A j ( z ) exp(iβ j z ) + B j ( z ) exp(−iβ j z ) ]
j

⋅ e jt ( x, y ) exp(−iωt ) (6.5-1)

where Aj(z) and Bj(z) are slowly varying amplitudes of the jth mode traveling in the +z

and –z directions, respectively.

While the modes are orthogonal in an ideal waveguide and hence, do not exchange

energy, the presence of a dielectric perturbation causes the modes to be coupled such that

the amplitudes Aj and Bj of the jth mode evolve along the z axis according to

dA j
dz
( ) [
= i ∑ Ak K kjt + K kjz exp i (β k − β j )z ]
k (6.5-2)
+ ∑ B (K − K )exp[− i (β
k
t
kj
z
kj k + β j )z ]
k

dB j
dz
( ) [
= −i ∑ Ak K kjt − K kjz exp i (β k + β j )z ]
k (6.5-3)
− ∑ B (K k
t
kj +K z
kj )exp[− i(β k −βj )z ]
k

In (6.5-2) and (6.5-3), K kjt ( z ) is the transverse coupling coefficient between mode

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j and k given by
ω
K kjt ( z ) = dxdy∆ε ( x, y, z )e ( x, y ) ⋅ e (x, y )
*

4 ∫∫
kt jt
(6.5-4)

where ∆ε is the perturbation to the permittivity.

Neat the wavelength for which reflection of a mode of amplitude A(z) into an

identical counter-propagating mode of amplitude B(z) is the dominant interaction in a

Bragg grating, (6.5-2) and (6.5-3) may be simplified by retaining only terms that involve

the amplitudes of the particular mode. The resulting equations can be written

dR
= iσˆR( z ) + ikS ( z ) (6.5-5)
dz

dS
= −iσˆS ( z ) − ik * R( z ) (6.5-6)
dz

where the amplitudes R and S are R( z ) ≡ A( z ) exp(iδz − φ / 2 ) and

S (z ) ≡ B( z ) exp(− iδz + φ / 2 ) .

In these equations, k is the “AC” coupling coefficient and σˆ is a general “dc”

self-coupling coefficient defined as

π 1 1 
σˆ ≡ β − = β − β D = 2πneff  −  (6.5-7)
Λ  λ λD 

where λ D ≡ 2neff Λ is the “design wavelength” for Bragg scattering.

If the grating is uniform along z, then δneff is a constant and dφ / dz = 0 , and

thus k , σ , and σˆ are constants. Thus, (6.5-5) and (6.5-6) are coupled first-order

ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients, for which closed-form

solutions can be found when appropriate boundary conditions are specified. The

reflectivity of a uniform fiber grating of length L can be found by assuming a forward-

going wave incident from z = −∞ [say R(-L/2)=1] and requiring that no backward-

going wave exists for z ≥ L / 2 [i.e., S(L/2)=0]. The amplitude and power reflection

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coefficients ρ = S (− L / 2 ) / (− L / 2 ) and r = ρ , respectively, can be shown to be


2

− k sinh k 2 − σˆ 2 L( )
ρ=
( )
σˆ sinh k − σˆ L + i k − σˆ cosh k 2 − σˆ 2 L
2 2 2 2
( ) (6.5-8)

r=
sinh 2 (k 2
− σˆ 2 L ) (6.5-9)
cosh 2
(k 2
− σˆ L − 2
) σˆ 2
k2

Transfer matrix model

Any index profile n(z) can be expressed as a sampled multilayer stair structure

whose steps have a constant refractive index. Let E+(z) and E-(z) be the frequency

domain electric field complex amplitudes of the forward (+) and backward (-) traveling

plane waves at an arbitrary plane z. The field at z can be described by a 2 × 1 column

vector with elements E+(z) and E-(z). Considering the fields at two different plane z1 and

z2 perpendicular to the z direction, we can express

 E + ( z1 )  M 11 M 12   E + ( z 2 )
 =    (6.5-10)
M 22   E − ( z 2 ) 
 −
 E ( z1 )  M 21

where M11, M12, M21, and M22 are the coefficients of the transfer matrix M.

The interface matrix between every two adjacent steps with different refractive

indices is given by

1 ni + ni +1 ni − ni +1 
M INTERFACE = n − n (6.5-11)
2 ni  i i +1 ni + ni +1 

where ni and ni +1 are the refractive indices at the left and right sides of the interface.

The layer matrix between every two interfaces with a constant refractive index ni

is

exp( jk 0 ni d i ) 0 
M LAYER =  (6.5-12)
 0 exp( − jk 0 ni d i )

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where k 0 is the wavenumber in vacuum and d i denotes the layer or step width. The

transfer matrix of the whole system is obtained by multiplying (from left to right) all

matrices. Therefore, M is calculated as

M = M INTERFACE1 × M LAYER1 × M INTERFACE2 × M LAYER2 × ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ (6.5-13)

In this way, the transfer matrix M of any structure with arbitrary n(z ) can be

obtained. Considering a fiber grating structure with length L, the transfer matrix M

corresponding to the whole structure is computed using the formula presented above.

 E + ( 0)   M 11 M 12   E + ( L)
 −  = M M 22   E − ( L)
(6.5-14)
 E ( 0)   21

The reflectivity R ( f ) and transmittivity T ( f ) of the device are given as the

squared magnitude of the corresponding transfer functions


2
2 M
R ( f ) = H r ( f ) = 21 (6.5-15)
M 11

2
2 1
T ( f ) = Ht ( f ) = (6.5-16)
M 11

where f is the optical frequency.

No apodized uniform short period fiber Bragg grating with 0-DC index change

The refractive index perturbation is given by

 2πz 
n( z ) = n0 + ∆n0 + ∆n ⋅ sin  (6.5-17)
 ΛU 

where n0 is the core refractive index, ∆n0 is the dc refractive index of the perturbation,

∆n represents the maximum index modulation, and Λ U is the constant grating period.

Sinc-apodized uniform short period fiber Bragg grating with 0-DC index change

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This is modeled as a variation of the refractive index n( z ) along the propagation

direction ( z ) according to the following expression

 2πz 
n( z ) = n0 + ∆n0 + ∆n ⋅ T ( z ) ⋅ sin  (6.5-18)
 ΛU 

where T ( z ) denotes the sinc apodization function and can be expressed as

 z − L/2 
T ( z ) = sinc   (6.5-19)
 ΛT 

where L is the device length and Λ T is the sinc function parameter.

Gaussian-apodized uniform short period fiber Bragg grating (CAUFG)

The refractive index perturbation is given by

 2πz 
n( z ) = n0 + ∆n ⋅ T ( z ) ⋅ sin  (6.5-20)
 ΛU 

The Gaussian function T ( z ) can be expressed as

  z − L/2  2

= exp  − 4 
  L 
T ( z) (6.5-21)

 

Using the closed-form solution model, the calculated reflectance of short period

fiber Bragg gratings is shown in Fig. 6.5-1.

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Fig. 6.5-1 Calculated reflectance of short period fiber Bragg gratings

Input dialog box

Fig. 6.5-2 Input dialog box of parameters for short period fiber Bragg grating model

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Fig. 6.5-3 Input dialog box of modulation parameters for short period fiber Bragg
grating model

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Fig. 6.5-4 Input dialog box of simulation parameters for short period fiber Bragg
grating model

Description of parameters for short period fiber Bragg grating

Parameters Description Default value / Unit


Total length of fiber
Total device length 4mm
grating region
Grating period Grating period 533.2nm
Core refractive index with
Core refractive index 1.452
no grating ( n0 )
Estimate the center The center wavelength value is
1.55µm
wavelength estimated by the given parameters
DC index DC refractive index of the
0.00075
perturbation Perturbation ( ∆n0 )
Maximum index
Maximum index modulation ( ∆n ) 0.00075
modulation

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Use closed-form
Use closed-form solution model for
solution model for -
only uniform grating
only uniform grating
Use transfer matrix
Use transfer matrix model -
model
No chirp
Chirp is not included -
(Linear chirp type)
Linear chirp
Linear chirp is included -
(Linear chirp type)
Linear chirp
Linear chirp parameter -0.006nm/cm
parameter
No
No apodization is included -
(Apodization type)
Sinc function Sinc function is included as a
-
(Apodization type) apodization type
Sinc function parameter
Sinc parameter 0.001
( ΛT )
Gaussian function Gaussian function is included as a
-
(Apodization type) apodization type
Output of fiber Bragg grating using
Transmittance -
transmittance
Output of fiber Bragg grating using
Reflectance -
reflectance
Start wavelength Start wavelength 1553nm
Stop wavelength Stop wavelength 1557nm
No. of sections per Number of plotting points per nm for
100
nm the SPFBG viewer
Number of the transfer matrix M per
No. of sections per
one grating period for transfer matrix 50
one grating period
model

References

[6.5-1] Miguel A, Muriel, Senior Member. IEEE, Alejandro Carballar, and Jose Azana,

“Field distributions inside fiber gratings,” IEEE Journal of Quantumn Electronics,

vol. 35, pp. 548-558, 1999

[6.4-2] Turan Erdogan, Member, IEEE, “Fiber Grating Spectra,” IEEE Journal of

Lightwave Technology, vol. 15, No. 8, pp.1277, Aug. 1997

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6.6 Optical filter

Icon

Theory

In order to model an optical filter, the super Gaussian function can be used [6.6- 1]:

ln 2 f 2m
g ( f ) = exp[ − (2 ) ] (6.6- 1)
2 F

where f is frequency and F the 3dB bandwidth (m = 1.436). Insertion loss is also

considered. Fig. 6.6- 2 shows the characteristics of modeled Gaussian optical filters.

Input dialog box

Fig. 6.6-1 Input dialog box of parameters for optical filter model

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Description of parameters for optical filter

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Bandpass filter model as a frequency
Bandpass filter -
response characteristic of an optical filter
Highpass filter model as a frequency
Highpass filter -
response characteristic of an optical filter
Bandpass filter
Measured frequency characteristics of an
(measured filter -
optical bandpass filter
by user)
3dB passband
3dB passband width of a band-pass filter 10 GHz
width
Insertion loss Insertion loss of an optical filter 0 dB
Center
3dB center wavelength of a band-pass filter 1.55 µm
wavelength
Corner
Corner wavelength of a high-pass filter 1.55 µm
wavelength

Calculated Gaussian optical filter characteristics are shown below.

Fig. 6.6-2 Transmission characteristics of modeled optical filters

Data file format for measured optical band-pass filter (filename: *.dat):

193.36940e+012 0.03854 0.19248


193.36945e+012 0.03861 0.19266
: : :

Column 1 Column 2 Column 3

Frequency step Real part of Imaginary part of

in Hz frequency response frequency response

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Reference

[6.6- 1] Govind P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd, Academic Press.

6.7 Isolator

Icon

Theory

In optical communication links, light is reflected from any components inserted into

the optical path. The performance of lasers and optical amplifiers is severely degraded if

the reflected light enters these devices. At the system level, optical feedback degrades the

SNR and consequently BER. So we need an isolator that prevents the propagation of the

reflected light.

Input dialog box

Fig. 6.7 -1 Input dialog box of parameters for isolator model

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Description of parameters for isolator

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Insertion loss Insertion loss 0.3 dB
Optical return loss Optical return loss 60 dB

6.8 Connector

Icon

Theory

Losses in the fiber-connections arise in a number of ways. Core misalignments and

imperfections are the major factors. At any fiber discontinuity there is some light

reflected back toward the transmitter. The amount of reflection is particularly important

in single-mode systems operated at high data rates. Light reflected back into the laser

diode disrupts its oscillation, contributing to a random variation in the power emitted.

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Input dialog box

Fig. 6.8-1 Input dialog box of parameters for connector model

Description of parameters for connector

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Insertion loss Insertion loss 0.3 dB
Optical return loss Optical return loss 50dB

6.9 Coupler

Icon

Theory

A coupler forms the basis for many distribution networks. A coupler allows power

flow to 2 ports. The power flow ratio can be controlled by the power splitting ratio (1:1

for 3dB, 3:1 for 6dB, 9:1 for 10dB, 15:1 for 12dB) [6.9 -1].

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Input dialog box

Fig. 6.9 -1 Input dialog box of parameters for coupler model

Description of parameters for coupler

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Splitting Ratio Optical power splitting ratio 0.5
Insertion loss Insertion loss 0 dB

References

[6.9 -1] Joseph C. Palais, Fiber Optic Communications, 3rd, Prentice Hall

6.10 Combiner

Icon

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Theory

A combiner is one of the bases for many distribution networks. It combines optical

power from both input ports

Input dialog box

Fig. 6.10 -1 Input dialog box of parameters for combiner model

Description of parameters for combiner

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Combining Optical power combining ratio of upper
0.5
ratio electrode
Insertion
Insertion loss 0 dB
loss

6.11 Splitter

Icon

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Theory

A splitter is one of the basis for many distribution networks. It splits optical power

to both output ports. The output ports can be connected to fibers or other system viewers.

Input dialog box

Fig. 6.11 -1 Input dialog box of parameters for the splitter model

Description of parameters for splitter

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Optical power splitting ratio of upper
Splitting ratio 0.5
electrode
Insertion loss Insertion loss 0 dB

6.12 Phase Shifter

Icon

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Theory

When optical signal propagates through a medium, its phase may change. Exp(jφ)

times optical signal means its phase variation.

Input dialog box

Fig. 6.12 -1 Input dialog box of parameters for the phase shifter model

Description of parameters for coupler

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Phase shift Amount of phase change 0 degree

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7. Model of Functional Components

7.1 Multiplexer

Icon

Theory

The implementation of WDM technologies for fiber-optic communication systems

requires several new optical components such as wavelength multiplexer and

demultiplexer. Wavelength multiplexer combines the outputs of several transmitters and

launches them into an optical fiber while wavelength demultiplexer extracts individual

channels to a desired receiver from the multiplexed signal.

MUX/DEMUX based on the planar lightwave circuit of Si is modeled to single filter

characteristics. To consider the chromatic dispersion during transmission, the complex

electrical field Ε(t) at the MUX output can be expressed as

E (t ) = ∑ A (t ) exp[ − j (ω
i
i i − ω c )t ] (7.1-1)

where i is channel number, A (t ) is the field envelope from transmitter of each channel

and ω c is the optical center frequency.

In order to model MUX/DEMUX for DWDM, the super Gaussian function can be

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used [7.1-2].

ln 2 f 2m
g ( f ) = exp[ − (2 ) ] (7.1-2)
2 F

where f is frequency and F is the 3dB bandwidth (m = 1.436). Fig. 7.1-1 shows the

characteristics of modeled MUX/DEMUX for DWDM.

5.0dB/D
-5

3dB Width > 0.9 nm


-10
1dB Width> 0.7nm
Transmission (dB)

dBm 1dB
-15
3dB

-20

3dB Center Wavelength


-25

-30
1550 1552 1554 1556 1558
Wavelength (nm)

Fig. 7.1 -1 Transmission characteristic of modeled 1x4 MUX/DEMUX

One example of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) features is as

follows:

Fig. 7.1 -2 Transmission characteristics of MUX / DEMUX using 1×4 DWDM

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Input dialog box

Fig. 7.1-3 Input dialog box of parameters of filter characteristics for multiplexer
model

Fig. 7.1-4 Input dialog box of parameters of port wavelength for multiplexer model

Description of parameters for multiplexer

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
1dB passband width of multiplexer
1dB passband width 0.3 nm
filters

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3dB passband width of multiplexer


3dB passband width 0.4 nm
filters
Insertion loss Insertion loss of multiplexer filter 0 dB
Reference wavelength 1st channel wavelength in WDM system 1.55 um
Channel spacing Channel spacing in WDM system 100 GHz
Port 1 wavelength Center wavelength of 1st port in MUX 1.55 um
Port 2 wavelength Center wavelength of 2nd port in MUX 1.5508 um
Port 3 wavelength Center wavelength of 3rd port in MUX 1.5516 um
Port 4 wavelength Center wavelength of 4th port in MUX 1.5524 um

References

[7.1-1] Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexers, Lucent Technologies.

[7.1-2] Marcel Schiess, “Chirp and Dispersion Compensation in Nonlinear Fibers for

High Bit-Rate IM/DD Systems.”

7.2 Demultiplexer

Icon

Theory

Refer to section of 7.1 Multiplexer.

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Input dialog box

Fig.7.2-1 Input dialog box of parameters of filter characteristics for demultiplexer


model

Fig.7.2-2 Input dialog box of parameters of port wavelength for demultiplexer


model

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Description of parameters for demultiplexer

Default value
Parameter Description
/ Units
1dB passband width of demultiplexer
1dB passband width 0.3 nm
filters
3dB passband width of demultiplexer
3dB passband width 0.4 nm
filters
Insertion loss Insertion loss of demultiplexer filters 0 dB
Reference wavelength 1st channel wavelength in WDM system 1.55 um
Channel spacing Channel spacing in WDM system 100 GHz
st
Port 1: wavelength Center wavelength of the 1 port in MUX 1.55 um
nd
Port 2: wavelength Center wavelength of the 2 port in MUX 1.5508 um
rd
Port 3: wavelength Center wavelength of the 3 port in MUX 1.5516 um
th
Port 4: wavelength Center wavelength of the 4 port in MUX 1.5524 um

7.3 Add/Drop Multiplexer

Icon

Theory

Wavelength-division add/drop multiplexers (ADMs) are one of key devices for

wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems since they are required

to drop and/or add a certain wavelength channel at an intermediate node for efficient

network operations. The channel spacing of recently developed wavelength-division

multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems tends to be as narrow as 100GHz or even less,

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greatly increasing the aggregate transmission capacity. ADMs in these systems, therefore,

should have more accurate and narrower filtering characteristics than the channel spacing.

Fiber Bragg grating is quite an attractive device for this purpose since it provides high

reflectivity at a certain wavelength with negligible transmission loss for others, providing

a selection of wavelength-channel with low crosstalk between adjacent channels [7.3-1].

Several types of ADMs based on fiber gratings which allow us to drop pre-defined

(fixed) wavelength channels [7.3-2] have been successfully demonstrated in recent years.

For flexible networking, however, it is better to have ADMs select any wavelength

channels dynamically.

Fig. 7.3-1 Schematic of optical Add/Drop multiplexers

Fig. 7.3-1 shows the schematic of an ADM, which consists of two polarization beam

splitters (PBS's) with polarization controllers (PC’s) and identical Bragg gratings in each

arm. Multi-channel WDM signals with arbitrary polarization are injected into port 1,

which are split into two linearly polarized states orthogonal to each other by PBS. The

light in each arm passes through a λ / 4 PC, becoming circularly polarized light.

Among many WDM channels, only the signal at the Bragg wavelength is reflected,

reversing its handedness of circular polarization, and is passed through the PC again.

Then the light becomes linearly polarized again, but orthogonal to the original input

polarization. This makes the signal channel at the Bragg wavelength drop through port 2,

and the other wavelength channels are transmitted through port 4. Because of the

symmetric structure of the device, a new signal at the same Bragg wavelength can be

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added to the transmitted port by launching the light into port 3. If we use additional

matched grating pairs with different resonant wavelengths, this multiplexer can extract or

insert several different wavelength channels at once. ADMs can also be modeled

similarly to MUX/DEMUX described in the above section.

Input dialog box

Fig. 7.3-1 Input dialog box of parameters related to wavelength for the add & drop
ports for Add/Drop multiplexer model

Fig. 7.3 -2 Input dialog box of parameters related to filter characteristics for the
Add/Drop multiplexer model

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Description of parameters for Add Drop multiplexer

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Drop port 1:
Channel wavelength of drop port 1 1.5516 um
wavelength
Drop port 2:
Channel wavelength of drop port 2 1.5524 um
wavelength
1dB passband width of Add or Drop
1dB passband width 0.3 nm
filter
3dB passband width of Add or Drop
3dB passband width 0.4 nm
filter
Insertion loss Insertion loss of Add or Drop filter 0 dB

References

[7.3-1] G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical

fibers by a transverse holographic method,” Opt. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 823-825, Aug.

1989.

[7.3-2] Kim, S. Y., Lee, S. B., Chung, J., Kim, S. Y., Park, I. J., Jeong, J., and Choi, S. S.,

“Highly stable optical add/drop multiplexer using polarization beam splitters and

fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 1119-1121, Aug.

1997.

7.4 Time Domain Demultiplexer

Icon

Theory

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A time-domain demultiplexer is used to de-multiplex multiplexed RZ signals in time

domain. A delay line can be used to match the phase of input and output signals in the

time-domain demultiplexer.

Input dialog box

Fig. 7.4 -1 Input dialog box of parameters for the time domain demultiplexer
model

Description of parameters for time domain demultiplexer

Parameter Description Default Value / Unit


Extracted data
Extracted data rate is reduction 2
rate
Invert clock of time-domain
Clock inverting No
demultiplexer
Reduction of
Reduction of FWHM of clock signal 0%
clock signal
Insertion loss of time-domain
Insertion Loss 0 dB
demultiplexer
Extinction Ratio Ratio of state ‘1’ to state ‘0’ 12 dB

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7.5 Differentiator

Icon

Theory

The differentiator differentiates ac-coupled electrical signals which have the same

positive and negative peak values. Fig. 7.5-1(a) shows the input electrical signal with the

data rate of 10Gbps to the differentiator. Fig. 7.5-1(b) shows the output of the

differentiator with the input signal of Fig. 7.5-1 (a).

(a)

(b)

Fig. 7.5-1 (a) Input signal and (b) output signal for the differentiator

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7.6 Rectifier

Icon

Theory

The rectifier rectifies the electrical signals by flipping over the negative part of the

signal to the positive side. Fig. 7.6-1(a) shows the input signal of the rectifier with a data

rate of 10Gbps, and Fig. 7.6-1(b) shows the output of the rectifier.

(a)

(b)

Fig. 7.6-1 (a) Input signal and (b) output signal for the rectifier

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7.7 Space switch

Icon

Theory

Space switches can be implemented using different optical components; SOA,

LiNbO3, and Delivery and coupling (DC). One can generate a project file to make a

function of space switches and then store the project in the tree section in Photonics CAD

to use later on.

Semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) switches are composed of three stages [7.7-

1]. The first and third stage SOAs are used to compensate the internal loss. The second

stage SOAs have an on/off function as injecting a current. Each input port signal to SOAs

is passed through the first and second stage SOAs and combined with another port

signals. Combined another port signals are passed through a SOA without the injection

current (turned-off SOA). So these are the crosstalk components in the SOA switch.

The time developed transfer matrix method (TMM) is used to characterize the SOA

switch [7.7-2]. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise power at each section i is

PASE,i and average photon density at each section is

2 2 2 2
Ai + Ai +1 + Bi + Bi +1 PASE ,i
Si = ~ + ~
2v g h wAcross v g h wAcross

where Ai and Bi are the normalized slowly varying envelopes of forward and backward

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fields at section i, v g group velocity and, Across the cross sectional area of the active

layer.

A 1×2 switch constituting a LiNbO3 switch is similar to a LiNbO3 external

modulator. If the voltage between two electrodes does not supplied, input signals are

splitted into the same ratio at a waveguide output stage. Switching function can be

obtained by adjusting the electrode voltage ratio. A 4×4 switch can be implemented using

24 1×2 switch [7.7-3].

A 1×2 switch constituting a DC switch is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI)

with a thermo-optic phase shifter [7.7-4]. Due to the imperfect thermo-optic phase shift,

crosstalk components are generated. DC switches can route input signals to the same

output port.

Input dialog box

Fig. 7.7 -1 Input dialog box of parameters related to switch types and port
selection for the space switch model

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Fig. 7.7 -2 Input dialog box of parameters related SOA swtich for the space switch
model

Fig. 7.7 -3 Input dialog box of parameters related to LiNbO3 switch for the space
switch model

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Fig. 7.7 -4 Input dialog box of parameters related to delivery and coupling switch
for the space switch model

Description of parameters for multiplexer

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Select one of DC/LiNbO3/SOA
Switch type DC switch
switch types
Port 1 Switch state of 1st input port 1
Port 2 Switch state of 2nd input port 2
Port 3 Switch state of 3rd input port 3
Port 4 Switch state of 4th input port 4
1st SOA current Injection current of 1st stage SOAs 50 mA
2nd SOA current Injection current of 2nd stage SOAs 80 mA
3rd SOA current Injection current of 3rd stage SOAs 50 mA
Leakage current of SOAs without
Off current 10 mA
injection current
Internal loss Switch internal loss 0 dB
On/off ratio 1×2 switch on/off ratio (LiNbO3) 13 dB
Phase error 1×2 switch phase shift error (DC) 1°

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References

[7.7-1] M. Gustavsson, B. Lagerstrom, et al, “Monolithically integrated 4×4

InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett., vol. 28, no. 24,

pp. 2223-2225, Nov. 1992.

[7.7-2] Hanlim Lee, Hyunjae Yoon, Yonggyoo Kim, and Jichai Jeong, “Theoretical study

of frequency chirping and extinction ratio of wavelength-converted optical signals

by XGM and XPM using SOAs,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electron., vol.35, No.

8, pp. 1213-1219, Aug. 1999.

[7.7-3] P. Granestrand, B. Lagerstrom, et al, “Integrated optics 4×4 switch matrix with

digital optical switches,” Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 4-5, Jan. 1990.

[7.7-4] K. Kato, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, and T. Matsunga, “Improved 8×8 integrated

optical matrix switch using silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” J. Lightwave

Tchnol. vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1597-1560, 1994.

7.8 OXC
Photonics CAD provides typical OXC models (4 different types) stored in project

files in the tree section. One can generate a project file to have multiple ports for input

and output. There is no limitation of number of ports. After making a new model of

OXCs, the project file can be stored in the tree section, and then use as a normal project

file.

7.8.1 OXC with Sp/Com (Splitter and Combiner)

Theory

Figure 7.8.1-1 shows the OXC architecture composed of splitter, combiner, filter

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and space switch. WDM signals entering into the OXC input ports are divided by

splitters and separated to each channel by filters. Space switches route input channels to

the other output ports. Routed signals by a space switch are combined to WDM signals,

and it is passed through the OXC output port. Imperfect filter or space switch can

introduce interband or intraband crosstalk components. To avoid wavelength contention,

wavelength converter can be used.

OXC with Sp/Com block is implemented in the case of 2 channels and 4 fibers. It is

possible to implement the other case of the number of channels and fibers as shown in

Figure 7.8.1-1. The wavelengths of each input WDM channels must be the same.

Fig. 7.8.1 -1 OXC with Sp/Com architecture (2 channels, 4 fibers)

7.8.2 OXC with Mux/Demux (Multiplexer and Demultiplexer)

Theory

Figure 7.8.2-1 shows the OXC architecture composed of demultiplexer, multiplexer,

and space switch. WDM signals entering into the OXC input ports are separated to each

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channel by demultiplexers. Space switches route input channels to the other output ports.

Routed signals by a space switch are multiplexed to WDM signals and it is passed

through the OXC output port. Crosstalk components exist in space switches and filters.

But crosstalk components may be reduced due to the filtering of multiplexers.

Wavelength converters located in the front of multiplexers to avoid wavelength

contention. After wavelength conversion, the power equalizer must be used due to the

wavelength dependent conversion efficiency.

Fig. 7.8.2 -1 OXC with Mux/Demux architecture (4 channels, 4 fibers)

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7.8.3 OXC LM (Link modular)

Theory

Figure 7.8.3-1 shows the OXC architecture composed of demultiplexer, space

switch and coupler. WDM signals entering into the OXC input ports are separated to each

channel by demultiplexers. Space switches route input channels to the other output ports.

In this case, each channel of WDM signals directly pass through each space switch. The

space switch can have a difference number of ports between input and output. The DC

switch supports this function. Routed signals by a space switch are combined to WDM

signals and it is passed through the OXC output port.

Crosstalk components appeared in demultiplexers exist in space switches and filters.

But crosstalk components may be small because the DC switch input signals have

different wavelengths to each other. Wavelength conversion can be done in front of space

switches.

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Fig. 7.8.3 -1 OXC Link modular architecture (4 channels, 4 fibers)

7.8.4 OXC WM (Wavelength modular)

Theory

Figure 7.8.4-1 shows the OXC architecture composed of demultiplexer, space

switch and coupler. WDM signals entering into the OXC input ports are separated to each

channel by demultiplexers. Space switches route input channels to output ports. In this

case, each input channels of space switch come from different fibers. Routed signals by

space switch are combined to WDM signals and it is passed through OXC output ports.

Crosstalk components appeared in demultiplexers exist in space switches and filters.

Crosstalk components may be larger than those of the OXC Link modular (7.8.3) because

the DC switch input signals have the same wavelength to each other. Wavelength

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conversion is done in the front of space switches.

Fig. 7.8.4 -1 OXC Wavelength modular architecture (4 channels, 4 fibers)

7.9 AWG

Icon

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Theory

The implementation of WDM technologies for fiber-optic communication systems

requires new optical components such as an arrayed waveguide grating router. The

arrayed waveguide grating router reduces the optical splitting/combining loss. AWG

having a crosstalk level as low as –30dB can be used as demultiplexer, multiplexer,

wavelength router, and interconnetion [7.9 -1].

Arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer requires N wavelengths to fully interconnect

N inputs with N outputs. This AWGM is capable of simultaneously routing up to N

packets of different wavelengths to a given output.

Input dialog box

Fig. 7.9 -1 Input dialog box of parameters for the AWG model

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Fig. 7.9 -2 Input dialog box of wavelength of channel for the AWG model

Description of parameters for AWG

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Loss of main channel Loss of main channel 6.238dB
Crosstalk Crosstalk level 36.544dB
1dB passband width 1dB passband width of AWG 0.461 nm
3dB passband width 3dB passband width of AWG 0.601 nm
Wavelength of channel Wavelength of each channel -

References

[7.9 -1] Senichi Suzuki, “Arrayed-Waveguide Gratings for Dense-WDM systems”

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7.10 Optical Packet Switch

Optical packet switches make a packet switching in transparent photonic media

possible. Thus, the wide bandwidth of photonic components, combined with WDM and

wavelength routing techniques, and the high-speed capabilities of optical devices such as

optical gates and switches, optical wavelength converters, and fast multi-wavelength

lasers, provides the potential of packet switched networks with throughput in Tbps.

In this simulator, there are four models of optical packet switch (OPS). From the

tree section, you can choose a project saved as a schematic diagram of each OPS model.

7.10.1 Input-Buffered Optical Packet Switch (IBOPS)

Icon

Theory

Figure 7.10.1-1 shows schematic diagram of the IBOPS saved in a project file.

IBOPS contains N TWCs and a wavelength-routed packet buffer. This wavelength-routed

packet buffer consists of a pair of AWGMs connected by a set of fiber delay lines. The

lengths of delay lines are ranging from 0 to (K-1)T. According to the routing principle of

the AWGM, a packet entering the buffer at the i-th input port will leave the buffer from

the i-th output port after receiving a certain time delay determined by the packet

wavelength. In an extreme case, a maximum of N packets from all the inputs can

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simultaneously access any single delay line without collision. Therefore, this wavelength-

routed buffer is equivalent to N single-input and single-output packet buffers, which

share a common pool of fiber delay lines through wavelength division multiplexing.

Because no couplers or space switches are used, this packet switch has a potentially low

power loss regardless of switch sizes [7.10.1- 1].

Fig. 7.10.1- 1 Schematic diagram of IBOPS

Reference

[7.10.1- 1] Rodney S. Tucker and Wen De Zhong, “Photonic Packet Switching: An

Overview”, IEICE Trans. Commun., Vol. e82-b, No.2, February 1999.

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7.10.2 Output-Buffered Optical Packet Switch (OBOPS)

Icon

Theory

Figure 7.10.2-1 shows schematic diagram of OBOPS saved in a project file. This

packet switching is based on space-switches. Packet routing is performed by an NxN

nonblocking space switch which is capable of broadcasting, while packet buffering is

carried out by a wavelength-routed buffer in conjunction with a set of N tunable

wavelength converters preceding the space switch. There may be more than one packet

destined for the same output in a time slot, resulting in a packet contention. However, this

packet contention is resolved by wavelength conversion and wavelength routing based on

buffering [7.10.2- 1].

Fig. 7.10.2- 1 Schematic diagram of OBOPS

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Reference

[7.10.2- 1] Rodney S. Tucker and Wen De Zhong, “Photonic Packet Switching: An

Overview”, IEICE Trans. Commun., Vol. e82-b, No.2, February 1999.

7.10.3 Broadcast and Select Optical Packet Switch (BSOPS)

icon

Theory

Figure 7.10.3-1 shows schematic diagram of BSOPS saved in a project file. BSOPS

uses multiple wavelengths to distinguish packets arriving at different inputs. Packets

from different inputs are encoded on a different wavelength before they are combined at

a star coupler, and then the combined WDM packets are broadcast and feed to a set of K

optical delay lines. A set of delay lines is shared by all the packets. After propagating

through the set of K delay lines, each packet can receive any amount of delay ranging

from 0 to (K-1) packet times. Packets emerging at each delay line are further broadcast to

all of the output ports, where two sets of optical gate switches are used for a packet

selection. That is, at each output, the first set of gate switches selects a particular delay

line through which a desired packet arrives. The second set of SOA gates in conjunction

with a WDM demultiplexer-multiplexer pair (selector) chooses a wavelength at which the

desired packet is encoded [7.10.3- 1].

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Fig. 7.10.3- 1 Schematic diagram of BSOPS

Fig. 7.10.3- 2 Schematic diagram of star coupler in first project consisting of


BSOPS

Fig. 7.10.3-3 Schematic diagram of Selector in second project consisting of


BSOPS

Reference

[7.10.3- 1] Rodney S. Tucker and Wen De Zhong, “Photonic Packet Switching: An

Overview”, IEICE Trans. Commun., Vol. e82-b, No.2, February 1999.

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7.10.4 Wavelength Routed Optical Packet Switch (WROPS)

icon

Theory

Figure 7.10.4-1 shows schematic diagram of the WROPS saved in a project file.

This packet switch uses wavelength coding for packet routing and buffering. It consists

of three functional blocks. The packet encoding block is composed of N optical tunable

wavelength converters which convert a packet to a new wavelength corresponding to its

desired output. The buffering block consists of a NxK SOA gate switch matrix followed

by a set of K optical delay lines whose lengths range from 0 to (K-1)-packet time. The

SOA-gate switch matrix provides wavelength encoded packets access to appropriate

delay lines in a way that packets that are destined for a given output leave the switch in a

first in first out manner. The demultiplexing block consists of a KxN star coupler

followed by a set of N band-pass filters, one at each output to select packets whose

wavelengths are matched with its pass-band [7.10.4- 1]

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Fig. 7.10.4- 1 Schematic diagram of WROPS

Fig. 7.10.4- 2 Schematic diagram of star coupler in project consisting of WROPS

Reference

[7.10.4- 1] Rodney S. TUCKER and Wen De ZHONG, “Photonic Packet Switching: An

Overview”, IEICE TRANS. COMMUN., VOL.E82-B, NO.2 FEBRUARY 19

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7.11 FEC Encoder

Icon

Theory

Forward error correction (FEC) provides improved power margin against noises and

pulse distortion in long-haul optically amplified transmission systems. This margin

improvement can be used to increase amplifier spacing, transmission distance, or to

increase system capacity [7.11-1]. Most modern transoceanic systems use the Reed-

Solomon (RS) (255, 239) error correction code which is a standard FEC for the undersea

cable system determined by International Telecommunication Union (ITU). FEC are

starting to be deployed in terrestrial systems.

Let C be a q-ary (n,k) cyclic code with a generator polynomial g(x). Let m be the

multiplicative order of q modulo n (GF(qm)) is thus the smallest extension field of GF(q)

that contains a primitive nth root of unity). Let α be a primitive nth root of unity. Select

g(x) to be a minimal-degree polynomial in GF(q)[x] such that g(αb)= g(αb+1)=

g(αb+2)=….= g(αb+δ-2)=0 for some integers b≥0 and δ≥1. g(x) thus has (δ-1) consecutive

powers of α as zeros. The code C defined by this g(x) has minimum distance dmin ≥ δ and

we call this code BCH code . The Reed-Solomon code is a qm-ary BCH code of length qm

–1 [7.11-2].

ITU-T G.975 uses the RS(255, 239) code operated on 8-bit symbols. The generator

polynomial of the code is given by

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15
g ( x) = ∏ ( x − α i ) (7.11-1)
i =0

where α is a root of the binary primitive polynomial x 8 + x 4 + x 3 + x 2 + 1 . A data byte

(d7, d6, …., d1, d0) is identified with the element d 7 ⋅ α 7 + d 6 ⋅ α 6 + ...d1 ⋅ α 1 + d 0 in

GF(256), the finite field with 256 elements. The redundancy ratio is equal to 1/14

because one symbol of each codeword carries the framing structure. Consequently, the

line bit rates will be data rates × 15/14 Gbps [7.11-3].

ITU-T G.709 also uses the RS (255,239) and same primitive polynomial. But FEC

frame structure of G.709 is different from that of G.975, which results in the different

redundancy ratio. There are three data rates defined in G.709, corresponding to payload

rates of OC-48/STM-16 (OTU1), OC-192/STM-64 (OTU2) and OC-768/STM-256

(OTU3). Characteristics of the three levels of signals defined in G.709 are in Fig. 7.11-1

[7.11-4].

Approximate Time to transmit Time to transmit


Level of signal
Line Rate (Gbps) one row (µm) one frame (µm)
1 2.666057143 12.242 48.971
2 10.709225316 3.047 12.191
3 43.018413559 0.759 3.034

Fig. 7.11-1 Characteristics of the three levels of signals defined in G.709

Photonics CAD enables you to estimate BER performance in FEC systems through

FEC encoder/decoder. You can choose one of standard ITU-T G.975 and ITU-T G.709 or

you can also simulate using an arbitrary RS or BCH code through selecting none of

standard. Note that BCH code provided in Photonics CAD is binary code. When you

select none among standards, the corresponding line bit rate will be data rate ×

(codeword length / message length).

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FEC encoder should lie after ESG and before transmitter. FEC encoder has two

inputs and two outputs to be used after both ESG for single electrode and double

electrodes. Be careful when using FEC encoder after ESG for single electrode. You

should use the upper output to the upper input and the lower output to the lower input.

Input dialog box

Fig. 7.11-2 Input dialog box of RS and BCH codes parameters for the FEC encoder

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Fig. 7.11-3 Input dialog box of output waveform parameters for the FEC encoder

Description of parameters for FEC encoder

Parameter Description Default Value / Unit


Select the standard you want to
Standard follow out of ITU-T G.975, ITU-T ITU-T G.975
G.709 ,or none
Select the code type out of RS code
Code Type RS code
and BCH code
m Number of bits per symbol 8
n Number of symbols per codeword 255
Number of symbols per message
k 239
word
dmin Minimum distance 17
Field Coefficients of field (primitive)
Polynomial polynomial x8 + x 4 + x3 + x 2 + 1
First root of g(x) Power of first root of g(x), αb 0

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Select the pulse shape out of raised


Pulse Shape cosine pulse, super Gaussian pulse Raised cosine pulse
and square pulse
Degree of edge sharpness of raised
Roll off Factor 1
cosine pulse
Super Gaussian Degree of edge sharpness of super
3
Factor Gaussian pulse
Pulse width ratio
Pulse width ratio for the bit period 1
for the bit period
V1_offset Offset voltage of electrode 1 (Q) 0V
V2_offset Offset voltage of electrode 2 (Q bar) 2V
Peak to peak voltage of electrode
V1_pp 2V
1(Q)
Peak to peak voltage of electrode
V2_pp 2V
2(Q bar)

Reference

[7.11-1] Howard Kidorf, Nanda Ramanujam, et al., “Performance improvement in high

capacity, ultra-long distance, WDM systems using forward error correction

codes,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2000 , Volume: 3 , 2000

Page(s): 274 -276 vol.3

[7.11-2] Stephen B. Wicker, Error control systems for digital communication and storage,

Prentice Hall, 1995.

[7.11-3] International Telecommunication Union – Telecommunication sector (ITU-T),

Series G : Transmission Systems and Media, Digital Systems and Networks,

G.975.

[7.11-4] International Telecommunication Union – Telecommunication sector (ITU-T),

Series G : G..709.

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7.12 FEC Decoder


Icon

Theory

FEC decoder cannot be used without FEC encoder and should lie after receiver. The

Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and Forney algorithm are used for decoding RS codes and

the Berlekamp algorithm for BCH codes [7.12-1].

Input dialog box

Fig. 7.12 -1 Input dialog box of RS and BCH codes parameters for FEC decoder

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Fig. 7.12 -2 Input dialog box of output waveform parameters for FEC decoder

Description of parameters for FEC decoder

Parameter Description Default Value / Unit


Select the standard you want to
Standard follow out of ITU-T G.975, ITU-T ITU-T G.975
G.709, or none
Select the code type out of RS code
Code Type RS code
and BCH code
m Number of bits per symbol 8
n Number of symbol per codeword 255
Number of symbol per message
k 239
word
dmin Minimum distance 17
Field Coefficients of field (primitive)
Polynomial polynomial x8 + x 4 + x3 + x 2 + 1

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First root of g(x) Power of first root of g(x), αb 0


Select the pulse shape out of raised
Pulse Shape cosine pulse, super Gaussian pulse Raised cosine pulse
and Square pulse
Degree of edge sharpness of raised
Roll off Factor 1
cosine pulse
Super Gaussian Degree of edge sharpness of super
3
Factor Gaussian pulse
Pulse width ratio
Pulse width ratio for the bit period 1
for the bit period
V_offset Offset voltage of electrode 2V
V_pp Peak to peak voltage of electrode 2V

Reference

[7.12-1] Stephen B. Wicker, Error control systems for digital communication and

storage, Prentice Hall, 1995.

7.13 Phase Modulator

Icon

Theory

The phase modulator is a device which changes “phase” of optical signals according

to an applied voltage. When voltage is not applied to the RF-electrode, n numbers of

waves exist in the certain length. When voltage is applied to the RF-electrode, one more

wave is added, which now means n+1 waves exist in the same length. In this case, the

phase has been changed by 2π and the half voltage of this is called the driving voltage.

In case of long-haul optical transmissions, waveform is susceptible to degradation

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due to linear and non-linear effects. The phase modulator can be used to compensate for

this degradation and increase transmission distance. Also, the phase modulator can be

used for generating optical modulation formats interested in improving spectral

efficiency in optical signal transmissions.

Input dialog box

Fig. 7.13 -1 Input dialog box of parameters for the phase modulator

Description of parameters for Phase Modulator

Parameter Description Default Value / Unit


Switching Switching voltage of modulator
4V
voltage (Vπ )

7.14 PMD compensator

Icon

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Theory

Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is an obstacle in many fiber-optic transmission

systems. As the bit rates increase to 40Gb/s and beyond, its impact will be even greater.

Consequently, there is a large interest in techniques to compensate or mitigate the effects

of PMD, and a number of methods have been proposed. Usually, the compensators are

classified in terms of their number of DOF because this is a measure of their complexity,

rather than their alleged order of compensation. The ultimate goal of a PMD compensator

is to minimize bit error rates. This quantity is neither available, nor can it be measured

with high accuracy in a very short time. A useful mean to detect PMD-induced penalties

is spectral filtering in the electrical part of receivers because PMD affects the high

frequency parts of the signal spectrum first.

Fig. 7.14-1 shows the schematic diagram of Model 1 with the DOF of 3. It consists

of polarization controller and variable delay-line. Also, an electrical band-pass filter with

the center frequency equal to 1/2 times the clock frequency 1/T is used to obtain error

signals to find the optimum control value of polarization controller and variable delay-

line. In Model 1, the polarization controller and the delay element are represented by the

Jones matrix R and D, respectively.

cosθe jφ sinθ 
R=  (7.14- 1)
- sinθ cosθe - jφ 

exp[ j∆τω / 2] 0 
D (ω ) =  (7.14- 2)
 0 exp[− j∆τω / 2]

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Post compensator

Variable
Polarization delay-line
controller
τ
∆∆τ

Electrical
Controller(PC) BPF Rx

Fig. 7.14 -1 Schematic diagram of Model 1

Fig. 7.14-2 shows the schematic diagram of Model 2 with the DOF of 4. It consists of

polarization controllers and variable delay-lines. Also, an electrical band-pass filter with

center frequency equal to 1/2 times the clock frequency 1/T is used to obtain error signals

to find the optimum control value of polarization controller and variable delay-line. The

Jones matrix describing this compensator is given by

M (ω ) = R −1 (ω ) D(ω ) R(ω ) R (7.14- 3)

cos(kω ) sin(kω ) 
R (ω ) =  (7.14- 4)
- sin(kω ) cos(kω ) 

where ω denotes the deviation from the central angular optical frequency and R(ω)

denotes a unitary Jones matrix whose effect is equivalent to rotation in Stokes space. The

argument of this operator is a three-dimensional Stokes vector whose orientation is the

axis of rotation and whose magnitude is the rotation angle. In Eq. 7.14-4, k is the

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precession rate of the rotation axis defined by M. R and D(ω) is given in Eqs. 7.14-1 and

7.14-2.

Higher order PMD compensator

R(ω) R-1 (ω)

K ∆τ
PC1 PC2 PC2 PC2 PC2
K

Electrical
Controller(PC) BPF Rx
PC: polarization controller
K, ∆τ : variable delay line

Fig. 7.14 -2 Schematic diagram of Model 2

Fig. 7.14-3 shows the schematic diagram of Model 3 with the DOF of 5. It consists of

polarization controllers, fixed delay-line and variable delay-line. Also, an electrical band-

pass filter with center frequency equal to 1/2 times the clock frequency 1/T is used to

obtain error signals to find the optimum control value of polarization controller and

variable delay-line. The Jones matrices describing polarization controller and delay line

are given in Eqs. 7.14-1 and 7.14-2.

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Double stage post compensator

Fixed delay- Variable


Polarization line Polarization delay-line
controller controller
τ
∆∆τ τ
∆∆τ

Electrical
Controller(PC) BPF Rx

Fig. 7.14 -3 Schematic diagram of Model 3

Input dialog box

Fig. 7.14 -4 Input dialog box of models for the PMD compensator

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Fig. 7.14 -5 Input dialog box of parameters for the PMD compensator Model 1

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Fig. 7.14 -6 Input dialog box of parameters for the PMD compensator Model 2

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Fig. 7.14 -7 Input dialog box of parameters for the PMD compensator Model 3

Description of parameters for PMD compensator

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Number of iterations to find the
No. of iterations optimum values of polarization 10
controller and variable delay line
Angle 1 Control spacing of θ in 9°
polarization controller
Angle 2 Control spacing of φ in 9°
polarization controller
Time delay Control spacing of time delay in 10 ps
variable delay line

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7.15 PMD emulator

Icon

Theory

Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) emulators are comprised of a small number of

sections of DGD elements with polarization scattering at the beginning of each section.

The polarization controllers can produce arbitrary rotation on the Poincare sphere after

each DGD element. Thus, if we control Δτ of each DGD element to have the

Maxwellian distribution and the polarization controllers to scatter each PMD vector

uniformly on the Poincare sphere, we should be able to emulate PMD with the exact

Maxwellian distribution, Regardless of the number of DGD sections. The first-order

PMD can be emulated to have the exact Maxwellian distribution by using only one

section of the DGD element. However, more than one DGD elements are required for the

generation of higher-order PMD. For PMD emulator models, Model 1 generates the

PMD parameters using the same DGD value for each section. On the other hand, Model

2 generates the PMD parameters using random DGD values for each section.

A PMD emulator is generally composed by a number of stages represented by

individual Jones matrices. The polarization controller and the delay element are

represented by matrix R and D, respectively.

cosθe jφ sinθ 
R=  (7.15- 1)
- sinθ cosθe - jφ 

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exp[ j∆τω / 2] 0 
D (ω ) =  (7.15- 2)
 0 exp[− j∆τω / 2]

Input dialog box

Fig. 7.15 -1 Input dialog box of parameters for the PMD emulator

Description of parameters for PMD emulator

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Constant DGD of
Constant DGD of PMF section 2ps
PMF section
No. of sections Number of sections 3
Model 1 PMD emulator model 1 -
Model 2 PMD emulator model 2 -

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8. Model of Wavelength converters


For all optical networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), it is

necessary to use wavelength converters for frequency reuse and wavelength/spatial

routing.

8.1 XGM (cross gain modulation) method

Icon

Theory

For all optical networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM)

technologies, it is necessary to use wavelength converters for frequency reuse and

wavelength/spatial routing. To implement all optical wavelength converters, several

promising techniques relying on four-wave mixing in SOAs, optical modulation of lasers,

XGM and XPM in SOAs have been reported. The XGM method is simple to realize and

has shown an impressive performance for bit rates up to 40 Gb/s. It has, however, two

shortcomings: the converted signal has a relatively large chirp and the extinction ratio

can significantly be degraded when the signal is wavelength up-converted. To overcome

these problems, the XPM method was proposed. It has some advantages, such as small

chirp and the wavelength up/down conversion without degrading the extinction ratio.

However, it has complex structures using the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which

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should be monolithically integrated for stable operation. Wavelength conversion using

XGM and XPM features high conversion efficiency as well as insensitivity to the

polarization of input signals.

The time dependent TMM has been proposed for the purpose of characterizing the

multi-electrode DFB laser [8.1 -1]. To apply this method in SOAs, the propagation part

of the transfer matrix is modified using the pulse propagation equation that describes the

propagation of pulses in SOAs. The evolution of the slowly varying amplitude Aw(z, t)

inside SOAs is governed by the pulse propagation equation [8.1 -2], [8.1 -3]

∂ Aw ( z , t ) 1 ∂ Aw ( z , t ) i 1
+ = − α Γ g m w Aw ( z , t ) + g w Aw ( z , t ) + µ w ( z , t )
∂z vg ∂t 2 2

(8.1 -1)

where index w refers to different optical input signals, Aw(z, t) is the normalized pulse

envelope and |Aw(z, t)|2 represents the optical power, and α is the chirp parameter which

accounts for carrier-induced index changes. vg is the group velocity, Γ the confinement

factor, gmw the material gain, and gw the net gain. The ASE noise is represented by two

statistically independent Gaussian random processes for µw (z, t) [8.1 -3], [8.1 -4] that

satisfies the following correlation


< µ w ( z , t ) µ w ( z ′, t ′) > = β Γ RSP δ (t − t ' )δ ( z − z ' ) × (v g E w Across ) (8.1 -2)

where β is the spontaneous coupling factor, RSP is the spontaneous emission rate

assuming bimolecular recombination (c 2 N 2 ), δ(x) the δ function, Ew photon energy, and

Across the cross sectional area of the active layer.

To consider interaction between carrier density N and photon density S, the SOA is

divided into a number of small sections, and the rate equation is solved in each section as

∂N i I
= − N i (c1 + c2 N i + c3 N i2 ) − ∑ v g Γg m w,i S w,i (8.1 -3)
∂t qV w=1, 2

where index i corresponds to different sections, I is the injection current, V the active

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volume, and q the electronic charge, while c1 , c2 , and c3 are related to recombination

constants.

The average photon density Sw, i is calculated by

| Aw, i |2 + | Aw , i +1 |2 + | Bw , i |2 + | Bw , i +1 |2
S w ,i = (8.1 -4)
2 v g E w Across

where Aw,i is the forward-traveling wave amplitude and Bw,i is the backward-traveling

wave amplitude.

To model the asymmetric gain profile, the gain spectrum is assumed to be cubic and

the material gain is approximated to [8.1 -5]

a0 ( N i − N 0 ) − a1 ( λw − λ p ) 2 + a3 ( λw − λ p ) 3
g m i ( N i , λw ) = (8.1 -5)
1 + ε ( S1, i + S 2 , i )

where a0 , a1 , and a3 are gain constants, λp is the gain peak wavelength assumed to shift

linearly with the carrier density, and ε is the gain compression factor. The net gain is

given as [8.1 -6]

g i = Γ( g m i − α a ) − (1 − Γ )α c − α scat (8.1 -6)

The α-parameter for each small section is taken into consideration since the

parameter is directly related to frequency chirping due to self-phase modulation (SPM)

and cross-phase modulation (XPM) in SOAs. The α-parameter {α(λ, N) = (-4π/λ)

(dn/dN) / (dg/dN)} was calculated from gain variation using Eq. (8.1 -5). The obtained α-

parameter is in the range of 2 to 12. These agree well with other experimental results [8.1

-7].

To perform dynamic analysis of SOAs, a TMM-based SOA model is developed

using a modified transfer matrix

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 a 12 ( t )a 21 ( t ) a 12 ( t ) 
a ( t ) −
A w ,i+1 ( t + ∆t )  a 22 ( t )  A w ,i ( t ) 
11
a 22 ( t )
 =   (8.1 -7)
B w ,i ( t + ∆t )   − a 21 ( t ) 1  B w ,i+1 ( t )
 
 a 22 ( t ) a 22 ( t ) 

Fig. 8.1 -1 shows the schematic of the modified TMM-based dynamic SOA model.

Assuming that various material and structural parameters remain unchanged throughout a

section i in the time interval t to t+Δt, the output amplitudes Aw, i+1 and Bw, i at time t+Δt

can be calculated from the input amplitudes Aw, i and Bw, i+1 at time t by Eq. (8.1 -7).

Transfer matrix elements amn(t) of a section i are obtained from ni, Ni, gmi, and αi at time t.

Although internal reflection at each section due to the refractive index step from the

longitudinal spatial hole burning is considered in the calculation, its effects on chirp and

the extinction ratio are negligible. At the output of SOAs, the chirp of converted signals

is calculated by differentiating its phase with respect to time {-1/(2π) (dφ/dt).

Pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) for nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) data of the 27-1 word

length was used in the simulation as an input signal. The data rate up to 40Gbps with the

super Gaussian pulse (m=3) was investigated to simulate more realistic pulse shapes. The

time interval ∆t and one section length ∆z are set to 1.3ps and 100µm, respectively. The

co-propagation scheme for the XGM method is used throughout this simulation.

A1,i-1(t) A1,i (t) A1,i+1(t)


Input signal … … Output signal
PSIG at λ SIG PSIG atλ SIG
B1,i-1(t) B1,i (t) B1,i+1(t)
A2,i-1(t) A2,i (t) A2,i+1(t)
Input CW … … Converted signal
PCW atλ CW PCW at λ CW
B2,i-1(t) B2,i (t) B2,i+1(t)

R • • • • • •
R
ni-1 αi-1 ni αi ni+1 αi+1 • • •
• • •
Ni-1 gm, i-1 Ni gm, i Ni+1 gm, i+1

Fig. 8.1 -1 Schematic of the modified TMM-based dynamic SOA model

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Input dialog box

Fig. 8.1 -2 Input dialog box of parameters for the XGM method

Fig. 8.1 -3 Input dialog box of material parameters for the XGM method

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© AO Technology, 2002

Description of parameters for XGM method

Parameter Description Default Value/Unit


Power Power of CW (pump) signal -15 dBm
Wavelength Wavelength of CW (pump) signal 1535 nm
Injection current Injection current of SOA 100 mA
Including the internal reflection in
Internal reflection Yes
SOA
No. of divided
Number of divided sections 10
sections
Cavity length Cavity length of SOA 500 µm
Active layer
Active layer width of SOA 1 µm
width
Active layer
Active layer thickness of SOA 0.15 µm
thickness
Confinement
Confinement factor 0.3
factor
Initial n_eff Initial effective refractive index 3.5
R_facet Facet reflectance 0%

Description of material parameters for XGM method

Parameter Description Default value / Units


C1 1 × 108 s-1
C2 Recombination rate 2.5 × 10-17 m3/s
C3 9.4 × 10-41 m6/s
A0 2.5 × 10-20 m2
A1 0.074 × 1020 m-3
Material gain constant
A2 3.0 × 10-32 m4
A3 3.155 × 1025 m-4
N0 Carrier density at transparency 1.1 × 1024 m-3
Wavelength for
Wavelength at transparency 1.605 × 10-6 m
gain peak
Gain compression
Nonlinear gain compression 1.3 × 10-23 m3
factor
Dn/dN Differential refractive index -1.2 × 10-26 m3
Active Loss in active layer 140 × 102 m-1
Cladding Loss in claddings 20 × 102 m-1
Scattering Scattering loss 10 × 102 m-1

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References

[8.1 -1] M. G. Davis and R. F. O’Dowd, "A Transfer Matrix Method Based Large-Signal

Dynamic Model for Multi- electrode DFB Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,

vol. 30, pp. 2458-2466, Nov. 1994.

[8.1 -2] G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening

of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,

vol. 25, pp. 2297-2306, Nov. 1989.

[8.1 -3] L. M. Zhang, S. F. Yu, M. C. Nowell, D. D. Marcenac, J. E. Carroll, and R. G. S.

Plumb, “Dynamic analysis of radiation and side-mode suppression in a second-

order DFB laser using time-domain large-signal traveling wave model,” IEEE J.

Quantum Electron., vol. 30, pp. 1389-1395, 1994.

[8.1 -4] K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise. Dordrecht, Germany: Kluwer,

1988, pp. 152-160.

[8.1 -5] A. E. Willner and W. Shieh, “Optimal spectral and power parameters for all

optical wavelength shifting: single stage, fanout, and cascadability,” J. Lightwave

Technol., vol. 13, pp. 771-781, May 1995.

[8.1 -6] G. P. Agrawal and N. K. Dutta, Semiconductor Lasers. New York: Van Nostrand,

1993, pp. 49-55.

[8.1 -7] N. Storkfelt, B. Mikkelsen, D. S. Olesen, M. Yamaguchi, and K. E. Stubkjaer,

“Measurement of carrier lifetime and linewidth enhancement factor for 1.5-um

ridge-waveguide laser amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 632-

634, July 1991.

[8.1 -8] Hanlim Lee, Hyunjae Yoon, Yonggyoo Kim, and Jichai Jeong, “Theoretical study

of frequency chirping and extinction ratio of wavelength-converted optical signals

by XGM and XPM using SOAs,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electron.,, vol.35,

No.8, pp. 1213-1219, Aug. 1999..

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8.2 XPM (cross phase modulation) method

Icon

Theory

The XPM wavelength converter using symmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer type

SOAs [8.2-1] is analyzed with a minor modification of the XGM method. If you want to

know the SOA model, please refer to section 4.3.1 because the same SOA model is used

for both the XGM and XPM wavelength converters.

Fig. 8.2-1 shows the schematic of the XPM wavelength converter in SOAs operated

in the counter-propagation configuration. Wavelength conversions based on the XPM

method in SOAs rely on carrier-induced refractive index changes in the active region of

SOAs. An input signal (λSIG) that depletes the carrier density modulates the refractive

index and thereby results in the phase modulation of the CW signal (λCW) coupled into

the converter.

PPG
2.5 Gbit/s
27-1 PRBS
Bias current I1 P.C.
Signal
Laser
(
d
a
t
a
)
S
I
G

λ
P.C.
SOA1
(W
C
W
)

(
c
o
n
v
e
r
t
e
d
)
C

C
W

λ λ
SOA2
CW
Laser

Bias current I2

Fig. 8.2-1 Schematic of XPM wavelength converters using SOAs when operated
in the counter-propagation configuration

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Calculated pulse pattern and Chirp is shown below figure.

Fig. 8.2-2 Calculated pulse shape and chirp for the XPM method

Input dialog box

Typical buried heterostructure (BH) SOA operating at 1.55µm is considered in the

simulator.

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© AO Technology, 2002

Fig. 8.2-3 Input dialog box of parameters for XPM wavelength converter

Fig.8.2-4 Input dialog box of material parameters for XPM wavelength converter

Description of parameters for XPM wavelength converter

Default
Parameter Description
Value/Unit
Power Power of CW (pump) signal -15 dBm

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Wavelength Wavelength of CW (pump) signal 1.545 µm


I1 Injection current of SOA1 97 mA
I2 Injection current of SOA2 116 mA
Internal reflection Including the internal reflection in SOA Yes
No. of divided
Number of divided sections 10
sections
Length of section Length of a section 100 µm
Active layer
Active layer width of SOA 1 µm
width
Active layer
Active layer thickness of SOA 0.15 µm
thickness
R_facet Facet reflectivity 0%
Initial n_eff Initial effective refractive index 3.5
Optical
confinement Optical confinement factor 0.3
factor
Fiber coupling
Fiber coupling loss 0 dB
loss
Electrical
confinement Electrical confinement factor 1
factor
c1 1 × 108 s-1
2.5 × 10-17
c2 Recombination rate m3/s
9.4 × 10-41
c3
m6/s
A0 2.5 × 10-20 m2
0.074 × 1020
A1
m-3
Material gain constant
A2 3.0 × 10-32 m4
3.155 × 1025
A3
m-4
N0 Carrier density at the transparency condition 1.1 × 1024 m-3
Wavelength for
Wavelength at transparency 1.605 × 10-6 m
gain peak
Gain compression
Nonlinear gain compression 1.3 × 10-23 m3
factor
dn/dN Differential refractive index -1.2 × 10-26 m3
Active Loss in active layer 140 × 102 m-1
Cladding Loss in claddings 20 × 102 m-1
Scattering Scattering loss 10 × 102 m-1

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References

[8.2-1] Hanlim Lee, Hyunjae Yoon, Yonggyoo Kim, and Jichai Jeong, “Theoretical study

of frequency chirping and extinction ratio of wavelength-converted optical signals

by XGM and XPM using SOAs,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electron.,, vol.35,

No.8, pp. 1213-1219, Aug. 1999.

8.3 FWM method in time domain

Icon

Theory

FWM (four wave mixing) in SOAs is used for optical frequency conversion and

optical phase conjugation (OPC). Optical frequency converters are expected to become

key components in all future optical networks based on wavelength division multiplexing

(WDM) technologies to avoid wavelength blocking and increase flexibility and capacity

of networks. OPC takes advantage of the fact that the converted FWM signal is not only

frequency shifted but also phase conjugated. It is a good candidate to compensate for

group velocity dispersion (GVD) and self phase modulation (SPM) in optical fibers [8.3-

1].

Two optical waves, pump and signal waves as shown in Fig. 8.3-1, are injected into

a SOA. The beating of both waves leads to new frequency components and FWM signals.

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The nonlinear gain dynamics in SOAs, responsible for the process of FWM, are based on

carrier density pulsation (CDP), spectral-hole burning (SHB), and carrier heating (CH)

[8.3-2]. At low detuning {ωp- ωs}, the main mechanism is CDP induced by changing

the carrier density due to the carrier density depletion. At higher values of detuning,

dynamic gain and index gratings due to intraband carrier dynamics such as SHB and CH

mainly cause FWM. For accurate estimation of the frequency chirping and the extinction

ratio, the following parameters should be included: ASE noise, facet reflectance, spatially

dependent α-parameter, and extinction ratio of input signal wave.

The time developed TMM has been proposed for the purpose of characterizing the

multielectrode DFB laser [8.3-3], and XGM and XPM frequency converters [8.3-4]. It is

possible for this model to involve not only forward traveling waves but also backward

traveling waves both of which are generated by internal and facet reflection. Internal

reflection is considered at each section due to the refractive index step from the

longitudinal effective index variation. In addition, the longitudinal variation of the

carrier-induced refractive index, gain, carrier density, ASE noise, and α-parameter are

taken into account at each section. In the conventional TMM form, the transfer matrix

has the following relationship

 Ai  a11a12   Ai +1 
 =   (8.3-1)
 Bi  a21a22   Bi +1 

where Ai and Bi are the normalized slowly varying envelopes of forward and backward

fields at section i such that |Ai|2 and |Bi|2 represent the optical power. It is possible for the

conventional form to be applied only in a steady-state operation.

To develop a time-dependent TMM based on the schematic diagram in Fig. 8.3-1,

the modified transfer matrix is used [8.3-3]

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 a (t )a 21 (t ) a12 (t ) 
 a11 (t ) − 12
 Aw,i +1 (t + ∆t ) a 22 (t ) a 22 (t )   Aw,i (t ) 
 =   (8.3-2)
 Bw,i (t + ∆t )   a (t )
− 21
1   Bw,i +1 (t )
 
 a 22 (t ) a 22 (t ) 

Assuming that various parameters remain unchanged throughout each section for

Δt, the output amplitudes Aw,i+1 and Bw,i at time t+Δt can be calculated from the input

amplitudes Aw,i and Bw,i+1 at time t by Eq. (8.3-2).

The pulse propagation equations including FWM, ASE noises, and backward

traveling waves can be derived from the following Eqs. [8.3-5]-[8.3-7]

∂ Ap 1 ∂ A p
+ = G pA p ( z , t ) + µ p ( z , t ) (8.3-3)
∂ z vg ∂ t

∂ As, c 1 ∂ As,c 2
+ = Gs , cAs , c( z, t ) + Fs , c{ A p ( z, t ) Ac, s ( z, t ) + 2 A p ( z, t ) B p ( z, t ) Bc, s ( z, t )} + µ s ,c ( z, t )
∂z vg ∂ t
(8.3-4)

1 i
∑(A
2 2
G p , s ,c = ( g p , s ,c − α Γ p , s ,c g p , s ,c ) /(1 + w + B w ) / PSat )
2 2 w = p , s ,c

(8.3-5)

1 i 1
Fs ,c = −( g s ,c − αΓs ,c g s ,c )hCDP (m ∆ω ) / PSat − (1 − iα CH )( g s ,cε CH 1 + g s ,cε CH 2 )hCH (m ∆ω )
2 2 2
1
− (1 − iα SHB ) g s ,c ε SHB hSHB (m ∆ω ) (8.3-6)
2

where index p, s, and c represent pump, signal, and conjugate waves, respectively. Δω=

ωp -ωs is the frequency detuning for pump and signal wave, g net gain, g material gain,

vg group velocity, PSat saturation power, εSHB SHB parameters, and εCH1 and εCH2

CH parameters.

The wavelength-dependent confinement factor Γcalculated from the effective

index method is taken into consideration. The effect of spontaneous emission is

represented by three statistically independent white-Gaussian random processes µw (z,t).

The autocorrelation function for the process is given by:

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< µ w ( z , t ) µ w ∗ ( z ′, t ′) >= (v g E w Across )(Γw βN / τ s )δ (t − t ' )δ ( z − z ' ) (8.3-7)

where Ew is photon energy, Across the cross sectional area of the active layer, β the

spontaneous coupling factor, and δ(x) the Dirac distribution function. The frequency

response hy(Δω) (y = CDP, CH and SHB) of the individual nonlinear processes are

given by

−1
hCDP (∆ω ) = (1 − i∆ωτ 2 )(1 − ∆ωτ s )

−1
hCH (∆ω ) = (1 − i∆ωτ 2 )(1 − ∆ωτ 1 )

−1
hSHB (∆ω ) = (1 − i∆ωτ 2 ) (8.3-8)

where τs is carrier life time,τ1 carrier heating lifetime, and τ2 hole burning lifetime.

To model the asymmetric gain profile, the gain spectrum is assumed to be cubic and the

material gain is approximated to

g i ,w ( N i , λw ) = a0 ( N i − N 0 ) − a1 (λw − λ N ) 2 + a3 (λw − λ N ) 3 (8.3-9)

where index i corresponds to different sections and index w refers to different optical

waves. a0,, a1, and a3 are gain constants, and λN is the gain peak wavelength assumed to

shift linearly with the carrier density {λN =λo - a2 (N-No)}. The net gain is calculated by

Eq.(8.3-7)

g i , w = Γw ( g i ,w − α a ) − (1 − Γw )α c − α scat (8.3-10)

The propagation equations are coupled by the rate equation for the carrier density.

The rate equation in each section is solved as

∂N i I
∂t
=
qV
− N i ( c1 + c 2 N i + c 3 N i2 ) − ∑v
w = p , s ,c
g Γ w g w ,i S w , i
(8.3-11)

where I is the injection current, V the active volume, and q the electronic charge, when c1,

c2, and c3 are related to the recombination constants. The average photon density is given

by

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| Aw, i | 2 + | Aw, i +1 | 2 + | Bw, i | 2 + | Bw, i +1 | 2


S w,i = (8.3-12)
2 v g E w Across

Different α-parameters are considered for each section and wavelength. It is very

important since it is directly related to frequency chirping due to SPM and XPM in SOAs.

The α-parameter {α = (-4π/λ) (dn/dN) / (dg/dN)} is calculated from Eq. (8.3-9).

Fig. 8.3-1 Schematic of the modified TMM SOA model using FWM

Calculated pulse shape and chirp is shown below figure.

Fig. 8.3-2 Simulated chirped output conjugated pulse pattern by FWM in SOAs

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Input dialog box

Typical buried heterostructure (BH) SOAs operating at 1.55µm are considered in the

simulator.

Fig. 8.3-3 Input dialog box of general parameters for FWM method in time domain

Fig.8.3-4 Input dialog box of materials parameters for FWM method in time domain

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Fig. 8.3-5 Input dialog box of FWM parameters for FWM method in time domain

Description of parameters for time domain FWM wavelength converter model

Default Value /
Parameter Description
Units
Power Power of CW (pump) signal 15 dBm
Wavelength Wavelength of CW (pump) signal 1.5508 µm
Current Injection current of SOA 200 mA
Internal reflection Internal reflection in SOA included Yes
Length of section Length of a section 10 µm
Active layer width Active layer width of SOA 1 µm
Active layer thickness Active layer thickness of SOA 0.15 µm
No of divided
Number of divided sections 50
sections
R_facet Facet reflectivity 0%
Fiber coupling loss Fiber coupling loss 0 dB
Electrical
Electrical confinement factor 1
confinement factor
C1 1 × 108 s-1
C2 Recombination rate 2.5 × 10-17 m3/s
C3 9.4 × 10-41 m6/s
A0 Material gain constant 2.5 × 10-20 m2
A1 0.074 × 1020 m-3
A2 3.0 × 10-32 m4

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A3 3.155 × 1025 m-4


Carrier density at the transparency
N0 1.1 × 1024 m-3
condition
Wavelength for gain Wavelength at the transparency
1.605 × 10-6 m
peak condition
Saturation power Saturation power 1.3 × 10-23 m3
Differential refractive index due to
dn/dN -1.2 × 10-26 m3
carrier change
Active Loss in the active layer 140 × 102 m-1
Cladding Loss in the claddings 20 × 102 m-1
Scattering Scattering loss 10 × 102 m-1
Saturation power Saturation power 3 × 10-3 W
CH parameter 1 Carrier heating parameter 5.5 W-1
Carrier heating parameter at
CH parameter 2 3.8 W-1
unsaturation
SHB parameter 1 Spectral hole burning parameter 2.1 W-1
CH chirp parameter Linewidth enhancement factor by CH -2.3
Linewidth enhancement factor by
SHB chirp parameter 0
SHB
Carrier lifetime Carrier lifetime 160 × 10-12 s
SHB time Spectral hole burning time 500 × 10-15 s
CH time Carrier heating time 112 × 10-15 s

References

[8.3-1] Shigeki Watanabe and Masataka Shirasaki, “Exact compensation for both

chromatic dispersion and Kerr effect in a transmission fiber using optical phase

conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 243-248, Mar. 1996.

[8.3-2] A. Uskov, J. Mφrk, and J. Mark, “Wave mixing in semiconductor laser amplifiers

due to carrier heating and spectral-hole burning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.

30, pp. 1769-1781, Aug. 1994.

[8.3-3] M. G. Davis and R. F. O’Dowd, “A transfer matrix method based large-signal

dynamic model for multielectrode DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.

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© AO Technology, 2002

30, pp. 2458-2466, Nov. 1994.

[8.3-4] Hanlim Lee, Hyunjae Yoon, Yonggyoo Kim, and Jichai Jeong, “Theoretical study

of frequency chirping and extinction ratio of wavelength-converted optical signals

by XGM and XPM using SOAs,” accepted for IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

[8.3-5] Stefan Diez, Carsten Schmidt, Reinhold Ludwig, Hans G. Weber, Kristof

Obermann, Stefan Kindt, Igor Koltchanov, and Klaus Petermann, “Four-wave

mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers for frequency conversion and fast

optical switching,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 3, pp. 1131-

1145, Oct. 1997.

[8.3-6] A. D’Ottavi, E. Iannone, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, P. Spano, R. Dall’Ara, J. Eckner,

and G. Guekos, “Efficiency and noise performance of wavelength converters

based on FWM in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,

vol. 7, pp. 357-359, Apr. 1997.

[8.3-7] Jacques W. D. Chi, Alan Shore and Jean Le Bihan, “Highly nondegenerate four-

wave mixing in uniform and λ/4-shifted DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum

Electron., vol. 33, pp. 2011-2019, Nov. 1997.

[8.3-8] G. P. Agrawal and N. K. Dutta, Semiconductor Lasers. New York: Van Nostrand,

1993.

[8.3-9] Yonggyoo Kim, Hanlim Lee, Sungkee Kim, Jeongyun Ko, and Jichai Jeong,

“Analysis of frequency chirping and extinction ratio of optical phase conjugate

signals by four-wave mixing in SOAs,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron.

vol.5, No.3, pp. 873-879, May/June 1999.

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8.4 FWM method in wavelength domain

Icon

Theory

A wavelength-domain model of four-wave mixing in SOAs was reported by

Summerfield and Tucker [8.4-1]. The evolution of the lth mode along the amplifier cavity

in the presence of material oscillations caused by beating of the ith and jth field

components which modulate the kth field component is described by

dal 1  ( 1 − jβ m )ε m *  γ
= g ( N ) ⋅ ( 1 − jα )al − ∑ ai a j a k  − sc (8.4-1)
dz 2  1 + j∆ω ijτ m  2

where g(N) is the modal gain, α is the linewidth enhancement factor, γsc is the material

scattering loss per unit length, al is the complex amplitude of the field components at

optical frequency wl, εm describes the inverse saturation powers representing the strength

of the nonlinearity, βm the equivalent to the linewidth enhancement factor, representing

the relative contributions of gain and index modulation at all frequencies, and the τm is

the characteristic relaxation times associated with nonlinear processes.

The ASE power PASE, k at optical frequency w within the bandwidth at the output of

the kth section is given by

~ ∆w  g( N k , w ) 
PASE ,k ( w ) = Gk ( w )PASE ,k −1 + h w ⋅ ⋅ n sp ⋅ [Gk ( w ) − 1] ⋅  
2π  g ( N k , w ) − γ sc 

(8.4-2)

for the special case of homogeneous carrier density [8.4-2], [8.4-3], [8.4-4], where nsp is

the spontaneous emission factor and Gk(w) is the net gain over the section.

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To consider the time-dependent signal variation, the transfer curve for the

conjugated power to the input power is used. In addition, the conjugated signal phase

change is calculated by

α ⋅ dI
dφ = (8.4-3)
2I

where I is the optical intensity and α is the chirp parameter [8.4-5].

Input dialog box

Fig. 8.4 -1 Input dialog box of parameters for the FWM method in wavelength
domain

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Fig. 8.4 -2 Input dialog box of material parameters for the FWM method in
wavelength domain

Fig. 8.4 -3 Input dialog box of FWM parameters for the FWM method in
wavelength domain

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Description of parameters for FWM method in wavelength domain

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Power Power of CW (pump) signal 6 dBm
Wavelength Wavelength of CW (pump) signal 1.555 um
Current Injection current of SOA 100 mA
No. of divided
Number of divided sections 50
sections
Length of
Length of divided one section 20 um
section
Active layer
Active layer width of SOA 1 µm
width
Active layer
Active layer thickness of SOA 0.15 µm
thickness
Fiber coupling
Input/output coupling loss 1 dB
loss
Optical
confinement Confinement factor 0.3
factor
C1 1 × 108 s-1
c2 Recombination rate 2.5 × 10-17 m3/s
c3 9.4 × 10-41 m6/s
A0 2.5 × 10-20 m2
A1 0.074 × 1020 m-3
Material gain constant
A2 3.0 × 10-32 m4
A3 3.155 × 1025 m-4
N0 Carrier density at the transparency condition 1.1 × 1024 m-3
Wavelength for
Wavelength at the transparency condition 1.605 × 10-6 m
gain peak
Active layer Loss in the active layer 140 × 102 m-1
Cladding layer Loss in the claddings 20 × 102 m-1
Scattering Scattering loss 10 × 102 m-1
Saturation
Saturation power 3 × 10-3 W
power
CH parameter Carrier heating parameter 3.8 W-1
SHB parameter Spectral hole burning parameter 2.1 W-1
CH chirp
Linewidth enhancement factor by CH -2.3
parameter
SHB chirp
Linewidth enhancement factor by SHB 0
parameter

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Carrier lifetime Carrier lifetime 160 × 10-12 s


SHB time Spectral hole burning time 500 × 10-15 s
CH time Carrier heating time 112 × 10-15 s
Chirp
SOA chirp parameter -0.3
parameter
Linewidth
enhancement Linewidth enhancement factor 10
factor

References

[8.4-1] M. Summerfield and R. Tucker, “Frequency-domain model of multiwave mixing

in bulk semiconductor optical amplifiers, ” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum

Electron., vol. 5, pp. 839-850, May/June. 1999.

[8.4-2] K. Obermann, I. Koltchanov, K. Petermann, S. Diez, R. Ludwig, and H. G. Weber,

“Noise analysis of frequency converters utilizing semiconductor-laser amplifiers,”

IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 33, pp. 81-88, Jan. 1997.

[8.4-3] C. H. Henry, “Theory of spontaneous emission noise in open resonators and its

application to lasers and optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT-4, pp.

288-297, Mar. 1986.

[8.4-4] A. J. Lowery, “Amplified spontaneous emission in semiconductor laser

amplifiers: Validity of the transmission line laser model,” Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng.,

pt. J, vol. 137, pp. 241-247, Aug. 1990.

[8.4-5] F. Koyama and K. Iga, “Frequency chirping in external modulators,” J. Lightwave

Technol., vol. 6, pp. 87-92, Jan. 1988.

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9. Optical amplifiers
Optical amplifiers are the key technology to expand transmission capacity and

distance in optical fiber communications. Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers and semiconductor

optical amplifiers are modeled in Photonics CAD.

9.1 C-band EDFA

9.1.1 Gain block model

Icon

Theory

To overcome the power loss during transmission, optical amplifiers can be used. The

gain block model is a simple model of EDFAs. Their role is to increase the signal power

as much as the given gain. It amplifies both signals and noises according to the gain and

the noise figure. To consider the effect of EDFAs noise at the end of a link, the noise

figure and bandwidth parameters should be used to the input dialog box to calculate BER

characteristics at the receiver end. For EDFAs in Photonics CAD, the gain saturation is

included in the model

Pin
G = G0 exp((1 − G ) ) (9.1.1-1)
Psat

where G0 is the unsaturated gain, Psat is the saturation power, and Pin is the total

power at the input to the erbium-doped fiber. If the OSNR button is pressed, the OSNR is

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showed.

Input dialog box

Fig. 9.1.1-1 Input dialog box of the gain block model of EDFAs

Description of parameters used for the gain block model of EDFAs

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Gain EDFA Gain 15 dB
Noise figure EDFA Noise figure 4 dB

9.1.2 Spectrally resolved model

9.1.2.1 Spectrally resolved model

Icon

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Theory

The signal and ASE power accumulation along a cascaded EDFA chain can be

determined according to the spectral resolved model introduced by Giles and Desurvire

[9.1.2.1-1]. Models of homogeneously broadened two-level systems are used for fiber

amplifiers pumped in the 1480nm and 980nm absorption bands. Additional equations are

necessary for more complex models to incorporate the effects of pump excited-state

absorption, energy transfer between ions, or inhomogeneous broadening. However,

because the solution methods are similar in all these cases, the model in Photonics CAD

here is restricted to the two-level model in order to simplify the validation of

approximations to the overlap integral.

4.0
Absorption: α
3.5 Emission: g
3.0
Spectrum [dB/m]

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 1600 1620

Wavelength [nm]

Fig. 9.1.2.1-1 Measured absorption and emission spectra of an erbium-doped fiber

Light in the amplifier can be thought to be propagating as a number of optical beams

of the frequency bandwidth ∆v k centered at the optical wavelength λ k = c / v k . This

notation describes both narrow line beams such as pump and signal sources when ∆v k =

0, and broadband ASE where ∆v k equals the frequency steps used in the simulations to

resolve the ASE spectrum. The integration over optical frequency is then approximated

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by summation over k.

The measured absorption and the emission cross-section values of erbium-doped

fibers (EDFs) are used as shown in Fig. 9.1.2.1-1. The specific formulas which determine

the spectral behavior of the gain and amplified spontaneous emission are as follows

Pk ( z )α k
n2
∑ hvk ξ
= k
(9.1.2.1-1)
nt Pk ( z )( α k + g k )
1+ ∑
k hvk ξ

and

dPk ( z ) n n
= u k ( α k + g k ) 2 Pk ( z ) + u k g k 2 mhv k ∆v k − u k ( α k + l k )Pk ( z )
dz nt nt

(9.1.2.1-2)

where k is the index of wavelengths in the spectrally-resolved model, nt the density

of all the Erbium ions, n2 the density of Erbium ions in the metastable state, α k and

g k the absorption and emission coefficients measured in dB/m, ∆v k the spectrally-

resolved frequency bandwidth, Pk ( z ) the total power within ∆v k at the optical

wavelength λ k = c / v k , ζ the ratio of the linear density of ions to the forward ( u k =1)

and backward ( u k =-1) propagating light ( ζ = Pksat ( α k + g k ) / hvk ), m the number of

modes transmitted in the optical fiber, h Plank’s constant, and l k the excess loss of

EDF.

Fig. 9.1.2.1-3 and 9.1.2.1-4 show the input dialog box of simulation conditions. You

can easily check and change default values of simulation conditions in the dialog box.

This simulator supports a 1480nm pumping scheme.

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Calculated 4 channel WDM signals with ASE noise are shown below figure.

10

Forward
0 Backward

-10

-20
Gain (dB)

-30

-40

-50

-60
1520 1530 1540 1550 1560 1570 1580

Wavelength (nm)

Fig. 9.1.2.1-2 ASE spectra with 4 channel WDM signals amplified by EDFAs

Input dialog box

Fig. 9.1.2.1-3 Input dialog box of wavelength parameters for the spectrally
resolved EDFA model

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Fig. 9.1.2.1-4 Input dialog box of parameters used the spectrally resolved EDFA
model

Description of parameters used for EDFAs

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Power_forward The forward pump power of EDFA 0.1 W
Power_backward The backward pump power of EDFA 0.1 W
Pump Wavelength The pump wavelength of EDFA 1480 nm
EDF length The length of EDFA 10 m
The selection of Lorentzian filter for
Lorentzian filter -
gain flattening
The selection of Fiber grating filter
Fiber grating filter -
for gain flattening

Measured absorption / emission


Defaults -
spectra of typical Er-doped fiber
User’s Export - -
Measured Absorption
Enter filename -
/ Emission Spectra

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Calculated
Absorption / Enter filename (not available) -
Emission Spectra
Select the extended EDFA model
Extended model -
(Refer to section 9.1.2.3 in details)

Data file format for absorption and emission spectra (*.dat)

1.522222 12.2233333

1.533333 13.5654333

: :

Column 1 Column 2

Wavelength Gain/Absorption

in ㎛ scale in dB/m

Reference

[9.1.2.1-1] C. R. Giles and E. Desurvire, “Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J.

Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 271-283, Feb. 1991.

9.1.2.2 Gain flattened model

Theory

EDFAs are one type of optical amplifier that eliminates the power loss restriction in

optical transmission systems. EDFAs have several important advantages over others.

First, they can have a bandwidth of several thousand GHz. Therefore, they are attractive

to all-optical networking, where speed bottlenecks from electronics are removed by

optical implementation. Second, EDFAs can amplify multiple optical inputs at different

wavelengths simultaneously without crosstalk and intermodulation distortion. Hence,

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they are attractive for application to wavelength division multiplexing (WDM).

EDFAs, however, have non-equal gain at the operating wavelength region. Non-

equal gain can cause crosstalk and intersymbol interference (ISI) in WDM systems.

Therefore, gain flattening (equalizing) is essential to improve crosstalk and ISI for

cascaded EDFA transmission systems.

A number of approaches to equalize the gain of an EDFA have been studied. In

[9.1.2.2-1] and [9.1.2.2-2], a notch filter is used to equalize it by suppressing the gain

peak in EDFAs. Another technique is to adjust the input transmitter power such that the

power of all received wavelengths at the destination are equal [9.1.2.2-3]. Yet another is

to get equalization to demultiplex the individual wavelength such that all channels have

equal power [9.1.2.2-4]. The notch filter method is used in Photonics CAD.

1. Lorentzian filter

The Lorentzian shape is given by

∆λ / 2π
g (λ ) = − (9.1.2.2-1)
(λ − λ 0 ) 2 + (∆λ / 2) 2

where λ is wavelength, λ 0 center-wavelength, and ∆λ the 3-dB wavelength width.

2. Fiber grating filter

In Photonics CAD, gain flattening is performed with a short period fiber grating.

Short period fiber grating can be refered to in the passive components’ chapter.

Calculated ASE spectrum with a long period fiber grating filter is shown below

figure.

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Fig. 9.1.2.2-3 Gain flattened ASE spectrum with a long period fiber Bragg
grating filter

References

[9.1.2.2-1] M. Tachibana, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morel, and D. N. Payne, “Erbium-doped

fiber amplifier with flattened gain spectrum,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3,

pp. 118-120, Feb. 1991.

[9.1.2.2-2] A. E. Wilner and S. M. Hwang, “Passive equalization of nonuniform EDFA

gain by optical filtering for megameter transmission of 20 WDMA channels

through a cascade of EDFA’s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 1203-1026,

Sept. 1993.

[9.1.2.2-3] A. R. Charplyvy, J. A. Nagel, and R. W. Tkach, “Equalization in amplified

WDM lightwave transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., pp. 920-

922, Aug. 1992.

[9.1.2.2-4] A. F. Elrefaie, E. L. Goldstein, S. Zaidi, and N. Jackman, “Fiber-amplifier

cascades with gain equalization in multiwave-length unidirectional inter-office

ring network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 1026-1031, Sept. 1990.

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9.1.2.3 Extended EDFA model

Theory

The signal-induced change in the refractive index is due to the change in erbium ion

distribution in the upper and lower energy in EDFAs. This causes the phase modulation

imposed on a signal by passing EDFAs. This effect cannot be described by the

propagation equations for the signal and pump powers, but it can be taken into account

with the help of the susceptibility of the laser medium used in the ‘extended EDFA

model’. The susceptibility has a spectral dependence and gives rise to a frequency chirp

imposed on an impulse by passing EDFAs. This frequency chirp depends on the signal

amplitude, signal shape, carrier frequency, and pump power.

In the fiber, we use the nonlinear Schrödinger equation:

∂u j ∂2 u 1 ∂3 u 2 1
+ β 2 2 − β 3 3 − jγ nl u u = − α u (9.1.2.3-1)
∂z 2 ∂τ 6 ∂τ 2

where u ( z , τ ) is the normalized complex envelope of the slowly varying amplitude,

β 2 and β 3 are the second- and third-order dispersion coefficients, γ nl is the

nonlinearity coefficient, and α is the attenuation factor.

The extended EDFA model is based on the classical EDFA model. The classical

model takes into account the saturation and behavior of the spontaneous emission noise

spectrum. The slowly varying envelope (SVE) approximation describes the change in the

refractive index by including the nonlinear dispersion in EDFAs. The nonlinear

dispersion in EDFAs due to the change in the refractive index can be taken into account

by our SVE extension for the signal by

∂ ω2
U ( z , ∆ω ) = χ (ω )Γ(ω )U ( z, ∆ω ) + U sp (9.1.2.3-2)
∂z 2 jw0 c

where ∆ω = ω − ω 0 is the difference between the angular frequency ω and carrier

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angular frequency ω 0 , U ( z , ∆ω ) is the Fourier transformation of the slowly varying

envelope of the signal, U sp takes into account the spontaneous emission noise,

and χ (ω ) = χ '+ χ ' ' is the complex susceptibility of the laser medium.

The calculation of susceptibility is given by Eqs. (9.1.2.3-3) and (9.1.2.3-4). The

imaginary part χ ' ' of the susceptibility represents the gain coefficient.

nc
χ ''= − [N 2σ e (ω ) − N1σ a (ω )] (9.1.2.3-3)
ω

The real part of susceptibility changes the group velocity and thus describes the

changes in the refractive index and causes a nonlinear dispersion in EDFAs.

nc
χ'= [N 2 ⋅ KKR(σ e (ω )) − N1 ⋅ KKR(σ a (ω ))] (9.1.2.3-4)
ω

where KKR(σ a (ω )) and KKR (σ e (ω )) are the Kramers-Krönig transformation of

the measured absorption σ a (ω ) and emission σ e (ω ) cross sections. When the length

of EDF is equal to 10 m, the calculated susceptibility is given versus the pump power.

4.00E-007
5
3.50E-007
10
3.00E-007 20
40
2.50E-007 60
80
Susceptibility(χ'')

2.00E-007 100
120
1.50E-007 150
200
1.00E-007

5.00E-008

0.00E+000

-5.00E-008

-1.00E-007

1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 1600


Wavelength (nm)

Fig. 9.1.2.3-1 Imaginary part of susceptibility in EDFAs

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6.00E-008
5
10
4.00E-008 20
40
60
2.00E-008 80
Susceptibility(χ')

100
120
0.00E+000
150
200
-2.00E-008

-4.00E-008

-6.00E-008

1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 1600


Wavelength (nm)

Fig. 9.1.2.3-2 Real part of susceptibility in EDFAs

References

[9.1.2.3-1] G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic,

1995.

[9.1.2.3-2] Steffen Reichel, Remigius Zengerle, “Effects of Dispersion in EDFA’s on

Optical Communication Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 17, pp. 1152-1157,

July. 1999.

[9.1.2.3-3] Mark Janos, Stephen C. Guy, “Signal-Induced Refractive Index Changes in

Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 16, pp. 542-548,

April 1998.

[9.1.2.3-4] Emmanuel Desurvire, “Study of the Complex Atomis Susceptibility of

Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 1517-1527,

Oct. 1990.

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9.2 L-band EDFA

Icon

Theory

The signal and ASE power accumulation along EDFA chain can be determined

according to the spectral resolved model introduced by Giles and Desurvire. Models of

homogeneously broadened two-level systems are used for fiber amplifiers pumped in the

1480nm and 980nm absorption bands. Additional equations are necessary for more

complex models to incorporate the effects of pump excited-state absorption, energy

transfer between ions, or inhomogeneous broadening. However, because the solution

methods are similar in all these cases, the model in Photonics CAD here is restricted to

the two-level model in order to simplify the validation of approximations to the overlap

integral.

14

12
Absorption
Absorption/Emission spectra

10 Emission

1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650


Wavelength (nm)

Fig. 9.2-1 Measured absorption and emission spectra of an erbium-doped fiber

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To model L-band EDFA, the same equation is used. The rate and propagation

equations were solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method.

Fig. 9.2-2 and 9.2-3 show the input dialog box of simulation conditions. You can

easily check and change default values of simulation conditions in the dialog box. This

simulator supports a 1480nm pumping scheme.

Input dialog box

Fig. 9.2-2 Input dialog box of parameters used for the L-band EDFA model

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Fig. 9.2-3 Input dialog box of other parameters used for the L-band EDFA model

Description of parameters used for EDFAs

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Power_forward The forward pump power of EDFA 0.1 W
Power_backward The backward pump power of EDFA 0.1 W
Pump Wavelength The pump wavelength of EDFA 1480 nm
EDF length The length of EDFA 10 m
The selection of Lorentzian filter for
Lorentzian filter -
gain flattening
The selection of Fiber grating filter
Fiber grating filter -
for gain flattening

Measured absorption / emission


Defaults -
spectra of typical Er-doped fiber
User’s Export - -
Measured Absorption
Enter filename -
/ Emission Spectra

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Calculated
Absorption / Enter filename (not available) -
Emission Spectra
Select the extended EDFA model
Extended model -
(Refer to section 9.1.2.3 in details)

Data file format for absorption and emission spectra (*.dat)

1.522222 12.2233333

1.533333 13.5654333

: :

Column 1 Column 2

Wavelength Gain/Absorption

in ㎛ scale in dB/m

9.3 Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

Icon

Theory

Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) can be modeled after the slight

modification of the semiconductor laser model. If a weak signal is sent through the active

region of the semiconductor, it is amplified by stimulated emission in the semiconductor.

As mentioned in section 8, wavelength converters are usually made using the

nonlinearities in SOAs such as cross gain modulation, cross phase modulation, and four-

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wave mixing.

To consider interaction between carrier density N and photon density S, the SOA is

divided into a number of small sections, and the rate equation is solved in each section as

n
∂N i I
∂t
=
qV
− N i (c1 + c 2 N i + c 3 N i2 ) − ∑vw=1
g Γ g m w, i S w, i (9.3 -1)

where index i corresponds to different sections, I is the injection current, V the active

volume, w the wavelength, n the number of input channel, and q the electronic charge,

while c1 , c2 , and c3 are related to recombination constants.

The average photon density Sw, i is calculated by

| Aw, i | 2 + | Aw, i +1 | 2 + | Bw, i | 2 + | Bw, i +1 | 2 PASE , w, i


S w ,i = + (9.3 -2)
2 v g E w Across v g E w Across

where Aw,i is the forward-traveling wave amplitude and Bw,i is the backward-traveling

wave amplitude.

To model the asymmetric gain profile, the gain spectrum is assumed to be cubic and

the material gain is approximated to

a0 ( N i − N 0 ) − a1 (λw − λ p ) 2 + a3 (λw − λ p )3
g m w , i ( N i , λw ) = n
(9.3 -3)
1 + ε ∑ S w, i
w =1

where a0 , a1 , and a3 are gain constants, λp is the gain peak wavelength assumed to shift

linearly with carrier density, and ε is the gain compression factor. The net gain is given as

gi = Γ( g m i − α a ) − (1 − Γ)α c − α scat (9.3 -4)

The ASE power PASE, k at optical frequency w within the bandwidth at the output of

the ith section is given by

~ ∆w  g m w ,i 
PASE , w,i = Gw,i PASE , w,i −1 + h w ⋅ ⋅ nsp ⋅ [Gw,i − 1]⋅   (9.3 -5)
2π  g m w,i − γ sc 
 

where nsp is the spontaneous emission factor, γsc is the material scattering loss per unit

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length and Gk(w) is the net gain over the section.

Input dialog box

Fig. 9.3 -1 Input dialog box of general parameters for the SOA model

Fig. 9.3 -2 Input dialog box of material parameters for the SOA model

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Description of parameters for semiconductor optical amplifier

Default Value /
Parameter Description
Units
Internal reflection Include internal reflection Yes
No. of divided section Number of divided section 10
Cavity length Cavity length of SOA 500 µm
Injection current 1 Injection current to SOA 100 mA
Active layer width Active layer width of SOA 1 µm
Active layer thickness Active layer thickness of SOA 0.15 µm
R_facet Facet reflectivity 0%
Initial n_eff Initial effective refractive index 3.5
Optical confinement
Optical confinement factor 0.3
factor
Fiber coupling loss SOA input/output fiber coupling loss 0 dB
Electrical confinement
Electrical confinement factor 0.3
factor
c1 1 × 108 s-1
c2 Recombination rate 2.5 × 10-17 m3
c3 9.4 × 10-41 m6
A0 2.5 × 10-20 m2
A1 0.074 × 1020 m-3
Material gain constant
A2 3.0 × 10-32 m4
A3 3.155 × 1025 m-4
Carrier density at the transparency
N0 1.1 × 1024 m-3
condition
Wavelength for gain Wavelength at the transparency
1.605 × 10-6 m
peak condition
Nonlinear gain
Nonlinear gain compression 1.3 × 10-23 m3
coefficient
dN/dn Differential refractive index -1.2 × 10-26 m3
Active layer Loss in the active layer 14000 m-1
Cladding layer Loss in the cladding layer 2000m-1
Scattering layer Scattering loss 1000 m-1

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10. Port and Repeated Link

10.1 Input port

Icon

Theory

This function is used to distinguish input and output ports for generating a project

file. The order of port is decided by input port of connected block.

Example of the input port is shown below figure.

Fig. 10.1- 1 Schematic diagram of single span using the input port

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Input dialog box

Fig. 10.1- 2 Input dialog box of parameters for the input port

Description of parameters for input port

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Input port Order of port 1

10.2 Output port

Icon

Theory

This function is used to distinguish input and output ports for generating a project

file. The order of port is decided by input port of connected block.

Example of the output port is shown below figure.

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Fig. 10.2-1 Schematic diagram of a single input source using the output port

Input dialog box

Fig. 10.2-2 Input dialog box of parameters for the output port

Description of parameters for output port

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Output port Order of port 1

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10.3 Repeated link

Icon

Theory

This function can be used for simplifying the schematic when there is a repeated

span in the transmission part.

Example of repeated link is shown below figure.

Fig. 10.3-1 Schematics using the repeating block

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Input dialog box

Fig. 13-1 Input dialog box of the repeating block

Description of parameters for optical fibers

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
No. of repeats Total number of repeating spans 2

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11. System Viewers

11.1 Oscilloscope

Icon

Input dialog box

Fig. 11.1-1 Input dialog box of the oscilloscope

11.1.1 Pulse shape

Theory

Pulse patterns can be shown by selecting the pulse shape function. The units of y-

axis are µW, mW, or W and µV, mV, or V for optical power and electrical voltage,

respectively. When the oscilloscope is located after a receiver, the unit of y-axis is

arbitrary unit. The unit of x-axis is ps or ns for time. The range of each axis can be

adjusted by double-clicking the line of each axis. The average power is displayed in

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the right window.

Fig. 11.1.1-1 Pulse shape displayed by the pulse shape function in oscilloscope

11.1.2 Eye diagram

The eye diagram of transmitted signals can be shown by selecting the eye diagram

function. . The units of y-axis are µW, mW, or W and µV, mV, or V for optical power and

electrical voltage, respectively. When the oscilloscope is located after a receiver, the unit

of y-axis is arbitrary unit. The unit of x-axis is ps or ns for time. The range of each axis

can be adjusted by double-clicking the line of each axis. The average power is displayed

in the right window.

Fig. 11.1.2-1 Eye diagram displayed by the eye diagram function in the oscilloscope

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11.2 Eye opening penalty

Icon

Theory

As shown in Fig. 11.2-1, EOP can be defined as 10log(A/B) where A and B are the

minimum height of eye-opening with including only attenuation and all effects, e.g.,

attenuation, fiber dispersion, and non-linearity for the decision time range (default: 10%

of time slot), respectively.

Fig. 11.2-1 Eye-opening (denoted by A and B) for the decision time range (10% of time
slot) (a) including attenuation only, and (b) including all effects (attenuation,
fiber dispersion, and non-linearity)

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In this program, EOP can be calculated and the result displayed in a new window.

EOP is defined as the ratio of the maximum opening level within the sample/holding time

range to the difference between a logic zero level and a logic one level.

Fig. 11.2-2 Eye Opening Penalty displayed using EOP

Input dialog box

Fig. 11.2-3 Input dialog box of parameters for the Eye Opening Penalty

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Description of parameters used for the eye opening penalty

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Sample/holding time The ratio of sampling time to
10%
range total eye time

11.3 Error detector

Icon

Theory

Current optical systems are becoming more and more complex. Data rates and

transmitted signal power are rapidly increased. When the high bit rates correspond to

shorter bit slots, the same broadening causes high inter-symbol interference (ISI). So, the

ISI effect is an important factor to affect the transmission performance. Therefore, the ISI

effect should be included to calculate BER characteristics.

Including the ISI effect, total BER characteristics are calculated by averaging the

probability of errors per bit. The regarded noise terms can be determined according to

what kind of receiver is used. Since the bandwidth of the receiver filter is smaller than

the optical bandwidth, beat noises can be approximated to the Gaussian statistics [11.3-1].

BER characteristics for a single bit can be expressed by [11.3-2]

1   (1 − cisi+ − τ ) I s  1   (τ − cisi− ) I s 
BER = erfc  2   + erfc  2   (11.3-1)
4   σ1  4   σ0 

where I s is the time-averaged signal photocurrent, τ is the decision threshold level

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+ −
setting relative to the rail-to-rail electrical pulse, and cisi and cisi are the normalized eye

closure of electrical pulse at mark (“1”) and space (“0”), respectively. σ 1 and σ 0 are

the standard deviation of the total noise for mark and space, respectively. To obtain

realistic BER characteristics representing the real receiver ones, the decision time range

(15% of time slot) and decision ambiguity level (5% of rail to rail voltage) are included

as the property of the decision circuit.

Without including the ISI effect, BER characteristics can also be obtained from the

detected current in the receiver. BER is calculated from the Q factor [11.3-3]:

1 exp(−Q 2 / 2)
BER = (11.3-2)
2π Q

S (1) − S (0)
Q= (11.3-3)
N (1) + N (0)

where S (1) , N (1) , S (0) and N (0) are the total signal and noise powers on the

ones and zeros, respectively. The signal power is S = I s2 , where I s is the received

signal photocurrent on the ones, I s (1) , or zeros, I s (0) .

The following figures show the difference of BER characteristics for two different

data rates. For the data rate of 10Gb/s, BER characteristics show large differences due to

the ISI effect, compared to the data rate of 5Gb/s.

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Without ISI
With ISI
-4

-6
BER

-8

-10

-12

-14
-35 -34 -33 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27
Received Power (dBm)

Fig. 11.3-1 BER characteristics after 240km transmission with the data rate of
5Gb/s with/without including the ISI effect

Without ISI
-4 With ISI

-6
BER

-8

-10

-12

-14
-36 -35 -34 -33 -32 -31 -30 -29
Received Power (dBm)

Fig. 11.3-2 BER characteristics after 80km transmission with the date rate of
10Gb/s with/without including the ISI effect

In this program, BER can be calculated and the result displayed in a new window as

shown in Fig.11.3-3. Note that the error detector should follow the receiver.

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Fig. 11.3-3 Calculated BER curves displayed using the error detector

Input dialog box

Fig. 11.3-4 Input dialog box of parameters for the error detector

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Description of parameters used for the error detector

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Sample/holding time The ratio of measurement time to bit
10%
range duration
Ambiguity level of Ambiguity level of decision threshold
5%
decision threshold level level
Optimum threshold Find the average received optical
10-9 BER
level power for 10-9 BER
The type of BER measurement:
Select BER statistics Worst value, Best value, Average Worst value
value, or Mid value
Calculate the BER characteristics
With ISI Yes
including intersymbol interference
Calculate the BER characteristics
Without ISI No
without intersymbol interference
Store information for BER calculation
Store information for
using BER calculator with a file name No
BER calculation
of ‘Error_Detector#.dat’

References

[11.3-1] Rodolfo A. A. Lima, Maria Cristina R. Carvalho, and Luiz Fernando M.

Conrado, “On the simulation of digital optical links with EDFA’s: an accurate

method for estimating BER through Gaussian approximation,” IEEE J. Select.

Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 3, pp. 1037-1044, 1997.

[11.3-2] Jichai Jeong, Y. K. Park, Sung Kee Kim, T. V. Nguyen, O. Mizuhara, and Tae-

won Oh, “10-Gb/s transmission performance for positive- and negative-chirped

transmission with the self-phase modulation effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,

vol. 10, pp. 1307-1309, 1998.

[11.3-3] Y. K. Park, S. W. Granlund, “Optical Preamplifier Receivers: Application to

Long-Haul Digital Transmission,” Optical Fiber Technol. 1, pp. 59-71, 1994.

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11.4 Eye margin

Icon

Theory

The eye margin can be measured by recording BER characteristics as a function of

the decision threshold voltage, τ, at a fixed timing phase, in Eq. (11.4-1). When the upper

and lower threshold voltages at a given BER value are d1 and d0, the percentage of

electrical eye margin is expressed as the following equation [11.4-1],

d1 − d 0
Eye Margin (%) = × 100 (11.4-1)
S

where S is the signal peak-to-peak level.

Eye Margin can be found from the BER calculation as a function of threshold

voltage by varying the received power. This eye margin tool shows three results.

① Relative Threshold Level vs. BER

② Received Power vs. Electrical Eye Margin and Vth

③ Received Power vs. Q factor calculated by electrical eye margin

Result window can be changed by selecting result types in ‘Display Option’ of input

dialog box.

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Fig. 11.4-1 BER characteristics as a function of relative threshold voltage when


varying the received power displayed by the eye margin tool

Fig. 11.4-2 Electrical eye margin and relative threshold voltage for a given BER as
a function of received power displayed by the eye margin tool

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Fig. 11.4-3 Q factors estimated using the eye tool

Input dialog box

Fig. 11.4-4 Input dialog box of parameters for the eye margin

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Fig. 11.4-5 Input dialog box of BER properties for the eye margin

Fig. 11.4-6 Input dialog box of display option for the eye margin

Description of parameters used for the eye margin

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
BER range from The start value of BER 10-12 BER
BER range to The end value of BER 10-4 BER

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Attenuation range
The start value of attenuation 0 dB
from
Attenuation range
The step value of attenuation 2 dB
step
Number of data Number of data 6
Electrical Eye Margin
Electrical Eye Margin at 10-9 BER
at
Sample/holding time The ratio of measurement time and total
10%
range eye time
Ambiguity level of
Ambiguity level of decision threshold
decision threshold 5%
level
level
The type of BER measurement:
Select BER statistics Worst value, Best value, Average value, Worst value
or Mid value
Relative threshold level vs. BER
Relative
Received power vs. Electrical Eye
Display Option threshold level
Margin and Vth
vs. BER
Received Power vs. Q factor

Reference

[11.4-1] Ivan P. Kaminow, and Thomas L. Koch, Optical Fiber Telecommunications III,

Academic Press, 1997.

11.5 Eye contour

Icon

Theory

The degradation of BER characteristics as a function of time and decision voltage

can be shown through the eye contour plot. BER depends on the location of the decision

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level and timing phase in the eye diagram. The eye contour is obtained by varying the

decision point, both decision level and timing phase, keeping a predetermined bit error

rate on the eye diagram. This contour represents the set of the decision points, which will

result in the predetermined bit error rate, and can be thought of as an eye opening with a

BER of the predetermined value.

In this program, eye contour can be displayed by the upper and lower threshold level

corresponding to the sampling time and the given bit error rate.

Fig. 11.5-1 Eye contour displayed using the eye contour

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Input dialog box

Fig. 11.5-2 Input dialog box for the eye contour (1)

Fig. 11.5-3 Input dialog box for the eye contour (2)

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Description of parameters used for the eye contour

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
BER range from The start value of BER 10-9 BER
BER range to The end value of BER 10-5 BER
BER range step The step of BER 101 BER
Number of displaying Number of displaying points in one
24
points in one bit bit
Sample/holding time The ratio of measurement time to bit
10%
range duration
Ambiguity level of
Ambiguity level of decision threshold
decision threshold 5%
level
level
The type of BER measurement:
Select BER statistics Worst value, Best value, Average Worst value
value, or Mid value

Reference

[11.5-1] Hiroshi Nishimoto, Tadashi Okiyama, Naoki Kuwata, Yasunari Arai, Akira

Miyauchi, and Takashi Touge, “New Method of Analyzing Eye Patterns and Its

Application to High-Speed Optical Transmission Systems,” J. of Lightwave

Technol., vol. 6, pp. 678-685, 1988

11.6 ASE spectrum of EDFAs

Icon

Theory

The ASE noise viewer shows the ASE spectrum of EDFAs (from the spectral

resolved model). In order to see ASE noises, the ASE noise viewer must be located after

EDFAs (spectral resolved model).

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Input dialog box

Fig. 11.6-1 Input dialog box of the ASE noise viewer

Description of parameters used for the ASE noise viewer

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Level of amplified
Level of amplified spontaneous
spontaneous emission -200 dBm
emission noise
noise

Fig. 11.6-2 ASE spectrum of EDFA displayed using the ASE noise viewer

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11.7 Q Factor

Icon

Theory

The advent and development of optical amplifiers have stimulated investigations of

new techniques to evaluate system performance. Existing operational optical systems can

show no measured errors over long time intervals, making direct measurements of BERs

almost impractical. An important role is then played by indirect methods to evaluate

system performance. The most commonly used parameter to evaluate system

performances is the Q-factor.

The Q factor can be obtained by detecting current at the receiver [11.7-1]

S (1) − S (0)
Q= (11.7-1)
N (1) + N (0)

where S (1) , N (1) , S (0) and N (0) are the total signal and noise powers on the

ones and zeros, respectively. The signal power is S = I s2 , where I s is the received

signal photocurrent on the ones, I s (1) , or zeros, I s (0) .

The Q factor can also be calculated differently from the plot of BERs versus

decision level, τ, with a fixed timing phase after the eye margin calculation, in Eq.(11.3-

1). System performance can be achieved for optimizing the decision level to minimize

BER. Then the Q-factor can be calculated by inverting Eq.( 11.7-1).

1  Q 
BERoptimum = erfc  (3.4.5-2)
2  2

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Fig. 11.7-1 Calculated Q factor for received power using the above equation

Reference

[11.7-1] Y. K. Park, S. W. Granlund, “Optical Preamplifier Receivers: Application to

Long-Haul Digital Transmission,” Optical Fiber Technol. 1, pp. 59-71, 1994.

[11.7-2] N. Goder, M.Settembre, W. Laedke, F. Matera, M.Tamburrini, I.Gabitov,

H.Haustein, J.Reid, and S.Turitsyn, “Role of the Q factor estimation in the field

trial of 10Gbit/s transmission at 1300nm with semiconductor optical amplifiers

between Madrid and Merida (460km),” OFC/IOOC '99. Technical Digest , pp.

325-327, 1999 .

11.8 Chirp viewer

Icon

Theory

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The chirp viewer can show chirp and pulse shapes. The peak-to-peak chirp is

showed in the right side of the window.

Fig. 11.8 -1 Result window of chirp viewer

11.9 Spectrum analyzer

Icon

Theory

Converting time domain signals to frequency domain signals using the spectrum

analyzer can show the power spectral density of the signals. This tool is useful for seeing

the spectral broadening in WDM signals or dispersed signals.

Five different types of window are available – Rectangular, Bartlett, Hanning,

Hamming, Blackman. The center wavelength is shown in the right side of the window.

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Fig. 11.9 -1 Result window of spectrum analyzer with rectangular window

Input dialog box

Fig. 11.9-2 Input dialog box of parameters for spectrum analyzer

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Description of parameters for spectrum analyzer

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Rectangular Rectangular window -
Bartlett Bartlett window -
Hanning Hanning window -
Hamming Hamming window -
Blackman Blackman window -

11.10 Vrms viewer

Icon

Theory

The Vrms Viewer shows pulse shapes of the electrical signal and calculated Vrms (root

mean square voltage) value in the window. This viewer is useful to determine the figure

of merit for the dispersion compensation of transmitted signals. The Vrms value is showed

in the right side of the window.

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Fig. 11.10 -1 Result window of Vrms viewer

11.11 BER Calculator

Icon

Theory

The BER calculator calculates the bit error rate as a function of the received optical

power from a stored raw dada file. The input parameters of the BER calculator are a file

which is stored by ‘Error Detector’ with ‘Store information for BER calculation’ option,

and a threshold level which an user wants to calculate bit error rate with, and other ‘Error

Detector’ parameters. This tool is executed, independently of other tools. After inputting

parameters into the dialog boxes, this tool calculates the bit error rate as a function of the

received power with the given threshold level, and displays the bit error rate graph like

‘Error Detector’.

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Input dialog box

Fig. 11.11-1 Input dialog box of the BER calculator (1)

Fig. 11.11-2 Input dialog box of the BER calculator (2)

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Fig. 11.11-3 Input dialog box of the BER calculator (3)

Description of parameters used for the BER calculator

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Insert file name including BER
Insert file name
information stored by “Error
including BER …
Detector” with “Store information for
information
BER calculation”
Threshold level between one and zero
Threshold level 0
levels
Sample/holding time The ratio of measurement time to bit
10%
range duration
Ambiguity level of Ambiguity level of decision threshold
5%
decision threshold level level
The type of BER measurement:
Select BER statistics Worst value, Best value, Average Worst value
value, or Mid value
Calculate the BER characteristics
With ISI Yes
including intersymbol interference
Calculate the BER characteristics
Without ISI No
without intersymbol interference

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11.12 Optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) viewer

Icon

Theory

The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is an important factor to design the optical

links. The OSNR can be defined as the ratio of signal power to ASE noise power. The

OSNR calculation method is described in Fig. 11.12-1.

Fig. 11.12-1 Calculation of OSNR from optical spectrum

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Input dialog box

Fig. 11.12-2 Input dialog box of the OSNR viewer

Description of parameters used for the OSNR viewer

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Optical bandwidth Optical bandwidth of filter 0.3 nm

Fig. 11.12-3 Result window of the OSNR viewer

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12. Device Viewer and Data Storage

12.1 Photon / Carrier viewer

Icon

Theory

Profiles of carrier and photon densities can be shown in the DFB laser rate equation

model, EAMI-DFB laser rate equation model, SOA, XGM wavelength converter, XPM

wavelength converter, and FWM wavelength converter along the longitudinal direction.

The range of each axis can be adjusted by double clicking the line of each axis.

Schematics for photon/carrier viewer are shown in Fig. 12.1-1.

Fig. 12.1-1 Schematic for photon/carrier density

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To view photon/carrier density, input parameters for electrical signal generator have

to be converted as shown in Fig. 12.1-2. No. of bits has to be converted to 20 and

V_offset and V_pp have to be converted to the value with which you want to simulate.

Fig. 12.1-2 Input dialog box of electrical signal generator for photon/carrier
density

Fig. 12.1-3 Calculated profiles of carrier and photon densities in a DFB laser

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12.2 Effective refractive index (neff) viewer

Icon

Theory

Profiles of the effective refractive index can be shown in the DFB laser rate equation

model, EAMI-DFB laser rate equation model, SOA, XGM wavelength converter, XPM

wavelength converter, and FWM wavelength converter along the longitudinal direction.

The range of each axis can be adjusted by double clicking the line of each axis.

To view effective reflective index, input parameters for electrical signal generator

have to be converted as shown in Fig. 12.1-2. No. of bits has to be converted to 20 and

V_offset and V_pp have to be converted to the value with which you want to simulate.

Fig. 12.2-1 Effective refractive index profiles along the longitudinal direction

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12.3 LI / LV Characteristics

Icon

Theory

LI(light-current)/LV(light-voltage) curves for the laser model can be shown using

the LI/LV curve tool. L-I characteristics for DFB lasers, and L-V and dP/dV

characteristics for EAMI-DFB lasers can be shown, respectively.

To calculate LI/LV characteristics, input parameters for electrical signal generator

have to be converted as shown in Fig. 12.1-2. No. of bits has to be converted to 20 and

V_offset and V_pp have to be converted to the value with which you want to simulate.

Fig. 12.3-1 L-V and dP/dV curves for EAMI-DFB lasers (analytical)

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Input dialog box

Fig. 12.3-2 Input dialog box of parameters for LI/LV curve

Description of parameters for LI/LV curve

Parameter Description Default value / Units


Start voltage Start voltage for transfer-curve 0.5
End voltage End voltage for transfer-curve 3
No of data Number of data for transfer-curve 6

12.4 Lasing spectrum of DFB lasers

Icon

Theory

The lasing spectrum of DFB lasers can be shown using the ‘DFB spectrum viewer’

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icon, as shown in Fig. 12.4-1.

To calculate lasing spectrum of DFB lasers, input parameters for electrical signal

generator have to be converted as shown in Fig. 12.1-2. No. of bits has to be converted to

20 and V_offset and V_pp have to be converted to the value with which you want to

simulate.

Fig. 12.4-1 Lasing spectrum of DFB lasers displayed using the DFB spectrum
viewer

12.5 Frequency response of DFB lasers

Icon

Theory

Schematics for frequency response of DFB lasers are shown in Fig. 12.5.1.

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Fig. 12.5.1 Schematic for frequency response of DFB lasers

To calculate frequency response of DFB lasers, input parameters for electrical signal

generator have to be converted as shown in Fig. 12.5-2 and 3. Data format has to be

converted to RZ. And then User’s PN sequence is checked and set to

010000000000000000000000000000 00 in pulse shape. Data rate has to be converted to

40 Gbps and V_offset and V_pp have to be converted to the value with which you want

to simulate in parameters.

Fig. 12.5.2 Input dialog box of electrical signal generator for frequency response
of DFB lasers (1)

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Fig. 12.5.3 Input dialog box of electrical signal generator for frequency response
of DFB lasers (2)

Fig. 12.5.4 Frequency response for DFB laser

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12.6 Waveguide analysis using effective index method (EIM)

Icon

Theory

Waveguide analysis can be done using the ‘Waveguide Analysis’ icon. This tool

provides the calculation of modes in dielectric waveguides using the effective index

method. The effective index method can transform a two-dimensional problem in a one-

dimensional one. The latter can be solved analytically or by simpler methods than

required for the two-dimensional case.

Assuming that the current density of J = 0 and TE mode (Ez = 0 by definition of TE

mode) and Ex = Ey = 0 if the electric field isn’t varied in the y-direction, the electric field

is given by
r r
E = E y ( x) exp( jwt − jβz ) y (12.6.1)

∂ 2 E y ( x)
= ( β 2 − n 2 k 0 ) E y ( x)
2
(12.6.2)
∂x 2

with the boundary conditions:

E y ,k = E y ,k +1 (12.6.3)

dE y ,k dE y ,k +1
= (12.6.4)
dx dx

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nN Nth layer dN
nN-1 (N-1)th layer dN-1
...
n1 1st layer d1
Fig. 12.6-1 Structure of multi-layer waveguides

For TE modes, the wave equation of each layer is given by

exp(k k x) + exp(− k k x) exp(k k x) − exp(−k k x)


E y ,k = Ak + Bk (12.6.5)
2 2

where k k2 = nk2 k 2 − β 2 > 0 .

E y ,k = Ak cos(k k x) + Bk sin( k k x) (12.6.6)

where k k2 = nk2 k 2 − β 2 < 0 .

The found β satisfies all the above conditions so each layer with different

parameters can be treated as one homogenous layer.

The thickness of the first and last layers is assumed to be infinite.

Fig.12.6-2 Calculated electric field and effective refractive index for a three-layered
waveguide

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Input dialog box

Fig.12.6-3 Input dialog box of parameters for waveguides analysis using the EIM

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Fig. 12.6-4 Input dialog box of parameters of structure for waveguides analysis

using the EIM

Description of parameters for waveguide analysis using EIM

Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Wavelength Wavelength 1.55 µm
No. of layers Number of layers 3
Max no. of modes Maximum calculated number of modes 1
TE/TM Select one out of TE mode and TM mode TE
Layer thickness Thickness of each layer 1 µm
Refractive index Refractive index of each layer 3

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12.7 Long period fiber Bragg grating viewer

Icon

Theory

Transmittance or reflectance of the long period fiber Bragg grating can be shown

along the long period fiber Bragg grating viewer. Calculated transmittance is shown in

Fig. 12.7-1.

Fig. 12.7-1 Calculated transmittance of long period fiber Bragg grating

12.8 Short period fiber Bragg grating viewer

Icon

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Theory

Transmittance or reflectance of the short period fiber Bragg grating can be shown

along the short period fiber Bragg grating viewer. Calculated transmittance is shown in

Fig. 12.8-1.

Fig. 12.8 -1 Calculated transmittance of short period fiber Bragg grating

12.9 Optical Signal Storage

Icon

Theory

An optical signal storage is used to store optical signal data and then retrieved using

the ‘measured TX’ tool to transmit the signal further or calculate transmission

performance. This tool can be used in the WDM as well as in the single channel. The

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optical signal data of each channel are stored separately.

For example, if you use this tool and enter a file name ‘test.dat’ through ‘Browse’

button in the 4 channel WDM system schematic, totally 4 files which are ‘test_ch0.dat’,

‘test_ch1.dat’, ‘test_ch2.dat’ and ‘test_ch3.dat’ including optical signal data of each

channel will be created in the location you indicated. Note that you should use ideal

muxing of WDM MUX in order to multiplex the output signals of measured TXs

importing these files.

Optical signal data is stored by the following file format.

The file format for the stored data by optical signal storage (*.dat):

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th


column column column column column column column
No. of One Zero Lasing
1st Data rate No. of Data
total level level in wavelen
row in Hz bits format
points in W W gth in m
2nd
PN sequences
row
Start End Delta No. of
3rd
wavelen wavelen wavelen noise
row
gth in m gth in m gth in m profile

Noise profiles

Real Imaginar
signal y signal

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Input dialog box

Fig. 12.9-1 Input dialog box of parameters for optical signal storage

Description of parameters for optical signal storage

Parameter Description Default Value / Unit


File Name File name as which data is stored input.dat

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13. Sample Simulations

13.1 Single channels

1) Single channel link with EAMI DFB lasers

① Draw a schematic shown in Fig. 13.1-1.

Fig.13.1-1 Schematic of a single channel link using EAMI DFB lasers

After setting up the schematic shown in Fig. 13.1-1, the parameters of each tool should

be changed as following:

a. ESG(single) 1
Input dialog box of Pulse Shape: Use the default values for all the parameters.
Input dialog box of Parameters: Change the value of offset voltage (Voffset), as
shown in Fig. 13.1-2.

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Fig. 13.1-2. Parameters for ESG(single) 1 in Fig 13.1-1

b. EAMI DFB Anal 1


Input dialog box of Input Parameters: Use the default values for all the
parameters
Input dialog box of P-V Transfer Characteristics: Change the value of V0 and
Power unit, as shown in Fig. 13.1-3.

Fig. 13.1-3. P-V Transfer Characteristics for EAMI DFB Anal 1 in Fig 13.1-1

Input dialog box of Alpha-V Transfer Characteristics: change the value of Voltage

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where chirp is zero and Slope of chirp, as shown in Fig. 13.1-4.

Fig. 13.1-4. Alpha-V Transfer Characteristics for EAMI DFB Anal 1 in Fig 13.1-1

c. EOP 1: use the default values for all the parameters.


d. SMF 1
Input dialog box of Dispersion/Loss: change the value of Fiber length, as shown
in Fig. 13.1-5.

Fig. 13.1-5. Dispersion/Loss for SMF 1 in Fig 13.1-1

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The other input dialog boxes: use the default values for all the parameters.
e. GB EDFA 1: use the default values for all the parameters.
f. RxPIN 1
Input dialog box of Receiver: Select Bessel-Thomson filter.

Fig. 13.1-6. Receiver for RxPIN 1 in Fig 13.1-1

g. OSC 1, BER1, EOP 2: use the default values for all the parameters.

② Click ‘Analysis-Run.’

③ Input ‘Sampling Point’ and ‘Noise.’

Fig. 13.1-7. Input dialog box of Analysis-Run

④ Click ‘OK.’

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⑤ Wait until the simulation is done and then the window showing the simulation results

will pop up automatically.

Fig. 13.1-8 Simulation results of Fig. 13.1-1

2) Single channel link with time domain demux

① Draw a schematic shown in Fig. 13.1-9.

Fig.13.1-9 Schematic of single channel link with time domain demux

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After setting up the schematic shown in Fig. 13.1-9, the parameters of each tool should

be changed as following:

a. ESG(double) 1~2
Input dialog box of Pulse Shape: Select RZ data format, as shown in Fig 13.1-10.

Fig. 13.1-10. Pulse Shape for ESG(double) 1~2 in Fig 13.1-9

Input dialog box of Parameters: Change the value of No. of bits, as shown in Fig.
13.1-11.

Fig. 13.1-11. Parameters for ESG(double) 1~2 in Fig 13.1-9

b. DFB CW 1~2: Use the default values for all the parameters.

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c. MZ Mod 1~2: Use the default values for all the parameters.
d. Delay Line 1
Input dialog box of Parameters: Select Delay Bits and change the value into
0.5bits, as shown in Fig. 13.1-12.

Fig. 13.1-12. Parameters for Delay Line 1 in Fig 13.1-9

e. Osc 1~4: Use the default values for all the parameters.
f. Combiner 1, SMF 1, Domain DEMUX 1: Use the default values for all the
parameters.

② Click ‘Analysis-Run.’

③ Input ‘Sampling Point’ and ‘Noise.’

Fig. 13.1-13. Input dialog box of Analysis-Run

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④ Click ‘OK.’

⑤ Wait until the simulation is done and then the window showing the simulation

results will pop up automatically.

Fig. 13.1-14 Simulation results of Fig. 13.1-9

3) Single channel link with FEC

① Draw a schematic shown in Fig. 13.1-15.

Fig.13.1-15 Schematic of a single channel link with FEC

After setting up the schematic shown in Fig. 13.1-15, the parameters of each tool

should be changed as following:

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a. ESG(double) 1
Input dialog box of Pulse Shape: Use the default values for all the parameters.
Input dialog box of Parameters: Change the values of Data rate and No. of bits
into 9.95328Gb/s (OC-192) and 211, respectively, as shown in Fig. 13.1-16.

Fig. 13.1-16. Parameters for ESG(double) 1 in Fig 13.1-15


b. FEC encoder 1
Input dialog box of Output Waveform: Select Double Electrode, as shown in Fig.
13.1-17.

Fig. 13.1-17. Output Waveform for FEC encoder 1 in Fig 13.1-15

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Input dialog box of RS and BCH codes: Use the default values for all the
parameters.

c. DFB CW 1: Use the default values for all the parameters.


d. MZ mod 1: Use the default values for all the parameters.
e. SMF 1
Input dialog box of Dispersion/Loss: Change the value of Fiber length, as shown
in Fig. 13.1-18.

Fig. 13.1-18. Dispersion/Loss for SMF 1 in Fig 13.1-15


The other input dialog boxes: Use the default values for all the parameters.

f. GB EDFA 1: Use the default values for all the parameters.


g. RxPIN 1
Input dialog box of Receiver: Select Bessel-Thomson filter, as shown in Fig. 13.1-
19.

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Fig. 13.1-19. Receiver for RxPIN 1 in Fig 13.1-15

h. FEC decoder 1: Use the default values for all the parameters.
i. BER 1
Input dialog box of Parameters: Change the value of Optimize threshold level, as
shown in Fig. 13.1-20.

Fig. 13.1-20. Parameters for BER 1 in Fig 13.1-15

j. BER 2: Use the default values for all the parameters.


k. Osc 1
Input dialog box of Property Page: Select Eye diagram, as shown in Fig. 13.1-21.

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Fig. 13.1-21. Property page for OSC 1 in Fig 13.1-15

l. Osc 2: Use the default values for all the parameters.

② Click ‘Analysis-Run.’

③ Input ‘Sampling Point’ and ‘Noise.’

Fig. 13.1-22. Input dialog box of Analysis-Run

④ Click ‘OK.’

⑤ Wait until the simulation is done and then the window showing the simulation results

will pop up automatically.

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Fig. 13.1-23 Simulation results of Fig. 13.1-15

13.2 WDM channels

1) Single span

① Draw a schematic shown in Fig. 13.2-1

Fig.13.2-1 Schematic of a WDM channel link with single span

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After setting up the schematic shown in Fig. 13.2-1, the parameters of each tool should be

changed as following:

a. ESG(single) 1~8: Use the default values for all the parameters

b. DFB CW 1~8
Input dialog box of Parameters for DFB CW 1~8: Change the values of lasing
wavelength into 1.550, 1.5508, 1.5516, 1.5524, 1.5532, 1.5540, 1.5548 and 1.5556
µm, respectively, as shown in Fig. 13.2-2.

Fig. 13.2-2. Parameters for DFB CW 1 in Fig 13.2-1

c. MZ Mod 1~8: Use the default values for all the parameters.
d. 8x1 MUX 1
Input dialog box of Filter Characteristics: Change the value of Insertion Loss into
5, as shown in Fig. 13.2-3.

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Fig. 13.2-3. Wavelength for 8X1 MUX 1 in Fig 13.2-1

Input dialog box of Wavelength: Use the default values for all the parameters.

e. GB EDFA 1
Input dialog box of Parameters: change the value of Gain and Noise Figure, as
shown in Fig. 13.2-4.

Fig. 13.2-4. Parameters for GB EDFA 1 in Fig 13.2-1

f. SMF 1
Input dialog box of Dispersion/Loss: change the value of Fiber length, as shown
in Fig. 13.2-5.

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Fig. 13.2-5. Dispersion/Loss for SMF 1 in Fig 13.2-1

The other input dialog boxes: Use the default values for all the parameters.

g. GB EDFA 2
Input dialog box of Parameters: Change the value of Gain and Noise Figure, as
shown in Fig. 13.2-6.

Fig. 13.2-6. Parameters for GB EDFA 1 in Fig 13.2-1

h. 8x1 MUX 1
Input dialog box of Filter Characteristics: change the value of Insertion Loss, as
shown in Fig. 13.2-7.

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Fig. 13.2-7. Wavelength for 1X8 DEMUX 1 in Fig 13.2-1


Input dialog box of Wavelength: use the default values for all the parameters.

i. RxPIN 1
Input dialog box of Receiver: Select Bessel-Thomson filter.

Fig. 13.2-8. Receiver for RxPIN 1 in Fig 13.2-1

j. OSNR 1, Spectrum Analyzer 1, BER 1, EOP 1: use the default values for all the
parameters.

② Click ‘Analysis-Run.’

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③ Input ‘Sampling Point’ and ‘Noise.’

Fig. 13.2-9. Input dialog box of Analysis-Run

④ Click ‘OK.’

⑤ Wait until the simulation is done and then the window showing the simulation results

will pop up automatically.

Fig. 13.2-10 Simulation results of Fig. 13.2-1

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2) Multi span

① Draw a schematic shown in Fig. 13.2-11.

Fig.13.2-11 Schematic of WDM channel link with multi span

After setting up the schematic shown in Fig. 13.2-11, the parameters of each tool should

be changed as following:

a. ESG(single) 1~8: Use the default values for all the parameters.

b. DFB CW 1~8:
Input dialog box of Parameters of DFB CW 1~8: Change the values of lasing
wavelength into 1.550, 1.5508, 1.5516, 1.5524, 1.5532, 1.5540, 1.5548 and 1.5556
µm, respectively, as shown in Fig. 13.2-12.

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Fig. 13.2-12. Parameters for DFB CW 1 in Fig 13.2-11

c. MZ Mod 1~8: Use the default values for all the parameters.

d. 8x1 MUX 1
Input dialog box of Filter Characteristics: Change the value of Insertion Loss, as
shown in Fig. 13.2-13.

Fig. 13.2-13. Wavelength for 8X1 MUX 1 in Fig 13.2-11

Input dialog box of Wavelength: use the default values for all the parameters.

e. GB EDFA 1
Input dialog box of Parameters: change the value of Gain and Noise Figure, as
shown in Fig. 13.2-14.

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Fig. 13.2-14. Parameters for GB EDFA 1 in Fig 13.2-11

f. LEAF 1~3
Input dialog box of Dispersion/Loss: Change the value of Fiber length, as shown
in Fig. 13.2-15.

Fig. 13.2-15. Dispersion/Loss for LEAF 1~3 in Fig 13.2-11

The other input dialog boxes: Use the default values for all the parameters.

g. GB EDFA 2~4
Input dialog box of Parameters: Change the value of Gain and Noise Figure, as
shown in Fig. 13.2-16.

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Fig. 13.2-16. Parameters for GB EDFA 2~4 in Fig 13.2-11

h. 1x8 DEMUX 1
Input dialog box of Filter Characteristics: Change the value of Insertion Loss, as
shown in Fig. 13.2-17.

Fig. 13.2-17. Wavelength for 1x8 DEMUX 1 in Fig 13.2-11


Input dialog box of Wavelength: Use the default values for all the parameters.

i. RxPIN 1
Input dialog box of Receiver: Select Bessel-Thomson filter, as shown in Fig. 13.2-
18.

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Fig. 13.2-18. Receiver for RxPIN 1 in Fig 13.2-11

j. OSNR 1, Spectrum Analyzer 1, EyeMargin 1, Osc 1: Use the default values for
all the parameters.

② Click ‘Analysis-Run.’

③ Input ‘Sampling Point’ and ‘Noise.’

Fig. 13.2-19. Input dialog box of Analysis-Run

④ Click ‘OK.’

⑤ Wait until the simulation is done and then the window showing the simulation results

will pop up automatically.

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Fig. 13.2-20 Simulation results of Fig. 13.2-11

13.3 Bidirectional transmissions

① Draw a schematic shown in Fig. 13.3-1.

Fig.13.3-1 Schematic of 8 channels bidirectional transmission

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After setting up the schematic shown in Fig. 13.3-1, the parameters of each tool should be

changed as following:

a. ESG(double) 1~8: Use the default values for all the parameters.

b. DFB CW 1~4: Change the values of lasing wavelength into 1.550, 1.5516,
1.5532, and 1.5548 µm, respectively, as shown in Fig. 13.3-2.

Fig. 13.3-2. Parameters for DFB CW 2 in Fig. 13.3-1

c. DFB CW 5~8: Change the value of lasing wavelength into 1.5508, 1.5524,
1.5540, and 1.5556 µm, respectively.

d. MZ Mod 1~8: Use the default values for all the parameters.

e. 4×1 MUX 1
Input dialog box of Filter Characteristics: Change the value of insertion loss,
Reference wavelength and Channel spacing, as shown in Fig. 13.3-3.

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Fig. 13.3-3. Parameters for 4×1 MUX 1 in Fig. 13.3-1


Input dialog box of Wavelength: Use the default values for all the parameters

f. 4×1 MUX 2
Input dialog box of Filter Characteristics: change the value of insertion loss,
Reference wavelength and Channel spacing, as shown in Fig. 13.3-4.

Fig. 13.3-4 Parameters for 4×1 MUX 2 in Fig. 13.3-1


Input dialog box of Wavelength: Use the default values for all the parameters

g. GB EDFA 1~2: Use the default values for all the parameters.

h. Fiber Bi 1
Input dialog box of Dispersion/Loss: Change the values of Fiber length and Ref.
Wavelength, as shown in Fig. 13.3-5.

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Fig. 13.3-5 Parameters for Fiber Bi 1 in Fig. 13.3-1

The other input dialog boxes: Use the default values for all the parameters.

i. Optical Filter 1: Use the default values for all the parameters.
j. Optical Filter 2: Change the value of Center wavelength of 3dB passband into
1.5508, as shown in Fig. 13.3-6.

Fig. 13.3-6 Parameters for Optical Filter 2 in Fig. 13.3-1

k. RxPIN 1~2

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Input dialog box of Receiver: Select Bessel-Thomson filter, as shown in Fig.13.3-


7.

Fig. 13.3-7. Receiver for RxPIN 1~2 in Fig 13.3-1

l. OSC 1~2, BER1~2, Spectrum Analyzer 1~2: Use the default values for all the
parameters.

② Click ‘Analysis-Run.’

③ Input ‘Sampling Point’ and ‘Noise.’

Fig. 13.3-8. Input dialog box of Analysis-Run

④ Click ‘OK.’

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⑤ Wait until the simulation is done and then the window showing the simulation results

will pop up automatically.

Fig. 13.3-9 Simulation results of Fig. 13.3-1

13.4 Analog and CATV transmissions

① Draw a schematic shown in Fig. 13.4-1.

Fig. 13.4-1. Schematic of two-tone test to estimate IMD

After setting up the schematic shown in Fig. 13.4-1, use the default values for all the

parameters of each tool.

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② Click ‘Analysis-Run.’

③ Input ‘Sampling Point’ and ‘Noise.’

Fig. 13.4-2. Input dialog box of Analysis-Run

④ Click ‘OK.’

⑤ Wait until the simulation is done and then the window showing the simulation results

will pop up automatically.

Fig. 13.4-3. Simulation results of Fig. 13.4-1

⑥ To observe two-tone in detail, click the X-axis of Fig. 13.4-3 and change the

parameters of graph as following

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Input dialog box of Parameters: Click manual scaling and change the value of
Min, Max, Number of Major and Precision as shown in Fig. 13.4-4.

Fig. 13.4-4. Properties of Graph of Fig. 13.4-3

Fig. 13.4-5. Simulation results of Fig. 13.4-1 after rescaling X-Axis

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14. Insertion of Icon and Library into Photonics CAD

14.1 Generating dll file

14.1.1 Getting started

To insert icon and library by users into photonics CAD, users should create a dll

(dynamic link library) file. To create a dll file, C++ complier is needed. For inserting

icon and library by users, three files are needed.

Icon file (*.ico)

Dll file (*.dll)

Description file (*.des)

‘Photonics_CAD_dll_Generator.exe’ will generate a source code of a dll file for

Visual C++ (product of Microsoft). To execute this program, a hard key provided by AO

Technology should be installed in the printer port in your computer. If you double click

‘Photonics_CAD_dll_Generator.exe’, you can show the window as shown in Fig. 14.1.1-

1. Left tree viewer in Fig. 14.1.1-1 shows the history of dll generation made by users.

AO Technology will help add icons and dll files into photonics CAD if customers

provide dll files and icon information as a free of charge.

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Fig. 14.1.1-1. Photonics_CAD_dll_Generator

14.1.2 Generating source codes of dll

To generate a source code of a dll file, you can select the ‘New dll’ command from

the ‘Dll generation’ menu.

Fig.14.1.2-1 ‘New dll’ command from the ‘Dll generation’ menu.

Dll wizard displays a dialog box of step 1 as shown in Fig. 14.1.2-2. The project

name should be inserted in the edit box. This name will be used for the name of the dll

file. You can select the path of the dll source code through ‘Browse’ button.

For the next step, you should ‘check the validity of directory’. Finally you should

select ‘Next’ button.

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Fig. 14.1.2-2. Step 1 of dll wizard

The next step, step 2 of dll wizard, the variables used in a program should be

inserted. You can insert the information of ‘Parameter’, ‘Value’, ‘Unit’, ‘Description’,

‘Variable’, and ‘Type’. ‘Value’ and ‘Variable’ mean a default value and the variable name

of the parameter used in the program, respectively. There are two types of ‘Type’, integer

and double. After inserting the information of ‘Parameter’, ‘Value’, ‘Unit’, ‘Description’,

‘Variable’, and ‘Type’, you can add this information into displayed list by using the ‘Add’

button.

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Fig. 14.1.2-3. Step 2 of dll wizard

In step 3 of dll wizard, the icon displayed on workspace of ‘Photonics CAD’ is

created. The values of ‘X1’, ‘Y1’, ‘X2’, ‘Y2’, ‘X’, and ‘Y’ should range from –30 to 30.

For a line, the user should enter ‘X1’, ‘Y1’, ‘X2’, ‘Y2’, line width and line color. After

that, this information can be added using the ‘>>’ button. The added results will be

displayed in the right window. For a polygon, you should select the number of vertex at

first. Then, the coordinates through ‘X’ and ‘Y’ should be entered by using ‘+’. The

number of entered coordinates of ‘X’ and ‘Y’ should be equal to the number of entered

vertex. The polygon can be added using the ‘>>’ button. If you want to delete a line or a

polygon, double click a line or a polygon in the list at the bottom of the dialog box.

Finally, select the ‘Next’ button.

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Fig. 14.1.2-4. Step 3 of dll wizard

In step 4 of dll wizard, the dialog box will display the entered information about

variable and description. The generated source codes will be created in the path you

entered in step 1 of dll wizard. If you select ‘Finish’ button, the procedure of the

generating dll file will be completed.

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Fig. 14.1.2-5. Step 4 of dll wizard

14.1.3 Generated files

The generated files are shown in Fig.14.1.3-1. After executing ‘Visual C++” with

the file of ‘*.dsw’, if you code your own function and compile this project, you can get

‘*.dll’ file which has the functions you want.

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Fig. 14.1.3-1 Generated files of an example

14.1.4 Creation of main program

The name of the main function of your own library is ‘*main’. If the name of your

project is ‘project_name’, the name of the main function is ‘project_namemain’ and the

main function is located in ‘project_name.cpp’ file. In this main function, you can add

your own source code.

There are two kinds of class for execution engine. One is a general class and the

other is a channel class. These classes contain variables to commonly use for each device

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and to transfer data to the other devices. General class contains the variables commonly

used for all channels. Channel class contains the variables differently used for each

channel. The members of the classes that the users can access are shown in Table 14.1.4-

1 and 14.1.4-2.

You must not change the members written by bold characters. You can only refer the

members written by bold characters.

Table 14.1.4-1 Description of parameters in general class

Variable Description Units


Data type
m_dblDeltaT ∆t for time-domain signal s
m_dblStartWavelength Starting wavelength for ASE noise m
double
m_dblEndWavelength Ending wavelength for ASE noise m
m_dblDeltaWavelength ∆λ for ASE noise m
Number of total point for time-
m_iNoOfTotalPoint
domain signal
Flags that indicate if electrical
m_bQ
int signal is Q or Q
Number of used channel for each
m_iNoOfUsedChannel
device
m_iNoOfNoiseProfilePoint Number of total point for ASE noise
m_pfElectricalSignal1 Electrical signal for Q V
float *
m_pfElectricalSignal2 Electrical signal for Q V
int * m_piUsedChannel Used channel for each device

Table 14.1.4-2 Description of parameters in channel class

Data type Variable Description Units


double m_dblDataRate Data rate bit/s
m_dblWavelength Wavelength m
m_dblOneLevel One level of signal V or W
m_dblZeroLevel Zero level of signal V or W

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m_dblOpticalBandwidth Optical bandwidth of receiver Hz


m_dblElectricalBandwidth Electrical bandwidth of receiver Hz
m_dblCircuitNoise Circuit noise of receiver /Hz
M_dblReceivedPower Received power of receiver W
m_dblDarkCurrent Dark current of receiver A
m_dblQuantumEfficiency Quantum efficiency of receiver
m_dblMultiplicationFactor Multiplication factor of receiver
m_dblExcessNoiseFactor Excess noise factor of receiver
m_dblEDFAGain EDFA gain of EDFA+PIN receiver
m_dblEDFANoiseFigure Noise figure of EDFA+PIN receiver
M_dblPaseBeforeRx PASE before receiver W
m_iNoOfBit Number of bit
Data format
m_iDataFormat
(1:NRZ, 2:RZ, 3:Clock, 4: CDMA)
Type of receiver
m_iReceiverType
(0:PIN, 1:EDFA+PIN, 2:APD)

Type of FEC
(0: no FEC, 10: RS code & G.975,
m_iFEC 11: RS code & G.709,
12: RS code & no standard,
22: BCH code & no standard)
Number of symbols per codeword
M_iCodewordLength
when FEC is used
int Number of symbols per message word
m_iMessageLength
when FEC is used
Maximum number of symbols which
m_iErrorCorrectionCapability a codeword can correct when FEC is
used
Number of bits per symbol when FEC
m_iBitsPerSymbol
is used
Power of first root of g(x), αb when
m_iFirstRoot
FEC is used
Spacing of power of roots of g(x)
m_iRootSpacing
when FEC is used
Flag that indicates if Error detector is
before or after FEC decoder
m_iDecoder
(0: before FEC decoder,
1: after FEC decoder)
Flag that indicates if input signal is
bool m_bOptical
optical or electrical signal
float * m_pfSignalReal Real part of optical signal W1/2

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M_pfSignalImaginary Imaginary part of optical signal W1/2


m_pfNoiseProfile Noise spectrum W
Coefficients of field (primitive)
int * M_piFieldPolynomial
polynomial when FEC is used
Bool * m_pbPNSequence PN sequence

To refer variables in the generated dialog box, the class of ‘MyDB_B’ should be

used. The variables generated by ‘Photonics_CAD_dll_Generator.exe’ can be accessed

by using a member function in the class of ‘MyDB_B’. If you want to refer a variable

with the types of ‘double’ and ‘int’, you should use the functions of

‘GetDblValue(MyDB_B1 *FindGroup, int iOrderNumber, int iPID, CString

strParamName)’ and ‘GetIntValue(MyDB_B1 *FindGroup, int iOrderNumber, int iPID,

CString strParamName)’, respectively. The name of the variable should be replaced to

‘strParamName’. The example 14.1.4-1 shows how to refer the generated variables. In

the example of 14.1.4-1, the variable of ‘TempDB’ is defined in the program,

automatically. The variables of ‘FindGroup’, ‘iBlockOrder’, and ‘iPID’ need not be

modified. “variable1” and “variable2” should be exactly same as the variables used in

making this dll source.

[Example 14.1.4-1]

int iexamplevariable1=TempDB.GetIntValue(FindGroup, iBlockOrder, iPID, "variable1");

double dblexamplevariable2=TempDB.GetDblValue(FindGroup, iBlockOrder, iPID,

"variable2");

In general, single-input and single-output devices must set the optical or electrical

signals, one and zero levels of signals, and ASE noise for all devices.

One level means the power of ‘mark’ for optical signals or the voltage of ‘mark’ for

optical signals. Zero level means the power of ‘space’ for optical signals or the voltage of

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‘space’ for optical signals. For examples, one level and zero level are displayed in EOP

viewer as shown in Fig. 14.1.4-1.

ASE noise means the amplified spontaneous emission noise that generated in optical

amplifiers. It is used for BER calculation. Because ASE noise cannot be divided into

channels, all channels of single input and single output devices have ASE noise

information over the whole wavelength range. Each channel has the same value of ASE

noise. ASE noise range can be adjusted at ‘Run’ menu as shown in Section 2.1.8.

One level

Zero level

Fig. 14.1.4-1 One level and zero level in EOP viewer

The following example shows the function that amplified input signals.

[Example 14.1.4-2] Function that amplify input signals by 3 dB

extern "C" _declspec(dllexport) BOOL project_namemain (MyDB_B &TempDB, int

iBlockOrder, int iPID, General *gtemp, Channel *ctemp, Viewer *vtemp)

int iChannel = gtemp->m_piUsedChannel[0];

if((ctemp+iChannel)->m_bOptical==TRUE) { //if input is optical signal

for(int i=0;i<(gtemp->m_iNoOfUsedChannel); i++){ // ‘for loop’ for all input channel

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iChannel=gtemp->m_piUsedChannel[i]; // each channel

for(j=0; j<(gtemp->m_iNoOfTotalPoint);j++) { // optical signal setting

(ctemp+iChannel)->m_pfSignalReal[j]*=sqrt(2); //Units: W

(ctemp+iChannel)->m_pfSignalImaginary[j]*= sqrt(2); //Units: W

(ctemp+iChannel)->m_dblOneLevel*=2; //One level setting (Units: W)

(ctemp+iChannel)->m_dblZeroLevel*=2; //Zero level setting(Units: W)

for(int j=0; j<gtemp->m_iNoOfNoiseProfilePoint;j++) // ASE setting

(ctemp+iChannel)->m_pfNoiseProfile[j]*=2; //Units: W

else{ // if input is electrical signal

if((gtemp->m_bQ)==TRUE) // in the case of Q signal

for(j=0;j<(gtemp->m_iNoOfTotalPoint);j++)

gtemp->m_pfElectricalSignal1[j]*= sqrt(2); // Units: V

else // in the case of Q signal

for(j=0;j<(gtemp->m_iNoOfTotalPoint);j++)

gtemp->m_pfElectricalSignal2[j]*= sqrt(2); // Units: V

(ctemp+iChannel)->m_dblOneLevel*= sqrt(2); //One level setting (Units: V)

(ctemp+iChannel)->m_dblZeroLevel*= sqrt(2); //Zero level setting(Units: V)

return (true);

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14.1.5 Modification of toolbar button

To modify the toolbar button of your own library, select “ResourceView” tap in

“Visual C++” and double click “IDB_BITMAP”, as shown in Fig 14.1.5-1.

Fig. 14.1.5-1 Modification of the toolbar button

You can show the editable bitmap, as shown in Fig. 14.1.5-2. If you would like to

modify the toolbar button, change the editable bitmap.

Fig. 14.1.5-2 Editable bitmap

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14.2 Finalizing user’s library

To insert your own library into ‘Photonics CAD’, three files are needed as shown in

Table 14.2-1. The created files are copied or appended.

Table 14.2-1. Final procedure

File name Example Description To do


dialog box and Copy this file to
*.dll \debug\Project_name.dll
main function ‘\dll\’
Information of Append this file into
Pcad2k_*.des \Pcad2k_project_name.des
library ‘\pcad2k.des’
Icon Copy this file to
*.ico \Project_name.ico
information ‘\ico\’

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