Simulation of
Optical Communication
Systems & Optical
Networks
Photonics
CAD
User’s Manual
Version 1.6
82232903233, 4088
Tel
8229249710
Fax
jcj@aotech.co.kr
Email
Home page http://www.aotech.co.kr/
AO Technology:
AO Technology ㈜ 에이오 테크놀러지
Korea Technocomplex 서울 성북구 안암동 5 가 12616
Korea University 고려대학교
12616, 5Ka, Anamdong, Sungbukku
한국종합산학연구원
Seoul, 136701, Korea
Tel: 82232903233, 4088
Fax: 8229249710 전화: 0232903233, 0232904088
Email: jcj@aotech.co.kr 팩스: 029249710
Home page: http://www.aotech.co.kr/
전화: 0426117550
팩스: 0426117560
Technical Support:
© 2002 AO Technology. All rights reserved. Reproduction of this manual is strictly prohibited
without the written consent of AO Technology. Information in this manual is subject to change
without notice and does not represent a commitment by AO Technology.
© AO Technology, 2002
Contents
Contents.........................................................................................................................................i
1. Introduction .............................................................................................................................1
2. Getting Started.........................................................................................................................3
2.1.2 Tree.........................................................................................................................4
2.1.7 Keyboard..............................................................................................................10
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2.5 Making your own projects or tools using input and output ports...................................19
3.7 Transmitter model using measured LI curve form laser diodes for analog applications 87
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3.9 Transmitter model using measured pulse pattern and chirping ....................................103
5.2.4 Nonzero dispersionshifted fiber (+), nonzero dispersionshifted fiber () and
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6.7 Isolator..........................................................................................................................181
7.2 Demultiplexer...............................................................................................................191
7.6 Rectifier........................................................................................................................199
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7.9 AWG.............................................................................................................................209
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1. Introduction
devices and components with varying physical and material parameters. This simulation
tool provides savings of cost and time for development of systems and devices from the
IBM PC or compatible
CDROM driver
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To install the Photonics CAD, insert the Photonics CAD CDROM disk in your CD
ROM driver. Run setup.exe by doubleclicking and then follow the instructions in the
installing program:
③ Select the Destination Folder using the Browser, and then click the NEXT
button.
Photonics CAD is started in Windows from the file manager by changing the
directory that contains the executable file and double clicking the ‘Photonics CAD.exe.’
A hard key provided by AO Technology should be installed in the printer port in your
computer. It’s recommended to make an icon for ‘Photonics CAD.exe’. To start the
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2. Getting Started
To draw schematics, you should open a new workspace window at first. You can also
2.1.1 Menu
The display and operation of the menu in schematics follow a standard window layout
and operation. You can run the schematic and arrange the result windows.
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Through the ‘File’ menu, we can make new schematic, open schematic, save and print
a schematic. The ‘Edit’ menu includes the function of ‘copy and paste’. The ‘View’ and
‘Tools’ menus explain components and devices used for Photonics CAD. We can start the
simulation with the ‘Run’ menu and arrange the display of simulation results with the
‘Window’ menu. The ‘Help’ menu shows the version of Photonics CAD.
After simulation, if the ‘Window’ menu is selected, submenu will appear. In the
‘File’ menu, we can export the simulated raw data into an ASCII file. With the ‘Setting’
menu, we can change the axis and the color of result windows. Also, the ‘Window’ menu
2.1.2 Tree
The tree can display different levels of hierarchy and several schematics that are saved
in Photonics CAD. You can select the schematic that you want and can use the schematic
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2.1.3 Toolbar
The Toolbar icons provide shortcuts for initiating common actions. When you move
the cursor onto an icon, the status bar shows the operation of the icon.
Also, many toolbars are created with the dll files in Photonics CAD. The toolbars
are divided into transmitters, receivers, fibers, optical amplifiers, wavelength converters,
functional blocks, passive components, repeated link, system viewers, and device
viewers.
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If the question mark toolbar is clicked, we can show following dialog box.
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The status bar is located at the bottom of the workspace window and shows a
message of the operation and the current state of the workspace window. If the schematic
is run, the status bar shows a progress of simulation of the schematic. Therefore, we can
Photonics CAD provides a zoom in/out function through the ‘Zoom In’ and ‘Zoom
Out’ commands of the ‘View’ menu. Clicking the ‘Zoom In’ command enlarges the
schematic by 200% and clicking the ‘Zoom Out’ command reduces it by 50%. The
maximum and minimum sizes we can obtain are 400% and 50% of the original schematic
size, respectively.
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We can move the focus of a workspace as shown in Fig. 2.1.61 using the two
2) Lay the mouse cursor at the region shaded in blue in Fig. 2.1.61 and the focus
of a workspace moves automatically. If you put the mouse cursor at the right,
left, upper and bottom sides in that region, the focus moves right, left, up and
down, respectively.
2.1.7 Keyboard
You can edit a schematic using the keys in the keyboard of your computer. “Ctrl +
C”, “Ctrl + V”, “Ctrl + N”, “Ctrl + O”, “Ctrl + S” and “Ctrl + P” are used to copy, paste,
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Keyboard Function
Ctrl + C Copy
Ctrl + V Paste
Ctrl + N New
Ctrl + O Open
Ctrl + S Save
Ctrl + P Print
If you made your own schematic, you can simulate it. To simulate that schematic,
you can select the ‘Analysis’ command from the ‘Run’ menu. Then, the simulation starts
If you run the schematic, a new dialog box appears. Through this dialog box, we can
change the number of sampling points in optical signals in the time domain and the range
of ASE noise. Because the number of sampling points may affects your simulation results
such as numerical errors in optical signals, you need to use enough sampling points.
automatically on this dialog box. Note that larger number of sampling points takes longer
simulation execution time and more memories. If the number of sampling points exceeds
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To start the schematic editor, you can doubleclick on the ‘MFC_DB_B.exe’ icon.
Then, an empty window page is showed up. If you already use the schematic page, click
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There are two methods for dragging and dropping tools. One is to use the toolbar
button and the other is to use the ‘Tools’ menu. We’ll drag and drop oscilloscope using
Fig 2.3.11. Dragging and dropping an oscilloscope using the toolbar button
① Move the cursor onto the toolbar button labeled with an oscilloscope. Leave the
cursor on the button for several seconds and a message box will appear to be giving a
brief description of that button. This message is called ‘ToolTip’ and is available for
③ If you move the cursor into the workspace, the oscilloscope icon appears on the
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workspace.
④ When you have picked a position, click on the left mouse button to fix the
oscilloscope icon.
Fig 2.3.12. Dragging and dropping an oscilloscope using the ‘Tools’ menu
① Move the cursor onto the ‘Tools’ menu and click on the left mouse button.
② If you leftclick tools menu, you can see various tool types (Transmitter,
③ If you move the cursor into the workspace, the oscilloscope icon appears on the
workspace.
④ When you have picked a position, click on the left mouse button to fix the
oscilloscope icon.
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During drawing schematics, we sometimes need to flip tools. We’ll flip the
② If you move the cursor on to the combiner icon and click on the right mouse button,
The following example which is changing parameters for a PIN receiver explains
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① There are two methods to display dialog box of input parameter for tools.
Move the cursor onto the PIN receiver icon on the workspace and
Click on the right mouse button. If you do so, a popfolder appears. Move
the cursor onto the Properties at the popfolder and click on the left mouse
button.
② Change the parameter of input parameter for the PIN receiver as you want
and then click ‘yes’ button.
The next step is to connect the tools together. Our goal is to make the schematic as
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① Put the cursor on the end point of the upper arrow for ESG(double)1. If you
do so, the shape of the cursor changes from an arrow to a rectangular. Click
on the left mouse button at that point. After clicking, if you were to move the
cursor somewhere else, the shape of the cursor would change to a pencil and
② Move the cursor onto the start point of the upper arrow for MZ Mod 1.
When the shape of the cursor changes from a pencil to a rectangular, click
It is highly likely that after you compose a schematic, you will need to copy or paste
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Selecting a single tool: Click on the tool you want to copy. Notice it
Selecting multiple tools: Click and hold the left mouse button and then drag
the cursor to create a rectangle. All the tools completely contained in the
rectangle will become selected. Also, notice that they become highlighted in
Move the cursor onto one of the tools you select and click on the right
mouse button. Then a popfolder shows up, where click the ‘Copy’
command.
Move the cursor onto the empty workspace and click on the right mouse
button. Then, a popfolder shows up, where click the ‘Paste’ command.
When what you copy appear(s), move the cursor onto the position where
you want to paste and click on the left mouse button to fix them (it).
Click the ‘Edit’ menu, where click the ‘Paste’ command. If you move the
cursor onto the workspace, what you copy appear(s). Move the cursor onto
the position where you want to paste and click on the left mouse button to
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Press Ctrl+V key. When what you copy appear(s), move the cursor onto the
position where you want to paste and click on the left mouse button to fix
them (it).
To save a schematic, you can click the ‘Save’ icon or use the key function ‘Ctrl + S’
or choose the ‘Save’ from the ‘File’ menu. If it is a new schematic, you can enter a file
To open your saved schematic, you can click the ‘Open’ icon or use the key function
2.5 Making your own projects or tools using input and output
ports
You can make your own projects or tools using input and output ports. First, you
make a schematic that you want. If the schematic has the input (the output), input port
(output port) is combined. Then, save the schematic and the new project item will appear
in the tree. The new project item is dragged using the left button of mouse in the
schematic window and you can make your own tools thorough this work.
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Fig. 2.5 –2 Project ‘porttest’ made newly in ‘Project created by user’ folder of the tree
If you move the cursor onto project icon and doubleclick on the left mouse button,
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If you made your own schematic, you can simulate it. To simulate that schematic,
you can select the ‘Analysis’ submenu from the ‘Run’ menu. Then, the simulation starts
and then the progress state can be shown in the status bar. The detail is described in
section 2.1.8
briefly.
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A result window shows calculated results and other parameters on each viewer after
or during signal propagation through optical fibers. The result window in Fig 2.7.11
If you want to change the properties of the x or y axis, move the cursor onto x or y
axis and doubleclick on the left mouse button. The input dialog box for properties of the
axis of graph (look figure 2.7.23) will appear. And you can extend the region you want
to watch in detail. Click and hold the left mouse button and then drag the cursor to create
There are lines, the meaning of lines and some values in the right side of the result
window. When you doubleclick the line, input dialog box for properties of colors of
graph (look figure 2.7.24) will appear. And doubleclicking the values displays the
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File menu
Export data into ASCII file: export calculated raw data into an ASCII file
Setting menu
Axis: change the scaling, grid, title, and format of X or Yaxis using this
command.
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Fig 2.7.23 Input dialog box of properties for the axis of graph
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Window menu
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To change properties of axes, you can use the ‘Axis’ command of the ‘Setting’ menu
Parameter Description
Auto Scaling Auto scaling
Scaling
Manual Scaling Require minimum and maximum values
Major Grids Show major grids
Number of Major Number of major grid. Limited to 20.
Grid
Minor Grids Show minor grids
Number of Minor Number of minor grids per major grid. Limited
Grids to 4.
Unit Unit of the value on the axis
Represent the value on the axis
Engineering Form
in the engineering form (exponentially)
Tile and
Format Field Width Field width
Precision Precision of the value on the axis
Title of Axis Change the title and font of the axis
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3. Transmitter Models
optical fibers. Distributedfeedback Bragg grating (DFB) lasers, FabryPerot (FP) lasers,
EAMIDFB laser based tunable lasers, soliton pulses, and measured transmitter
characteristics can be used in the transmitter for optical transmission systems. For optical
components for transmitters, large signal analysis including the extinction ratio and the
frequency chirping are modeled and used in Photonics CAD to generate optical pulses
Icon
Theory
The frequency characteristics of a raised cosine signal consists of a flat portion and
1 / 2W , 0 ≤ f < f1
P ( f ) = 1 / 4W , f 1 ≤ f < 2W − f1 (3.1.11)
0, f ≥ 2W − f1
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f1
α = 1− (3.1.12)
W
The parameter α is called the rolloff factor, which indicates the excess bandwidth over
the ideal solution of the ideal Nyquist channel, W. The time response p (t ) is the
A super Gaussian shape can be used to model the effects of steep leading and
pulse is given by
1 t
2m
p (t ) = exp − (3.1.14)
2 T0
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Fig. 3.1.11 Input dialog box of pulse shapes for electrical signal generator for dual
electrodes
Fig. 3.1.12 Input dialog box of parameters for electrical signal generator for dual
electrodes
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Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Data rate Data Rate 10 Gb/s
No. of bits Total number of data bits 27 bits
Select a data format from NRZ, RZ, or
Data format NRZ
Clock signal
Raised Cosine Raised cosine shape as an output pulse

Pulse shape
Super Gaussian Super Gaussian shape as an output pulse

Pulse shape
Sine Pulse Sine shape as an output pulse shape 
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Theory
The theory of electrical signal generator for single electrode is described in 3.1.1.
Fig. 3.1.2 1 Input dialog box of pulse shapes in the electrical signal generator for
single electrode
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Fig. 3.1.2 2 Input dialog box of parameters for electrical signal generator for single
electrode
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PN sequence inputted by
User’s PRBS 00001001001101001111……….
users
Automatic 5 bit
Automatically generate 5
delayed PRBS
bit delayed PRBS between 
generation
WDM channels
between channels
V_offset Offset voltage of electrode 2V
Peak to peak voltage of
V_pp 2V
electrode
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Theory
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Fig. 3.1.3.1 1 Input dialog box of input parameters for multitone signal generator
Icon
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Theory
sources for longhaul highbitrate optical communication systems both in direct intensity
systems, the light sources require superior spectral properties (spectral sharpness and
stability) such as low wavelength chirping under highspeed modulation and narrow
static spectral linewidth. A number of largesignal dynamic DFB laser models have been
developed including the longitudinal spatial holeburning (zHB) and the gain saturation
which affect the chirp behavior under direct current modulations. Among the models, a
largesignal dynamic DFB laser one based upon the transfer matrix method (TMM) has
In Photonics CAD, largesignal analysis for DFB lasers is necessary with using the
time dependant TMM to calculate optical pulse waveforms, the extinction ratio, and the
equation and rate equations. The time dependent TMM has been proposed for the
realistic DFB lasers, the propagation part of the transfer matrix is modified using the
pulse propagation equation that describes the propagation of pulses in DFB lasers. The
evolution of slowly varying amplitude A(z, t) inside DFB lasers is governed by the pulse
∂ A( z , t ) 1 ∂ A( z , t ) i 1
+ = − α Γ g m A( z , t ) + gA( z , t ) + µ ( z , t ) (3.2.11)
∂z vg ∂t 2 2
where A(z, t) is the normalized pulse envelope such that A(z, t)2 represents the optical
power, α is the chirp parameter which accounts for carrierinduced index changes, vg is
the group velocity, Γ is the confinement factor, gm is the material gain, and g is the net
gain. Seeding of the travelingwave amplitudes can be done with the use of lumped
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where β is the spontaneous coupling factor, RSP the spontaneous emission rate
To consider the interaction between the carrier density N and the photon density S,
the cavity is divided into a number of small sections, and the rate equation is solved in
each section as
∂N i I
= − N i (c1 + c2 N i + c3 N i2 ) − v g Γg m i S i (3.2.13)
∂t qV
where index i corresponds to a different section, I is the injection current, V is the active
constants.
 A i  2 +  A i +1  2 +  B i  2 +  B i +1  2
Si = (3.2.14)
2 v g E Across
wave.
In order to model the asymmetric gain profile, the gain spectrum is assumed to be
a 0 ( N i − N 0 ) − a1 (λ − λ p ) 2
g m i (N i , λ ) = (3.2.15)
1+ ε S
where a0 and a1 are the gain constants, λp is the gain peak wavelength assumed to shift
linearly with the carrier density, and ε is the gain compression factor. The net gain is
given by:
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g i = Γg m i − α loss (3.2.16)
λ
nei = ne 0 − Γ α a0 N (3.2.17)
4π
The lasing wavelength is obtained by the minimizing technique on  a22  where a22 is
an element of the overall transfer matrix for the structure given by the product of the
∆ne
λB = λB0 + λB0 (3.2.18)
ne 0
where λB0 is the Bragg wavelength when the current is not injected and ∆ne the
average of the carrierinduced index changes for the whole structure given by [3.2.12].
1
∆ne =
NS
∑ ∆n ( N )
i
e i (3.2.19)
The summation is carried out all over the subsections, where NS is the total number of
subsections.
3.2.11. The coupling coefficient of the structure and the Bragg wavelength given by the
(n2 − n1 ) 4 neff l
κ= , λB = (3.2.110)
2 l neff m
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Λ l=Λ
n 2i 2
n 1i
n(z )
MΛ
.. .. ... .. ... .. ..
p −1
nAR n 1eff 2
n eff i
n eff neff n effp nHR
z
n1, i = neff , i (1 − κ l )
n2, i = neff , i (1 + κ l )
neff = (n1 + n2 ) / 2 . It is obvious that when the parameters κ, λB, and neff of a structure
are given, n1, n2 , and l, the parameters of equivalent periodic structure can be found from
Eq. (3.2.110).
HR • • • • • •
AR
ni1 Ni1 ni Ni ni+1 Ni+1
• • • • • •
gm, i1 gm, i gm, i+1
Fig. 3.2.12 Schematic of the modified TMMbased dynamic DFB laser model
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a (t ) ⋅ a 21 (t ) a12 (t )
a11 (t ) − 12
E A (t + ∆t ) a 22 (t ) a 22 (t ) E A (t )
E (t + ∆t ) = a (t )
1 E B (t + 1)
(3.2.111)
B − 21
a 22 (t ) a 22 (t )
Fig. 3.2.12 shows the schematic of the modified TMMbased dynamic DFBlaser
model. Assuming that various material and structural parameters remain unchanged
throughout section i in a time from t to t+Δt, the output amplitudes A i+1 and B i at time
t+Δt can be calculated from the input amplitudes A i and B i+1 at time t by Eq. (3.2.111).
Transfer matrix elements amn(t) of a section i are obtained from ni, Ni, gmi, and αi at time t.
this simulator. Also, 1.3µm DFB lasers can be modeled by changing some material
Calculated and measured pulse pattern and chirp are shown below Fig. 3.2.1.4 and
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0.06
0.03
0.00
0.03
0.06
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
Time [ns]
Fig. 3.2.14 Measured pulse shapes and wavelength chirping in DFB lasers
Optical Power [Arb. Unit]
0.12
Wavelength Chirp [nm]
0.09
0.06
0.03
0.00
0.03
0.06
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
Time [ns]
Fig. 3.2.15 Calculated pulse shapes and wavelength chirping in DFB lasers
If you want to simulate at 1300nm wavelength range, the above parameters should
be modified in the simulation. The modified parameters are the ‘Gain peak wavelength’
and the ‘Delta n_12’. The gain peak wavelength is changed from 1580 to 1330nm. The
Fig. 3.2.16, 7, and 8 show the input dialog box of the device and material
parameters, and simulation conditions. You can easily change the default values in the
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Fig. 3.2.16 Input dialog box for physical parameters in the complete DFB laser
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Fig. 3.2.17 Input dialog box for material parameters in the complete DFB laser
model from rate equations
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Fig. 3.2.18 Input dialog box for other parameters in the complete DFB laser model
from rate equations
Description of parameters for Complete DFB lasers model from rate equation
Default Value /
Parameter Description
Units
Grating period Half length of a grating pitch 0.1125 µm
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References
[3.2.11] M. G. Davis and R. F. O’Dowd, "A Transfer Matrix Method Based LargeSignal
Dynamic Model for Multi electrode DFB Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,
[3.2.13] Gunnar Bjork and Olle Nilsson, “A New Exact and Efficient Numerical Matrix
DFB Lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT5, pp. 140146, Jan. 1987.
[3.2.14] Hans Bissessur, “Effects of Hole Burning, CarrierInduced Losses and the
tractable abovethreshold model for the design of DFB and Phaseshifted DFB
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Theory
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A (t , z ) = P ∑ a k g ( t − kT , z ) (3.2.22)
k
where A(t) is the field envelope, ω 0 is the optical carrier frequency, P1 is the optical
peak power for a "1" pulse , T is the pulse duration, and ak is the pseudorandom bit
The chirp of transmitters using DFB lasers is analyzed by using the time dependent
α d 2
(3.2.23)
∆ f (t ) = − ( ln E ( t , z = 0 ) )
4 π dt
parameter varies between 2 and 8, depending on the laser structure. Integration of the
α 2
φ ( t ) = − 2π ∫ ∆ f ( t ) dt =
2
ln E ( t ) . (3.2.24)
The A(t,z) is used for the nonlinear Schrodinger equation to calculate pulse
distortions.
Fig. 3.2.21 Calculated pulse shapes and chirping from the analytical DFB laser
model using the Super Gaussian pulse shape
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Fig. 3.2.2 2 Input dialog box of parameters for the analytical DFB laser
References
[3.2.21] M.Schiess, “Chirp and Dispersion Compensation in Nonlinear Fibers for High
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Icon
Theory
The output of the ideal DFB laser model is considered to be continuous wave (CW).
Therefore a time dependent field E(t) can be obtained from the below Eq. (3.2.31).
where P is the average power, and f c is the carrier frequency which can be obtained
Fig. 3.2.1 1 Input dialog box of parameters for the ideal DFB laser model
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Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Lasing wavelength Lasing wavelength 1.55 µm
Optical output
Average power of laser output 0 dBm
power of laser
Icon
Theory
characteristics limit the speed or the distance in transmission and the spontaneous
emission noise can trigger the laser to oscillate in sidemodes under intensity modulation
Even though the transient response of laser diodes has been widely reported, most
studies are concentrated on single mode laser diodes for highspeed communications.
Also some published reports treated multilongitudinal laser diodes dealt with them as
nearly single mode cases [3.33][3.35]. Besides, the frequency chirp usually
highspeed transmission has been of relatively low interests in multimode laser diodes
[3.36][3.38]. In the view of the gain spectrum, the frequency shift (chirp) of modes can
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change the effective gain. The random spontaneous noise term, an important factor for
as a stochastic process.
The laser cavity is split into uniform sections with the forward and reverse
propagating electric fields which have amplitude and phase information. Within a section
all the relevant parameters are assumed to be homogeneous. A restriction on the sections
is that they must all have the same length ∆z = vg ∆t. The forward and reverse input fields
∧
R i [t ] = tR i +1 [t − 1] + rFi [ t − 1] (3.32)
where r is the reflection coefficient and t is the transmission coefficient. Fi1[t1] and
Ri+1[t1] are the forward and reverse output fields in sections i1 and i+1, respectively, at
time t1. In a time domain model [3.39], the output fields of a digital filter are given by
the convolution of input field and impulse response h[n] of the filter.
∞ ∧
F i [t ] = ∑ F [ t − n ] h[ n ]
n=0
i
(3.33)
∞ ∧
R i [t ] = ∑ R [ t − n ] h[ n ]
n=0
i (3.34)
The frequencydependent gain at the center gain frequency ω0 with the section
length ΔL is modeled using the second order Lorentzian digital filter which has a peak
amplitude gain
g (ω 0 ) = exp{ b Γ ( N i ( t ) − N 0 ) ∆ L / 2} (3.35)
where b and Γ are the differential gain and confinement factor, respectively, and N0 is
the transparency carrier density. The phase shift term caused by changes in carrier density
is multiplied to the amplitude gain. The phase shift calculated from the carrier density
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φ = −α b Γ∆ LN i (t ) / 2 (3.36)
Nonlinear gain is also included with the use of the gain compression factor (1+εS)
depending on the structure of laser diodes in a section, the effective index method is used
[3.310]. The effective index method is included in Photonics CAD to calculate modes in
dielectric waveguides in chapter of device viewer. The effective refractive index and the
confinement factor have been calculated to be 3.26 and 0.32, respectively. The effective
refractive index is changed by the variation of carrier density with the relation of [3.311]
dn
neff (i , t ) = neff (i , t − 1) + Γ N i (t − 1) (3.37)
dN
The photon density Si[t] in section i and the output power P(t) from the righthand
S i [t ] = ( Fi [t ]2 + Ri [t ]2 ) / hv (3.38)
P ( t ) = hv ⋅ w ⋅ d ⋅ S [ t ]v g (3.39)
where hν is the average photon energy, w the width, and d the depth of the active layer in
lasers. The dynamics of a semiconductor laser are modeled by the noise driven rate
dN i (t ) I v Γ b ( N i ( t ) − N 0 ) S i (t )
= − ( AN i (t ) + BN i (t ) 2 + CN i (t ) 3 ) − g (3.310)
dt qV 1 + ε S i [t ]
Gaussian white noise term Φ(t) with zero mean and correlation <Φ(t)iΦ(t′)i> = δ(t
emission and fluctuation. The effect of radiative and nonradiative carrier generation and
recombination noise in the rate equation for Ni(t) is neglected since it is negligible
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2.00E+018 20
1.80E+018
15
Carrier Density (cm )
3
10
1.40E+018
5
1.20E+018
1.00E+018 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
time (nsec)
current pulse
200
Frequency (GHz)
mode 1
mode 2
200 mode 3
mode 4
mode 5
400
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
time (nsec)
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Optical power
Injection current
Time
Fig. 3.33 Optical pulse shape of FP lasers output with the injection current
Fig. 3.34 Input dialog box of parameters for the FP laser model for digital links
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Fig. 3.35 Input dialog box of material parameters for the FP laser model
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References
partition and Gb/s system performance of highly single mode 1.5µm distributed
feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 52, pp. 17621764, 1988.
715, 1990.
statistics in nearly singlemode semiconductor lasers,” IEE Proc. Part J, vol. 140,
in nearly singlemode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 27, pp. 332343,
1991.
[3.37] OK. Kwon, JI. Shim, “The effects of longitudinal gain distributions on the static
56
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dispersive optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 10, pp. 964969, 1992.
FabryPerot lasers,” IEE Proc. Part J, vol. 140, pp. 157171, 1993.
[3.310] J. Buus, “The effective index method and its application to semiconductor
[3.311] K. Inoue, “Blue frequency shift due to external light injection in a distributed
feedback laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 67, pp. 15181520, 1988.
II. Laser oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 39, pp. 12641268, 1989. A. E. Siegman,
[3.314] Jeungyun Ko, Yunbum Kim, Hyunjae Yoon, Insik Park and Jichai Jeong
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Icon
Theory
LiNbO3 external modulator, the modulator output electric field is expressed by [3.4.1 1].
E0 jπv1 (t ) E0 jπv2 (t )
Eout = exp + exp (3.4.1 1)
2 Vπ 2 Vπ
where E0 the incoming electric field and Vπ the switching voltage of the modulator. It
is assumed that the device is biased at the midpoint of its transfer characteristic curve.
Fig. 3.4.1 –1 Calculated output pulse shape of the ideal LiNbO3 external modulator
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Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Switching voltage of modulator
Switching Voltage 4V
(Vπ )
Power ratio divided between upper
Asymmetry Ratio 1
and lower arm
References
[3.4.1 1] SungKee Kim and Jichai Jeong, "Transmission performance on frequency
59
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Icon
Theory
methods: one is proposed by Koyama and Iga [3.4.2 1], and the other is calculated by
the voltage ratio applied to both electrodes [3.4.2 2]. The two chirp parameters are given
by
dφ (t ) dt
Model 1 : α = 2S (t ) ⋅ ⋅ (3.4.2 1)
dt dS (t )
and
V A − VB
Model 2 : α~ = (3.4.2 2)
V A + VB
where φ(t) and S(t) are the instantaneous phase and intensity of the optical output, and VA
In the case of chirping model 1, by the definition of the chirp parameter α in Eq.
α 1
j ∫ 2 ⋅ S ( t )dS (t )
E out = E out  e jφ
= E 0 cos(cos ω t )e (3.4.2 3)
From the definition of m and α~ in Eq. (3.4.2 2), the electric field of modulator
π π
~ j { − mα~ cos ωt }
E out = E 0 cos(cos ωt )e 4 4 (3.4.2 4)
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Fig. 3.4.2 1 Calculated output pulse shape and chirping. Chirping model 1 is used
for the negative chirp parameter with the extinction ratio of 12dB
Fig. 3.4.2 2 Calculated output pulse shape and chirping. Chirping model 2 is used
for the negative chirp parameter with the extinction ratio of 12dB
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Fig. 3.4.2 3 Input dialog box of parameters for the analytical LiNbO3 external
modulator model
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References
modulator with adjustable chirp,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 916
918, 1991.
Icon
Theory
pulse can be determined by the measured extinction ratio and the measured rise/fall times.
Fig. 3.4.3 2 Calculated output pulse shape and chirping. Chirping model 1 is used
for 0.1Åpeak chirp with the extinction ratio of 12dB
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Fig. 3.4.3 3 Calculated output pulse shape and chirping. Chirping model 2 is used
for 0.1Åpeak chirp with the extinction ratio of 12dB
Fig. 3.4.3 4 Input dialog box of parameters for the measured LiNbO3 external
modulator model
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Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Chirp Model 1 Chirping model 1 (Eq. 3.4.2 1) 
Chirp Model 2 Chirping model 2 (Eq. 3.4.2 2) 
high bit rates and long haul optical fiber transmission systems because they have some
advantages not only of a small negative chirp but also of the compactness and
polarization control elimination through the monolithic integration with a DFB laser.
Icon
Theory
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feedback (EAMIDFB) laser are caused by the combination of the two phenomena. One
refractive index change induced by variation of the absorption coefficient. It affects the
wavelength shift at the rising and falling edges. The other is the lasing wavelength shift
in a laser since the carrier density fluctuates by the optical feedback and the electrical
Fig. 3.5.11 shows the structure of EAMIDFB lasers [3.5.110]. Along the
lasers. It is possible for the time dependent TMM to involve not only forward traveling
waves but also backward reflected waves, and to consider the spatial hole burning, as the
risolation
I bias
f V mod + Vbias
HR coating
AR coating
RLD Rmod
LLD Ltr Lmod
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Ai1 Ai Ai+1
... ...
Bi1 Bi Bi+1
The DFB laser can be modeled by interpreting grating structure with the transfer
matrix [3.5.12]. In section 3.2.1, the DFB model is explained in detail. To apply TMM to
the modulator as well as the laser, we modify the propagation part of the transfer matrix
as follows
∂ A ( z, t ) 1 ∂ A ( z , t ) 1
+ = − Γα(1 − iα chirp ) A(z, t ) (3.5.11)
∂z vg ∂t 2
where A(z,t) is the normalized pulse envelope such that A(z,t)2 represents the optical
power, vg is the group velocity, and Γ is the confinement factor. The chirp parameter is
defined by [3.5.13].
4π ∆n (λ, V )
α chirp (λ, V) = × (3.5.12)
λ ∆α(λ, V )
calculating the exact absorption spectrum by the Schrödinger equation [3.5.14]. The
absorption coefficient depends on wavelengths and drive voltages due to the quantum
α p (V ) × (∆λ(V ) / 2) 2
α (λ , V ) = (3.5.13)
(λ − λ p (V)) 2 + (∆λ (V) / 2) 2
where αp(V) is the peak absorption coefficient { αp(V) = α0× (1+V/24) }, λp(V)
represents the wavelength with the peak absorption coefficient { λp(V) = λp0 – 4×10
9
×V }, and ∆λ(V) stands for the spectral broadening { ∆λ(V) = (101.28×V3)×109 }.
The change of refractive index can be calculated from the change of the absorption
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∞
λ2 ∆α(λ, V)
∆n (λ, V) = 2 P
2π −∞ λ2 − λ ′2
dλ ′ ∫ (3.5.14)
(∆n) as a function of applied voltage with Eq.(3.5.13) and (3.5.14). When the applied
voltage is higher than –0.5 V, ∆n increases by decreasing the drive voltage. In this case,
the chirp parameter becomes positive, as expected from Eq.(3.5.12). However, when the
applied voltage is lower than –0.5 V, ∆n reduces by decreasing the drive voltage and the
0.008
300000
0.006
250000
Absorption Coefficient [/m]
0.004
200000 0.002
150000 0.000
∆n
100000 0.002
0.004
50000
0.006
0
0.008
4 2 0 2
Applied Voltage [V]
Fig. 3.5.13 Calculated absorption coefficient (solid line) and refractive index
change (∆n) (dotted line) in modulators as a function of bias voltage
In the waveguide region, the absorption was ignored since it was not important to
determine large signal chirp, and the refractive index was linearly interpolated between
the refractive index of the laser section and the modulator section. The length of a
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© AO Technology, 2002
waveguide region plays a significant role in changing the laser chirp since the phase of
optical wave shifts through the waveguide region. The reflectivity at the end of the laser
section has a phase term since it is very difficult to control the grating phase at the end of
signal chirp in the laser section. In addition, the drive voltage of modulators changes the
bias current of the laser due to imperfect isolation between the laser and the modulator.
We include the effect of electrical coupling with containing isolation resistance as shown
in Fig. 3.5.11 [3.5.16]. For example, the modulator drive voltage of 2 V and isolation
resistance of 2 kΩ causes the leakage current of 1mA from the modulator to the laser.
a ( t )a 21 ( t ) a 12 ( t )
a 11 ( t ) − 12
A i +1 ( t + ∆t ) a 22 ( t ) a 22 ( t ) A i ( t )
= (3.5.15)
B i ( t + ∆t ) a 21 ( t ) 1 B i +1 ( t )
−
a 22 ( t ) a 22 ( t )
where AI(t) and BI(t) are the normalized slowly varying envelopes of forward and
backward traveling waves at section I and time t. amn(t) is the element of the conventional
transfer matrix. At each section and time, it is obtained by gain coefficient, carrier density,
and refractive index change for the laser section, and by absorption coefficient and
refractive index change for the modulator section. Assuming that all parameters remain
unchanged through each section in the time interval t to t+∆t, we can calculate the output
fields AI+1 and BI at a time t+∆t from the input fields AI and BI+1 at a time t using
Eq.(3.5.15).
Large signal chirp of EAMIDFB lasers was separately calculated as the laser chirp
and the modulator chirp. The intrinsic modulator chirp was obtained by differentiating
the phase of field to the time { 1/(2π)×(dφ/dt) } [3.5.15], while the DFB laser chirp was
acquired by calculating the lasing wavelength with the maximum transmittance from the
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In order to justify the accuracy of our model, the calculated chirp was compared
with the measured chirp for 10Gbps EAMIDFB lasers. The time resolved chirp was
measured chirp was similar to the calculated chirp with the adjusting of some parameters
related to the laser and the modulator. Fig. 3.5.14 and 3.5.15 show the measured chirp
and the calculated chirp with Rmod = 0.7 %, risolation = 2 kΩ, Ltr = 135 µm, and φ = π/45.
Fig. 3.5.14 shows the case of positive chirp with the bias voltage of 0 V and the peakto
peak modulation voltage of 2 V. Fig. 3.5.15 shows the case of negative chirp with the
bias voltage of –1.5 V and the peaktopeak modulation voltage of 2 V. By only changing
the bias voltage in our EAMIDFB laser modules, the calculated chirp is in good
agreement with the measured chirp. The small deviation between the measured and
and laser, and the effect of impedance mismatching between device and drive circuit.
Once all the parameters are set for chirp calculation at a certain bias voltage, the chirp
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0.1
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
Fig. 3.5.14 Measured (upper) and calculated (lower) data with Vbias = 0 V, V mod =
2Vpp, Rmod = 0.7 %, r isolation = 2 KΩ, Ltr = 135 µm, and φ = π/45
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
Fig. 3.5.15 Measured (upper) and calculated (lower) data with Vbias = 1.5 V, V mod
= 2Vpp, Rmod = 0.7 %, r isolation = 2 KΩ, Ltr = 135 µm, and φ = π/45
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Fig. 3.5.1 6 Input dialog box of physical parameters of the laser section in the
complete EAMIDFB laser model from rate equations
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Fig. 3.5.1 7 Input dialog box of physical parameters of the modulator section in
the complete EAMIDFB laser model from rate equations
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Fig. 3.5.1 8 Input dialog box of material parameters of the laser section in
complete EAMIDFB laser model from rate equations
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Fig. 3.5.1 9 Input dialog box of material parameters of the modulator section in
the complete EAMIDFB laser model from rate equations
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Fig. 3.5.1 10 Input dialog box of other parameters in the complete EAMIDFB
laser model from rate equations
Description of parameters for complete EAMIDFB laser model from rate equations
Default Value /
Parameter Description
Units
Grating period Half length of a grating pitch 0.1125 µm
Real part of differential refractive
Delta n (real) 0.001725
index
Imaginary part of differential refractive
Delta n (imag) 0
index
Average n_eff Average refractive index (n1+n2)/2 3.45
Active layer
Active layer width of DFB laser 1.5 µm
width
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Active layer
Active layer thickness of DFB laser 0.12 µm
thickness
Optical
confinement Optical confinement factor 0.3
factor
R_rear_facet Rear facet reflectance 70 %
Phase_rear_facet Grating phase of rear facet 150 deg.
Grating phase
between laser and Grating phase between laser and
waveguide 0 deg.
waveguide section
section
n_eff Effective refractive index of modulator 3.424
R_front_facet Front facet reflectance 0%
Ao Material gain constant 2.5 × 1020 m2
A1 Material gain constant 1.5 × 1019 m3
A2 Material gain constant 2.7 × 1032 m4
No Carrier density at transparency 9 × 1023 m3
Eff. Loss Effective loss ( α loss ) 2500 m1
C1 Recombination rate 2500000 s1
C2 Recombination rate 1 × 1016 s1
C3 Recombination rate 3 × 1041 s1
Alpha parameter Alpha parameter ( α ) 5
Wavelength for Gain peak wavelength ( λ peak ) 1.58 um
peak gain
Gain compression
Nonlinear gain compression factor ( ε ) 1.5 × 1023 m3
factor
Wavelength for
Wavelength for absorption peak 1.525 um
absorption peak
Delta_lambda Delta lambda for absorption 0.01 um
Max_absorption Maximum absorption 300000 m1
I_bias_DFB Bias current of steady state condition 40 mA
Electrical
confinement Electrical confinement factor 0.9
factor
Fiber coupling
Fiber coupling loss 1 dB
loss
Isolation resistance between laser and
R_isolation 10 Kohm
modulator
No. of laser Number of divided sections in DFB
20
sections laser section
No. of waveguide Number of divided sections in
6
sections waveguide section
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References
[3.5.11] Dietrich Marcuse, “DFB laser with attached external intensity modulator,”
tractable abovethreshold model for the design of DFB and phaseshifted DFB
[3.5.13] Fumio Koyama, and Kenichi Iga, “Frequency chirping in external modulators,”
[3.5.14] Andreas Ahland, Dirk Schulz, and Edgar Voges, “Efficient modeling of the
merging,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron., vol. 34, No.9, pp. 15971603, Sep 1998.
[3.5.16] Masayuki Yamauchi, Tomoaki Kato, Tatsuya Sasaki, Keiro Komatsu, and
[3.5.17] Yonggyoo Kim, Hanlim Lee, Sungkee Kim, Jeongyun Ko, and Jichai Jeong,
Quantum Electron.,
78
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[3.5.110] Yonggyoo Kim, Hanlim Lee, Jaehoon Lee, Jaeho Han, T.W.Oh, and Jichai
DFB lasers”, IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. Vol. 36, No. 8, pp. 900908 Aug.
2000.
Icon
Theory
The linewidth broadening factor α is defined as α=∆n′/∆n″, where ∆n′ and ∆n″ are
the relative changes of the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index in an optical
device, respectively. The αparameter varies with input electrical signals according to the
dα
α= (V − Vz ) (3.5.21)
dV
where V is the reverse applied voltage, and Vz is the voltage where the chirp is zero.
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becomes a nonlinear relation, as shown in Fig. 3.5.21 and Fig. 3.5.22. The power
intensity, Popt , of the modulated output light is given by (3.5.22) or (3.5.23), which can
be selected through dialog box. The unit of the power intensity can be selected either mW
where Po is the effective intensity of the input light considering the device insertion loss,
and Vo and a are constants. The instantaneous power intensity Popt and the phase φ of the
dφ α dPopt
= ⋅ (3.5.24)
dt 2 Popt dt
Therefore, the amplitude of the electric field E(t) in the output light is expressed as
E (t ) = Popt
1/ 2
⋅ exp[ j (ω ot + φ )] (3.5.25)
To get the proper simulation results, default values of the electrical signal generator
(V_offset, V_pp) have to be converted to the value with which you want to simulate,
To obtain the extinction ratio about 10dB using Eq. (3.2.23), the default value of the
The output power can be normalize as normalized average power, if the check
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measured data, the name of the data file should be ‘*.dat’ and the format of the data file
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0 0 0 2.6
Fig. 3.5.23 Measured data’s format of the PV and αV transfer characteristics
Fig. 3.5.24 Input dialog box of parameters for EAMIDFB lasers (analytical
model)
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Fig. 3.5.25 Input dialog box of PV transfer characteristics for EAMIDFB lasers
(analytical model)
Fig. 3.5.26 Input dialog box of AlphaV Transfer Characteristics in EAMIDFB lasers
(analytical model)
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References
[3.5.2 1] G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, New York: Academic Press, 1989.
[3.5.2 2] Christian Hentschel, Fiber Optics Handbook, 2nd, Hewlett Packard.
84
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Icon
Theory
dispersion (GVD) and selfphase modulation (SPM), both of which limit the performance
propagating through the fiber. When optical pulse with a narrow pulse width and a high
peak power propagates through the anomalous region of the fiber, SPM and GVD can
cooperate in such a way that the SPMinduced chirp is adequate to cancel the GVD
induced broadening of the pulse. The optical pulse would then propagate undistorted in
In order to make narrow pulse trains, CW mode locking can be used. In this case,
for either slow or fast saturation forms, the output electric field is expressed as a
E (t ) = E0 sech (t / τ p ) (3.61)
Note that the parameter τp in this function is not the FWHM. The FWHM is related
to τ (FWHM)=1.76×τp.
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1.2
0.4
0.0
Tim e (ps)
Fig. 3.6 2 Input dialog box of parameters for the modelocked laser model
86
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References
Icon
Theory
laser diodes affects the system performance of analog links. The nonlinear effect in laser
diodes can be observed immediately by using measured LI curves and the
87
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P ( I) = a 0 + a 1 I + a 2 I 2 + a 3 I 3 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ (3.71)
where I is the drive current, and the coefficients a0, a1, a2, and a3 are obtained from the
The coefficients of the polynomial can be found by the least mean square algorithm.
It is possible for this model to estimate not only harmonic and intermodulation distortions
Fig. 3.71 shows the results of twotone tests. To improve resolution of FFT,
windows such as Hamming, Hanning, and Blackman are used [3.73]. Therefore, it is
In order to insert measured LI curve data, the name of the data file should be *.dat.
0.05 0.1
0.1 0.12
0.15 0.13
0.2 0.14
: :
Column 1 Column 2
in mA scale in mW scale
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40
60
80
100
120
Frequency [GHz]
Fig. 3.71 Twotone test of laser diodes using FFT with the Blackman window
Fig. 3.7 2 Input dialog box of parameters for the measured LI curve laser model
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References
[3.71] James C. Kaly, “Fiber Optic Intermodulation Distortion,” IEEE Trans. Commun.,
[3.72] Makoto Shibutani, Toshihito Kanai, Watani Domom, Katsumi Emura, and Junji
(H015),” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 11, pp. 11181126, Sept. 1993
[3.73] Alan V. Oppenheim, Discrete time signal processing, Prentice Hall, 1989
Icon
Theory
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The evolution of slowly varying amplitude A(z,t) inside SOAs and gain region is
∂ A ( z, t ) 1 ∂ A ( z , t ) i 1
+ = − α Γ g m A( z, t ) + gA(z, t ) (3.81)
∂z vg ∂t 2 2
where A(z,t) is the normalized pulse envelope such that A(z,t)2 represents the optical
To consider the interaction between the carrier density (N) and the photon
density (S ), we divide the SOA into a number of small sections, and solve the rate
∂N i I
= − N i (c1 + c 2 N i + c3 N i2 ) − v g Γg m iSi (3.82)
∂t qV
input signals, I is the injection current, V is the active volume, q is the electronic
 A i 2 +  A i+1 2 +  B i 2 +  B i+1 2
Si = (3.83)
2 v g E A cross
amplitude, E is photon energy, and Across is the cross sectional area of the active layer.
The Bragg reflector region can be modeled by interpreting a grating structure with
the transfer matrix [3.82]. The transfer matrix for one corrugation period can be
obtained from the matrices of a homogeneous waveguide and a refractive index step.
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n1 + n 2 n1 − n 2 n 2 + n1 n 2 − n1
2n 2 n1 e γ 2l
0 2n 2 2 n 2 eγ 1 l 0
[Tp ] = 1
(3.84)
n1 − n 2 n1 + n 2 0 e −γ 2 l n 2 − n1 n 2 + n1 0 e −γ 1l
2n 2n1 2n 2n 2
1 2
where n1 and n2 are the refractive indices, and γ1 and γ2 are the complex propagation
constants in the two refractive index regions. The real part of γ is determined by the
gain coefficients. The imaginary part of γ depends on the refractive index and affects
the phase shift of the optical wave. γ is obtained from Eq.( 3.81). The transfer
matrix for one section can be calculated from M (= number of corrugation periods in
one section) power of the transfer matrix for a single corrugation period {[T]i =
C. Electroabsorption modulator
To apply TMM to the modulator, we modify the propagation part of the transfer
∂ A ( z, t ) 1 ∂ A ( z, t ) 1
+ = − Γα (1 − iα chirp ) A(z, t ) (3.85)
∂z vg ∂t 2
where A(z,t) is the normalized pulse envelope such that A(z,t)2 represents the
optical power, vg is the group velocity, and Γ is the confinement factor. The chirp
parameter in the modulator is defined by αchirp( λ,V) = (4π/λ) {∆n( λ,V)/ ∆α( λ,V)}. We
coefficient depends on the wavelength and drive voltage due to the quantum
confined Stark effect. The change of the refractive index can be calculated from the
D. Timedependent TMM
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a ( t )a 21 ( t ) a12 ( t )
a11 ( t ) − 12
A i+1 ( t + ∆t ) a 22 ( t ) a 22 ( t ) A i ( t )
B ( t + ∆t ) = (3.86)
i a 21 ( t ) 1 Bi+1 ( t )
−
a 22 ( t ) a 22 ( t )
where Ai(t) and Bi(t) are the normalized slowlyvarying envelopes of the forward
and backward traveling waves at section i and time t. amn(t) are the elements of the
constant varies in time, and as a result, amn(t) will also be functions of time.
Assuming that all parameters remain unchanged throughout each section in the time
interval t to t+∆t, we can calculate the output fields Ai+1 and Bi at a time t+∆t from
We used a little different transfer matrix according to the structure due to the
change of the complex propagation constant and the refractive index. Therefore, we
can accurately calculate pulse shapes and large signal chirps though the longitudinal
E. Chirp calculation
The modulator chirp was obtained from differentiating a phase of electric fields to
time { 1/(2π)×(dφ/dt) } in the modulator section [3.82], while the laser chirp was
acquired from calculating the lasing wavelength with the maximum transmittance
from the total transfer matrix of the at SOA and DBR laser section [3.82]. Therefore,
our model can accurately estimate the total chirp in tunable EAMIDBR lasers as
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Fig. 3.82 Input dialog box of structure for the tunable EAMIDBR laser model for rate
equations
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Fig. 3.83 Input dialog box of physical parameters of the grating section for the tunable
EAMIDBR laser model for rate equations
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Fig. 3.84 Input dialog box of material parameters of the grating section in the tunable
EAMIDBR laser model from rate equations
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Fig. 3.85 Input dialog box of physical parameters of the gain section in the tunable
EAMIDBR laser model from rate equations
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Fig. 3.86 Input dialog box of material parameters of the gain section in the tunable
EAMIDBR laser model from rate equations
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Fig. 3.87 Input dialog box of parameters of the modulator section in the tunable EAMI
DBR laser model from rate equations
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Fig. 3.88 Input dialog box of other parameters in the tunable EAMIDBR laser model
from rate equations
Default Value /
Parameter Description
Units
1st region Selection of types of the 1st region 3 (modulator region)
2nd region Selection of types of the 2nd region 2 (gain region)
3rd region Selection of types of the 3rd region 1 (grating region)
4th region Selection of types of the 4th region 2 (gain region)
5th region Selection of types of the 5th region 0 (not used)
6th region Selection of types of the 6th region 0 (not used)
Number of divided sections for each
No. of sections 6/20/11/19/0/0
region
100
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101
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Reference
[3.81] Hanlim Lee, Hyunjae Yoon, Yonggyoo Kim, and Jichai Jeong, “Theoretical study
by XGM and XPM using SOAs,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electron.,, Vol. 35,
[3.82] Yonggyoo Kim, Hanlim Lee, Jaehoon Lee, Jaeho Han, T.W.Oh, and Jichai Jeong,
lasers”, IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. Vol. 36, No. 8, pp. 900908 Aug. 2000.
102
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chirping
Icon
Theory
A transmitter model sometimes cannot represent the real transmitter used in the
system. In Photonics CAD, the transmitter model can be replaced by measured pulse
patterns and chirping from the real transmitter so that one can accurately estimate the
transmission performance for one’s interested transmission systems. The measured data
file format is shown below to import measured chirping and pulse patterns. In this case,
one can include experimental chirping and pulse patterns to observe the pulse
Ti:LiNbO3 modulatorbased transmitters are driven with large electrical PRBS NRZ data
with the word length of 271. The 10Gbit/s transmitter has a MachZehnder
interferometer type modulator, so the sign and the magnitude of the transient chirp of
transmitters can be varied with adjusting the voltage ratio applied to two electrodes. The
time resolved frequency chirp was measured by a scanning optical monochromator and a
digital oscilloscope. Both are controlled by a personal computer (PC). Digital data of the
optical power distribution in the time domain for each filtered wavelength are stored in
the PC and the time resolved transient chirp and optical output pattern are reconstructed
from the stored digital data. Fig. 3.92 shows the measured optical output data
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Fig. 3.91 Configuration of chirp measurement setup and transmitter with adjustable
chirp. Att; electrical attenuator, PMF; polarization maintaining fiber, DFB
lasers; packaged DFB laser with builtin isolator, and EDFA; Erdoped
fiber amplifier
a)
b)
Fig. 3.9 2 Measured output data and time resolved frequency chirping of
20Gbit/s transmitter driven by large signal 271 NRZ PRBS data:
(a) Measured output pulses and (b) Time resolved chirping data
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Fig. 3.9 3 Input dialog box of parameters for the measured transmitter model
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The file format for the measured data of measured transmitter model (*.dat):
1e10(tab) 32(enter)
Optical power in mW
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4. Receiver Models
Receivers convert optical signals into electrical ones to recover information data.
Receivers have enough bandwidth of amplifiers to adopt optical signals and a decision
circuit for digital transmission to reshape pulses. For digital applications, receivers can be
modeled as a filter and a noise generator to determine BER, electrical EOP, or eye margin
from transmitted data. Decision circuits should also be modeled to accurately estimate
circuit model.
Icon
Theory
Timeaveraged signal photo current Is can be determined from the average optical
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e
Is = ⋅ Prec (4.1.11)
hν
where e is an electric charge and hv a photon energy. For PIN receivers, shot and receiver
circuit noises are dominant. The noise terms are given by [4.1.11].
+
N shot ( mark ) = 4eI s (1 − cisi ) Be (4.1.12)
−
N shot ( space) = 4eI s cisi Be (4.1.13)
∞
d < i2 > 2
N rec = ∫ H ( f )df (4.1.14)
0
df
where Nshot is shot noise, Nrec receiver circuit noise, Be bandwidth of receiver, and H(f)
+ −
receiver characteristics. cisi and cisi are the normalized eye closure of electrical pulse
at mark (“1”) and space (“0”), respectively. All noises are considered to be uncorrelated,
thus the total noise is given by the sum of all noise components as
Fig. 4.1.11 Input dialog box of parameters for the PIN diode model
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References
speed and receiver bandwidth on the eye margin performance of a 10Gb/s optical
fiber transmission system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 532534,
1997
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4.1.2 APD
Icon
Theory
For APD receivers, shot and receiver circuit noises are dominant. The noise terms
∞
d < i2 > 2
N rec = ∫ H ( f )df (4.1.23)
0
df
where M is the multiplication factor and FA the excess noise factor of APDs. The excess
FA ( M ) = k A M + (1 − k A )(2 − 1 / M ) . (4.1.24)
noises are considered to be uncorrelated, thus the total noise is given by the sum of all
noise components as
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Fig. 4.1.21 Input dialog box of parameters for the APD model
Default value
Parameter Description
/ Units
Butterworth filter model as a frequency
Butterworth filter 
response characteristic of receiver
BesselThomson BesselThomson filter model as a frequency

filter response characteristic of receivers
Measured filter
Measured frequency response 
(default:10GHz)
Measured filter (by
Measured frequency characteristics 
user)
Filter order for the Butterworth filter and the
Filter order 4
BesselThomson filter
3dB bandwidth of
3dB bandwidth of a filter 10 GHz
filter
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References
Icon
Theory
The EDFA preamplifier and PIN configuration is a very effective way to improve
the receiver sensitivity by optically amplifying the incoming signal before the signal is
device, the receiver sensitivity measured at the input of the optical amplifier is, in
principle, improved proportional to the net gain of the optical amplifier. Unfortunately,
which, according to classical analysis, cause electrical beat noises during squarelaw
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detection at the photodetector. The noise terms of EDFA preamplifier receivers are the
following [4.2.32].
+
N shot ( mark ) = 4eI s (1 − cisi ) Be (4.2.31)
−
N shot ( space) = 4eI s cisi Be (4.2.32)
2 Be ( 2 Bo − Be )
N sp − sp = I sp (4.2.34)
2 Bo2
+ Be
N s − sp ( mark ) = 4 I s I sp (1 − cisi ) (4.2.35)
Bo
− Be
N s − sp ( space) = 4 I s I sp cisi (4.2.36)
Bo
∞
d < i2 > 2
N rec = ∫ H ( f )df (4.2.37)
0
df
where Nssp and Nspsp are the signalspontaneous beat noise and spontaneousspontaneous
beat noise, respectively. Isp is the ASE noise photocurrent ( = 2nsp (G − 1)hνBo ), nsp the
amplifier spontaneous emission factor, G the amplifier gain, and Bo an optical bandwidth.
All noises are considered to be uncorrelated, and then the total noise is given by the sum
(4.2.38)
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Fig. 4.2.31 Input dialog box of parameters for the EDFA+PIN receiver model
Fig. 4.2.32 Input dialog box of preamplifier parameters for EDFA+PIN receiver
model
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Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Butterworth filter model as a
Butterworth filter frequency response characteristic of 
receiver
BesselThomson filter model as a
BesselThomson filter frequency response characteristic of 
receivers
Measured filter
Measured frequency response 
(default:10GHz)
Measured filter (by
Measured frequency characteristics 
user)
Filter order for the Butterworth filter
Filter order 4
and the BesselThomson filter
3dB bandwidth of
3dB bandwidth of a filter 10 GHz
filter
Ic Receiver circuit noise 17 pA/(Hz)1/2
Quantum efficiency of a photo
Quantum efficiency 1
detector
Id Dark current of a photodetector 0 nA
EDFA gain of an EDFA
Gain 15 dB
(gain and noise block model)
Noise figure of an EDFA
Noise figure 4
(gain and noise block model)
3dB passband width 3dB passband width of filter 50 GHz
Insertion loss Insertion loss of filter 0 dB
Reference
signal preamplification at 1.8Gb/s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 1, pp. 367
369, 1989.
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Theory
power amplifier and a decision circuit. The photodetector and preamplifier frontend and
power amplifier can be modeled into an electrical lowpass filter. Usually, three different
receiver filters are provided in Photonics CAD: the Butterworth filter, the Bessel
Especially, the last provides better prediction on BER characteristics, closer to the
measured ones.
K
H( f ) = (4.21)
Pn ( jf / B)
where K is the maximum value of H(f), B the 3dB bandwidth, and Pn(jf/B) the nth order
complex polynomial. The filter characteristics are determined by what polynomial is used.
Theory
In Eq. (4.21), if Pn is the Butterworth polynomial, the filter has the same
characteristics of the Butterworth filter, which provides the flattest possible passband
response for a given filter order. The table 4.2.11 lists the Butterworth polynomials from
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N Pn(p)
1 p +1
2 p2 + 2 p + 1
3 p3 + 2 p 2 + 2 p + 1
Fig. 4.2.11 Frequency response of the 4th order Butterworth filter with the 3dB
frequency bandwidth of 10.3GHz
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Theory
In Eq. (4.21), if Pn is the Bessel polynomial, the filter has the same characteristics
of the BesselThomson filter, which provides the linear phase response for a given filter
order. Table 4.2.21 lists the Bessel polynomials from n=1 to n=10 using the normalized
variable p=jf/B. For the BesselThomson filter, 3dBbandwidth must be adjusted by the
K
H ( f ) bessel = (4.2.21)
Pn ( jf /( B / c))
N Pn(p)
1 p +1
2 p2 + 3 p + 3
3 p 3 + 6 p 2 + 15 p + 15
4 p 4 + 10 p 3 + 45 p 2 + 105 p + 105
Table 4.2.22 lists the compensating factor c according to the filter order [4.2.21]
N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
C 1.00 1.36 1.75 2.13 2.42 2.70 2.95 3.17 3.39 3.58
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Fig. 4.2.21 Frequency response of the 4th order BesselThomson filter with the
3dB frequency bandwidth of 10.3GHz
Reference
[4.2.21] Weinberg, Network Analysis and Synthesis, McGrawHill, New York, 1962.
Theory
measured and stored as the ASCII file format. Using the measured frequency response of
a receiver, calculated BER characteristics can be predicted closer to the measured ones.
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Data file format for measured frequency response of receiver (filename: *.dat):
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5. Fiber Models
compensation fiber, and dispersionshifted fiber) can be simulated using the nonlinear
Schrödinger equation. Regardless of fiber types, any fibers can be modeled by changing
Theory
When optical waves propagate inside a fiber, fiber nonlinearity occurs in the form
intensity variations of an optical wave propagating in an optical fiber link change the
refractive index of the fiber because the refractive index of the transmission medium
depends on optical intensity. This gives rise to nonlinear effects such as self and cross
phase modulation that, in conjugation with dispersion, result in signal distortions [5.1.1
1]. In other words, the optical phases of waves are modulated by self and crossphase
the effective refractive index of a wave depends not only on the intensity of that wave but
also on the intensity of other copropagating waves. In particular, SPM and XPM can
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limit the distance and the capacity because the group velocity dispersion (GVD) converts
The SPM and XPM are modeled by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. For
simplicity, consider two optical waves copropagating in a singlemode optical fiber. Let
2
make A j equal to the instantaneous optical power. The resulting propagation for
A j ( z , t ) is given by [5.1.13]
∂A j
∂z
+ β1 j
∂A j
∂t
i
+ β2 j
2
∂ 2 Aj α j
∂t 2
+
2
A j =
in 2ω j
c
f jj A j [ 2
+ 2 f jk Ak
2
]
(5.1.11)
∞ ∞
2
∫ ∫ F ( x, y )
2
j Fk ( x, y ) dxdy
f jk = − ∞− ∞
(5.1.12)
∞ ∞
2 ∞ ∞
∫ ∫ j ∫ ∫ Fk ( x, y ) dxdy
2
F ( x , y ) dxdy
−∞−∞ −∞−∞
The two terms on the righthand side term of Eq. (5.1.11) result from the nonlinear
refractive index. The first term leads to selfphase modulation, and the second term
results in XPM.
Let’s consider two optical waves with the same polarization. The nonlinear
∂A j
∂z
+
1 ∂A j α j
v gj ∂t
+
2
A j = iγ j [A j
2
+ 2 Ak
2
]A j (5.1.13)
where γ j = (2πn 2 ) /(λ j Aeff ) is the nonlinear coupling coefficient of wave j, λ j is the
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optical wavelength of wave j and Aeff is the effective core area of the fiber. The general
z − αz
A j ( z , t ) = A j (0, t − ) exp( ) exp[iφ j ( z , t )] (5.1.14)
v gj 2
where
1 − e −αz z z
2
z
z
2
φ j ( z, t ) = γ j A j (0, t − ) A j (0, t − ) + 2 ∫ Ak (0, t − + d jk z ' ) e −αz ' dz '
α v gj v gj v gj
0
(5.1.15)
is the phase shift caused by SPM and XPM, and d jk is the walkoff parameter. The
definition of d jk is given by
λj
d jk = (v gj ) −1 − (v gk ) −1 = ∫ D(λ )dλ (5.1.16)
λk
References
Phase Modulation Combined with Dispersion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.., vol.
IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.., vol. 10, pp. 12681270, Sep. 1998
[5.1.13] G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic, 1995.
1996.
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Theory
vibrational frequency. SRS is similar to stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), but can
occur in either the forward or backward direction. The Raman gain coefficient is about
three orders of magnitude smaller than the Brillouin gain coefficient, so in a single
channel system the SRS threshold is about three orders of magnitude larger than the SBS
threshold. However, the gain bandwidth for SRS, on the order of 12THz or 100nm, is
much larger than that for SBS. Thus, SRS can couple different channels in a WDM
Fig. 5.1.21 shows the Raman gain in fused silica fibers at 1.5 ㎛. Due to SRS in a
which lead to the degradation of the shorter wavelength signals. SRS couples channels
channels further apart from each other. For an nchannel WDM system, the SRS effect
∂Am ∂A i ∂ 2 Am 1 ∂ 3 Am α m
+ β1 m + β 2 − β3 + Am
∂z ∂t 2 ∂ t2 6 ∂ t3 2
N
2 m −1 g N
ω g
= iγ Am + 2 ∑ An Am + ∑ mn An − ∑ m mn An Am (5.1.21)
2
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channels [5.1.21]. By neglecting dispersion and looking at the worst case of marks being
transmitted on all channels, one can obtain the very simple result that the product of total
power and total bandwidth of an unrepeatered WDM system cannot exceed 500GHzW
to guarantee a penalty for the shortest wavelength channel lower than 1 dB [5.1.22].
where n is the number of channel, Ps is the power per channel, and ∆f is the
12
7x10 cm/W
Normalized Gain Cross Section
Fig. 5.1.21 Raman gain coefficient versus frequency shift for fused silica at a
pump wavelength of 1.5um. 1cm1 = 30GHz.
References
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Theory
lightwave systems. The primary reason for this is that commercial optical receivers detect
optical power rather than the optical field, and the receivers are insensitive to polarization.
In recent years, the importance of polarization in lightwave systems has grown as a result
of two developments. First, the optical amplifier has dramatically increased the optical
path lengths achievable with single mode fibers and at the same time increased the
number of optical elements that lightwaves encounter in a path. As a result, small effects
accumulate in a span to the point where they become an important consideration for
lightwave system developers. The second reason that polarization effects have become
important is that transmitter and receiver technologies have pushed the capacity of
optical fibers to their limit, even in relatively short spans. This has occurred through
dramatic increases in bit rates in digital systems and through the rapid advancement of
represented as the linear superposition of two orthogonally polarized HE11 models. In the
ideal fiber, the two HE11 modes are degenerate in terms of their propagation properties
owing to the cylindrical symmetry of the waveguide. Real fibers, however, contain some
amount of anisotropy owing to an accidental loss of the circular symmetry. This loss
in the glass. In either case, the loss of circular symmetry gives rise to two distinct HE11
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r r
The PMD model is described by the dispersion vector Ω = ∆τq̂ , where ∆τ = Ω
and q̂ is the direction of one of the two orthogonal principal state of polarization (PSP)
where the derivatives are evaluated at the central frequency. Secondorder effects are
represented by the linear DGD frequency dependence ∆τ ′ and by a linear PSP rotation
r
with constant angular rate 2k [5.1.32].
By applying the upper modeling method into each section of the fiber through an
xout (t ) =
1
{(aur ∗ r +
(
+ bu ) xout (t + ∆τ 0 / 2) + xout
−
(t − ∆τ 0 / 2) )
2 2
r +
(
+ au xout (t − 2k + ∆τ 0 / 2) − xout
−
(t − 2k − ∆τ 0 / 2) ) (5.1.31)
r∗ +
(
+ bu xout (t + 2k + ∆τ 0 / 2) − xout
−
(t + 2k − ∆τ 0 / 2) )}
r
where a = exp[ jθ ] cos(ε + π / 4 ) and b = exp[− jθ ] cos(ε − π / 4 ) , u = [1, j ] , and
∫ (X { ( ) } )exp( jωt ) dω .
1 ∞
xout (t ) ± = (ω ) exp(−αz ) exp j − β (ω ) z ± ∆τ ′ω 2 / 2
2π
in
−∞
birefringence variations along the fiber due to changes of temperature, stress or aging. It
can be shown that if the fiber length is much longer than the correlation length of the
disturbances that cause the change of symmetry in fiber geometry and stress, the
differential group delay between the two principal states of polarization (PSPs) follows a
differential group delay, and increases with the square root of the transmission distance
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[5.1.33]:
PMD = D p L (5.1.32)
assumes that the fiber is a cascade of many short pieces of constant length z h and
References
[5.1.31] G. P Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Academic Press, New York, 1989.
[5.1.32] Cristian Francia, Frank Bruyere, Denis Penninckx, and Michel Chbat, “PMD
varying birefringent fibers,” Optics Lett., Vol. 16, pp. 12311233, 1991.
Theory
between electromagnetic light waves and acoustic waves in a medium. In an optical fiber,
the transmitted signal power saturates due to the generation of a strong backscattered
optical wave, when input signal power is larger than a certain threshold power. The
strong backscattered optical wave is frequency downshifted with respect to the input
signal by an amount of the acoustic wave frequency, and it is called the Stokes wave. The
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physical mechanism of SBS is like that; in fiber, the sound or acoustic waves cause
vibrations in the glass lattice that makes up the fiber core. These vibrations make
localized refractive index variations which scatter photons. Light from intense forward
propagating signals can provide a gain for backwardpropagating Stokes signals due to
For simulation of SBS, a simple analysis is used in [5.1.42] including the effect of
the spontaneous emission. It is assumed that the pump signal is represented as an average
amplitude spectrum A p(ω,z) where ω stands for the optical frequency, and the stokes
signal, A s(z), is a CW signal and contains only one 11GHz down shifted frequency
component. So, the equations including the SBS effect are expressed as:
∂Ap (ω , z ) α gB β
Ap (ω , z ) − Ap (ω , z ) As ( z ) δ (ω − ω c ) − i Ap (ω , z )
2
=−
∂z 2 2 Aeff 2
(5.1.41)
2
∂As ( z ) α g β Ap (ω c , z )
= As ( z ) − B As (z ) Ap (ω c , z ) − i
2
(5.1.42)
∂z 2 2 Aeff 2 As ( z )
where ωc is the carrier frequency of the pump signal, gB is SBS gain, and βi is
For solving the equation (5.1.41) and (5.1.42), the initial value of A s(z=0) should
be calculated. For the calculation of A s(z=0), the coupled differential equations that are
∂Ap (ω c , z ) α gB β
Ap (ω c , z ) − Ap (ω c , z ) As ( z ) − i Ap (ω c , z )
2
=−
∂z 2 2 Aeff 2
(5.1.43)
2
∂As ( z ) α g β Ap (ω c , z )
= As ( z ) − B As (z ) Ap (ω c , z ) − i
2
(5.1.44)
∂z 2 2 Aeff 2 As ( z )
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These equations are solved with the assumption that A s(z=L)=0. L is selected to 50
km. When the initial value of A s(z=0) has been calculated, the nonlinear Schrödinger
equation for A p(ω,z) is used, including SBS effect in equation (5.1.41) and (5.1.42)
∂Ap (ω , z )
= (D + N + S )Ap (ω , z ) (5.1.45)
∂z
where
2
N = jγ A p
gB β
As ( z ) δ (ω − ω c ) − i
2
S =−
2 Aeff 2
α β β
D =− − j 2 ω 2 + 3 ω 3
2 2 6
2
∂As (z ) α g β Ap (ω c , z )
= As (z ) − B As ( z ) Ap (ω c , z ) − i
2
(5.1.46)
∂z 2 2 Aeff 2 As ( z )
This model simplifies the SBS effect, including the main physical effect of SBS and
References
130
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Icon
Theory
Optical signal transmission through the single mode optical fiber is considered to be
nonlinear, dispersive, and lossy. Therefore, the evolution of a slowly varying pulse
envelope A(t) can be obtained from the nonlinear Schrödinger equation [5.2.11].
∂A ∂A i ∂2 A 1 ∂3 A a
= − β1 − β 2 2 + β 3 3 − A + iγ  A 2 A (5.2.11)
∂z ∂t 2 ∂t 6 ∂t 2
where β1 is the inverse group velocity, β2 and β3 the first and secondorder group
coefficient ( N 2 is the nonlinear coefficient and Aeff is the effective core area). The
pulse envelope A is normalized such that  A 2 represents the optical power. The
that does not generally lend itself to analytic solution. This equation can be solved by the
Analytical model of dispersion parameters β 2 and β 3 for the standard single mode
fiber
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material, the medium response in general depends on the optical frequency ω. This
dependence of the refractive index n(ω). On a fundamental level, the origin of the
Far from the medium resonance, the refractive index is well approximated by the
B jω
m 2
(5.2.12)
n 2 (ω ) = 1 + ∑
j
j =1 ω j
2
−ω 2
where ωj is the resonance frequency and Bj the strength of the jth resonance. The sum in
Eq. (5.2.12) extends over all material resonance that contributes to the frequency range
of interest. In the case of optical fibers, the parameters Bj and ωj which depend on the
core constituents are obtained experimentally by fitting the measured dispersion curves to
Eq. (5.2.12) with m=3. For bulk fused silica, these parameters are found to be B1 =
Fiber dispersion plays a critical role in propagation of short optical pulses since
different spectral components associated with the pulse travel at different speeds given by
c/n(ω). Even when the nonlinear effects are not important, dispersioninduced pulse
different behavior. Mathematically, the effects of fiber dispersion are accounted for by
frequency ω0:
ω 1 (5.2.13)
β (ω ) = n (ω ) = β 0 + β 1 (ω − ω 0 ) + β 2 (ω − ω 0 ) 2 + L
c 2
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where
The pulse envelope moves at the group velocity ( v g = β 1 − 1 ) while the parameter
1 dn ng 1 (5.2.15)
β1 = n +ω = =
c d ω c v g
1 dn d 2n ω d 2n λ3 d 2n (5.2.16)
β2 = 2 +ω ≅ ≅
dω dω 2 c dω 2π c 2 d λ 2
2
c
dβ 2 (5.2.17)
β3 =
dω
Fig. 5.2.11 Variation of refractive index n and group index ng with wavelength for
fused silica
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Fig. 5.2.12 Variation of β 2 and d12 with wavelength for fused silica
Fig. 5.2.11 and 5.2.12 show the variation of n, ng, and β 2 with wavelength λ
for fused silica using Eqs. (5.2.12), (5.2.15), and (5.2.16). The most notable feature is
Pulse propagation near λ = λ D requires the inclusion of the cubic term in Eq. (5.2.13).
Such higher order dispersive effects can distort ultrashort optical pulses both in the linear
and nonlinear regimes. Their inclusion is, however, necessary only when the pulse
The curves shown in Fig. 5.2.11 and 5.2.12 are for bulk fused silica. The
dispersive behavior of actual glass fibers generally deviates from that shown in these
figures for the following two reasons. First, the fiber core may have small amounts of
dopants such as GeO2 and P2O5. Eq. (5.2.12) should be used with parameters appropriate
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to the amount of doping levels. Second, because of the dielectric waveguide, the effective
mode index is slightly lower than the material index n(w), with the reduction itself being
DWaveguide = λ (n1 − n 2 )
d 2b (5.2.19)
c dλ2
where n1 is the refractive index of the core, n2 that of the cladding, and b the spot diameter.
longer wavelength; λ D = 1 . 31 µ m for typical fibers. Fig. 5.2.13 shows the measured
total dispersion of a singlemode fiber. The plotted quantity is the dispersion parameter D
d β 1 2π c λ d 2n (5.2.19)
D = = − β 2 ≅
d λ λ 2 c d λ 2.
The nonlinear effects in optical fibers can manifest a qualitatively different behavior
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dβ1 d 1 dv g
β2 = = = − 1 (5.2.110)
dω dω v vg dω
2
g
wavelengths such that λ < λ D , β 2 > 0 (see Fig. 5.2.12) the fiber is said to exhibit
components of an optical pulse travel slower than the lower ones (redshifted). By
< 0. As seen in Fig. 5.2.12, silica fibers exhibit anomalous dispersion when the light
regime is of considerable interest for the study of nonlinear effects because it is in this
regime that optical fibers can support solitons through the balance between dispersive
propagate at different speeds inside the fiber because of the groupvelocity mismatch.
This feature leads to a walkoff effect that plays an important role in the description of
nonlinear phenomena for two or more overlapped optical pulses. Fig. 5.2.12 shows the
variation of d12 with wavelength (λ) for fused silica. In the normaldispersion regime
( β 2 >0), a longerwavelength pulse travels faster, while the opposite occurs in the
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Fig. 5.2.14 Input dialog box of effects for the SMF model
Fig. 5.2.15 Input dialog box of linear parameters for the SMF model
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Fig. 5.2.16 Input dialog box of nonlinear parameters for the SMF model
Fig. 5.2.17 Input dialog box of numerical parameters for the SMF model
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Fig. 5.2.18 Input dialog box of PMD parameters for the SMF model
Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Nonlinear refraction
Include nonlinear refraction effects No
effects
Stimulated Raman
Include stimulated Raman scattering No
scattering
Stimulated Brillouin
Include stimulated Brillouin scattering No
scattering
Polarization mode
Include polarization mode dispersion No
dispersion
Fiber length Transmission length of fiber 30 km
Discrete model, continuous model, or
Dispersion Discrete model
measured value
D Dispersion value 17.0 ps/nm/km
0.05936
D slope Dispersion slope value
ps/nm2/km
Reference wavelength of fiber
Ref. wavelength 1.55 µm
parameters
Constant value, analytic model, or
Fiber loss Constant value
measured value
Constant fiber loss Fiber loss 0.22 dB/km
Rayleigh coef. Rayleigh coefficient 0.8
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References
[5.2.11] G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, New York: Academic Press, 1989.
[5.2.12] Jichai Jeong, et al, “10Gb/s transmission performance for positive and negative
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Icon
Theory
calculated by the same method as that of the single mode fiber. The typical parameters of
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Theory
the same method as that of single mode fiber. The typical parameters of dispersion
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Theory
calculated by the continuous value based on that of the single mode fiber. All parameters
except for dispersion and dispersion slope are identical to those of single mode fiber. The
typical parameters except for dispersion and dispersion slope are listed in the following
table. Dispersion and dispersion slope of the nonzero dispersionshifted fiber (+), the
fiber are shifted from those of single mode fibers. Dispersion values of the nonzero
dispersionshifted fiber (), the nonzero dispersionshifted fiber (+), and the generalized
nonzero dispersionshifted fiber are equal to zero at 1.51 µm, 1.59µm, and an arbitrary
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Theory
TrueWave fiber and TrueWave RS fiber are the products of Lucent Technologies.
The dispersion values of these fibers are fitted from the data sheet shown in Fig. 5.2.51.
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12
TrueWave Fiber
TrueWave RS Fiber
10
Dispersion (ps/kmnm)
8
0
1.52 1.54 1.56 1.58 1.60 1.62 1.64
Wavelength (µm)
Fig. 5.2.51 Variation of D with wavelength for TrueWave fiber and TrueWave RS
fiber
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Theory
The LEAF Fiber is the products of Corning. The dispersion values of these fibers
are fitted from the data sheet shown in Fig. 5.2.61. Typical parameters are shown in the
following table.
12
10
Dispersion (ps/kmnm)
0
1.52 1.54 1.56 1.58 1.60 1.62 1.64
Wavelength (µm)
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Theory
For the simulation of an optical fiber with arbitrary characteristics, this program
provides the procedure of importing the arbitrary characteristics of an optical fiber from a
file. The parameters of fiber characteristics supporting in this program include continuous
attenuation is dB/km. The format of the file should be consistent with the providing file
format. One can make a project file for imported characteristics of special fibers and then
store in the tree menu. One can use it later by just drag and drop on the window.
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Fig. 5.2.71 Input dialog box of linear parameters for the measured fiber model
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Theory
low cost links. In the economical aspect, bidirectional WDM transmission systems are
attractive since they could reduce not only the use of fiber by a factor of two, but also the
optical networks. Transmitting bidirectionally over a single fiber can double the capacity
Using bidirectional fibers in Photonics CAD, one can evaluate the system
degradations due to the crosstalk from the multiple Rayleigh backscattering (RB) in
bidirectional transmission systems. The power and field analysis for optical signal
transmissions over fibers were performed using the iterative method and the coupled
including RB.
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∆L
Es
ERB
L
0 ∆L z − ∆L z z + ∆L
Fig. 5.2.81 Schematic of modeling the Rayleigh backscattering in fiber. The light
scattered from each section travels back to the beginning point and
sums up
drawing fibers give rise to RB. For the analysis of backscattered signals, a two
dimensional fiber model was used in Fig. 5.2.81. A fiber with the L is divided by N s
A linearly polarized electrical field of the transmitted signal is given by its complex
amplitude vector:
r r
E s (t , z ) = p s As (t , z ) exp[ j (ω 0 t + φ (t ))] (5.2.81)
r
where the Jones vector p s indicates the state of polarization of the field, As ( t , z ) is
the field envelope, ω 0 is the optical carrier frequency, and φ (t ) describes the phase
noise of transmitter outputs. If we define the fraction of the scattered field from a section
[5.2.81].
r r 2z α
∆ E b ( t , z ) = M ( z ) E s (t − ) exp − ( + jβ ) ⋅ 2 z ∆ρ ( z ) (5.2.82)
υ gr 2
where the fiber attenuation coefficient α , the group velocity υ gr , and the propagating
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constant β . The unitary Jones matrix M ( z ) describes the change of the polarization
state of the electric field propagating along the z axis [5.2.82]. Therefore the total
backscattered field at the fiber input facet is the superposition of the field contributions
r Ns r
E b ( t ) = ∑ ∆ E b (t , n s ∆ L ) (5.2.83)
ns =1
Sα s
I b = 2σ 2 I s(1 − e −2αL ) / 2α = ⋅ (1 − e −2αL ) ⋅ I s = Rbs I s (5.2.84)
2α
Rayleigh scattering, S is the recapture factor, and Rbs denotes the intensity RB
coefficient [5.2.82].
For the bidirectional signal propagation in fibers, the iterative method was used to
solve the twopoint boundary problem [5.2.83]. In such cases, equations describing the
propagating signals and vice versa. For the field analysis, the slowly varying electric field
output pulse of the modulator is applied to NLSE to obtain the pulse propagation
characteristics over the nonlinear, dispersive, and lossy fiber. The signal and noise
interactions were included during propagation in fibers. From the iterative method used
in the fiber model, both the singly and doubly amplified RBs were considered during
propagation of signals. Bidirectional fiber icon contains an optical fiber and two
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optical fiber
circulator
For the bidirectional signal propagation in fibers, the iterative method was used to
solve the twopoint boundary problem. In such cases, equations describing the signal
signals and vice versa. The following twostage numerical scheme for both the power and
At the first stage, the bidirectional power analysis is performed, with the twopoint
dPi +
dz
[ ]
= −α i Pi + + η i Pi − + ∑ g ik Pk+ + Pk− Pi + (5.2.85)
k ≠i
dPi −
dz
[ ]
= +α i Pi − − η i Pi + − ∑ g ik Pk+ + Pk− Pi − (5.2.86)
k ≠i
For the field analysis, the power distributions Pm ( z ) with the fiber length found at the
first step are substituted into the coupled NLSE. The slowly varying electric field
output pulse of the modulator is applied to NLSE to obtain the pulse propagation
∂A i α i ∂A i j ∂ 2 Ai 1 ∂ 3 Ai
+ Ai + β1 + β2 − β3
∂z 2 ∂t 2 ∂t 2 6 ∂t 3
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2 K
2 i −1 g K
ω g ik
= jγ A i + 2 ∑ A k A i + ∑ ik A k − ∑ i A k A i (5.2.87)
k =1, n ≠ i k =1 2 Aeff k = i +1ω k 2 Aeff
Fig. 5.2.83 Input dialog box of parameters for the bidirectional fiber model
Other input dialog boxes are the same as those of the single mode fiber
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References
[5.2.81] Ping Wan and Jan Conradi, “Impact of Double Rayleigh Backscatter Noise on
Digital and Analog Fiber Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 288297,
Mar. 1996.
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networks. To monitor or process optical signals, electrical filter, optical attenuator, delay
line, long period and short period fiber Bragg gratings, optical filter, optical isolator,
connector, coupler, combiner, splitter, and phase shifter are modeled. For all optical
Icon
Theory
The role of electrical filters is the same as that of optical filters. But these filter
electrical signals. The filter characteristics of electrical filters are very similar to those of
optical filters. In this section, only the Chebychev filter characteristics are described. For
other filter characteristics, please refer to section 4.2 for details of the filter
characteristics.
Generally, the complete transfer function of a lowpass filter with the Chebychev
H
H (s) = (6.11)
Vn ( s )
where H is the maximum value of H(s) and Vn(s) the nth order complex polynomial.
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n Vn(s)
1 1.0024
2 0.6449s+0.7079
3 0.5972s2+0.9283s+0.2506
4 0.5826s3+1.1691s2+0.4048s+0.1770
5 0.5744s4+1.4150s3+0.5489s2+0.4079s+0.0626
6 0.5707s5+1.6628s4+0.6906s3+0.6991s2+0.1634s+0.0442
7 0.5684s6+1.9112s5+0.8314s4+1.0518s3+0.3000s2+0.1462s+0.0157
8 0.5669s7+2.1607s6+0.9719s5+1.4667s4+0.4719s3+0.3208s2+0.0565s+0.0111
9 0.5659s8+2.4101s7+1.1123s6+1.9439s5+0.6789s4+0.5835s3+0.1314s2+0.0476s+0.0039
0.5652s9+2.6597s8+1.2526s7+2.4834s6+0.9211s5+0.9499s4+0.2492s3+0.1278s2+0.018
10
0s+0.0028
Fig. 6.11 Frequency response of the 4th order Chebychev filter with the 3dB
frequency bandwidth of 10.0GHz
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Frequency responses of electrical filter can be measured and stored as the ASCII file
format.
Data file format for measured frequency response of electrical filter (filename: *.dat):
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Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Lowpass filter Lowpass filter response 
Bandpass filter Bandpass filter response 
Butterworth filter model as a
Butterworth filter 
frequency response characteristics
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6.2 Attenuator
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Theory
Adjusting optical power through the attenuator prevents receivers or amplifiers from
being saturated.
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Theory
A delay line is used to delay optical signals or electrical signals. Amounts of delay
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Fig. 6.3 1 Input dialog box of parameters for the delay line model
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Theory
In long period gratings (also called transmission gratings), the coupling in between
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modes traveling in the same direction occurs [6.41]. Also, cascaded fiber gratings have
been studied as prominent filter devices for DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division
series with a regular distance, the transmission spectrum is revealed to have a series of
regularly spaced peaks, suitable for multichannel filters. The analytic solution is
obtained by diagonalizing the transfer matrix of each unit composed of a single grating
and a gratingfree region between adjacent gratings. The spectrum of the device is simply
described with the number of cascaded gratings and a single parameter that has the
information of the phase difference between the modes. Adjusting the strength of a single
grating can control the intensity of each grating. The separation between adjacent
gratings determines the spacing between the peaks. Cascading more gratings can increase
transverse electric field of the guided beam can be expressed as a linear sum of the
∞
Et ( x, y, z; t ) = ∑ al (z )Elt ( x, y )e −iωt (6.41)
l =0
where al ( z ) is the modal amplitude of the l th order ideal mode, which includes the z
directional variation, and E lt ( x, y ) is the cross sectional field distribution of the mode.
It is generally accepted that each resonant peak of LPG, written in a single mode fiber,
results from the gratinginduced power exchange between the fundamental core mode
and the corresponding cladding mode of the fiber. In a practical LPG device, the spectral
separation between resonant peaks are wider enough than the bandwidth of individual
peak, so that coupling to other cladding modes can be neglected in simulating the
spectrum. Therefore, considering only the coupling between the fundamental core mode
and the v th order cladding mode, which satisfy the phase matching condition, is
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enough to calculate the spectrum of LPG. The phase matching condition is given by
2π
β 2 = β1 + m (6.42)
Λ
where β = (2π / λ )neff is the mode propagation constant, Λ is the periodicity of the
grating. Since β 2 > 0 for transmission grating, we can predict the resonant wavelength
When the beam passes through an LPG of length d, from the standard coupledmode
theory, just after passing the grating, the modal amplitudes of the fundamental core mode
a co and the coupled v th order cladding mode a clv are given as
β +β v i d
K
iθ d
aco (d ) i co cl d
e 2
0 ⋅ te 2 ir ⋅ a co (0 )
a v (d ) = e
2
(6.44)
− d a v (0 )
K iθ
cl −i d
0 e 2 ir * te 2 cl
and
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s 2 = κκ * + (δβ / 2)
2
δβ
θ = 2 tan −1 tan sd (6.45)
2s
After passing the grating of length d, if the beam propagates a gratingfree region of
a co (d + L ) e iβcoL 0 a co (d )
a v (d + L ) = ⋅ v (6.46)
a cl (d )
iβcoL
cl 0 e
there exists phase gain of each mode due to the free propagation between gratings.
aco (d + L ) i co cl N ( d + L ) a co (0 )
v
β +β
a v (d + L ) = e Q v
2
(6.47)
cl acl (0)
iθ +2ϕ i
ϕ
Q = te ϕ ire 2
θ +ϕ
(6.48)
* −i 2 −i
ir e te 2
ϕ ≡ (β co − β clv )L + Kd (6.49)
The unit transfer matrix Q represents the mode coupling of the beam that has passed
through the grating of the length d and then the gratingfree region of length L,
successively. Therefore, when several gratings of an equal strength are cascaded with an
equal separation, the modal amplitudes after passing N gratings simply given as
By multiplying the unit matrix Q by N times, the modal amplitudes of any cascaded
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Generally, the initial condition of equation (6.410) is that the input beam incidents
aco (0 ) 1
a v (0 ) = 0 (6.411)
cl
Then the modal intensities of cascaded N gratings are given as square of the norms
TN aco ( N (d + L ))
2
R ≡ v 2 (6.412)
N acl (N (d + L ))
The complete coupling to the cladding mode (called critical coupling) occurs when
κ c d ≡ π / (2 N ) (6.413)
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Fig. 6.4 2 Input dialog box of parameters for long period fiber grating model
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Fig. 6.4 3 Input dialog box of modulation parameters for long period fiber grating
model
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Fig. 6.4 4 Input dialog box of simulation parameters for long period fiber grating
model
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References
[6.41] Turan Erdogan, Member, IEEE, “Fiber Grating Spectra,” IEEE Journal of
[6.42] Byeng Ha Lee, YoungJae Kim, YoungJoo Chung, WonTaek Han, and UnChul
169
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Theory
Coupled mode theory is a good tool for obtaining quantitative information about the
diffraction efficiency and spectral dependence of fiber gratings. In the ideal mode
approximation to the coupled mode theory, we assume that the transverse component of
the electric field can be written as a superposition of the ideal modes labeled j (i.e., the
[
E t ( x, y, z , t ) = ∑ A j ( z ) exp(iβ j z ) + B j ( z ) exp(−iβ j z ) ]
j
⋅ e jt ( x, y ) exp(−iωt ) (6.51)
where Aj(z) and Bj(z) are slowly varying amplitudes of the jth mode traveling in the +z
While the modes are orthogonal in an ideal waveguide and hence, do not exchange
energy, the presence of a dielectric perturbation causes the modes to be coupled such that
the amplitudes Aj and Bj of the jth mode evolve along the z axis according to
dA j
dz
( ) [
= i ∑ Ak K kjt + K kjz exp i (β k − β j )z ]
k (6.52)
+ ∑ B (K − K )exp[− i (β
k
t
kj
z
kj k + β j )z ]
k
dB j
dz
( ) [
= −i ∑ Ak K kjt − K kjz exp i (β k + β j )z ]
k (6.53)
− ∑ B (K k
t
kj +K z
kj )exp[− i(β k −βj )z ]
k
In (6.52) and (6.53), K kjt ( z ) is the transverse coupling coefficient between mode
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j and k given by
ω
K kjt ( z ) = dxdy∆ε ( x, y, z )e ( x, y ) ⋅ e (x, y )
*
4 ∫∫
kt jt
(6.54)
∞
Neat the wavelength for which reflection of a mode of amplitude A(z) into an
Bragg grating, (6.52) and (6.53) may be simplified by retaining only terms that involve
the amplitudes of the particular mode. The resulting equations can be written
dR
= iσˆR( z ) + ikS ( z ) (6.55)
dz
dS
= −iσˆS ( z ) − ik * R( z ) (6.56)
dz
S (z ) ≡ B( z ) exp(− iδz + φ / 2 ) .
π 1 1
σˆ ≡ β − = β − β D = 2πneff − (6.57)
Λ λ λD
thus k , σ , and σˆ are constants. Thus, (6.55) and (6.56) are coupled firstorder
solutions can be found when appropriate boundary conditions are specified. The
going wave incident from z = −∞ [say R(L/2)=1] and requiring that no backward
going wave exists for z ≥ L / 2 [i.e., S(L/2)=0]. The amplitude and power reflection
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− k sinh k 2 − σˆ 2 L( )
ρ=
( )
σˆ sinh k − σˆ L + i k − σˆ cosh k 2 − σˆ 2 L
2 2 2 2
( ) (6.58)
r=
sinh 2 (k 2
− σˆ 2 L ) (6.59)
cosh 2
(k 2
− σˆ L − 2
) σˆ 2
k2
Any index profile n(z) can be expressed as a sampled multilayer stair structure
whose steps have a constant refractive index. Let E+(z) and E(z) be the frequency
domain electric field complex amplitudes of the forward (+) and backward () traveling
vector with elements E+(z) and E(z). Considering the fields at two different plane z1 and
E + ( z1 ) M 11 M 12 E + ( z 2 )
= (6.510)
M 22 E − ( z 2 )
−
E ( z1 ) M 21
where M11, M12, M21, and M22 are the coefficients of the transfer matrix M.
The interface matrix between every two adjacent steps with different refractive
indices is given by
1 ni + ni +1 ni − ni +1
M INTERFACE = n − n (6.511)
2 ni i i +1 ni + ni +1
where ni and ni +1 are the refractive indices at the left and right sides of the interface.
The layer matrix between every two interfaces with a constant refractive index ni
is
exp( jk 0 ni d i ) 0
M LAYER = (6.512)
0 exp( − jk 0 ni d i )
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where k 0 is the wavenumber in vacuum and d i denotes the layer or step width. The
transfer matrix of the whole system is obtained by multiplying (from left to right) all
In this way, the transfer matrix M of any structure with arbitrary n(z ) can be
obtained. Considering a fiber grating structure with length L, the transfer matrix M
corresponding to the whole structure is computed using the formula presented above.
E + ( 0) M 11 M 12 E + ( L)
− = M M 22 E − ( L)
(6.514)
E ( 0) 21
2
2 1
T ( f ) = Ht ( f ) = (6.516)
M 11
No apodized uniform short period fiber Bragg grating with 0DC index change
2πz
n( z ) = n0 + ∆n0 + ∆n ⋅ sin (6.517)
ΛU
where n0 is the core refractive index, ∆n0 is the dc refractive index of the perturbation,
∆n represents the maximum index modulation, and Λ U is the constant grating period.
Sincapodized uniform short period fiber Bragg grating with 0DC index change
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2πz
n( z ) = n0 + ∆n0 + ∆n ⋅ T ( z ) ⋅ sin (6.518)
ΛU
z − L/2
T ( z ) = sinc (6.519)
ΛT
2πz
n( z ) = n0 + ∆n ⋅ T ( z ) ⋅ sin (6.520)
ΛU
z − L/2 2
= exp − 4
L
T ( z) (6.521)
Using the closedform solution model, the calculated reflectance of short period
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Fig. 6.52 Input dialog box of parameters for short period fiber Bragg grating model
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Fig. 6.53 Input dialog box of modulation parameters for short period fiber Bragg
grating model
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Fig. 6.54 Input dialog box of simulation parameters for short period fiber Bragg
grating model
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Use closedform
Use closedform solution model for
solution model for 
only uniform grating
only uniform grating
Use transfer matrix
Use transfer matrix model 
model
No chirp
Chirp is not included 
(Linear chirp type)
Linear chirp
Linear chirp is included 
(Linear chirp type)
Linear chirp
Linear chirp parameter 0.006nm/cm
parameter
No
No apodization is included 
(Apodization type)
Sinc function Sinc function is included as a

(Apodization type) apodization type
Sinc function parameter
Sinc parameter 0.001
( ΛT )
Gaussian function Gaussian function is included as a

(Apodization type) apodization type
Output of fiber Bragg grating using
Transmittance 
transmittance
Output of fiber Bragg grating using
Reflectance 
reflectance
Start wavelength Start wavelength 1553nm
Stop wavelength Stop wavelength 1557nm
No. of sections per Number of plotting points per nm for
100
nm the SPFBG viewer
Number of the transfer matrix M per
No. of sections per
one grating period for transfer matrix 50
one grating period
model
References
[6.51] Miguel A, Muriel, Senior Member. IEEE, Alejandro Carballar, and Jose Azana,
[6.42] Turan Erdogan, Member, IEEE, “Fiber Grating Spectra,” IEEE Journal of
178
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Icon
Theory
In order to model an optical filter, the super Gaussian function can be used [6.6 1]:
ln 2 f 2m
g ( f ) = exp[ − (2 ) ] (6.6 1)
2 F
where f is frequency and F the 3dB bandwidth (m = 1.436). Insertion loss is also
considered. Fig. 6.6 2 shows the characteristics of modeled Gaussian optical filters.
Fig. 6.61 Input dialog box of parameters for optical filter model
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Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Bandpass filter model as a frequency
Bandpass filter 
response characteristic of an optical filter
Highpass filter model as a frequency
Highpass filter 
response characteristic of an optical filter
Bandpass filter
Measured frequency characteristics of an
(measured filter 
optical bandpass filter
by user)
3dB passband
3dB passband width of a bandpass filter 10 GHz
width
Insertion loss Insertion loss of an optical filter 0 dB
Center
3dB center wavelength of a bandpass filter 1.55 µm
wavelength
Corner
Corner wavelength of a highpass filter 1.55 µm
wavelength
Data file format for measured optical bandpass filter (filename: *.dat):
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Reference
6.7 Isolator
Icon
Theory
In optical communication links, light is reflected from any components inserted into
the optical path. The performance of lasers and optical amplifiers is severely degraded if
the reflected light enters these devices. At the system level, optical feedback degrades the
SNR and consequently BER. So we need an isolator that prevents the propagation of the
reflected light.
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6.8 Connector
Icon
Theory
imperfections are the major factors. At any fiber discontinuity there is some light
reflected back toward the transmitter. The amount of reflection is particularly important
in singlemode systems operated at high data rates. Light reflected back into the laser
diode disrupts its oscillation, contributing to a random variation in the power emitted.
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6.9 Coupler
Icon
Theory
A coupler forms the basis for many distribution networks. A coupler allows power
flow to 2 ports. The power flow ratio can be controlled by the power splitting ratio (1:1
for 3dB, 3:1 for 6dB, 9:1 for 10dB, 15:1 for 12dB) [6.9 1].
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References
[6.9 1] Joseph C. Palais, Fiber Optic Communications, 3rd, Prentice Hall
6.10 Combiner
Icon
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Theory
A combiner is one of the bases for many distribution networks. It combines optical
6.11 Splitter
Icon
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Theory
A splitter is one of the basis for many distribution networks. It splits optical power
to both output ports. The output ports can be connected to fibers or other system viewers.
Fig. 6.11 1 Input dialog box of parameters for the splitter model
Icon
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Theory
When optical signal propagates through a medium, its phase may change. Exp(jφ)
Fig. 6.12 1 Input dialog box of parameters for the phase shifter model
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7.1 Multiplexer
Icon
Theory
launches them into an optical fiber while wavelength demultiplexer extracts individual
E (t ) = ∑ A (t ) exp[ − j (ω
i
i i − ω c )t ] (7.11)
where i is channel number, A (t ) is the field envelope from transmitter of each channel
In order to model MUX/DEMUX for DWDM, the super Gaussian function can be
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used [7.12].
ln 2 f 2m
g ( f ) = exp[ − (2 ) ] (7.12)
2 F
where f is frequency and F is the 3dB bandwidth (m = 1.436). Fig. 7.11 shows the
5.0dB/D
5
dBm 1dB
15
3dB
20
30
1550 1552 1554 1556 1558
Wavelength (nm)
follows:
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Fig. 7.13 Input dialog box of parameters of filter characteristics for multiplexer
model
Fig. 7.14 Input dialog box of parameters of port wavelength for multiplexer model
Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
1dB passband width of multiplexer
1dB passband width 0.3 nm
filters
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References
[7.12] Marcel Schiess, “Chirp and Dispersion Compensation in Nonlinear Fibers for
7.2 Demultiplexer
Icon
Theory
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Default value
Parameter Description
/ Units
1dB passband width of demultiplexer
1dB passband width 0.3 nm
filters
3dB passband width of demultiplexer
3dB passband width 0.4 nm
filters
Insertion loss Insertion loss of demultiplexer filters 0 dB
Reference wavelength 1st channel wavelength in WDM system 1.55 um
Channel spacing Channel spacing in WDM system 100 GHz
st
Port 1: wavelength Center wavelength of the 1 port in MUX 1.55 um
nd
Port 2: wavelength Center wavelength of the 2 port in MUX 1.5508 um
rd
Port 3: wavelength Center wavelength of the 3 port in MUX 1.5516 um
th
Port 4: wavelength Center wavelength of the 4 port in MUX 1.5524 um
Icon
Theory
to drop and/or add a certain wavelength channel at an intermediate node for efficient
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greatly increasing the aggregate transmission capacity. ADMs in these systems, therefore,
should have more accurate and narrower filtering characteristics than the channel spacing.
Fiber Bragg grating is quite an attractive device for this purpose since it provides high
reflectivity at a certain wavelength with negligible transmission loss for others, providing
Several types of ADMs based on fiber gratings which allow us to drop predefined
(fixed) wavelength channels [7.32] have been successfully demonstrated in recent years.
For flexible networking, however, it is better to have ADMs select any wavelength
channels dynamically.
Fig. 7.31 shows the schematic of an ADM, which consists of two polarization beam
splitters (PBS's) with polarization controllers (PC’s) and identical Bragg gratings in each
arm. Multichannel WDM signals with arbitrary polarization are injected into port 1,
which are split into two linearly polarized states orthogonal to each other by PBS. The
light in each arm passes through a λ / 4 PC, becoming circularly polarized light.
Among many WDM channels, only the signal at the Bragg wavelength is reflected,
reversing its handedness of circular polarization, and is passed through the PC again.
Then the light becomes linearly polarized again, but orthogonal to the original input
polarization. This makes the signal channel at the Bragg wavelength drop through port 2,
and the other wavelength channels are transmitted through port 4. Because of the
symmetric structure of the device, a new signal at the same Bragg wavelength can be
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added to the transmitted port by launching the light into port 3. If we use additional
matched grating pairs with different resonant wavelengths, this multiplexer can extract or
insert several different wavelength channels at once. ADMs can also be modeled
Fig. 7.31 Input dialog box of parameters related to wavelength for the add & drop
ports for Add/Drop multiplexer model
Fig. 7.3 2 Input dialog box of parameters related to filter characteristics for the
Add/Drop multiplexer model
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Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Drop port 1:
Channel wavelength of drop port 1 1.5516 um
wavelength
Drop port 2:
Channel wavelength of drop port 2 1.5524 um
wavelength
1dB passband width of Add or Drop
1dB passband width 0.3 nm
filter
3dB passband width of Add or Drop
3dB passband width 0.4 nm
filter
Insertion loss Insertion loss of Add or Drop filter 0 dB
References
fibers by a transverse holographic method,” Opt. Lett., vol. 14, pp. 823825, Aug.
1989.
[7.32] Kim, S. Y., Lee, S. B., Chung, J., Kim, S. Y., Park, I. J., Jeong, J., and Choi, S. S.,
“Highly stable optical add/drop multiplexer using polarization beam splitters and
fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 11191121, Aug.
1997.
Icon
Theory
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domain. A delay line can be used to match the phase of input and output signals in the
timedomain demultiplexer.
Fig. 7.4 1 Input dialog box of parameters for the time domain demultiplexer
model
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7.5 Differentiator
Icon
Theory
The differentiator differentiates accoupled electrical signals which have the same
positive and negative peak values. Fig. 7.51(a) shows the input electrical signal with the
data rate of 10Gbps to the differentiator. Fig. 7.51(b) shows the output of the
(a)
(b)
Fig. 7.51 (a) Input signal and (b) output signal for the differentiator
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7.6 Rectifier
Icon
Theory
The rectifier rectifies the electrical signals by flipping over the negative part of the
signal to the positive side. Fig. 7.61(a) shows the input signal of the rectifier with a data
rate of 10Gbps, and Fig. 7.61(b) shows the output of the rectifier.
(a)
(b)
Fig. 7.61 (a) Input signal and (b) output signal for the rectifier
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Icon
Theory
LiNbO3, and Delivery and coupling (DC). One can generate a project file to make a
function of space switches and then store the project in the tree section in Photonics CAD
Semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) switches are composed of three stages [7.7
1]. The first and third stage SOAs are used to compensate the internal loss. The second
stage SOAs have an on/off function as injecting a current. Each input port signal to SOAs
is passed through the first and second stage SOAs and combined with another port
signals. Combined another port signals are passed through a SOA without the injection
current (turnedoff SOA). So these are the crosstalk components in the SOA switch.
The time developed transfer matrix method (TMM) is used to characterize the SOA
switch [7.72]. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise power at each section i is
2 2 2 2
Ai + Ai +1 + Bi + Bi +1 PASE ,i
Si = ~ + ~
2v g h wAcross v g h wAcross
where Ai and Bi are the normalized slowly varying envelopes of forward and backward
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fields at section i, v g group velocity and, Across the cross sectional area of the active
layer.
modulator. If the voltage between two electrodes does not supplied, input signals are
splitted into the same ratio at a waveguide output stage. Switching function can be
obtained by adjusting the electrode voltage ratio. A 4×4 switch can be implemented using
with a thermooptic phase shifter [7.74]. Due to the imperfect thermooptic phase shift,
crosstalk components are generated. DC switches can route input signals to the same
output port.
Fig. 7.7 1 Input dialog box of parameters related to switch types and port
selection for the space switch model
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Fig. 7.7 2 Input dialog box of parameters related SOA swtich for the space switch
model
Fig. 7.7 3 Input dialog box of parameters related to LiNbO3 switch for the space
switch model
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Fig. 7.7 4 Input dialog box of parameters related to delivery and coupling switch
for the space switch model
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References
InGaAsP/InP laser amplifier gate switch arrays,” Electron. Lett., vol. 28, no. 24,
[7.72] Hanlim Lee, Hyunjae Yoon, Yonggyoo Kim, and Jichai Jeong, “Theoretical study
by XGM and XPM using SOAs,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electron., vol.35, No.
[7.73] P. Granestrand, B. Lagerstrom, et al, “Integrated optics 4×4 switch matrix with
digital optical switches,” Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 45, Jan. 1990.
7.8 OXC
Photonics CAD provides typical OXC models (4 different types) stored in project
files in the tree section. One can generate a project file to have multiple ports for input
and output. There is no limitation of number of ports. After making a new model of
OXCs, the project file can be stored in the tree section, and then use as a normal project
file.
Theory
Figure 7.8.11 shows the OXC architecture composed of splitter, combiner, filter
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and space switch. WDM signals entering into the OXC input ports are divided by
splitters and separated to each channel by filters. Space switches route input channels to
the other output ports. Routed signals by a space switch are combined to WDM signals,
and it is passed through the OXC output port. Imperfect filter or space switch can
OXC with Sp/Com block is implemented in the case of 2 channels and 4 fibers. It is
possible to implement the other case of the number of channels and fibers as shown in
Figure 7.8.11. The wavelengths of each input WDM channels must be the same.
Theory
and space switch. WDM signals entering into the OXC input ports are separated to each
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channel by demultiplexers. Space switches route input channels to the other output ports.
Routed signals by a space switch are multiplexed to WDM signals and it is passed
through the OXC output port. Crosstalk components exist in space switches and filters.
contention. After wavelength conversion, the power equalizer must be used due to the
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Theory
switch and coupler. WDM signals entering into the OXC input ports are separated to each
channel by demultiplexers. Space switches route input channels to the other output ports.
In this case, each channel of WDM signals directly pass through each space switch. The
space switch can have a difference number of ports between input and output. The DC
switch supports this function. Routed signals by a space switch are combined to WDM
But crosstalk components may be small because the DC switch input signals have
different wavelengths to each other. Wavelength conversion can be done in front of space
switches.
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Theory
switch and coupler. WDM signals entering into the OXC input ports are separated to each
channel by demultiplexers. Space switches route input channels to output ports. In this
case, each input channels of space switch come from different fibers. Routed signals by
space switch are combined to WDM signals and it is passed through OXC output ports.
Crosstalk components may be larger than those of the OXC Link modular (7.8.3) because
the DC switch input signals have the same wavelength to each other. Wavelength
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7.9 AWG
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Theory
requires new optical components such as an arrayed waveguide grating router. The
arrayed waveguide grating router reduces the optical splitting/combining loss. AWG
Fig. 7.9 1 Input dialog box of parameters for the AWG model
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Fig. 7.9 2 Input dialog box of wavelength of channel for the AWG model
Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Loss of main channel Loss of main channel 6.238dB
Crosstalk Crosstalk level 36.544dB
1dB passband width 1dB passband width of AWG 0.461 nm
3dB passband width 3dB passband width of AWG 0.601 nm
Wavelength of channel Wavelength of each channel 
References
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possible. Thus, the wide bandwidth of photonic components, combined with WDM and
wavelength routing techniques, and the highspeed capabilities of optical devices such as
optical gates and switches, optical wavelength converters, and fast multiwavelength
lasers, provides the potential of packet switched networks with throughput in Tbps.
In this simulator, there are four models of optical packet switch (OPS). From the
tree section, you can choose a project saved as a schematic diagram of each OPS model.
Icon
Theory
Figure 7.10.11 shows schematic diagram of the IBOPS saved in a project file.
packet buffer consists of a pair of AWGMs connected by a set of fiber delay lines. The
lengths of delay lines are ranging from 0 to (K1)T. According to the routing principle of
the AWGM, a packet entering the buffer at the ith input port will leave the buffer from
the ith output port after receiving a certain time delay determined by the packet
wavelength. In an extreme case, a maximum of N packets from all the inputs can
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simultaneously access any single delay line without collision. Therefore, this wavelength
share a common pool of fiber delay lines through wavelength division multiplexing.
Because no couplers or space switches are used, this packet switch has a potentially low
Reference
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Icon
Theory
Figure 7.10.21 shows schematic diagram of OBOPS saved in a project file. This
wavelength converters preceding the space switch. There may be more than one packet
destined for the same output in a time slot, resulting in a packet contention. However, this
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Reference
icon
Theory
Figure 7.10.31 shows schematic diagram of BSOPS saved in a project file. BSOPS
from different inputs are encoded on a different wavelength before they are combined at
a star coupler, and then the combined WDM packets are broadcast and feed to a set of K
optical delay lines. A set of delay lines is shared by all the packets. After propagating
through the set of K delay lines, each packet can receive any amount of delay ranging
from 0 to (K1) packet times. Packets emerging at each delay line are further broadcast to
all of the output ports, where two sets of optical gate switches are used for a packet
selection. That is, at each output, the first set of gate switches selects a particular delay
line through which a desired packet arrives. The second set of SOA gates in conjunction
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Reference
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icon
Theory
Figure 7.10.41 shows schematic diagram of the WROPS saved in a project file.
This packet switch uses wavelength coding for packet routing and buffering. It consists
of three functional blocks. The packet encoding block is composed of N optical tunable
desired output. The buffering block consists of a NxK SOA gate switch matrix followed
by a set of K optical delay lines whose lengths range from 0 to (K1)packet time. The
delay lines in a way that packets that are destined for a given output leave the switch in a
first in first out manner. The demultiplexing block consists of a KxN star coupler
followed by a set of N bandpass filters, one at each output to select packets whose
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Reference
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Icon
Theory
Forward error correction (FEC) provides improved power margin against noises and
increase system capacity [7.111]. Most modern transoceanic systems use the Reed
Solomon (RS) (255, 239) error correction code which is a standard FEC for the undersea
Let C be a qary (n,k) cyclic code with a generator polynomial g(x). Let m be the
multiplicative order of q modulo n (GF(qm)) is thus the smallest extension field of GF(q)
that contains a primitive nth root of unity). Let α be a primitive nth root of unity. Select
g(αb+2)=….= g(αb+δ2)=0 for some integers b≥0 and δ≥1. g(x) thus has (δ1) consecutive
powers of α as zeros. The code C defined by this g(x) has minimum distance dmin ≥ δ and
we call this code BCH code . The ReedSolomon code is a qmary BCH code of length qm
–1 [7.112].
ITUT G.975 uses the RS(255, 239) code operated on 8bit symbols. The generator
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15
g ( x) = ∏ ( x − α i ) (7.111)
i =0
(d7, d6, …., d1, d0) is identified with the element d 7 ⋅ α 7 + d 6 ⋅ α 6 + ...d1 ⋅ α 1 + d 0 in
GF(256), the finite field with 256 elements. The redundancy ratio is equal to 1/14
because one symbol of each codeword carries the framing structure. Consequently, the
ITUT G.709 also uses the RS (255,239) and same primitive polynomial. But FEC
frame structure of G.709 is different from that of G.975, which results in the different
redundancy ratio. There are three data rates defined in G.709, corresponding to payload
(OTU3). Characteristics of the three levels of signals defined in G.709 are in Fig. 7.111
[7.114].
Photonics CAD enables you to estimate BER performance in FEC systems through
FEC encoder/decoder. You can choose one of standard ITUT G.975 and ITUT G.709 or
you can also simulate using an arbitrary RS or BCH code through selecting none of
standard. Note that BCH code provided in Photonics CAD is binary code. When you
select none among standards, the corresponding line bit rate will be data rate ×
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FEC encoder should lie after ESG and before transmitter. FEC encoder has two
inputs and two outputs to be used after both ESG for single electrode and double
electrodes. Be careful when using FEC encoder after ESG for single electrode. You
should use the upper output to the upper input and the lower output to the lower input.
Fig. 7.112 Input dialog box of RS and BCH codes parameters for the FEC encoder
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Fig. 7.113 Input dialog box of output waveform parameters for the FEC encoder
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Reference
[7.112] Stephen B. Wicker, Error control systems for digital communication and storage,
G.975.
Series G : G..709.
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Theory
FEC decoder cannot be used without FEC encoder and should lie after receiver. The
BerlekampMassey algorithm and Forney algorithm are used for decoding RS codes and
Fig. 7.12 1 Input dialog box of RS and BCH codes parameters for FEC decoder
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Fig. 7.12 2 Input dialog box of output waveform parameters for FEC decoder
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Reference
[7.121] Stephen B. Wicker, Error control systems for digital communication and
Icon
Theory
The phase modulator is a device which changes “phase” of optical signals according
waves exist in the certain length. When voltage is applied to the RFelectrode, one more
wave is added, which now means n+1 waves exist in the same length. In this case, the
phase has been changed by 2π and the half voltage of this is called the driving voltage.
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due to linear and nonlinear effects. The phase modulator can be used to compensate for
this degradation and increase transmission distance. Also, the phase modulator can be
Fig. 7.13 1 Input dialog box of parameters for the phase modulator
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Theory
systems. As the bit rates increase to 40Gb/s and beyond, its impact will be even greater.
of PMD, and a number of methods have been proposed. Usually, the compensators are
classified in terms of their number of DOF because this is a measure of their complexity,
rather than their alleged order of compensation. The ultimate goal of a PMD compensator
is to minimize bit error rates. This quantity is neither available, nor can it be measured
with high accuracy in a very short time. A useful mean to detect PMDinduced penalties
is spectral filtering in the electrical part of receivers because PMD affects the high
Fig. 7.141 shows the schematic diagram of Model 1 with the DOF of 3. It consists
of polarization controller and variable delayline. Also, an electrical bandpass filter with
the center frequency equal to 1/2 times the clock frequency 1/T is used to obtain error
signals to find the optimum control value of polarization controller and variable delay
line. In Model 1, the polarization controller and the delay element are represented by the
cosθe jφ sinθ
R= (7.14 1)
 sinθ cosθe  jφ
exp[ j∆τω / 2] 0
D (ω ) = (7.14 2)
0 exp[− j∆τω / 2]
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Post compensator
Variable
Polarization delayline
controller
τ
∆∆τ
Electrical
Controller(PC) BPF Rx
Fig. 7.142 shows the schematic diagram of Model 2 with the DOF of 4. It consists of
polarization controllers and variable delaylines. Also, an electrical bandpass filter with
center frequency equal to 1/2 times the clock frequency 1/T is used to obtain error signals
to find the optimum control value of polarization controller and variable delayline. The
cos(kω ) sin(kω )
R (ω ) = (7.14 4)
 sin(kω ) cos(kω )
where ω denotes the deviation from the central angular optical frequency and R(ω)
denotes a unitary Jones matrix whose effect is equivalent to rotation in Stokes space. The
axis of rotation and whose magnitude is the rotation angle. In Eq. 7.144, k is the
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precession rate of the rotation axis defined by M. R and D(ω) is given in Eqs. 7.141 and
7.142.
K ∆τ
PC1 PC2 PC2 PC2 PC2
K
Electrical
Controller(PC) BPF Rx
PC: polarization controller
K, ∆τ : variable delay line
Fig. 7.143 shows the schematic diagram of Model 3 with the DOF of 5. It consists of
polarization controllers, fixed delayline and variable delayline. Also, an electrical band
pass filter with center frequency equal to 1/2 times the clock frequency 1/T is used to
obtain error signals to find the optimum control value of polarization controller and
variable delayline. The Jones matrices describing polarization controller and delay line
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Electrical
Controller(PC) BPF Rx
Fig. 7.14 4 Input dialog box of models for the PMD compensator
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Fig. 7.14 5 Input dialog box of parameters for the PMD compensator Model 1
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Fig. 7.14 6 Input dialog box of parameters for the PMD compensator Model 2
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Fig. 7.14 7 Input dialog box of parameters for the PMD compensator Model 3
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Theory
sections of DGD elements with polarization scattering at the beginning of each section.
The polarization controllers can produce arbitrary rotation on the Poincare sphere after
each DGD element. Thus, if we control Δτ of each DGD element to have the
Maxwellian distribution and the polarization controllers to scatter each PMD vector
uniformly on the Poincare sphere, we should be able to emulate PMD with the exact
PMD can be emulated to have the exact Maxwellian distribution by using only one
section of the DGD element. However, more than one DGD elements are required for the
generation of higherorder PMD. For PMD emulator models, Model 1 generates the
PMD parameters using the same DGD value for each section. On the other hand, Model
2 generates the PMD parameters using random DGD values for each section.
individual Jones matrices. The polarization controller and the delay element are
cosθe jφ sinθ
R= (7.15 1)
 sinθ cosθe  jφ
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exp[ j∆τω / 2] 0
D (ω ) = (7.15 2)
0 exp[− j∆τω / 2]
Fig. 7.15 1 Input dialog box of parameters for the PMD emulator
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routing.
Icon
Theory
XGM and XPM in SOAs have been reported. The XGM method is simple to realize and
has shown an impressive performance for bit rates up to 40 Gb/s. It has, however, two
shortcomings: the converted signal has a relatively large chirp and the extinction ratio
these problems, the XPM method was proposed. It has some advantages, such as small
chirp and the wavelength up/down conversion without degrading the extinction ratio.
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XGM and XPM features high conversion efficiency as well as insensitivity to the
The time dependent TMM has been proposed for the purpose of characterizing the
multielectrode DFB laser [8.1 1]. To apply this method in SOAs, the propagation part
of the transfer matrix is modified using the pulse propagation equation that describes the
propagation of pulses in SOAs. The evolution of the slowly varying amplitude Aw(z, t)
inside SOAs is governed by the pulse propagation equation [8.1 2], [8.1 3]
∂ Aw ( z , t ) 1 ∂ Aw ( z , t ) i 1
+ = − α Γ g m w Aw ( z , t ) + g w Aw ( z , t ) + µ w ( z , t )
∂z vg ∂t 2 2
(8.1 1)
where index w refers to different optical input signals, Aw(z, t) is the normalized pulse
envelope and Aw(z, t)2 represents the optical power, and α is the chirp parameter which
accounts for carrierinduced index changes. vg is the group velocity, Γ the confinement
factor, gmw the material gain, and gw the net gain. The ASE noise is represented by two
statistically independent Gaussian random processes for µw (z, t) [8.1 3], [8.1 4] that
∗
< µ w ( z , t ) µ w ( z ′, t ′) > = β Γ RSP δ (t − t ' )δ ( z − z ' ) × (v g E w Across ) (8.1 2)
where β is the spontaneous coupling factor, RSP is the spontaneous emission rate
To consider interaction between carrier density N and photon density S, the SOA is
divided into a number of small sections, and the rate equation is solved in each section as
∂N i I
= − N i (c1 + c2 N i + c3 N i2 ) − ∑ v g Γg m w,i S w,i (8.1 3)
∂t qV w=1, 2
where index i corresponds to different sections, I is the injection current, V the active
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volume, and q the electronic charge, while c1 , c2 , and c3 are related to recombination
constants.
 Aw, i 2 +  Aw , i +1 2 +  Bw , i 2 +  Bw , i +1 2
S w ,i = (8.1 4)
2 v g E w Across
where Aw,i is the forwardtraveling wave amplitude and Bw,i is the backwardtraveling
wave amplitude.
To model the asymmetric gain profile, the gain spectrum is assumed to be cubic and
a0 ( N i − N 0 ) − a1 ( λw − λ p ) 2 + a3 ( λw − λ p ) 3
g m i ( N i , λw ) = (8.1 5)
1 + ε ( S1, i + S 2 , i )
where a0 , a1 , and a3 are gain constants, λp is the gain peak wavelength assumed to shift
linearly with the carrier density, and ε is the gain compression factor. The net gain is
The αparameter for each small section is taken into consideration since the
(dn/dN) / (dg/dN)} was calculated from gain variation using Eq. (8.1 5). The obtained α
parameter is in the range of 2 to 12. These agree well with other experimental results [8.1
7].
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a 12 ( t )a 21 ( t ) a 12 ( t )
a ( t ) −
A w ,i+1 ( t + ∆t ) a 22 ( t ) A w ,i ( t )
11
a 22 ( t )
= (8.1 7)
B w ,i ( t + ∆t ) − a 21 ( t ) 1 B w ,i+1 ( t )
a 22 ( t ) a 22 ( t )
Fig. 8.1 1 shows the schematic of the modified TMMbased dynamic SOA model.
Assuming that various material and structural parameters remain unchanged throughout a
section i in the time interval t to t+Δt, the output amplitudes Aw, i+1 and Bw, i at time t+Δt
can be calculated from the input amplitudes Aw, i and Bw, i+1 at time t by Eq. (8.1 7).
Transfer matrix elements amn(t) of a section i are obtained from ni, Ni, gmi, and αi at time t.
Although internal reflection at each section due to the refractive index step from the
longitudinal spatial hole burning is considered in the calculation, its effects on chirp and
the extinction ratio are negligible. At the output of SOAs, the chirp of converted signals
Pseudorandom bit sequence (PRBS) for nonreturntozero (NRZ) data of the 271 word
length was used in the simulation as an input signal. The data rate up to 40Gbps with the
super Gaussian pulse (m=3) was investigated to simulate more realistic pulse shapes. The
time interval ∆t and one section length ∆z are set to 1.3ps and 100µm, respectively. The
copropagation scheme for the XGM method is used throughout this simulation.
R • • • • • •
R
ni1 αi1 ni αi ni+1 αi+1 • • •
• • •
Ni1 gm, i1 Ni gm, i Ni+1 gm, i+1
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Fig. 8.1 2 Input dialog box of parameters for the XGM method
Fig. 8.1 3 Input dialog box of material parameters for the XGM method
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References
[8.1 1] M. G. Davis and R. F. O’Dowd, "A Transfer Matrix Method Based LargeSignal
Dynamic Model for Multi electrode DFB Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,
[8.1 2] G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Selfphase modulation and spectral broadening
order DFB laser using timedomain largesignal traveling wave model,” IEEE J.
[8.1 4] K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise. Dordrecht, Germany: Kluwer,
[8.1 5] A. E. Willner and W. Shieh, “Optimal spectral and power parameters for all
[8.1 6] G. P. Agrawal and N. K. Dutta, Semiconductor Lasers. New York: Van Nostrand,
ridgewaveguide laser amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, pp. 632
[8.1 8] Hanlim Lee, Hyunjae Yoon, Yonggyoo Kim, and Jichai Jeong, “Theoretical study
by XGM and XPM using SOAs,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electron.,, vol.35,
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Icon
Theory
SOAs [8.21] is analyzed with a minor modification of the XGM method. If you want to
know the SOA model, please refer to section 4.3.1 because the same SOA model is used
Fig. 8.21 shows the schematic of the XPM wavelength converter in SOAs operated
method in SOAs rely on carrierinduced refractive index changes in the active region of
SOAs. An input signal (λSIG) that depletes the carrier density modulates the refractive
index and thereby results in the phase modulation of the CW signal (λCW) coupled into
the converter.
PPG
2.5 Gbit/s
271 PRBS
Bias current I1 P.C.
Signal
Laser
(
d
a
t
a
)
S
I
G
λ
P.C.
SOA1
(W
C
W
)
(
c
o
n
v
e
r
t
e
d
)
C
C
W
λ λ
SOA2
CW
Laser
Bias current I2
Fig. 8.21 Schematic of XPM wavelength converters using SOAs when operated
in the counterpropagation configuration
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Fig. 8.22 Calculated pulse shape and chirp for the XPM method
simulator.
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Fig. 8.23 Input dialog box of parameters for XPM wavelength converter
Fig.8.24 Input dialog box of material parameters for XPM wavelength converter
Default
Parameter Description
Value/Unit
Power Power of CW (pump) signal 15 dBm
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References
[8.21] Hanlim Lee, Hyunjae Yoon, Yonggyoo Kim, and Jichai Jeong, “Theoretical study
by XGM and XPM using SOAs,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electron.,, vol.35,
Icon
Theory
FWM (four wave mixing) in SOAs is used for optical frequency conversion and
optical phase conjugation (OPC). Optical frequency converters are expected to become
key components in all future optical networks based on wavelength division multiplexing
(WDM) technologies to avoid wavelength blocking and increase flexibility and capacity
of networks. OPC takes advantage of the fact that the converted FWM signal is not only
frequency shifted but also phase conjugated. It is a good candidate to compensate for
group velocity dispersion (GVD) and self phase modulation (SPM) in optical fibers [8.3
1].
Two optical waves, pump and signal waves as shown in Fig. 8.31, are injected into
a SOA. The beating of both waves leads to new frequency components and FWM signals.
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The nonlinear gain dynamics in SOAs, responsible for the process of FWM, are based on
carrier density pulsation (CDP), spectralhole burning (SHB), and carrier heating (CH)
[8.32]. At low detuning {ωp ωs}, the main mechanism is CDP induced by changing
the carrier density due to the carrier density depletion. At higher values of detuning,
dynamic gain and index gratings due to intraband carrier dynamics such as SHB and CH
mainly cause FWM. For accurate estimation of the frequency chirping and the extinction
ratio, the following parameters should be included: ASE noise, facet reflectance, spatially
The time developed TMM has been proposed for the purpose of characterizing the
multielectrode DFB laser [8.33], and XGM and XPM frequency converters [8.34]. It is
possible for this model to involve not only forward traveling waves but also backward
traveling waves both of which are generated by internal and facet reflection. Internal
reflection is considered at each section due to the refractive index step from the
carrierinduced refractive index, gain, carrier density, ASE noise, and αparameter are
taken into account at each section. In the conventional TMM form, the transfer matrix
Ai a11a12 Ai +1
= (8.31)
Bi a21a22 Bi +1
where Ai and Bi are the normalized slowly varying envelopes of forward and backward
fields at section i such that Ai2 and Bi2 represent the optical power. It is possible for the
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a (t )a 21 (t ) a12 (t )
a11 (t ) − 12
Aw,i +1 (t + ∆t ) a 22 (t ) a 22 (t ) Aw,i (t )
= (8.32)
Bw,i (t + ∆t ) a (t )
− 21
1 Bw,i +1 (t )
a 22 (t ) a 22 (t )
Assuming that various parameters remain unchanged throughout each section for
Δt, the output amplitudes Aw,i+1 and Bw,i at time t+Δt can be calculated from the input
The pulse propagation equations including FWM, ASE noises, and backward
∂ Ap 1 ∂ A p
+ = G pA p ( z , t ) + µ p ( z , t ) (8.33)
∂ z vg ∂ t
∂ As, c 1 ∂ As,c 2
+ = Gs , cAs , c( z, t ) + Fs , c{ A p ( z, t ) Ac, s ( z, t ) + 2 A p ( z, t ) B p ( z, t ) Bc, s ( z, t )} + µ s ,c ( z, t )
∂z vg ∂ t
(8.34)
1 i
∑(A
2 2
G p , s ,c = ( g p , s ,c − α Γ p , s ,c g p , s ,c ) /(1 + w + B w ) / PSat )
2 2 w = p , s ,c
(8.35)
1 i 1
Fs ,c = −( g s ,c − αΓs ,c g s ,c )hCDP (m ∆ω ) / PSat − (1 − iα CH )( g s ,cε CH 1 + g s ,cε CH 2 )hCH (m ∆ω )
2 2 2
1
− (1 − iα SHB ) g s ,c ε SHB hSHB (m ∆ω ) (8.36)
2
where index p, s, and c represent pump, signal, and conjugate waves, respectively. Δω=
ωp ωs is the frequency detuning for pump and signal wave, g net gain, g material gain,
vg group velocity, PSat saturation power, εSHB SHB parameters, and εCH1 and εCH2
CH parameters.
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where Ew is photon energy, Across the cross sectional area of the active layer, β the
spontaneous coupling factor, and δ(x) the Dirac distribution function. The frequency
response hy(Δω) (y = CDP, CH and SHB) of the individual nonlinear processes are
given by
−1
hCDP (∆ω ) = (1 − i∆ωτ 2 )(1 − ∆ωτ s )
−1
hCH (∆ω ) = (1 − i∆ωτ 2 )(1 − ∆ωτ 1 )
−1
hSHB (∆ω ) = (1 − i∆ωτ 2 ) (8.38)
where τs is carrier life time,τ1 carrier heating lifetime, and τ2 hole burning lifetime.
To model the asymmetric gain profile, the gain spectrum is assumed to be cubic and the
where index i corresponds to different sections and index w refers to different optical
waves. a0,, a1, and a3 are gain constants, and λN is the gain peak wavelength assumed to
shift linearly with the carrier density {λN =λo  a2 (NNo)}. The net gain is calculated by
Eq.(8.37)
g i , w = Γw ( g i ,w − α a ) − (1 − Γw )α c − α scat (8.310)
The propagation equations are coupled by the rate equation for the carrier density.
∂N i I
∂t
=
qV
− N i ( c1 + c 2 N i + c 3 N i2 ) − ∑v
w = p , s ,c
g Γ w g w ,i S w , i
(8.311)
where I is the injection current, V the active volume, and q the electronic charge, when c1,
c2, and c3 are related to the recombination constants. The average photon density is given
by
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Different αparameters are considered for each section and wavelength. It is very
important since it is directly related to frequency chirping due to SPM and XPM in SOAs.
Fig. 8.31 Schematic of the modified TMM SOA model using FWM
Fig. 8.32 Simulated chirped output conjugated pulse pattern by FWM in SOAs
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Typical buried heterostructure (BH) SOAs operating at 1.55µm are considered in the
simulator.
Fig. 8.33 Input dialog box of general parameters for FWM method in time domain
Fig.8.34 Input dialog box of materials parameters for FWM method in time domain
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Fig. 8.35 Input dialog box of FWM parameters for FWM method in time domain
Default Value /
Parameter Description
Units
Power Power of CW (pump) signal 15 dBm
Wavelength Wavelength of CW (pump) signal 1.5508 µm
Current Injection current of SOA 200 mA
Internal reflection Internal reflection in SOA included Yes
Length of section Length of a section 10 µm
Active layer width Active layer width of SOA 1 µm
Active layer thickness Active layer thickness of SOA 0.15 µm
No of divided
Number of divided sections 50
sections
R_facet Facet reflectivity 0%
Fiber coupling loss Fiber coupling loss 0 dB
Electrical
Electrical confinement factor 1
confinement factor
C1 1 × 108 s1
C2 Recombination rate 2.5 × 1017 m3/s
C3 9.4 × 1041 m6/s
A0 Material gain constant 2.5 × 1020 m2
A1 0.074 × 1020 m3
A2 3.0 × 1032 m4
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References
[8.31] Shigeki Watanabe and Masataka Shirasaki, “Exact compensation for both
chromatic dispersion and Kerr effect in a transmission fiber using optical phase
[8.32] A. Uskov, J. Mφrk, and J. Mark, “Wave mixing in semiconductor laser amplifiers
due to carrier heating and spectralhole burning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.
dynamic model for multielectrode DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol.
255
© AO Technology, 2002
[8.34] Hanlim Lee, Hyunjae Yoon, Yonggyoo Kim, and Jichai Jeong, “Theoretical study
by XGM and XPM using SOAs,” accepted for IEEE J. Quantum Electron.
[8.35] Stefan Diez, Carsten Schmidt, Reinhold Ludwig, Hans G. Weber, Kristof
optical switching,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 3, pp. 1131
[8.37] Jacques W. D. Chi, Alan Shore and Jean Le Bihan, “Highly nondegenerate four
[8.38] G. P. Agrawal and N. K. Dutta, Semiconductor Lasers. New York: Van Nostrand,
1993.
[8.39] Yonggyoo Kim, Hanlim Lee, Sungkee Kim, Jeongyun Ko, and Jichai Jeong,
256
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Icon
Theory
Summerfield and Tucker [8.41]. The evolution of the lth mode along the amplifier cavity
in the presence of material oscillations caused by beating of the ith and jth field
dal 1 ( 1 − jβ m )ε m * γ
= g ( N ) ⋅ ( 1 − jα )al − ∑ ai a j a k − sc (8.41)
dz 2 1 + j∆ω ijτ m 2
where g(N) is the modal gain, α is the linewidth enhancement factor, γsc is the material
scattering loss per unit length, al is the complex amplitude of the field components at
optical frequency wl, εm describes the inverse saturation powers representing the strength
the relative contributions of gain and index modulation at all frequencies, and the τm is
The ASE power PASE, k at optical frequency w within the bandwidth at the output of
~ ∆w g( N k , w )
PASE ,k ( w ) = Gk ( w )PASE ,k −1 + h w ⋅ ⋅ n sp ⋅ [Gk ( w ) − 1] ⋅
2π g ( N k , w ) − γ sc
(8.42)
for the special case of homogeneous carrier density [8.42], [8.43], [8.44], where nsp is
the spontaneous emission factor and Gk(w) is the net gain over the section.
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To consider the timedependent signal variation, the transfer curve for the
conjugated power to the input power is used. In addition, the conjugated signal phase
change is calculated by
α ⋅ dI
dφ = (8.43)
2I
Fig. 8.4 1 Input dialog box of parameters for the FWM method in wavelength
domain
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Fig. 8.4 2 Input dialog box of material parameters for the FWM method in
wavelength domain
Fig. 8.4 3 Input dialog box of FWM parameters for the FWM method in
wavelength domain
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Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Power Power of CW (pump) signal 6 dBm
Wavelength Wavelength of CW (pump) signal 1.555 um
Current Injection current of SOA 100 mA
No. of divided
Number of divided sections 50
sections
Length of
Length of divided one section 20 um
section
Active layer
Active layer width of SOA 1 µm
width
Active layer
Active layer thickness of SOA 0.15 µm
thickness
Fiber coupling
Input/output coupling loss 1 dB
loss
Optical
confinement Confinement factor 0.3
factor
C1 1 × 108 s1
c2 Recombination rate 2.5 × 1017 m3/s
c3 9.4 × 1041 m6/s
A0 2.5 × 1020 m2
A1 0.074 × 1020 m3
Material gain constant
A2 3.0 × 1032 m4
A3 3.155 × 1025 m4
N0 Carrier density at the transparency condition 1.1 × 1024 m3
Wavelength for
Wavelength at the transparency condition 1.605 × 106 m
gain peak
Active layer Loss in the active layer 140 × 102 m1
Cladding layer Loss in the claddings 20 × 102 m1
Scattering Scattering loss 10 × 102 m1
Saturation
Saturation power 3 × 103 W
power
CH parameter Carrier heating parameter 3.8 W1
SHB parameter Spectral hole burning parameter 2.1 W1
CH chirp
Linewidth enhancement factor by CH 2.3
parameter
SHB chirp
Linewidth enhancement factor by SHB 0
parameter
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References
[8.43] C. H. Henry, “Theory of spontaneous emission noise in open resonators and its
application to lasers and optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. LT4, pp.
amplifiers: Validity of the transmission line laser model,” Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng.,
261
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9. Optical amplifiers
Optical amplifiers are the key technology to expand transmission capacity and
Icon
Theory
To overcome the power loss during transmission, optical amplifiers can be used. The
gain block model is a simple model of EDFAs. Their role is to increase the signal power
as much as the given gain. It amplifies both signals and noises according to the gain and
the noise figure. To consider the effect of EDFAs noise at the end of a link, the noise
figure and bandwidth parameters should be used to the input dialog box to calculate BER
characteristics at the receiver end. For EDFAs in Photonics CAD, the gain saturation is
Pin
G = G0 exp((1 − G ) ) (9.1.11)
Psat
where G0 is the unsaturated gain, Psat is the saturation power, and Pin is the total
power at the input to the erbiumdoped fiber. If the OSNR button is pressed, the OSNR is
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showed.
Fig. 9.1.11 Input dialog box of the gain block model of EDFAs
Icon
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Theory
The signal and ASE power accumulation along a cascaded EDFA chain can be
determined according to the spectral resolved model introduced by Giles and Desurvire
[9.1.2.11]. Models of homogeneously broadened twolevel systems are used for fiber
amplifiers pumped in the 1480nm and 980nm absorption bands. Additional equations are
necessary for more complex models to incorporate the effects of pump excitedstate
because the solution methods are similar in all these cases, the model in Photonics CAD
4.0
Absorption: α
3.5 Emission: g
3.0
Spectrum [dB/m]
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
1440 1460 1480 1500 1520 1540 1560 1580 1600 1620
Wavelength [nm]
notation describes both narrow line beams such as pump and signal sources when ∆v k =
0, and broadband ASE where ∆v k equals the frequency steps used in the simulations to
resolve the ASE spectrum. The integration over optical frequency is then approximated
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by summation over k.
fibers (EDFs) are used as shown in Fig. 9.1.2.11. The specific formulas which determine
the spectral behavior of the gain and amplified spontaneous emission are as follows
Pk ( z )α k
n2
∑ hvk ξ
= k
(9.1.2.11)
nt Pk ( z )( α k + g k )
1+ ∑
k hvk ξ
and
dPk ( z ) n n
= u k ( α k + g k ) 2 Pk ( z ) + u k g k 2 mhv k ∆v k − u k ( α k + l k )Pk ( z )
dz nt nt
(9.1.2.12)
of all the Erbium ions, n2 the density of Erbium ions in the metastable state, α k and
wavelength λ k = c / v k , ζ the ratio of the linear density of ions to the forward ( u k =1)
modes transmitted in the optical fiber, h Plank’s constant, and l k the excess loss of
EDF.
Fig. 9.1.2.13 and 9.1.2.14 show the input dialog box of simulation conditions. You
can easily check and change default values of simulation conditions in the dialog box.
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Calculated 4 channel WDM signals with ASE noise are shown below figure.
10
Forward
0 Backward
10
20
Gain (dB)
30
40
50
60
1520 1530 1540 1550 1560 1570 1580
Wavelength (nm)
Fig. 9.1.2.12 ASE spectra with 4 channel WDM signals amplified by EDFAs
Fig. 9.1.2.13 Input dialog box of wavelength parameters for the spectrally
resolved EDFA model
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Fig. 9.1.2.14 Input dialog box of parameters used the spectrally resolved EDFA
model
Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Power_forward The forward pump power of EDFA 0.1 W
Power_backward The backward pump power of EDFA 0.1 W
Pump Wavelength The pump wavelength of EDFA 1480 nm
EDF length The length of EDFA 10 m
The selection of Lorentzian filter for
Lorentzian filter 
gain flattening
The selection of Fiber grating filter
Fiber grating filter 
for gain flattening
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Calculated
Absorption / Enter filename (not available) 
Emission Spectra
Select the extended EDFA model
Extended model 
(Refer to section 9.1.2.3 in details)
1.522222 12.2233333
1.533333 13.5654333
: :
Column 1 Column 2
Wavelength Gain/Absorption
in ㎛ scale in dB/m
Reference
Theory
EDFAs are one type of optical amplifier that eliminates the power loss restriction in
optical transmission systems. EDFAs have several important advantages over others.
First, they can have a bandwidth of several thousand GHz. Therefore, they are attractive
optical implementation. Second, EDFAs can amplify multiple optical inputs at different
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EDFAs, however, have nonequal gain at the operating wavelength region. Non
equal gain can cause crosstalk and intersymbol interference (ISI) in WDM systems.
Therefore, gain flattening (equalizing) is essential to improve crosstalk and ISI for
[9.1.2.21] and [9.1.2.22], a notch filter is used to equalize it by suppressing the gain
peak in EDFAs. Another technique is to adjust the input transmitter power such that the
power of all received wavelengths at the destination are equal [9.1.2.23]. Yet another is
to get equalization to demultiplex the individual wavelength such that all channels have
equal power [9.1.2.24]. The notch filter method is used in Photonics CAD.
1. Lorentzian filter
∆λ / 2π
g (λ ) = − (9.1.2.21)
(λ − λ 0 ) 2 + (∆λ / 2) 2
In Photonics CAD, gain flattening is performed with a short period fiber grating.
Short period fiber grating can be refered to in the passive components’ chapter.
Calculated ASE spectrum with a long period fiber grating filter is shown below
figure.
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Fig. 9.1.2.23 Gain flattened ASE spectrum with a long period fiber Bragg
grating filter
References
fiber amplifier with flattened gain spectrum,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3,
through a cascade of EDFA’s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 12031026,
Sept. 1993.
WDM lightwave transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., pp. 920
ring network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 10261031, Sept. 1990.
270
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Theory
The signalinduced change in the refractive index is due to the change in erbium ion
distribution in the upper and lower energy in EDFAs. This causes the phase modulation
propagation equations for the signal and pump powers, but it can be taken into account
with the help of the susceptibility of the laser medium used in the ‘extended EDFA
model’. The susceptibility has a spectral dependence and gives rise to a frequency chirp
imposed on an impulse by passing EDFAs. This frequency chirp depends on the signal
∂u j ∂2 u 1 ∂3 u 2 1
+ β 2 2 − β 3 3 − jγ nl u u = − α u (9.1.2.31)
∂z 2 ∂τ 6 ∂τ 2
The extended EDFA model is based on the classical EDFA model. The classical
model takes into account the saturation and behavior of the spontaneous emission noise
spectrum. The slowly varying envelope (SVE) approximation describes the change in the
dispersion in EDFAs due to the change in the refractive index can be taken into account
∂ ω2
U ( z , ∆ω ) = χ (ω )Γ(ω )U ( z, ∆ω ) + U sp (9.1.2.32)
∂z 2 jw0 c
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envelope of the signal, U sp takes into account the spontaneous emission noise,
and χ (ω ) = χ '+ χ ' ' is the complex susceptibility of the laser medium.
imaginary part χ ' ' of the susceptibility represents the gain coefficient.
nc
χ ''= − [N 2σ e (ω ) − N1σ a (ω )] (9.1.2.33)
ω
The real part of susceptibility changes the group velocity and thus describes the
nc
χ'= [N 2 ⋅ KKR(σ e (ω )) − N1 ⋅ KKR(σ a (ω ))] (9.1.2.34)
ω
the measured absorption σ a (ω ) and emission σ e (ω ) cross sections. When the length
of EDF is equal to 10 m, the calculated susceptibility is given versus the pump power.
4.00E007
5
3.50E007
10
3.00E007 20
40
2.50E007 60
80
Susceptibility(χ'')
2.00E007 100
120
1.50E007 150
200
1.00E007
5.00E008
0.00E+000
5.00E008
1.00E007
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6.00E008
5
10
4.00E008 20
40
60
2.00E008 80
Susceptibility(χ')
100
120
0.00E+000
150
200
2.00E008
4.00E008
6.00E008
References
[9.1.2.31] G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic,
1995.
July. 1999.
April 1998.
Oct. 1990.
273
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Icon
Theory
The signal and ASE power accumulation along EDFA chain can be determined
according to the spectral resolved model introduced by Giles and Desurvire. Models of
homogeneously broadened twolevel systems are used for fiber amplifiers pumped in the
1480nm and 980nm absorption bands. Additional equations are necessary for more
methods are similar in all these cases, the model in Photonics CAD here is restricted to
the twolevel model in order to simplify the validation of approximations to the overlap
integral.
14
12
Absorption
Absorption/Emission spectra
10 Emission
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To model Lband EDFA, the same equation is used. The rate and propagation
Fig. 9.22 and 9.23 show the input dialog box of simulation conditions. You can
easily check and change default values of simulation conditions in the dialog box. This
Fig. 9.22 Input dialog box of parameters used for the Lband EDFA model
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Fig. 9.23 Input dialog box of other parameters used for the Lband EDFA model
Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Power_forward The forward pump power of EDFA 0.1 W
Power_backward The backward pump power of EDFA 0.1 W
Pump Wavelength The pump wavelength of EDFA 1480 nm
EDF length The length of EDFA 10 m
The selection of Lorentzian filter for
Lorentzian filter 
gain flattening
The selection of Fiber grating filter
Fiber grating filter 
for gain flattening
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Calculated
Absorption / Enter filename (not available) 
Emission Spectra
Select the extended EDFA model
Extended model 
(Refer to section 9.1.2.3 in details)
1.522222 12.2233333
1.533333 13.5654333
: :
Column 1 Column 2
Wavelength Gain/Absorption
in ㎛ scale in dB/m
Icon
Theory
modification of the semiconductor laser model. If a weak signal is sent through the active
nonlinearities in SOAs such as cross gain modulation, cross phase modulation, and four
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wave mixing.
To consider interaction between carrier density N and photon density S, the SOA is
divided into a number of small sections, and the rate equation is solved in each section as
n
∂N i I
∂t
=
qV
− N i (c1 + c 2 N i + c 3 N i2 ) − ∑vw=1
g Γ g m w, i S w, i (9.3 1)
where index i corresponds to different sections, I is the injection current, V the active
volume, w the wavelength, n the number of input channel, and q the electronic charge,
where Aw,i is the forwardtraveling wave amplitude and Bw,i is the backwardtraveling
wave amplitude.
To model the asymmetric gain profile, the gain spectrum is assumed to be cubic and
a0 ( N i − N 0 ) − a1 (λw − λ p ) 2 + a3 (λw − λ p )3
g m w , i ( N i , λw ) = n
(9.3 3)
1 + ε ∑ S w, i
w =1
where a0 , a1 , and a3 are gain constants, λp is the gain peak wavelength assumed to shift
linearly with carrier density, and ε is the gain compression factor. The net gain is given as
The ASE power PASE, k at optical frequency w within the bandwidth at the output of
~ ∆w g m w ,i
PASE , w,i = Gw,i PASE , w,i −1 + h w ⋅ ⋅ nsp ⋅ [Gw,i − 1]⋅ (9.3 5)
2π g m w,i − γ sc
where nsp is the spontaneous emission factor, γsc is the material scattering loss per unit
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Fig. 9.3 1 Input dialog box of general parameters for the SOA model
Fig. 9.3 2 Input dialog box of material parameters for the SOA model
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Default Value /
Parameter Description
Units
Internal reflection Include internal reflection Yes
No. of divided section Number of divided section 10
Cavity length Cavity length of SOA 500 µm
Injection current 1 Injection current to SOA 100 mA
Active layer width Active layer width of SOA 1 µm
Active layer thickness Active layer thickness of SOA 0.15 µm
R_facet Facet reflectivity 0%
Initial n_eff Initial effective refractive index 3.5
Optical confinement
Optical confinement factor 0.3
factor
Fiber coupling loss SOA input/output fiber coupling loss 0 dB
Electrical confinement
Electrical confinement factor 0.3
factor
c1 1 × 108 s1
c2 Recombination rate 2.5 × 1017 m3
c3 9.4 × 1041 m6
A0 2.5 × 1020 m2
A1 0.074 × 1020 m3
Material gain constant
A2 3.0 × 1032 m4
A3 3.155 × 1025 m4
Carrier density at the transparency
N0 1.1 × 1024 m3
condition
Wavelength for gain Wavelength at the transparency
1.605 × 106 m
peak condition
Nonlinear gain
Nonlinear gain compression 1.3 × 1023 m3
coefficient
dN/dn Differential refractive index 1.2 × 1026 m3
Active layer Loss in the active layer 14000 m1
Cladding layer Loss in the cladding layer 2000m1
Scattering layer Scattering loss 1000 m1
280
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Icon
Theory
This function is used to distinguish input and output ports for generating a project
Fig. 10.1 1 Schematic diagram of single span using the input port
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Fig. 10.1 2 Input dialog box of parameters for the input port
Icon
Theory
This function is used to distinguish input and output ports for generating a project
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Fig. 10.21 Schematic diagram of a single input source using the output port
Fig. 10.22 Input dialog box of parameters for the output port
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Icon
Theory
This function can be used for simplifying the schematic when there is a repeated
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Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
No. of repeats Total number of repeating spans 2
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11.1 Oscilloscope
Icon
Theory
Pulse patterns can be shown by selecting the pulse shape function. The units of y
axis are µW, mW, or W and µV, mV, or V for optical power and electrical voltage,
respectively. When the oscilloscope is located after a receiver, the unit of yaxis is
arbitrary unit. The unit of xaxis is ps or ns for time. The range of each axis can be
adjusted by doubleclicking the line of each axis. The average power is displayed in
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Fig. 11.1.11 Pulse shape displayed by the pulse shape function in oscilloscope
The eye diagram of transmitted signals can be shown by selecting the eye diagram
function. . The units of yaxis are µW, mW, or W and µV, mV, or V for optical power and
electrical voltage, respectively. When the oscilloscope is located after a receiver, the unit
of yaxis is arbitrary unit. The unit of xaxis is ps or ns for time. The range of each axis
can be adjusted by doubleclicking the line of each axis. The average power is displayed
Fig. 11.1.21 Eye diagram displayed by the eye diagram function in the oscilloscope
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Icon
Theory
As shown in Fig. 11.21, EOP can be defined as 10log(A/B) where A and B are the
minimum height of eyeopening with including only attenuation and all effects, e.g.,
attenuation, fiber dispersion, and nonlinearity for the decision time range (default: 10%
Fig. 11.21 Eyeopening (denoted by A and B) for the decision time range (10% of time
slot) (a) including attenuation only, and (b) including all effects (attenuation,
fiber dispersion, and nonlinearity)
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In this program, EOP can be calculated and the result displayed in a new window.
EOP is defined as the ratio of the maximum opening level within the sample/holding time
range to the difference between a logic zero level and a logic one level.
Fig. 11.23 Input dialog box of parameters for the Eye Opening Penalty
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Icon
Theory
Current optical systems are becoming more and more complex. Data rates and
transmitted signal power are rapidly increased. When the high bit rates correspond to
shorter bit slots, the same broadening causes high intersymbol interference (ISI). So, the
ISI effect is an important factor to affect the transmission performance. Therefore, the ISI
Including the ISI effect, total BER characteristics are calculated by averaging the
probability of errors per bit. The regarded noise terms can be determined according to
what kind of receiver is used. Since the bandwidth of the receiver filter is smaller than
the optical bandwidth, beat noises can be approximated to the Gaussian statistics [11.31].
1 (1 − cisi+ − τ ) I s 1 (τ − cisi− ) I s
BER = erfc 2 + erfc 2 (11.31)
4 σ1 4 σ0
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+ −
setting relative to the railtorail electrical pulse, and cisi and cisi are the normalized eye
closure of electrical pulse at mark (“1”) and space (“0”), respectively. σ 1 and σ 0 are
the standard deviation of the total noise for mark and space, respectively. To obtain
realistic BER characteristics representing the real receiver ones, the decision time range
(15% of time slot) and decision ambiguity level (5% of rail to rail voltage) are included
Without including the ISI effect, BER characteristics can also be obtained from the
detected current in the receiver. BER is calculated from the Q factor [11.33]:
1 exp(−Q 2 / 2)
BER = (11.32)
2π Q
S (1) − S (0)
Q= (11.33)
N (1) + N (0)
where S (1) , N (1) , S (0) and N (0) are the total signal and noise powers on the
ones and zeros, respectively. The signal power is S = I s2 , where I s is the received
The following figures show the difference of BER characteristics for two different
data rates. For the data rate of 10Gb/s, BER characteristics show large differences due to
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Without ISI
With ISI
4
6
BER
8
10
12
14
35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27
Received Power (dBm)
Fig. 11.31 BER characteristics after 240km transmission with the data rate of
5Gb/s with/without including the ISI effect
Without ISI
4 With ISI
6
BER
8
10
12
14
36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29
Received Power (dBm)
Fig. 11.32 BER characteristics after 80km transmission with the date rate of
10Gb/s with/without including the ISI effect
In this program, BER can be calculated and the result displayed in a new window as
shown in Fig.11.33. Note that the error detector should follow the receiver.
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Fig. 11.33 Calculated BER curves displayed using the error detector
Fig. 11.34 Input dialog box of parameters for the error detector
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Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Sample/holding time The ratio of measurement time to bit
10%
range duration
Ambiguity level of Ambiguity level of decision threshold
5%
decision threshold level level
Optimum threshold Find the average received optical
109 BER
level power for 109 BER
The type of BER measurement:
Select BER statistics Worst value, Best value, Average Worst value
value, or Mid value
Calculate the BER characteristics
With ISI Yes
including intersymbol interference
Calculate the BER characteristics
Without ISI No
without intersymbol interference
Store information for BER calculation
Store information for
using BER calculator with a file name No
BER calculation
of ‘Error_Detector#.dat’
References
Conrado, “On the simulation of digital optical links with EDFA’s: an accurate
[11.32] Jichai Jeong, Y. K. Park, Sung Kee Kim, T. V. Nguyen, O. Mizuhara, and Tae
transmission with the selfphase modulation effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,
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Icon
Theory
the decision threshold voltage, τ, at a fixed timing phase, in Eq. (11.41). When the upper
and lower threshold voltages at a given BER value are d1 and d0, the percentage of
d1 − d 0
Eye Margin (%) = × 100 (11.41)
S
Eye Margin can be found from the BER calculation as a function of threshold
voltage by varying the received power. This eye margin tool shows three results.
Result window can be changed by selecting result types in ‘Display Option’ of input
dialog box.
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Fig. 11.42 Electrical eye margin and relative threshold voltage for a given BER as
a function of received power displayed by the eye margin tool
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Fig. 11.44 Input dialog box of parameters for the eye margin
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Fig. 11.45 Input dialog box of BER properties for the eye margin
Fig. 11.46 Input dialog box of display option for the eye margin
Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
BER range from The start value of BER 1012 BER
BER range to The end value of BER 104 BER
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Attenuation range
The start value of attenuation 0 dB
from
Attenuation range
The step value of attenuation 2 dB
step
Number of data Number of data 6
Electrical Eye Margin
Electrical Eye Margin at 109 BER
at
Sample/holding time The ratio of measurement time and total
10%
range eye time
Ambiguity level of
Ambiguity level of decision threshold
decision threshold 5%
level
level
The type of BER measurement:
Select BER statistics Worst value, Best value, Average value, Worst value
or Mid value
Relative threshold level vs. BER
Relative
Received power vs. Electrical Eye
Display Option threshold level
Margin and Vth
vs. BER
Received Power vs. Q factor
Reference
[11.41] Ivan P. Kaminow, and Thomas L. Koch, Optical Fiber Telecommunications III,
Icon
Theory
can be shown through the eye contour plot. BER depends on the location of the decision
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level and timing phase in the eye diagram. The eye contour is obtained by varying the
decision point, both decision level and timing phase, keeping a predetermined bit error
rate on the eye diagram. This contour represents the set of the decision points, which will
result in the predetermined bit error rate, and can be thought of as an eye opening with a
In this program, eye contour can be displayed by the upper and lower threshold level
corresponding to the sampling time and the given bit error rate.
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Fig. 11.52 Input dialog box for the eye contour (1)
Fig. 11.53 Input dialog box for the eye contour (2)
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Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
BER range from The start value of BER 109 BER
BER range to The end value of BER 105 BER
BER range step The step of BER 101 BER
Number of displaying Number of displaying points in one
24
points in one bit bit
Sample/holding time The ratio of measurement time to bit
10%
range duration
Ambiguity level of
Ambiguity level of decision threshold
decision threshold 5%
level
level
The type of BER measurement:
Select BER statistics Worst value, Best value, Average Worst value
value, or Mid value
Reference
[11.51] Hiroshi Nishimoto, Tadashi Okiyama, Naoki Kuwata, Yasunari Arai, Akira
Miyauchi, and Takashi Touge, “New Method of Analyzing Eye Patterns and Its
Icon
Theory
The ASE noise viewer shows the ASE spectrum of EDFAs (from the spectral
resolved model). In order to see ASE noises, the ASE noise viewer must be located after
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Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Level of amplified
Level of amplified spontaneous
spontaneous emission 200 dBm
emission noise
noise
Fig. 11.62 ASE spectrum of EDFA displayed using the ASE noise viewer
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11.7 Q Factor
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Theory
new techniques to evaluate system performance. Existing operational optical systems can
show no measured errors over long time intervals, making direct measurements of BERs
S (1) − S (0)
Q= (11.71)
N (1) + N (0)
where S (1) , N (1) , S (0) and N (0) are the total signal and noise powers on the
ones and zeros, respectively. The signal power is S = I s2 , where I s is the received
The Q factor can also be calculated differently from the plot of BERs versus
decision level, τ, with a fixed timing phase after the eye margin calculation, in Eq.(11.3
1). System performance can be achieved for optimizing the decision level to minimize
1 Q
BERoptimum = erfc (3.4.52)
2 2
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Fig. 11.71 Calculated Q factor for received power using the above equation
Reference
H.Haustein, J.Reid, and S.Turitsyn, “Role of the Q factor estimation in the field
between Madrid and Merida (460km),” OFC/IOOC '99. Technical Digest , pp.
325327, 1999 .
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Theory
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The chirp viewer can show chirp and pulse shapes. The peaktopeak chirp is
Icon
Theory
Converting time domain signals to frequency domain signals using the spectrum
analyzer can show the power spectral density of the signals. This tool is useful for seeing
Hamming, Blackman. The center wavelength is shown in the right side of the window.
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Icon
Theory
The Vrms Viewer shows pulse shapes of the electrical signal and calculated Vrms (root
mean square voltage) value in the window. This viewer is useful to determine the figure
of merit for the dispersion compensation of transmitted signals. The Vrms value is showed
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Icon
Theory
The BER calculator calculates the bit error rate as a function of the received optical
power from a stored raw dada file. The input parameters of the BER calculator are a file
which is stored by ‘Error Detector’ with ‘Store information for BER calculation’ option,
and a threshold level which an user wants to calculate bit error rate with, and other ‘Error
Detector’ parameters. This tool is executed, independently of other tools. After inputting
parameters into the dialog boxes, this tool calculates the bit error rate as a function of the
received power with the given threshold level, and displays the bit error rate graph like
‘Error Detector’.
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Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Insert file name including BER
Insert file name
information stored by “Error
including BER …
Detector” with “Store information for
information
BER calculation”
Threshold level between one and zero
Threshold level 0
levels
Sample/holding time The ratio of measurement time to bit
10%
range duration
Ambiguity level of Ambiguity level of decision threshold
5%
decision threshold level level
The type of BER measurement:
Select BER statistics Worst value, Best value, Average Worst value
value, or Mid value
Calculate the BER characteristics
With ISI Yes
including intersymbol interference
Calculate the BER characteristics
Without ISI No
without intersymbol interference
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Icon
Theory
The optical signaltonoise ratio (OSNR) is an important factor to design the optical
links. The OSNR can be defined as the ratio of signal power to ASE noise power. The
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Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Optical bandwidth Optical bandwidth of filter 0.3 nm
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Icon
Theory
Profiles of carrier and photon densities can be shown in the DFB laser rate equation
model, EAMIDFB laser rate equation model, SOA, XGM wavelength converter, XPM
wavelength converter, and FWM wavelength converter along the longitudinal direction.
The range of each axis can be adjusted by double clicking the line of each axis.
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To view photon/carrier density, input parameters for electrical signal generator have
V_offset and V_pp have to be converted to the value with which you want to simulate.
Fig. 12.12 Input dialog box of electrical signal generator for photon/carrier
density
Fig. 12.13 Calculated profiles of carrier and photon densities in a DFB laser
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Icon
Theory
Profiles of the effective refractive index can be shown in the DFB laser rate equation
model, EAMIDFB laser rate equation model, SOA, XGM wavelength converter, XPM
wavelength converter, and FWM wavelength converter along the longitudinal direction.
The range of each axis can be adjusted by double clicking the line of each axis.
To view effective reflective index, input parameters for electrical signal generator
have to be converted as shown in Fig. 12.12. No. of bits has to be converted to 20 and
V_offset and V_pp have to be converted to the value with which you want to simulate.
Fig. 12.21 Effective refractive index profiles along the longitudinal direction
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12.3 LI / LV Characteristics
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Theory
the LI/LV curve tool. LI characteristics for DFB lasers, and LV and dP/dV
have to be converted as shown in Fig. 12.12. No. of bits has to be converted to 20 and
V_offset and V_pp have to be converted to the value with which you want to simulate.
Fig. 12.31 LV and dP/dV curves for EAMIDFB lasers (analytical)
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Theory
The lasing spectrum of DFB lasers can be shown using the ‘DFB spectrum viewer’
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To calculate lasing spectrum of DFB lasers, input parameters for electrical signal
generator have to be converted as shown in Fig. 12.12. No. of bits has to be converted to
20 and V_offset and V_pp have to be converted to the value with which you want to
simulate.
Fig. 12.41 Lasing spectrum of DFB lasers displayed using the DFB spectrum
viewer
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Theory
Schematics for frequency response of DFB lasers are shown in Fig. 12.5.1.
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To calculate frequency response of DFB lasers, input parameters for electrical signal
generator have to be converted as shown in Fig. 12.52 and 3. Data format has to be
40 Gbps and V_offset and V_pp have to be converted to the value with which you want
to simulate in parameters.
Fig. 12.5.2 Input dialog box of electrical signal generator for frequency response
of DFB lasers (1)
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Fig. 12.5.3 Input dialog box of electrical signal generator for frequency response
of DFB lasers (2)
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Icon
Theory
Waveguide analysis can be done using the ‘Waveguide Analysis’ icon. This tool
provides the calculation of modes in dielectric waveguides using the effective index
method. The effective index method can transform a twodimensional problem in a one
dimensional one. The latter can be solved analytically or by simpler methods than
mode) and Ex = Ey = 0 if the electric field isn’t varied in the ydirection, the electric field
is given by
r r
E = E y ( x) exp( jwt − jβz ) y (12.6.1)
∂ 2 E y ( x)
= ( β 2 − n 2 k 0 ) E y ( x)
2
(12.6.2)
∂x 2
E y ,k = E y ,k +1 (12.6.3)
dE y ,k dE y ,k +1
= (12.6.4)
dx dx
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nN Nth layer dN
nN1 (N1)th layer dN1
...
n1 1st layer d1
Fig. 12.61 Structure of multilayer waveguides
The found β satisfies all the above conditions so each layer with different
Fig.12.62 Calculated electric field and effective refractive index for a threelayered
waveguide
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Fig.12.63 Input dialog box of parameters for waveguides analysis using the EIM
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Fig. 12.64 Input dialog box of parameters of structure for waveguides analysis
Default value /
Parameter Description
Units
Wavelength Wavelength 1.55 µm
No. of layers Number of layers 3
Max no. of modes Maximum calculated number of modes 1
TE/TM Select one out of TE mode and TM mode TE
Layer thickness Thickness of each layer 1 µm
Refractive index Refractive index of each layer 3
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Icon
Theory
Transmittance or reflectance of the long period fiber Bragg grating can be shown
along the long period fiber Bragg grating viewer. Calculated transmittance is shown in
Fig. 12.71.
Icon
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Theory
Transmittance or reflectance of the short period fiber Bragg grating can be shown
along the short period fiber Bragg grating viewer. Calculated transmittance is shown in
Fig. 12.81.
Icon
Theory
An optical signal storage is used to store optical signal data and then retrieved using
the ‘measured TX’ tool to transmit the signal further or calculate transmission
performance. This tool can be used in the WDM as well as in the single channel. The
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For example, if you use this tool and enter a file name ‘test.dat’ through ‘Browse’
button in the 4 channel WDM system schematic, totally 4 files which are ‘test_ch0.dat’,
channel will be created in the location you indicated. Note that you should use ideal
muxing of WDM MUX in order to multiplex the output signals of measured TXs
The file format for the stored data by optical signal storage (*.dat):
Noise profiles
Real Imaginar
signal y signal
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Fig. 12.91 Input dialog box of parameters for optical signal storage
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After setting up the schematic shown in Fig. 13.11, the parameters of each tool should
be changed as following:
a. ESG(single) 1
Input dialog box of Pulse Shape: Use the default values for all the parameters.
Input dialog box of Parameters: Change the value of offset voltage (Voffset), as
shown in Fig. 13.12.
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Fig. 13.13. PV Transfer Characteristics for EAMI DFB Anal 1 in Fig 13.11
Input dialog box of AlphaV Transfer Characteristics: change the value of Voltage
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Fig. 13.14. AlphaV Transfer Characteristics for EAMI DFB Anal 1 in Fig 13.11
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The other input dialog boxes: use the default values for all the parameters.
e. GB EDFA 1: use the default values for all the parameters.
f. RxPIN 1
Input dialog box of Receiver: Select BesselThomson filter.
g. OSC 1, BER1, EOP 2: use the default values for all the parameters.
② Click ‘AnalysisRun.’
④ Click ‘OK.’
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⑤ Wait until the simulation is done and then the window showing the simulation results
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After setting up the schematic shown in Fig. 13.19, the parameters of each tool should
be changed as following:
a. ESG(double) 1~2
Input dialog box of Pulse Shape: Select RZ data format, as shown in Fig 13.110.
Input dialog box of Parameters: Change the value of No. of bits, as shown in Fig.
13.111.
b. DFB CW 1~2: Use the default values for all the parameters.
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c. MZ Mod 1~2: Use the default values for all the parameters.
d. Delay Line 1
Input dialog box of Parameters: Select Delay Bits and change the value into
0.5bits, as shown in Fig. 13.112.
e. Osc 1~4: Use the default values for all the parameters.
f. Combiner 1, SMF 1, Domain DEMUX 1: Use the default values for all the
parameters.
② Click ‘AnalysisRun.’
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④ Click ‘OK.’
⑤ Wait until the simulation is done and then the window showing the simulation
After setting up the schematic shown in Fig. 13.115, the parameters of each tool
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a. ESG(double) 1
Input dialog box of Pulse Shape: Use the default values for all the parameters.
Input dialog box of Parameters: Change the values of Data rate and No. of bits
into 9.95328Gb/s (OC192) and 211, respectively, as shown in Fig. 13.116.
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Input dialog box of RS and BCH codes: Use the default values for all the
parameters.
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h. FEC decoder 1: Use the default values for all the parameters.
i. BER 1
Input dialog box of Parameters: Change the value of Optimize threshold level, as
shown in Fig. 13.120.
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② Click ‘AnalysisRun.’
④ Click ‘OK.’
⑤ Wait until the simulation is done and then the window showing the simulation results
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1) Single span
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After setting up the schematic shown in Fig. 13.21, the parameters of each tool should be
changed as following:
a. ESG(single) 1~8: Use the default values for all the parameters
b. DFB CW 1~8
Input dialog box of Parameters for DFB CW 1~8: Change the values of lasing
wavelength into 1.550, 1.5508, 1.5516, 1.5524, 1.5532, 1.5540, 1.5548 and 1.5556
µm, respectively, as shown in Fig. 13.22.
c. MZ Mod 1~8: Use the default values for all the parameters.
d. 8x1 MUX 1
Input dialog box of Filter Characteristics: Change the value of Insertion Loss into
5, as shown in Fig. 13.23.
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Input dialog box of Wavelength: Use the default values for all the parameters.
e. GB EDFA 1
Input dialog box of Parameters: change the value of Gain and Noise Figure, as
shown in Fig. 13.24.
f. SMF 1
Input dialog box of Dispersion/Loss: change the value of Fiber length, as shown
in Fig. 13.25.
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The other input dialog boxes: Use the default values for all the parameters.
g. GB EDFA 2
Input dialog box of Parameters: Change the value of Gain and Noise Figure, as
shown in Fig. 13.26.
h. 8x1 MUX 1
Input dialog box of Filter Characteristics: change the value of Insertion Loss, as
shown in Fig. 13.27.
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i. RxPIN 1
Input dialog box of Receiver: Select BesselThomson filter.
j. OSNR 1, Spectrum Analyzer 1, BER 1, EOP 1: use the default values for all the
parameters.
② Click ‘AnalysisRun.’
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④ Click ‘OK.’
⑤ Wait until the simulation is done and then the window showing the simulation results
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2) Multi span
After setting up the schematic shown in Fig. 13.211, the parameters of each tool should
be changed as following:
a. ESG(single) 1~8: Use the default values for all the parameters.
b. DFB CW 1~8:
Input dialog box of Parameters of DFB CW 1~8: Change the values of lasing
wavelength into 1.550, 1.5508, 1.5516, 1.5524, 1.5532, 1.5540, 1.5548 and 1.5556
µm, respectively, as shown in Fig. 13.212.
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c. MZ Mod 1~8: Use the default values for all the parameters.
d. 8x1 MUX 1
Input dialog box of Filter Characteristics: Change the value of Insertion Loss, as
shown in Fig. 13.213.
Input dialog box of Wavelength: use the default values for all the parameters.
e. GB EDFA 1
Input dialog box of Parameters: change the value of Gain and Noise Figure, as
shown in Fig. 13.214.
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f. LEAF 1~3
Input dialog box of Dispersion/Loss: Change the value of Fiber length, as shown
in Fig. 13.215.
The other input dialog boxes: Use the default values for all the parameters.
g. GB EDFA 2~4
Input dialog box of Parameters: Change the value of Gain and Noise Figure, as
shown in Fig. 13.216.
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h. 1x8 DEMUX 1
Input dialog box of Filter Characteristics: Change the value of Insertion Loss, as
shown in Fig. 13.217.
i. RxPIN 1
Input dialog box of Receiver: Select BesselThomson filter, as shown in Fig. 13.2
18.
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j. OSNR 1, Spectrum Analyzer 1, EyeMargin 1, Osc 1: Use the default values for
all the parameters.
② Click ‘AnalysisRun.’
④ Click ‘OK.’
⑤ Wait until the simulation is done and then the window showing the simulation results
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After setting up the schematic shown in Fig. 13.31, the parameters of each tool should be
changed as following:
a. ESG(double) 1~8: Use the default values for all the parameters.
b. DFB CW 1~4: Change the values of lasing wavelength into 1.550, 1.5516,
1.5532, and 1.5548 µm, respectively, as shown in Fig. 13.32.
c. DFB CW 5~8: Change the value of lasing wavelength into 1.5508, 1.5524,
1.5540, and 1.5556 µm, respectively.
d. MZ Mod 1~8: Use the default values for all the parameters.
e. 4×1 MUX 1
Input dialog box of Filter Characteristics: Change the value of insertion loss,
Reference wavelength and Channel spacing, as shown in Fig. 13.33.
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f. 4×1 MUX 2
Input dialog box of Filter Characteristics: change the value of insertion loss,
Reference wavelength and Channel spacing, as shown in Fig. 13.34.
g. GB EDFA 1~2: Use the default values for all the parameters.
h. Fiber Bi 1
Input dialog box of Dispersion/Loss: Change the values of Fiber length and Ref.
Wavelength, as shown in Fig. 13.35.
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The other input dialog boxes: Use the default values for all the parameters.
i. Optical Filter 1: Use the default values for all the parameters.
j. Optical Filter 2: Change the value of Center wavelength of 3dB passband into
1.5508, as shown in Fig. 13.36.
k. RxPIN 1~2
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l. OSC 1~2, BER1~2, Spectrum Analyzer 1~2: Use the default values for all the
parameters.
② Click ‘AnalysisRun.’
④ Click ‘OK.’
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⑤ Wait until the simulation is done and then the window showing the simulation results
After setting up the schematic shown in Fig. 13.41, use the default values for all the
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② Click ‘AnalysisRun.’
④ Click ‘OK.’
⑤ Wait until the simulation is done and then the window showing the simulation results
⑥ To observe twotone in detail, click the Xaxis of Fig. 13.43 and change the
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Input dialog box of Parameters: Click manual scaling and change the value of
Min, Max, Number of Major and Precision as shown in Fig. 13.44.
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To insert icon and library by users into photonics CAD, users should create a dll
(dynamic link library) file. To create a dll file, C++ complier is needed. For inserting
Visual C++ (product of Microsoft). To execute this program, a hard key provided by AO
Technology should be installed in the printer port in your computer. If you double click
1. Left tree viewer in Fig. 14.1.11 shows the history of dll generation made by users.
AO Technology will help add icons and dll files into photonics CAD if customers
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To generate a source code of a dll file, you can select the ‘New dll’ command from
Dll wizard displays a dialog box of step 1 as shown in Fig. 14.1.22. The project
name should be inserted in the edit box. This name will be used for the name of the dll
file. You can select the path of the dll source code through ‘Browse’ button.
For the next step, you should ‘check the validity of directory’. Finally you should
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The next step, step 2 of dll wizard, the variables used in a program should be
inserted. You can insert the information of ‘Parameter’, ‘Value’, ‘Unit’, ‘Description’,
‘Variable’, and ‘Type’. ‘Value’ and ‘Variable’ mean a default value and the variable name
of the parameter used in the program, respectively. There are two types of ‘Type’, integer
and double. After inserting the information of ‘Parameter’, ‘Value’, ‘Unit’, ‘Description’,
‘Variable’, and ‘Type’, you can add this information into displayed list by using the ‘Add’
button.
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created. The values of ‘X1’, ‘Y1’, ‘X2’, ‘Y2’, ‘X’, and ‘Y’ should range from –30 to 30.
For a line, the user should enter ‘X1’, ‘Y1’, ‘X2’, ‘Y2’, line width and line color. After
that, this information can be added using the ‘>>’ button. The added results will be
displayed in the right window. For a polygon, you should select the number of vertex at
first. Then, the coordinates through ‘X’ and ‘Y’ should be entered by using ‘+’. The
number of entered coordinates of ‘X’ and ‘Y’ should be equal to the number of entered
vertex. The polygon can be added using the ‘>>’ button. If you want to delete a line or a
polygon, double click a line or a polygon in the list at the bottom of the dialog box.
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In step 4 of dll wizard, the dialog box will display the entered information about
variable and description. The generated source codes will be created in the path you
entered in step 1 of dll wizard. If you select ‘Finish’ button, the procedure of the
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The generated files are shown in Fig.14.1.31. After executing ‘Visual C++” with
the file of ‘*.dsw’, if you code your own function and compile this project, you can get
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The name of the main function of your own library is ‘*main’. If the name of your
project is ‘project_name’, the name of the main function is ‘project_namemain’ and the
main function is located in ‘project_name.cpp’ file. In this main function, you can add
There are two kinds of class for execution engine. One is a general class and the
other is a channel class. These classes contain variables to commonly use for each device
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and to transfer data to the other devices. General class contains the variables commonly
used for all channels. Channel class contains the variables differently used for each
channel. The members of the classes that the users can access are shown in Table 14.1.4
1 and 14.1.42.
You must not change the members written by bold characters. You can only refer the
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Type of FEC
(0: no FEC, 10: RS code & G.975,
m_iFEC 11: RS code & G.709,
12: RS code & no standard,
22: BCH code & no standard)
Number of symbols per codeword
M_iCodewordLength
when FEC is used
int Number of symbols per message word
m_iMessageLength
when FEC is used
Maximum number of symbols which
m_iErrorCorrectionCapability a codeword can correct when FEC is
used
Number of bits per symbol when FEC
m_iBitsPerSymbol
is used
Power of first root of g(x), αb when
m_iFirstRoot
FEC is used
Spacing of power of roots of g(x)
m_iRootSpacing
when FEC is used
Flag that indicates if Error detector is
before or after FEC decoder
m_iDecoder
(0: before FEC decoder,
1: after FEC decoder)
Flag that indicates if input signal is
bool m_bOptical
optical or electrical signal
float * m_pfSignalReal Real part of optical signal W1/2
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To refer variables in the generated dialog box, the class of ‘MyDB_B’ should be
by using a member function in the class of ‘MyDB_B’. If you want to refer a variable
with the types of ‘double’ and ‘int’, you should use the functions of
‘strParamName’. The example 14.1.41 shows how to refer the generated variables. In
modified. “variable1” and “variable2” should be exactly same as the variables used in
[Example 14.1.41]
"variable2");
In general, singleinput and singleoutput devices must set the optical or electrical
signals, one and zero levels of signals, and ASE noise for all devices.
One level means the power of ‘mark’ for optical signals or the voltage of ‘mark’ for
optical signals. Zero level means the power of ‘space’ for optical signals or the voltage of
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‘space’ for optical signals. For examples, one level and zero level are displayed in EOP
ASE noise means the amplified spontaneous emission noise that generated in optical
amplifiers. It is used for BER calculation. Because ASE noise cannot be divided into
channels, all channels of single input and single output devices have ASE noise
information over the whole wavelength range. Each channel has the same value of ASE
noise. ASE noise range can be adjusted at ‘Run’ menu as shown in Section 2.1.8.
One level
Zero level
The following example shows the function that amplified input signals.
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(ctemp+iChannel)>m_pfSignalReal[j]*=sqrt(2); //Units: W
(ctemp+iChannel)>m_pfNoiseProfile[j]*=2; //Units: W
for(j=0;j<(gtemp>m_iNoOfTotalPoint);j++)
for(j=0;j<(gtemp>m_iNoOfTotalPoint);j++)
return (true);
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To modify the toolbar button of your own library, select “ResourceView” tap in
You can show the editable bitmap, as shown in Fig. 14.1.52. If you would like to
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To insert your own library into ‘Photonics CAD’, three files are needed as shown in
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