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Dektak 6M Manual

Software Version 8.35


980-274 (printed standard)
980-272 (printed cleanroom)
980-276 (manual on CD)

Copyright © [2002, 2004, 2006] Veeco Instruments, Inc.


All rights reserved.

Document Revision History: Dektak 6M Manual

Revision Date Section(s) Affected Reference Approval

D 2/8/06 All (SW V 8.35) N/A K. Thure


C 10/6/04 All (SW V 8.34) N/A D. Page
B 3/17/04 Title Page, Chapter 1 N/A D. Page
A 8/7/02 All 464 C. Kowalski
©2006, Veeco Instruments, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.

COPYRIGHT NOTICE:

This document and the software (computer program) described in it are copyright © Veeco Instru-
ments, Inc. They are protected by United States copyright laws and international treaty provi-
sions. Under copyright laws, this guide and the software program contained herein may not be
copied, in whole or in part, without prior written consent of Veeco Instruments, Inc., except in the
normal use of the software or to make a backup copy. This exception does not allow copies to be
made for others, whether or not sold, but all of the material purchased (with all backup copies)
may be sold, given, or loaned to another person. Under the law, copying includes translating into
another language or format.

Veeco Instruments, Inc. retains all rights not otherwise expressly granted here. Nothing in this
notice constitutes a waiver of our rights under U.S. Copyright laws or any other federal or state
law.

TRADEMARK NOTICE:

Wyko, Vision, Dektak and N-Lite are trademarks or registered trademarks of WYKO Corporation
and Veeco Instruments, Inc. Microsoft, Windows and Microsoft Excel are trademarks or regis-
tered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Dell is a registered trademark of Dell Computer Cor-
poration. Intel, Pentium and Celeron are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation.

All other brand or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective hold-
ers.

Veeco Instruments, Inc.


2650 East Elvira Road
Tucson, Arizona 85706

The information in this document is subject to change without notice. No liability is assumed for
errors contained herein or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnish-
ing, performance, or use of this material.
Table of Contents

Chapter 1 System Overview 1


1.1 Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 Included Reference Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3 Printer Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4 Principle of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.5 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.5.1 Computer and Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.5.2 Video Monitor (Option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.5.3 Profiler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.5.4 Video Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.5.5 Manual X-Y Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.6 Stylus Size Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.7 Scan Speed Versus Stylus Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.8 Horizontal Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.9 Scan Data Storage Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.10 Dektak 6M Technical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.11 Options and Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.12 Operation Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.12.1 Automation Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.12.2 Scan Routine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.12.3 Sample Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.12.4 Scanning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.12.5 Profile Manipulation and Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.12.6 Data Plot Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.12.7 Analytical Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.12.8 Boundary Magnification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.12.9 Side Bar Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.13 System Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Chapter 2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17


2.1 Facilities Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2 Installing the Vibration Isolation Platform or Table (Optional). . . . . . . . 27

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2.3 Cabling and Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.4 Preparing for Stage Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.4.1 The Two Stage Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.4.2 Cleaning Your Stage Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.5 Installing the Stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.6 Installing the Optical Subassembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.6.1 The Two Optical Subassemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.6.2 Installation Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.7 Installing the LIS 3 Stylus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.8 Environmental Enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.9 System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.10 System Checkout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.11 Ceramic Vacuum Chuck (Option) Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Chapter 3 Basic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51


3.1 Software Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.1.1 Microsoft Windows Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.1.2 Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.1.3 Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.2 Start Sequence (Normal Usage) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.2.1 Power On. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.2.2 System Tray Quick-Access Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
3.3 Sample Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.3.1 Sample Access Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.4 Viewing the Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.4.1 Lowering/Raising the Stylus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.4.2 Optics Illumination Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.4.3 Stylus Reticule Alignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
3.4.4 Feature Reticule Alignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.5 Power-down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
3.5.1 Power-down. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Chapter 4 Single Scan Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71


4.1 Create a Single-Scan Automation Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
4.2 Enter Scan Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
4.3 Position Scan Start Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.4 Run a Scan Routine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
4.5 Changing Units Before or After a Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.6 Reference/Measurement Cursors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
4.6.1 Basic Cursor Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

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4.6.2 Setting Cursor Bandwidths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
4.6.3 Cursor Positioning Using Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
4.6.4 Numeric Entry Cursor Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.7 Stage Leveling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.8 Software Leveling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4.9 Setting the Zero Point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4.10 Delta Average Step Height Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
4.11 Plot Magnification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
4.12 Save Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
4.12.1 Showing Saved Boundaries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
4.12.2 Restoring Saved Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
4.13 Data Printout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
4.14 Saving an Automation Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
4.15 Aborting an Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Chapter 5 Multiple Scan Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91


5.1 Automation Program Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
5.2 Opening a New Automation Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
5.3 Editing an Automation Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
5.4 Program Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
5.4.1 Scan Routines Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
5.5 Editing Scan Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
5.5.1 Scan Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
5.5.2 Display Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
5.5.3 Data Processing Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
5.5.4 Analytical Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
5.5.5 Global Editing of Scan Routine Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
5.6 Automation Program Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
5.6.1 Data File/Data Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
5.6.2 Enabling Automation Program Summary (APS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
5.6.3 Automation Program Summary Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
5.6.4 Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
5.6.5 Pause During Autoprogram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
5.7 Exporting a Scan Data Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

Chapter 6 Analytical Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115


6.1 Analytical Functions Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
6.2 Roughness Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
6.3 Waviness Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
6.4 Height Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

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6.5 Geometry Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
6.6 Analytical Function Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
6.6.1 Run Scan and Level Trace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
6.6.2 Average Roughness Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
6.7 Determining the Cutoff Wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
6.8 Activating the Cutoff Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
6.9 Entering Filter Cutoffs into a Scan Routine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
6.10 Data Type Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
6.11 Entering Data Type into a Scan Routine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
6.12 Measuring and Entering Analytical Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
6.13 Entering Analytical Functions into a Scan Routine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
6.14 Deleting Analytical Functions or Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
6.15 Smoothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
6.16 Activating the Smoothing Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
6.17 Entering Smoothing into a Scan Routine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

Chapter 7 Scan Routine Parameter Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137


7.1 Scan Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
7.1.1 Scan ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
7.1.2 Scan Length. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
7.1.3 Scan Resolution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
7.1.4 Scan Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
7.1.5 Measurement Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
7.1.6 Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
7.2 Display Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
7.2.1 Software Leveling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
7.2.2 Reference/Measurement Cursors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
7.2.3 Entering Cursor Positions from the Data Plot Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
7.2.4 Display Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
7.2.5 Display Data Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
7.3 Data Processing Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
7.4 Step Detection Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

Chapter 8 Menu and Toolbar Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157


8.1 Startup Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
8.2 File Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
8.3 Run Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
8.4 Profiler Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
8.5 Setup Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
8.5.1 User Interface Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

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8.5.2 Hardware Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
8.6 Calibration Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
8.7 Window Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
8.8 Help Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
8.9 Automation Programs Window Menu Selections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
8.9.1 Edit Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
8.10 Scan Routines Window Menu Selections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
8.10.1 Edit Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
8.11 Sample Positioning Window Pop-Up Menu Selections . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
8.12 Data Plot Window Menu Selections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
8.12.1 Edit Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
8.12.2 Plot Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
8.12.3 Analysis Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
8.13 Auto Prog Summary Window Menu Selections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
8.13.1 Edit Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
8.14 Toolbars and Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
8.14.1 Customizing the Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
8.14.2 Startup Window Toolbar and Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
8.14.3 Automation Programs Window Toolbar and Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
8.14.4 Scan Routines Window Toolbar and Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
8.14.5 Sample Positioning Window Toolbar and Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
8.14.6 Data Plot Window Toolbar and Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
8.14.7 Automation Program Summary Window Toolbar and Icons . . . . . . . . . . 192

Chapter 9 Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195


9.1 Care and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
9.1.1 Preventative Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
9.2 Vertical Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
9.2.1 Vertical Calibration Help Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
9.3 Calibrating the 65 kÅ Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
9.3.1 Scanning the 50 kÅ Calibration Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
9.3.2 Calculating Average Step Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
9.3.3 Setting the Vertical Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
9.4 Calibrating the 655 kÅ Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
9.4.1 Scanning the 100 kÅ Calibration Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
9.4.2 Calculating Average Step Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
9.4.3 Setting the Vertical Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
9.5 Calibrating the 2620 kÅ Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
9.5.1 Scanning the 100 kÅ Calibration Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
9.5.2 Calculating Average Step Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
9.5.3 Setting the Vertical Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
9.5.4 Vertical Calibration for the Extended Vertical Range Option . . . . . . . . . . . 210

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual v


9.6 Clearing the Vertical Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211
9.7 Cleaning the Reference Block and Teflon Pads or Tapes . . . . . . . . . . . .211
9.8 Stylus Replacement and Tip Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
9.8.1 Replacing the Stylus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
9.8.2 Cleaning the Stylus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
9.9 Optics Adjustment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
9.9.1 Video Overlay Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
9.10 Service Contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
9.11 Major Repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
9.12 Veeco Instruments Statement of Limited Warranty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

Appendix A Options, Accessories and Replacement Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

Appendix B Stress Measurement Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233


B.1 Description of Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
B.1.1 Three-Point Substrate Suspension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
B.1.2 Stress Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
B.2 Identifying Substrate Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
B.3 Entering Stress Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
B.4 Stress Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
B.4.1 Constraints and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

Appendix C Step Detection Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239


C.1 Step Detection Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
C.2 Step Detection Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
C.2.1 General Settings Tab. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
C.2.2 Every Step Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
C.2.3 Analytical Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
C.2.4 First Step Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
C.3 Step Detection Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
3.3.1 Performing Step Detection on a Single Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
C.3.2 Programming Step Detection in a Scan Routine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
C.3.3 Programming Step Detection on Multiple Scans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
C.4 Regional Flattening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

Appendix D Wyko Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251


D.1 Opening a Dektak Scan in Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
D.2 Vision Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
D.2.1 Vision Basic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
D.2.2 Vision Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
D.3 Analyzing Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

vi Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


D.3.1 Processed Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
D.4 Displaying Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
D.4.1 Setting the Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
D.4.2 Standard Display File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
D.4.3 Display Files for Each Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
D.4.4 Standard Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
D.4.5 Masking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
D.5 Dataset Versus Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
D.5.1 Vision Databases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289

Appendix E N-Lite Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297


E.1 About the N-Lite Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
E.1.1 Main Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
E.2 Solving Measurement Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
E.3 Solving Stiction Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

Appendix F Advanced Automation Program Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301


F.1 Advanced APS Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
F.2 Advanced APS Help. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
F.3 Activating the Advanced APS Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
F.4 Defining Your APS Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
F.5 Running a Scan with the Advanced APS Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
F.6 Viewing the Results in the APS Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
F.7 Filtering the Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
F.7.1 Filtering by a Single Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
F.7.2 Filtering by Multiple Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
F.8 Redrawing a Plot from the APS Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
F.9 Annotating a Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
F.10 Printing a Plot or the APS Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
F.11 Exporting Your Results to Excel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual vii


Chapter 1 System Overview

The Dektak 6M is an advanced thin and thick film step height measurement tool capable of
measuring steps below 100Å (see Figure 1.0a). You can use this tool to profile surface topography
and waviness, as well as measuring surface roughness in the sub-nanometer range. This chapter
includes the following topics:

• Safety Precautions: Section 1.1

• Included Reference Materials: Section 1.2

• Printer Selection: Section 1.3

• Principle of Operation: Section 1.4

• Configuration: Section 1.5

• Stylus Size Considerations: Section 1.6

• Scan Speed Versus Stylus Force: Section 1.7

• Horizontal Resolution: Section 1.8

• Scan Data Storage Requirements: Section 1.9

• Dektak 6M Technical Specifications: Section 1.10

• Options and Accessories: Section 1.11

• Operation Overview: Section 1.12

• System Components: Section 1.13

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 1


System Overview

Figure 1.0a Dektak 6M (shown with optional monitor and trackball)

151A

2 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


System Overview
Safety Precautions

1.1 Safety Precautions

CAUTION: Use Dektak 6M equipment only as specified in this manual and as specified in
any documentation associated with its components. Any use of the equipment in
an unspecified manner is strongly discouraged and may result in damage or
injury as cautioned by signed warnings in this chapter and throughout the
documentation.

Table 1.1a Safety Symbols Key

Symbol Definition
This symbol identifies conditions or practices that could result in
damage to the equipment or other property, and in extreme cases,
possible personal injury.
Ce symbole indique des conditions d'emploi ou des actions pouvant
endommager les équipements ou accessoires, et qui, dans les cas
extrêmes, peuvent conduire à des dommages corporels.
Dieses Symbol beschreibt Zustände oder Handlungen die das Gerät
oder andere Gegenstände beschädigen können und in Extremfällen
zu Verletzungen führen können.
This symbol identifies conditions or practices that involve potential
electric shock hazard.
Ce symbole indique des conditions d'emploi ou des actions compor-
tant un risque de choc électrique.
Dieses Symbol beschreibt Zustaende oder Handlungen die einen
elekrischen Schock verursachen koennen.

CAUTION: Only qualified personnel aware of the hazards involved may


perform service and adjustments.

ATTENTION: Toute réparation ou étalonnage doit être effectué par des personnes
qualifiées et conscientes des dangers potentiels.

VORSICHT: Service- und Einstellarbeiten sollten nur von qualifizierten


Personen, die sich der auftretenden Gefahren bewußt sind,
durchgeführt werden.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 3


System Overview
Safety Precautions

CAUTION: Follow company and government safety regulations. Keep


unauthorized personnel out of the area when working on
equipment.

ATTENTION: Il est impératif de suivre les prérogatives imposées tant au niveau


gouvernemental qu’au niveau des entreprises. Les personnes non
autorisées ne peuvent rester près du système lorsque celui-ci
fonctionne.

VORSICHT: Befolgen Sie die gesetzlichen Sicherheitsbestimmungen Ihres


Landes. Halten Sie nicht authorisierte Personen während des
Betriebs fern vom Gerät.

CAUTION: Voltages supplied to and within certain areas of the system are
potentially dangerous and can cause injury to personnel. Power-
down everything and unplug from sources of power before doing
ANY electrical servicing. (Digital Instruments, Veeco personnel,
only.)

ATTENTION: Les tensions utilisées dans le système sont potentiellement


dangereuses et peuvent blesser les utilisateurs. Avant toute
intervention électrique, ne pas oublier de débrancher le système.
(Réservé au personnel de Digital Instruments/Veeco Metrology
Group seulement.)

VORSICHT: Die elektrischen Spannungen, die dem System zugeführt werden,


sowie Spannungen im System selbst sind potentiell gefährlich und
können zu Verletzungen von Personen führen. Bevor elektrische
Servicearbeiten irgendwelcher Art durchgeführt werden ist das
System auszuschalten und vom Netz zu trennen. (Nur Digital
Instruments/Veeco Personal.)

4 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


System Overview
Included Reference Materials

1.2 Included Reference Materials


The Dektak 6M software includes the Portable Document Format (PDF) of the Dektak 6M manual
and any software release notices relevant to the current software version, as well as the Dektak 6M
Help file. These electronic files provide a convenient way to quickly search for a particular subject
and the capability to print specific sections of the manual. Use the following procedures to find
these reference materials.

Help

To display Help in the Dektak 6M software, select Help > Contents, or press the F1 key on the
keyboard. The Dektak 6M Help feature allows you to search Dektak 6M information while
operating the tool.

PDF

1. On your Windows desktop, click the shortcut to the Adobe® Acrobat® PDF file of the
Dektak 6M manual, which is located on the C drive of your computer. The default path is
C:\Program Files\Veeco\Dektak32\Dektak 6M Manual Rev D.

2. Double-click Dektak 6M Manual Rev D.pdf to open the PDF file.

Note: Due to Veeco copyright specifications, certain editing features for this file have
been disabled.

What’s This? Help

When provided, What’s This? Help provides popup assistance for specific fields and controls in a
dialog box.

Click the question mark in the upper-right corner of a dialog, and then click a particular field or
control. Help about the specific component appears in a text-only popup window.

1.3 Printer Selection


The Dektak 6M can transfer the data output to the computer printer port. Refer to the Microsoft
Windows XP manual for a list of compatible printers and printer installation procedure. A LAN
card is provided for connection to local area network printers.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 5


System Overview
Principle of Operation

1.4 Principle of Operation


The Dektak 6M takes measurements electromechanically by moving the sample beneath a
diamond-tipped stylus. The high-precision stage moves a sample beneath the stylus according to a
user-programmed scan length, speed and stylus force. The stylus is mechanically coupled to the
core of an LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer).

As the stage moves the sample, the stylus rides over the sample surface. Surface variations cause
the stylus to be translated vertically. Electrical signals corresponding to stylus movement are
produced as the core position of the LVDT changes. The LVDT scales an AC reference signal
proportional to the position change, which in turn is conditioned and converted to a digital format
through a high precision, integrating, analog-to-digital converter.

The digitized signals from performing a single scan are stored in computer memory for display,
manipulation, measurement, and printing. The Dektak 6M stores programs that can easily be
changed to suit both production and laboratory use.

Figure 1.4a Block Diagram of Dektak 6M Architecture

216

6 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


System Overview
Configuration

1.5 Configuration
This section describes the Dektak 6M profiler components (see System Components: Section
1.13).

1.5.1 Computer and Console

The computer incorporates an Intel® Celeron® 2.4 GHz or faster microprocessor with 512MB
RAM, 40 GB or greater IDE HD, and a CD-RW drive. Microsoft® Windows® XP provides a user-
friendly interface with pull-down menus and pop-up windows. The console also includes a
keyboard and mouse.

1.5.2 Video Monitor (Option)

The standard Dektak 6M does not include a monitor, allowing you to supply the monitor of your
preference or select an optional monitor available through Veeco: a 17" high-resolution flat panel
display color monitor. The monitor displays programs and graphics in full color, along with a color
video image of the sample surface from the camera. The Dektak 6M can display the sample either
alone or with superimposed graphics.

1.5.3 Profiler

The Dektak 6M profiler contains the mechanical and optical components for sample placement,
sample viewing and scanning/measurement. A diamond-tipped stylus permits accurate
measurements in a wide range of applications. User programmable stylus forces from 1 mg to
15 mg allow profiling on soft or hard surfaces.

1.5.4 Video Camera

The Dektak 6M uses a color, high-resolution, 1/4” CCD video camera for color video with fixed
optics of a 2.6 mm area. The variable intensity illumination adjusts to view samples with differing
reflectivity. The camera is attached to the scan head, viewing the sample at a 45-degree view angle.
A 1.1 - 4.6 mm (70x - 280x) zoom is provided for added magnification capability.

1.5.5 Manual X-Y Positioning

X-Y stage positioning and theta rotation are controlled manually. See Section 1.12.3 for operating
procedures.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 7


System Overview
Stylus Size Considerations

1.6 Stylus Size Considerations


A stylus-based surface profiler measures the physical surface of the sample. To achieve optimum
performance in certain applications, consider stylus size and shape.

The radius of the recommended diamond stylus is 12.5 µm. This stylus meets most requirements
for the majority of applications; however, some applications may require either a larger or smaller
tip radius. Reducing the stylus tip radius increases the point pressure on the sample and may require
resetting of the stylus force. You may program stylus force from 1-15 mg.

Optional styli with radii of 0.2 μm, 0.7 μm, 2.5 μm, 5 μm, 12.5 μm and 25 μm are available for
applications which require high horizontal resolution or measurement of very soft films.

New stylus developments include Super Sharp (SS) Styli with sub-100 nm radii and HAR tips with
10:1 aspect ratios (200 μm X 20 mm and 20 μm X 2 mm). When these tips are used, the N-Lite
Option is recommended, since it provides a stylus-to-surface engage routine for ultra low force
profiling. This minimizes damage to both the stylus and surface.

Consult your dealer for further information.

1.7 Scan Speed Versus Stylus Force


When using a low stylus force, the stylus may bounce off the surface if it encounters a large step at
high scan speeds. In applications requiring light stylus force, use low or medium scan speed
(in other words, a longer scan duration) at the shortest possible scan length.

1.8 Horizontal Resolution


The Dektak 6M provides horizontal resolution with a maximum 60,000 data points available per
scan. Scan length and scan duration determines the horizontal resolution of the Dektak 6M. The
Dektak 6M maintains a constant sampling rate of 300 data points per second. By slowing scan
speed, you can process more samples with a given scan length over a longer period of time. Scan
duration may be set anywhere from 3 to 200 seconds. The examples below provide the number of
data points per scan at various scan durations for a 2000 µm scan length.

8 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


System Overview
Scan Data Storage Requirements

Table 1.8a Data Points Per Scan

Resolution at Maximum
Duration Data Points
Scan Length
200 seconds 60,000 0.033 µm/sample
100 seconds 30,000 0.067 µm/sample
50 seconds 15,000 0.133 µm/sample
13 seconds 3,900 0.513 µm/sample
3 seconds 900 2.222 µm/sample

Use the following formula to determine the number of data points for any given scan length and
speed.

Scan Length (in µm)


# Data Points/Scan = ------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
Horizontal Resolution (in µm)

OR

# Data Points/Scan = 300 x Scan Duration (in seconds)

The horizontal resolution of the Dektak 6M directly relates to the scan length and number of data
points per scan. The scan length is selectable from 50 µm to 30 mm. Without altering the number of
data points per scan, it is possible to adjust the horizontal resolution or the distance between data
points by altering the scan length. The scan resolution parameter displays the distance between data
points (in µm per sample).

1.9 Scan Data Storage Requirements


Store scan data on either the hard disk or on floppy diskettes. The number of storable data files
depends on the number of data points scanned. It takes approximately five bytes of storage space
for each data point plotted. Therefore, a 2,000 µm, 13-second scan requires approximately 19,500
bytes of disk space.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 9


System Overview
Dektak 6M Technical Specifications

1.10 Dektak 6M Technical Specifications

Table 1.10a Dektak 6M Technical Specifications

Specification Value
Vertical Range 262 μm (0.010 in.) [standard]; 1 mm (0.039 in.) [optional]
Vertical Resolution (at various ranges) 1 Å (@65 kÅ), 10 Å (@655 kÅ), 40 Å (@2620 kÅ) [standard];
160 Å (@1 mm) [optional]
Scan Length Range 50 µm to 30 mm (2 mils to 1.18 in)
Scan Speed Ranges 3 seconds to 200 seconds
Software Leveling Two-point programmable or cursor leveling
Stage Leveling Manual
Step Detection Cursors can be automatically positioned before and after steps for
automatic computation of analytical functions
Styli Diamond. 0.2 µm, 0.7 µm, 2.5 µm, 5 µm, 12.5 µm, 25 µm radius
Stylus Tracking Force Programmable, 1-15 mg
Maximum Sample Thickness 31.75 mm (1.25")
Sample Stage Diameter 6" for 150 mm and smaller samples
Manual Stage Position X Axis, 20 mm
Translation Y Axis, 80 mm
Sample Stage Rotation Manual Theta, 360º
Maximum Sample Weight 1.5 lbs (680 g)
Power Requirements 100-120~ or 220-240~, 50/60 Hz, Single Phase;
Current Phase 5A@100-120~ or 3A @ 220-240~ (+/-10%)
Warm-up Time 15 min. for maximum stability
Operating Temperature 21º C +/-3ºC (70º F +/-5ºF)
Environmental Humidity 40%, +/-20% non-condensing
Camera Field of View 2.6 mm horizontal field of view with standard Fixed Optical
Subassembly
Color Camera 45º side view
Sample Illumination Variable intensity white-light LED
Environmental Enclosure Conductive acrylic enclosure protects sample and scan area from the
adverse affects of dust, acoustic noise and air flow
Dimensions (Enclosure) L= 21.8" (55.4 cm), W= 16.3" (41.4 cm), H= 18.1" (46.0 cm)
Shipping Weight (D6M Instrument) 115 lbs (52.2 kg)
Shipping Weight (Enclosure) 48 lbs (21.7 kg)

10 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


System Overview
Options and Accessories

1.11 Options and Accessories


Table 1.11a provides a selection of Dektak 6M options and accessories. See Appendix A for a
complete list of options and accessories for the Dektak 6M.

Table 1.11a Dektak 6M Options and Accessories

Option Description / Function


Calibration Standards A broad line of calibration standards calibrate the system
for virtually any application. Both step height and VLSI
roughness standards are offered.
Additional Styli Four smaller styli are available for measuring fine surface
features: 0.2 µm, 0.7 µm, 2.5 µm, and 5 µm. Two larger
styli are available for measuring softer samples: 12.5 µm
(recommended) and 25 µm.
Extended Vertical Range Increases maximum vertical measurement range from 262
µm to 1 mm for measuring large steps or curved surfaces.
Ceramic Vacuum Chuck Removable chuck provides sample restraint for small
samples and pieces of samples. Vacuum source required.
Monitor 17" high-resolution flat panel display color monitor.
Vibration Isolation Table Isolates the scan head from floor vibration, which can
affect instrument resolution and repeatability.
Vibration Isolation Bench-top isolation system. Requires 80 psi air supply.
Platform
220/240 Volt System Configuration changes for 220/240 volt power.
Assembly
Zoom Optical Provides 1.1 - 4.6 mm horizontal field of view
Subassembly

Intel® Pentium® 4 1 GB RAM and 40 GB or greater IDE HD with a CD-RW/


microprocessor DVD combination drive.

Stress Measurement Calculates tensile or compressive stress on processed


Software wafers.
Step Detection Software Provides multi-step detection capabilities and automatically mea-
sures and calculates negative and positive step transitions.
N-Lite Low Force Package Allows stylus-to-surface engage routines for ultra-low force pro-
filing.

Wyko® Vision® Analysis Wyko® Vision® provides a wide range of options for
Package displaying and analyzing the 2D scan.
Advanced Automation Pro- During a scan, displays live plots that can show upper and lower
gram Summary (Advanced pass/fail criteria. After a scan, the data can be replotted, filtered,
APS) Software and otherwise manipulated. The Advanced APS option is inter-
changeable with the standard APS function.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 11


System Overview
Operation Overview

1.12 Operation Overview


The following section defines some of the basic operating terms of the Dektak 6M.

1.12.1 Automation Program

Automation program files can program and store a number of scan routines on the hard disk. Scan
routines containing the programmed scan parameters are inserted into the automation program.
Automation programs are stored for various applications in Windows file format on the hard disk,
giving the Dektak 6M virtually unlimited program storage capability.

1.12.2 Scan Routine

The Dektak 6M scan routine consists of sixteen individual parameters you may select using the
mouse. The user may determine parameters such as scan length and speed, leveling, and stylus
force. You may enter a maximum of 10,000 scan routines into each automation program file.

1.12.3 Sample Positioning

X-Y Positioning

You can alter X-Y positioning manually by rotating the knobs on the front of the Dektak 6M. The
left knob controls positioning in the X direction, and the right knob controls positioning in the Y
direction.

Theta Rotation

You can control theta rotation by rotating the stage manually. Turn the stage to the left to move the
stage clockwise and to the right to move the stage counterclockwise.

1.12.4 Scanning

When a scan routine begins, the stylus lowers and the tip contacts the sample surface. Each time the
stylus is lowered into position the tower fine-tunes the vertical position to the optimum zero
reference for the selected scan routine parameters, referred to as “nulls”. The stage then moves the
sample as the stylus rides over the surface features. The video monitor allows a view of both the
physical scanning of the sample and the plotting of the data simultaneously.

At the end of the scan, the stylus automatically lifts off the sample surface, the scan drive resets,
and the system is immediately ready for the next scan. The surface features encountered by the

12 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


System Overview
Operation Overview

stylus are represented as a two-dimensional profile which is plotted, scaled, and displayed on the
video monitor.

1.12.5 Profile Manipulation and Measurement

An initial profile may require software leveling, zero referencing and software magnification to
zoom in on an area of interest. Measurement is a continuous process facilitated by simple
movements of the reference and measurement cursors.

1.12.6 Data Plot Display

The Data Plot window displays scan data as well as various parameters from the scan routine, such
as the scan identification, scan length, resolution, stylus force, measurement range and profile. Also
shown are the vertical and horizontal distances between the cursor/trace intercepts, as well as the
distances from the vertical and horizontal “zero” grid lines. If you request analytical functions, the
results from those calculations display in the Analytic Results section of the window.

1.12.7 Analytical Functions

The Dektak 6M has a wide range of analytical functions available for analysis of roughness,
waviness, step height, and geometrical measurements. You can request up to 30 analytical functions
per scan.

1.12.8 Boundary Magnification

Following a scan, you can modify boundary locations to magnify portions of the trace. These new
boundary locations can be stored and recalled at any time.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 13


System Overview
Operation Overview

1.12.9 Side Bar Buttons

If you have checked the box Show side bar buttons in the Dektak Visual Settings section of the
General Settings page (Setup > System Settings dialog box), the following large buttons will be
displayed at the left side of the indicated windows.

Table 1.12a Side Bar Buttons

Window(s) Description Button


Startup

Open Automation Program file:

Switch to Automation Program window:

Switch to Sample Positioning window:

Launch Dektak Help file:

Sample Positioning
and Data Plot
Execute the current scan routine:

Run the automation program:

Abort the current operation:

14 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


System Overview
System Components

1.13 System Components

Figure 1.13a Dektak 6M Profiler Components

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 15


Chapter 2 Installation

This chapter includes the following topics:

• Facilities Requirements: Section 2.1

• Installing the Vibration Isolation Platform or Table (Optional): Section 2.2

• Cabling and Connections: Section 2.3

• Preparing for Stage Installation: Section 2.4

• Installing the Stage: Section 2.5

• Installing the Optical Subassembly: Section 2.6

• Installing the LIS 3 Stylus: Section 2.7

• Environmental Enclosure: Section 2.8

• System Configuration: Section 2.9

• System Checkout: Section 2.10

• Ceramic Vacuum Chuck (Option) Installation: Section 2.11

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 17


Installation
Facilities Requirements

2.1 Facilities Requirements


The Dektak 6M is a high-precision measuring instrument capable of measuring minute physical
surface variations and is very sensitive to the environment in which it operates. Depending upon
the degree of accuracy required, there are two basic modes of operation:

• Normal Operating Conditions: The Dektak 6M must operate in an area free from
excessive dust. Vibration levels must be minimal. The scan head should be protected to
eliminate drafts. The cover of the environmental enclosure should be closed when
making measurements.

• Reference Operating Conditions: For very critical measurements an optional


vibration isolation table, designed for use with the Dektak 6M, is available. The
scanning mechanism is sensitive to transient convective flow. After turning the system
on, allow it to stabilize for at least 15 minutes.

Table 2.1a details the facilities requirements for the Dektak 6M.

Table 2.1a Facilities Requirements

Facility Requirement
Temperature Operating Range, 18°C-24°C (64°F-75°F).

Clean Room Not required (Class 1000 or better recommended).

Relative 40%, +/-20% relative humidity (non-condensing).


Humidity
Power 100-120~ (+/-10%) at 5 amps, 1 Phase, 50/60 Hz.
Requirements 220-240~ (+/-10%) at 3 amps, 1 Phase, 50/60 Hz.

Power Demand 720 VA maximum.

Power Four 6-ft, 3-conductor, 16AWG power cords supplied with system.
Connection Cords terminate with male NEMA L5-15 connectors. Connectors rated
for 13 amps, 1,625 watts @ 125 VAC.
Vibration Not to exceed 70 µg from 1 to 100 Hz on floor with flat noise spectrum.
Compressed 80 psi (if optional vibration isolation platform or table is used)
Air
Acoustics Not to exceed 60 dB(A) across the frequency spectrum.

Vibration Interference

Do not operate the system near sources of vibration (such as fans or motors) or in excessive air
flow (such as from a cleanroom air duct). For optimum performance, place the tool in an area with
minimal foot traffic and low acoustical noise.

18 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Installation
Facilities Requirements

Floor

The floor must be level, rigid and capable of supporting 300 lbs (136 kg) on a bench or the
preferred vibration isolation table.

System Location and Service Access

Position the system with the work area in front to allow adequate working space for the operator.
The rear of the system must have a minimum service access clearance of 24" (610 mm).

Dimensions

D6M with Enclosure

The dimensions of the system with Environmental Enclosure 1 (used with Stage Assembly 1) are
shown in Figure 2.1a.

The dimensions of the system with the Environmental Enclosure 2 (used with Stage Assembly 2)
are shown in Figure 2.1c (top view) and Figure 2.1c (side view).

Note: For descriptions of the two stage assemblies, see Section 2.4.1.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 19


Installation
Facilities Requirements

Figure 2.1a Dimensions with Enclosure 1

20 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Installation
Facilities Requirements

Figure 2.1b D6M Dimensions with Enclosure 2 - Top View

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 21


Installation
Facilities Requirements

Figure 2.1c D6M Dimensions with Enclosure 2 - Side View

22 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Installation
Facilities Requirements

D6M Profiler without Enclosure

Figure 2.1d D6M Profiler without Enclosure

The dimensions of the D6M profiler without the enclosure are shown below in Figure 2.1e (top
view), Figure 2.1f (side view), and Figure 2.1g (front view).

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 23


Installation
Facilities Requirements

Figure 2.1e D6M Profiler Dimensions - Top View

24 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Installation
Facilities Requirements

Figure 2.1f D6M Profiler Dimensions - Side View

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 25


Installation
Facilities Requirements

Figure 2.1g D6M Profiler Dimensions - Front View

26 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Installation
Installing the Vibration Isolation Platform or Table (Optional)

2.2 Installing the Vibration Isolation Platform or Table (Optional)


Using an optional vibration isolation platform (bench-top mounted) or table (floor mounted)
significantly decreases vibration and allows for more accurate profiling. The vibration isolation
system needs to be set in place for the Dektak 6M when it arrives at the final site. Refer to the
manufacturer’s instructions (provided by TMC) to install the platform or table.

• Review the information given in Facilities Requirements: Section 2.1.

• While the bench-top isolation platform is portable (less than 140 lbs [64 kg]), the
isolation table is not.

WARNING: Attempting to lift the system without assistance may result in


personal injury and/or damage to the equipment.

AVERTISSEMENT:Soulever le système sans assistance pourrait entrainer des


blessures et/ou endommager les équipements.

WARNUNG: Der Versuch, das Gerät ohne Hilfe zu heben, könnte zu


körperlicher Verletzung und/ oder Beschädigung des Gerätes
führen.

2.3 Cabling and Connections


Cable the unit per the Dektak 6M Profiler Components drawing (see Figure 1.13a ). Use the
following procedures to cable the rest of the system.

Power Supply Setting

The Dektak 6M operates on 50/60 Hz AC with either 100-120 V or 220-240 V. The Dektak 6M
requires four power connections to the power bar: two DC power supplies, a monitor and a
computer. The computer power supply has been factory set at the appropriate voltage for the
original user facility. If the unit is transferred to a facility where the voltage is different, the
computer must be reset for the alternate voltage.

Note: For the optional 220 V Dektak 6M, you need to provide a power cord for the
power bar that is compatible with your local power outlet configuration.

Complete the following procedure to verify or change the power supply setting:

1. Verify the main power switch located on the back of the computer console is turned off.

2. Verify the main power cable is disconnected from its primary power source and the computer
console.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 27


Installation
Cabling and Connections

3. Verify the voltage setting displays the correct voltage once the main power cable is
disconnected from the computer. If it does not, change the voltage setting.

Note: The voltage setting is located below the power inlet on the back of the
computer (see Figure 2.3c).

a. To change the voltage supply setting, use a flat head screw driver to slide the setting
switch until the appropriate voltage setting displays.

b. Connect the power bar into an outlet providing the appropriate voltage as shown on the
voltage select card.

CAUTION: Ensure all cables that connect to the power source are accessible to
the operator.

ATTENTION: S'assurer que tous les cables connectés aux prises de courants sont
accessibles par l'utilisateur.

VORSICHT: Stellen Sie sicher, daß alle Spannungskabel für den Benutzer
zugänglich sind.

WARNING: Never connect the Dektak 6M to a power source which provides a


voltage that is different from the power supply setting of the
voltage select card.

AVERTISSEMENT:Ne jamais brancher le Dektak 6M sur une prise produisant une


ddp différente de celle programmée sur le circuit.

WARNUNG: Das Dektak 6m darf niemals an eine Spannungsquelle


angeschlossen werden, deren Spannung von der am Gerät
eingestellten Spannung abweicht.

Profiler Cable Connections

The E-Box located on the rear of the profiler provides all cable connections for the Dektak 6M
(see Figure 2.3a). Two universal-input electronic DC power supplies connect to the E-Box. The
upper connector provides power for the scan and tower motors. The lower connector provides
power to the electronics and signal conditioning board. The video cable and one communication
cable also attach to the E-Box and the computer (see Figure 2.3a and Figure 2.3c).

28 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Installation
Cabling and Connections

Figure 2.3a Side of E-box

Power Switch

+24 VDC
Power In

+5 and +/-12 VDC


Power In

Video Out

COM Port
(to USB/COM Converter)

124A

The E-Box connector for the coaxial video cable is located just above the COM port. It connects to
the back of the computer using the “AV IN” socket via the BNC connector (see Figure 2.3b). The
communication cable connects to the E-Box COM DB9 connector and a USB port on the back of
the computer.

Figure 2.3b BNC Connector


215

Monitor Cable Connections

The operator can supply a monitor or purchase the optional 17" high-resolution flat panel display
color monitor. Either monitor may be placed on top of the environmental enclosure over the profiler
to reduce system footprint, or on a table-top stand. The monitor cable connects to the video port on
the back of the monitor and to the video board port on the computer. The power supply cable also
connects to the back of the monitor and into an appropriate power outlet through the power bar (and
then preferably through a surge protector).

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 29


Installation
Cabling and Connections

Other Computer Cable Connections

The computer power cable plugs into an appropriate power outlet through the power bar (and then
preferably through a surge protector). Leave sufficient space behind the computer to allow the
computer fan to ventilate (see Figure 2.3c).

The keyboard connects to a USB port at the front of the computer. The mouse plugs into a USB
port on the keyboard.

Note: Verify that all cables are properly connected prior to plugging in the system and
turning on the main power switch.

Figure 2.3c Rear View of Computer

AC Power In
Voltage Settings Fan

Printer Port
(Printer is
User Provided)

USB
(to USB/COM
Converter)

Monitor Video Cable


154A

30 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Installation
Cabling and Connections

CAUTION: Do not connect or disconnect any cables while the power is on.

ATTENTION: Ne pas connecter ou déconnecter de cables lorsque l’appareil est


branché.

VORSICHT: Während die Spannungsversorgung eingeschaltet ist, dürfen Kabel


weder vom Gerät getrennt, noch angeschlossen werden.

CAUTION: Always use a surge protector; the surge protector allows all of the
components to power-up simultaneously via the single master
power switch.

ATTENTION: Toujours utiliser un protecteur de circuit. Le protecteur de circuit


sert à mettre sous tension tous les éléments du circuit
simultanément via le connecteur central.

VORSICHT: Benutzen Sie stets einen Überspannungsbegrenzer (“surge


protector”). Der Überspannungsbegrenzer ermöglicht das
gleichzeitige Einschalten aller Geräteteile mittels eines einzelnen
Hauptschalters.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 31


Installation
Preparing for Stage Installation

2.4 Preparing for Stage Installation


Remove the stage from the protective shipping carton and plastic bag. Use caution in handling the
stage.

Prior to installation, the reference block and stage pads must be cleaned prior to installation with
lint-free and abrasive-free tissues moistened with deionized water or laboratory grade isopropyl
alcohol (see Section 2.4.2).

2.4.1 The Two Stage Assemblies

Depending on when you purchased your Dektak 6M profiler, it may be equipped with a Stage
Assembly 1 (see Figure 2.4a and Figure 2.4b) or with a Stage Assembly 2 (see Figure 2.4c and
Figure 2.4d). Both stage assemblies are cleaned and installed in the same manner, as outlined in
Section 2.4.2 and Section 2.5 .

Figure 2.4a Dektak 6M Stage Assembly 1

32 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Installation
Preparing for Stage Installation

Figure 2.4b Bottom of Stage Assembly 1

Teflon tapes

Figure 2.4c Bottom of Dektak 6M Stage Assembly 2

Teflon dots

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 33


Installation
Preparing for Stage Installation

Figure 2.4d Back and Side of Stage Assembly 2

228
Reference Block Rack Rack-Loading Block

2.4.2 Cleaning Your Stage Assembly

Prior to installation, the stage assembly must be cleaned with lint-free and abrasive-free tissues
moistened with deionized water or laboratory grade isopropyl alcohol. Although the teflon pads
and tapes differ in number and location on Stage Assembly 1 and Stage Assembly 2, both
assemblies require the same cleaning procedures.

34 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Installation
Preparing for Stage Installation

CAUTION: Do not use other solvents, such as spectrograde acetone, which


may attack the adhesives used to mount the Teflon pads and tapes.
To avoid damage to the Teflon pads and tapes, do not allow them
to touch any surface other than the reference block.

ATTENTION: Ne pas utiliser d’autres solvants, tels que de l’acétone pour


spectrographie, qui pourraient attaquer les adhésifs utilisés pour
monter les protections en Téflon. Pour éviter d’abimer les
protections en Téflon, ne pas les mettre en contact avec d’autres
surfaces que les surfaces des blocs.

VORSICHT: Lösungsmittel wie Azeton können den Kleber, mit dem die
Teflonunterlagen an der Unterseite des Probentisches befestigt
sind, angreifen und sollten daher nicht verwendet werden.
Verwenden Sie nur Isopropylalkohol und demineralisiertes
Wasser. Um die Teflonunterlagen vor Beschädigung zu schützen,
sollten sie ausschließlich auf der Referenzunterlage verwendet
werden. Vermeiden Sie es, den Probentisch auf andere
Oberflächen zu setzen.

To clean your Dektak 6M stage assembly:

1. Use the tissues specified above to clean the reference block (sides and top) (see Figure 2.4b,
Figure 2.4c, and Figure 2.4e), the Teflon pads or tapes, around the Teflon pads or tapes, and
the top surface of the stage with the tissues and isopropyl alcohol described above. Always
wipe new spots with a clean portion of the tissue to avoid transferring contamination to
another area.

Figure 2.4e Dektak 6M Reference Block

3 Surfaces to Clean
227A

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 35


Installation
Installing the Stage

2. Closely inspect the surfaces of the Teflon pads or tapes. Ensure that no debris is embedded in
them. Check to see that there is no excess adhesive from the pads or tapes adhering to any
running surface. Inspect the reference block to ensure that there are no scratches or blemishes
in the traverse area.

3. Clean the rack-loading block with a cleanroom swab and laboratory grade isopropyl alcohol
(see Figure 2.4c). Use a rotary motion to buff the cleaned reference block and stage pads
with a clean, lint-free cloth. The cloth should move evenly against a properly cleaned
surface.

Note: DO NOT touch the Teflon pads or tapes or the reference block after cleaning. If
this happens, the procedure must be repeated.

CAUTION: Dispose of wipes in an appropriately labelled solvent-


contaminated waste container.

ATTENTION: Jeter les compresses de nettoyage daus une poubelle correctement


étiquettée pour les solvents.

VORSICHT: Entsorgen Sie Alkohol-getränkte Tücher in einem dafür


vorgesehenen Behälter für Lösungsmittel abfälle.

4. Clean the rack and pinion gear with instrument grade “canned air.” Hold the can upright and
use short bursts to avoid releasing propellant.

2.5 Installing the Stage


After carefully cleaning your manually positioned X-Y stage (see Section 2.4.2), use the following
procedure to install it.

Note: Both Stage Assembly 1 and Stage Assembly 2 require the same installation
procedure.

36 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Installation
Installing the Stage

CAUTION: Before removing or installing the stage, the optics subassembly


and stylus arm must be fully raised while the profiler is turned ON.
Raise the tower by selecting Profiler > Tower Up or clicking the

TOWER UP icon ,

ATTENTION: Avant d’enlever ou installer la plateforme, alors que le profileur est


allume, les systemes optiques et le bras du stylet doivent etre
completement releves. Remonter la tour en selectionnant:
Profiler > Tower Up ou en cliquant sur l’icone correspondant.

VORSICHT: Bevor der Probentisch vom Gerät entfernt oder installiert wird,
muß die Abstastspitze ganz nach oben gefahren werden. Das Gerät
muß dazu eingeschaltet sein. Die Abtastspitze wird durch den
Befehl “Profiler > Tower Up” oder das Symbol “Tower Up”
nach oben bewegt.

1. Turn off the power.

2. Disengage the rack mechanism by inserting a standard 6" flat-head screwdriver into the cam
slot on the right side of the rack drive assembly. Turn the screw fully clockwise (see Figure
2.5d).

3. The bottom of the stage must be facing the top of the reference block (see Figure 2.4c).

Figure 2.5a Bottom of Stage Assembly 2

Rack-Guide
Block

Drive Pinion

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 37


Installation
Installing the Stage

4. Insert the rack into the rack-guide block, taking care that the rack does not touch the
reference block (see Figure 2.4b) and that the flag clears the three sensors on the right side
(see Figure 2.5c).

5. Depress the spring-loaded pads against the left reference block guide, and carefully lower the
stage into the block (see Figure 2.5b and Figure 2.5b).

Figure 2.5b Left View of Stage Assembly 2

230
Teflon tape on Spring

Note: When moving the stage back, verify the Teflon tape on the right side does not
hit the end of the reference block guide (see Figure 2.5c).

Figure 2.5c Right Front View of Stage Assembly 2

Reference Block
Guide
236A

Teflon Pad

38 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Installation
Installing the Stage

6. Slide the stage forward all the way to verify that it is free from any binding or contact
through the scan travel.

7. Align the rack on the left side of the drive pinion. The rack shall be in contact and parallel
with the rack guide block.

8. Engage the rack mechanism by inserting the 6” flat-head screwdriver into the cam slot on the
rack drive assembly and turning it fully counterclockwise (see Figure 2.5d).

Figure 2.5d Cam Slot

Cam

229

Note: Verify the home flag is positioned so that it will slide freely through the sensors
(see Figure 2.5e).

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 39


Installation
Installing the Optical Subassembly

Figure 2.5e Side of Stage Assembly 2

235
Home Flag Sensor (1 of 3)

Note: The stage must be removed prior to repacking the profiler for shipment.

2.6 Installing the Optical Subassembly


After your Dektak 6M profiler is installed, you must install the optical subassembly using the
procedure described in Section 2.6.2.

2.6.1 The Two Optical Subassemblies

Depending on when you purchased your Dektak 6M profiler, it may be equipped with the Optical
Subassembly 1 (see Figure 2.6a ) or with the Optical Subassembly 2 (see Figure 2.6b and Figure
2.6c). Both optical subassemblies are installed using the same mounting hole.

40 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Installation
Installing the Optical Subassembly

Figure 2.6a Optical Subassembly 1, Fixed Optics

Figure 2.6b Screws on Optical Subassembly 2

IMount optics using 2 M-5


Screws

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 41


Installation
Installing the Optical Subassembly

Figure 2.6c Optics Subassembly 2, Zoom Optics

247A
Insert 3 M-5 Screws

2.6.2 Installation Procedure

To install the optical subassembly:

1. Turn off the Dektak 6M power.

2. Attach the optical subassembly to the mounting bracket on the Dektak 6M using the two
supplied M-5 screws for Optical Subassembly 1 (see Figure 2.6a) or the three supplied M-5
screws for Optical Subassembly 2 (see Figure 2.6c).

3. Connect the video coaxial cable connector to the back of the camera (see Figure 2.6d).
The correct mate for the BNC connector is marked “Video”.

Figure 2.6d Rear of Zoom Optics Camera

Video Coax
Cable Connector
248A

42 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Installation
Installing the LIS 3 Stylus

Figure 2.6e Tower Extension Cable Connection


Video Coax Cable Connector

Camera Power
Cable
Tower Extension
Cable

244
4. Connect the power cable on the camera to the power extension cable attached to the Dektak
6M tower (see Figure 2.6e).

See Optics Adjustment: Section 9.9 for the optics adjustment procedure.

2.7 Installing the LIS 3 Stylus


The Dektak 6M will arrive without a stylus installed. A small shipping bracket is used to provide
protection to the LIS 3 sensor pivot assembly against shipping vibration (see Figure 2.7a).

1. Remove the shipping bracket by unscrewing the two knobs.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 43


Installation
Environmental Enclosure

Figure 2.7a Shipping Bracket and Stylus Air Shield

245B
245C
Shipping Bracket in Place
(2 Views)

245A
Shipping Bracket

245D
Stylus Air Shield

2. Install the provided stylus using the stylus replacement fixture (see Stylus Replacement and
Tip Cleaning: Section 9.8).

3. Install the stylus air shield being careful to not touch the stylus.

2.8 Environmental Enclosure


The environmental enclosure protects the sample from outside environmental influences such as
noise vibrations and air currents. The enclosure is shipped fully assembled with all systems.

If your system is equipped with Stage Assembly 1, it includes the enclosure shown in Figure 2.8a.
If your system is equipped with Stage Assembly 2, it includes the enclosure shown in Figure 2.8b.

Note: For descriptions of the two stage assemblies, see Section 2.4.1.

44 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Installation
Environmental Enclosure

Figure 2.8a Enclosure 1 (Used with Stage Assembly 1)

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 45


PROPRIETARY RIGHTS of Digital Instruments, Inc. are REVISIONS
involved in the subject matter of this material and all
manufacturing, reproduction use and sales rights A 5/17/02 RM
pertaining to such subject matter are expressly
reserved. It is submitted in confidence for a B 6/6/02 JT
specificed purpose, and the recipient by accepting
this material agrees that the material will not be
used, copied or reproduced in whole or in part nor
its contents revealed in any manner or to any
person except to meet the purpose for which it was
delivered.

14 LABEL, VEECO 1
13 LABEL, DEKTAK 6M STYLUS PROFILER 1
12 SCREW, HEX SOC HD, M3 X 6MM LG 2
11 REAR, ENCLOSURE 1
10 TOP, ENCLOSURE 1
9 SCREW, 90 DEG FLAT HD, M4 X 20 MM 18
10 8 SCREW, 90 DEG FLAT HD, M3 X 006 12
3
7 BUMPER, RUBBER 2
6 FRONT, ANGLED, ENCLOSURE 1
5 FRONT, ENCLOSURE 1
11 4 DOOR, ENCLOSURE 1
14
3 RIGHT SIDE, ENCLOSURE 1
4
6 2 LEFT SIDE, ENCLOSURE 1
1 HINGE, ENCLOSURE 1
7 2X 1 ITEM TITLE QTY
12 2X NUMBER
12X 8 MATERIAL: DATE:
TOLERANCES: UNLESS OTHERWISE
112 Robin Hill Road
SPECIFIED 5/16/02
REMOVE ALL BURRS AND SHARP SEE P/L Digital Santa Barbara, CA 93117
PROJ. ENG. TEL: (805) 967-1400
2 DECIMALS EDGES.015 MAX.
HEAT TREAT: GRR Instruments FAX (805) 967-7717
SURFACE ROUGHNESS 63 MICROINCH
18X 9 .X = ±.1 RMS MAX. DRAWN TITLE
.XX = ±.01
N/A DM
ENCLOSURE ASSEMBLY,
13 .XXX = ±.005 ALL DIAMETERS TO BE CONCENTRIC
WITHIN.005 T.I.R. FINISH CHECK D6M
SIZE DRAWING NO. REV
ANGLES FILLET RADIUS .010 MAX. N/A
APPD
Figure 2.8b Environmental Enclosure 2 (Used with Stage Assembly 2)

5 THREADS CLASS 2. B B
X∞ = ± 1∞
ALL DIMENSIONS IN INCHES. NEXT ASSY SCALE SHEET
.X∞ = ± .5∞
ASSEMBLE FROM KIT DURING ONSITE INSTALLATION .XX∞ = ± .25∞ 1/4 1 OF 1
DO NOT SCALE DRAWING.
Installation
System Configuration

2.9 System Configuration


The Dektak 6M is comprised of four main components:

1. Profiler with Electronics Box (E-Box).

2. Environmental Enclosure.

3. Monitor (option).

4. Computer with Keyboard and Mouse.

It is possible to arrange these modular components in a number of configurations to suit your needs.
For example, the environmental enclosure enables you to position the monitor over the profiler to
reduce the overall footprint. Or, you can set the profiler on an isolation vibration platform, separate
from the monitor and computer, to isolate it from external vibration.

2.10 System Checkout


Once the appropriate cable connections are complete, turn on the power to the Dektak 6M to verify
that the system is operating properly. The Dektak 6M operating software was loaded onto the hard
disk at the factory prior to shipment. The use of the power bar (provided) allows all of the
components to power-up simultaneously with the flip of the single master power switch.

1. Verify the power switches on the monitor and profiler E-Box are in the “on” position.

2. If using a surge protector, verify the switch on the surge protector is also turned on before
turning on the master power switch located on the power bar.

3. Press and release the power switch on the front of the computer.

4. The computer starts up to the Windows Desktop. Double-click the Dektak 6M icon to run the
Dektak 6M software. The Dektak 6M Startup window displays on the monitor when
initialization is complete (see Figure 8.1a). “Ready” displays in the status line at the lower
left of the window.

5. Select Calibration > Stylus Force... from the menu bar to open the Force Calibration
dialog box (see Figure 8.6b). Use the slider in the Force DAC section to increase the DAC
Value to maximum. Observe and verify the stylus swings to the down position. Use the
slider to decrease the DAC Value to minimum. Observe and verify that the stylus moves to
the up position. Then click Cancel to close the dialog box.

6. Observe the bank of LEDs on the front of the E-Box. The expected state of each LED is
given in Figure 2.10a.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 47


Installation
Ceramic Vacuum Chuck (Option) Installation

Figure 2.10a LED Bank on E-Box


+5 V (normally ON)
+/-12 V (normally ON)
+24 V (normally ON)
Scan Back Limit Switch
Scan Forward Limit Switch
Scan Home Switch
Galil Error (normally OFF)
(not used) (normally ON)
Z Down (Tower) Limit Switch

124B
Z Up (Tower) Limit Switch

Note: A Limit or Home LED turns OFF when


the associated device activates its switch.

2.11 Ceramic Vacuum Chuck (Option) Installation


The ceramic vacuum chuck (Figure 2.11a) provides sample restraint for small samples, pieces of
samples and/or samples that are irregularly shaped. The ceramic vacuum chuck option includes the
specialized chuck and the associated vacuum tubing.

1. Place vacuum chuck assembly on the stage.

2. Use the vacuum tubing provided to connect the vacuum source to the vacuum chuck. Ensure
the vacuum tubing does not affect the scan stage motion.

3. Place the sample on the ceramic vacuum surface.

4. Position the stage for scanning.

Note: Disconnect the vacuum source to reposition or remove the sample.

48 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Installation
Ceramic Vacuum Chuck (Option) Installation

Figure 2.11a Ceramic Vacuum Chuck Assembly

Ceramic Vacuum
Surface
Vacuum Chuck

Scan Stage

226
Positioning Handles

Vacuum Connector

The optional vacuum chuck requires a minimum of 24" Hg. of vacuum.

1. Connect the facilities vacuum line (1/4" [6.35 mm] OD tubing) to the vacuum chuck air
connector.

Note: To connect the line, press it firmly into the fitting until it fully seats. The
facilities vacuum may now be turned on.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 49


Chapter 3 Basic Functions

This chapter details a step-by-step exercise for positioning the sample stage to measure the Veeco
calibration standard (option). This exercise helps you become familiar with the various sample
positioning features of the equipment, enabling you to quickly position samples for a large number
of automation programs. The 10 kÅ calibration standard (option) exercise continues in Chapter 4
and Chapter 5 in this manual. Chapter 4 describes single scan operation, and Chapter 5 describes
multiple scan operation. By completing the entire exercise, you will become well acquainted with
Dektak 6M basic operation procedures.

Note: If you did not purchase the 10 kÅ standard, use any suitable sample available.

This chapter includes the following topics:

• Software Interface: Section 3.1

• Start Sequence (Normal Usage): Section 3.2

• Sample Loading: Section 3.3

• Viewing the Sample: Section 3.4

• Power-down: Section 3.5

3.1 Software Interface


The Dektak 6M uses the following software interface and control devices:

3.1.1 Microsoft Windows Operating System

The Dektak 6M uses Microsoft Windows XP as the operating environment, allowing integration of
different tasks to increase efficiency and ease-of-use.

Dektak 6M operational tasks are organized into windows, pop-up dialog boxes and pull-down
menus. Virtually all Windows commands have equivalent keyboard shortcuts to provide full
Windows control, keyboard control, or a combination of both Windows and keyboard operation
(see Section 3.1.3).

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 51


Basic Functions
Software Interface

The Dektak 6M system contains all the software necessary to run a Dektak 6M.

With Windows XP, you can take advantage of these features of the Windows environment:

• Running multiple applications: You can run several applications under Windows at one
time and easily switch between them, creating an integrated work environment.

• Data exchange between applications: You can transfer data between Dektak 6M and
other standard Windows applications, files, directories, and disks, and control all
Windows-related tasks such as directory or file management and formatting disks.

Note: Operating the Dektak 6M under Windows XP indicates acceptance of the


Microsoft software license agreement. “Microsoft” and “Windows" are
registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. “Dektak” is a registered
trademark of Veeco.

3.1.2 Mouse

The standard Dektak 6M ships with a mouse, but you may also operate the system using a
trackball. Although a mouse (or trackball) could have multiple buttons, the Dektak 6M software
uses primarily the left button for selecting commands in most applications, and the right button for
opening context-sensitive menus.

Moving the mouse across a flat surface or spinning the trackball moves the pointer (the arrow on
the screen). To select a command, move the tip of the pointer until it rests on the desired command
and click the left button.

The following definitions are used throughout the rest of this manual:

• Pointing Device: Mouse.

• Point: Move the tip of the pointer until it rests on what you want to point to.

• Press: Hold down the left-most button.

• Click or Select: Quickly press and release the button.

• Drag: Hold down the button while moving the pointing device.

• Double-click: Click the button twice in rapid succession.

52 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Basic Functions
Software Interface

3.1.3 Keyboard Shortcuts

Numerous shortcut keystrokes are provided in the Dektak 6M software. Many of the shortcuts are
associated with menu items (see Chapter 8), while others perform the same functions as clicking
the mouse on certain items in the windows (see the tables below).

Note: Combination keystrokes are indicated by “+”. For example, “Ctrl+N” means
hold down the Ctrl key, press and release the N key, and then release the Ctrl
key.

Table 3.1a Keyboard Shortcuts For All Windows

Keyboard
Function
Key(s)
Esc (or A) Interrupts a scan or Multi-Scan program in progress.
Also, stops the tower-down motion.

Table 3.1b Keyboard Shortcuts For Data Plot Window

Keyboard
Function
Key(s)
Ctrl+R Selects the R cursor.

Ctrl+M Selects the M cursor.

Ctrl+F Toggles between fast and slow cursor movement speeds.

Ctrl+ (Right Moves the selected cursor to the right at the selected speed.
Arrow)
Ctrl+ (Left Moves the selected cursor to the left at the selected speed.
Arrow)
Ctrl+ (Up Increases the width of the selected cursor at the selected speed.
Arrow)
Ctrl+ (Down Decreases the width of the selected cursor at the selected speed.
Arrow)

Table 3.1c Keyboard Shortcuts For Sample Positioning Window

Keyboard
Function
Key(s)
(Up Arrow) Increases illumination on the sample.

(Down Arrow) Decreases illumination on the sample.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 53


Basic Functions
Software Interface

Table 3.1d Keyboard Shortcuts for Automation Program Summary Window

Keyboard
Function
Key(s)
Ctrl+I Includes the highlighted scan results in the table (if they have previously been
excluded).
Ctrl+X Excludes the highlighted scan results in the table from being re-run.

Ctrl+U Re-runs the scans that have not been excluded.

Assigning Analytical Functions to Keystrokes

Dektak 6M analytical functions can be assigned to the F11 and F12 function keys. This is useful if
certain analytical functions are used frequently. The procedure for assigning an analytical function
to a keystroke is described below. For a list of analytical functions and their descriptions, see
Chapter 6.

1. Click Setup > Configuration Settings... to display the Configuration Settings dialog box.
Select the Shortcuts folder (see Figure 3.1a).

Figure 3.1a Configuration Settings Dialog Box - Shortcuts Folder

144D

2. The Shortcuts folder allows an analytical function to be assigned to the F11 function key,
and another to the F12 function key. In the F11 or F12 box, select an analytical function
from the drop-down list to enter it into the box.

3. Click OK to assign the selected analytical functions to the function keys and close the dialog
box.

54 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Basic Functions
Start Sequence (Normal Usage)

Note: Click Apply instead of OK if you want to keep the dialog box open to select
other folders.

4. When a scan has been run and the profile is displayed in the the Data Plot window, the
selected analytical functions can be run with the F11 and F12 keys. The results of all
analytical functions performed will display in the Analytic Results section of the Data Plot
window. See Measuring and Entering Analytical Functions: Section 6.12.

3.2 Start Sequence (Normal Usage)


The following sections describe the basic procedure to start the Dektak 6M.

3.2.1 Power On

1. Verify that all three Dektak 6M power cables are connected to an external power source.

Note: Use a surge protector to guard against power surges.

2. Turn on the Dektak 6M by flipping the power switch located on the right side of the E-Box
(see Figure 3.2a).

Figure 3.2a Rear View of E-Box

Power Switch

E-Box
124A

3. Turn the monitor on by pressing the power button located on the front of the monitor in the
lower-right corner.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 55


Basic Functions
Start Sequence (Normal Usage)

4. Turn the computer on by pressing the power switch located on the front of the computer. The
computer will start up to the Windows desktop.

5. Double-click the Dektak 6M icon to run the Dektak 6M software. The Dektak 6M

sample stage will initialize and the Startup window will display. When initialization is
complete, the text “Ready” will display in the lower left corner of the window (see Figure
3.2b).

Note: When other Dektak 6M windows are displayed, select Window > Close All
Windows to redisplay the Startup window.

Figure 3.2b Startup Window

3.2.2 System Tray Quick-Access Menu

Whenever the Dektak 6M software is running, an icon (similar in appearance to the one that you
clicked to launch the software) appears in the system tray, located at the right side of the Windows
task bar. Right-click this icon to pop up a quick-access menu (see Figure 3.2c).

56 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Basic Functions
Start Sequence (Normal Usage)

Figure 3.2c Quick-Access Menu

See Run Menu: Section 8.3

See Profiler Menu: Section 8.4

See Help Menu: Section 8.8

File Menu: Section 8.2

Items in the menu allow you to run scans or automation programs, reset the hardware, examine the
software version and options, or close the program, all without having to navigate through the
windows and menus in the program itself.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 57


Basic Functions
Start Sequence (Normal Usage)

ATTENTION: If the Dektak 6M does not turn on following the power on


procedure, do the following before contacting the Veeco service
department:

• Verify all cables are properly connected and free of obvious


damage.

• Verify the power switch on the front of the computer is in the


ON ( | ) position.

• Verify all power cords are connected properly.

• Repeat the power on procedure.

ATTENTION: Si le Dektak 6M ne s’allume pas lors du démarrage, suivre les


indications suivantes avant de contacter Veeco:

• Vérifier que tous les cables sont correctement connectés et non


endommagés.

• Vérifier que l'interrupteur à l'avant de l'ordinateur est en


position 'ON' ( | ).

• Verifier que tous les fils électriques sont branches correctement


aux prises de courant

• Répéter la procédure de démarrage

ATTENTION: Falls sich das Dektak 6m mit dem beshriebenen Verfahren nicht
einschalten lassen sollte, überprüfen Sie die folgenden Punkte,
bevor Sie sich mit Veeco Metrology in Verbindung setzen:

• Überprüfen Sie, ob alle Kabel korrekt installiert wurden, und


daß sie keine offensichtlichen Schäden aufweisen.

• Vergewissern Sie sich, daß der Hauptschalter an der Frontseite


des Computers eingeschaltet ist ( | ).

• Vergewissern Sie sich, daß alle Kabel zur Stromversorgung


korrekt installiert wurden.

• Wiederholen Sie den Einschaltvorgang.

58 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Basic Functions
Sample Loading

3.3 Sample Loading


Prior to loading samples, verify that the stylus and optics tower are raised. Complete the following
procedure to load a sample:

1. Select Profiler > Tower Up from the system menu bar to raise the Dektak 6M stylus and
optics tower to its maximum height.

Figure 3.3a Profiler Menu

143A
ATTENTION: Raise the tower prior to loading samples to protect the stylus and
the sample from damage.

ATTENTION: Remonter la tour avant d’installer les échantillons pour protéger le


stylet et l’échantillon.

ATTENTION: Vor dem Auflegen einer Probe sollte die Abtastspitze nach oben
gefahren werden, um Abtastspitze und Probe vor einer möglichen
Beschädigung zu schützen.

2. If the optional environmental enclosure is installed, open the door.

3. Place the sample slightly off center as shown in Figure 3.3b and Figure 3.3c.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 59


Basic Functions
Sample Loading

Figure 3.3b Calibration Standard Placement, Stage Assembly 1

Figure 3.3c Calibration Standard Placement, Stage Assembly 2

Manually move the stage to align the stylus with the center of the calibration standard. You can
alter X-Y positioning manually by rotating the knobs on the front of the Dektak 6M. The left knob
controls positioning in the X direction, and the right knob controls positioning in the Y direction
(see Figure 3.3d).

60 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Basic Functions
Sample Loading

Figure 3.3d X-Y Positioning Knobs

Left Knob: Moves stage Right Knob: Moves stage


in the X direction in the Y direction

150A
Rotate Theta
Stage Leveling

Use the following procedures to move the stage:

• Left Knob: Clockwise moves stage to the right, counterclockwise moves stage to the
left.

• Right Knob: Clockwise moves the stage backward (away from the operator),
counterclockwise moves the stage forward (toward the operator).

4. You can control theta rotation by rotating the stage manually (see Figure 3.3d). Turn the
stage to the left to move the stage clockwise and to the right to move the stage
counterclockwise.

5. Select Window > Sample Positioning from the system menu bar (see Figure 3.3e) to display
the Sample Positioning window (see Figure 3.3f).

Figure 3.3e Window Menu, Sample Positioning


146A

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 61


Basic Functions
Sample Loading

Figure 3.3f Sample Positioning Window

Feature
Reticule

Cursor

Stylus
Reticule

Popup
menu

003A
6. Select Profiler > Tower Down to lower the optics tower toward the calibration standard.

CAUTION: As the tower lowers, verify the calibration standard is positioned


below the stylus. To stop the tower down motion, click the ABORT
icon in the software, or the ESC or A keys on the keyboard.

ATTENTION: Lorsque la tour du stylet descend, vérifier que l’étalon de


calibration est placé sous le stylet. Pour interrompre la descente de
la tour, cliquer sur l’icone correspondant dans le programme, ou
les touches ESC ou A sur le clavier.

VORSICHT: Vergewissern Sie sich, daß der Eichstandard unter der Abtastspitze
positioniert ist, wenn diese nach unten gefahren wird. Die
Abwärtsbewegung der Abtastspitze kann per Software über das
Symbol “ABORT” (Abbrechen) oder üeber die Tastatur - Tasten
“ESC” oder “A”, abgebrochen werden.

62 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Basic Functions
Viewing the Sample

7. Use the Sample Positioning window (see Figure 3.3f) to focus the optics on the calibration
standard. When the tower is far above the sample, you will not see the sample in the video/
graphics area. You must be close enough for the sample to be at least partially in focus and
for the LED to illuminate the sample.

3.3.1 Sample Access Zone

For larger samples such as wafers, the sample access zone is 20 mm along the X-axis and 80 mm
along the Y-axis (see Figure 3.3g). Rotate the sample stage to access the entire diameter of wafers
up to 150 mm.

Figure 3.3g Sample Access Zone

Access Zone 80mm

20mm

224

Wafer

3.4 Viewing the Sample


Once the sample is loaded, it is necessary to make a few adjustments for viewing. This section
details the following view functions:

• Lowering/Raising the Stylus: Section 3.4.1

• Optics Illumination Adjustment: Section 3.4.2

• Stylus Reticule Alignment: Section 3.4.3

• Feature Reticule Alignment: Section 3.4.4

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 63


Basic Functions
Viewing the Sample

3.4.1 Lowering/Raising the Stylus

Lowering the stylus onto the sample surface nulls the stylus LVDT and brings the sample into
focus. With the stylus lowered, you can properly align the stylus with the movable reticule.

1. Raise or lower the stylus using the toolbar icons (see Figure 3.4a) or the Profiler menu.
Click Profiler > Stylus Up or Profiler > Stylus Down (see Figure 3.4b).

Note: The Tower Up and Tower Down commands will raise or lower the entire
tower assembly which includes the video camera, illuminator and stylus
mechanism. The Stylus Up command lifts the stylus only. The Stylus Down
command slightly raises and then lowers the entire tower assembly until the
stylus touches the sample surface.

Figure 3.4a Stylus Movement Icons

Stylus Down Stylus Up

Figure 3.4b Profiler Menu, Stylus Down

143C

3.4.2 Optics Illumination Adjustment

During initial set up, you may have to adjust the position and angle of the LED illumination bulb
(see Figure 3.4d).

Note: Depending on when you purchased your Dektak 6M profiler, it may be


equipped with LED 1 (see Figure 2.6a ) or with LED 2 (see Figure 2.6c). The
position of both bulbs is adjusting in the same way.

64 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Basic Functions
Viewing the Sample

Figure 3.4c Adjustment Knobs: LED 1

Figure 3.4d Adjustment Knobs - LED 2

Housing
Knobs

LED
Mounting
Knobs LED
259A

Note:

To adjust the LED bulb position:

• Turn the knob at the side of the housing counterclockwise to loosen the LED
mounting.

• Adjust the position of the LED. You can slide the LED up and down within the
housing.

• Retighten the knob.

• Turn the two knobs on the front of the bulb housing counterclockwise to loosen the
housing.

• Adjust the housing. You can move the housing up and down, and rotate it slightly.

• Retighten the knobs.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 65


Basic Functions
Viewing the Sample

• Repeat any of the above steps as necessary to center the illumination around the
stylus.

After lowering the optics tower to focus the camera, adjust the illumination level of the video
image displayed on the Dektak 6M monitor using the toolbar icons (see Figure 3.4e), or the up and
down arrow keys on the keyboard.

Note: You can change the increment by which the illumination changes at each click.
See Illumination Page in Setup Menu: Section 8.5.

Note: The sample should be in focus whenever the system is nulled by lowering the
stylus onto the sample surface. If not, see Optics Adjustment: Section 9.9.

Figure 3.4e Illumination Adjustment Icons

Illuminate Less Illuminate More

3.4.3 Stylus Reticule Alignment

The stylus reticule may be aligned to a newly installed stylus, or to allow for tolerances in the stylus
head. If the stylus tip is not properly aligned with the reticule in the video/graphics area, adjust the
reticule position. The reticule provides a reference point when positioning the sample stage.
Because the stylus is raised off the surface during stage positioning, the reticule indicates where the
stylus will touch on the surface.

Note: During initial set up, you may need to adjust the camera position to position the
stylus within the stylus crosshair box. To adjust the camera position, see
Optics Adjustment: Section 9.9.

Complete the following procedure to align the reticule with the stylus tip:

1. In the Sample Positioning window, right-click the mouse to display the pop-up menu (see
Figure 3.4f).

66 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Basic Functions
Viewing the Sample

Figure 3.4f Sample Positioning Window Pop-up Menu

2. In the pop-up menu, click Stylus Reticule to display two options: Align and Reset.

• Align allows you to manually reposition the reticule.

• Reset repositions the reticule to the original default location in the center of the
screen.

3. Select Align to to display the crosshair box (see Figure 3.4g).

4. Align the crosshair with the stylus tip and then double-click the left mouse button.

5. In the dialog box that appears, click Yes to update the stylus reticule location, No to retry the
alignment, or Cancel to close the dialog box and return to the Sample Positioning window.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 67


Basic Functions
Viewing the Sample

Figure 3.4g Stylus Reticule Alignment

017A
3.4.4 Feature Reticule Alignment

The feature reticule is the smaller green reticule displayed in the Sample Positioning window (see
Figure 3.3f). Align the feature reticule with surface features away from the stylus to more
accurately position the stylus prior to scanning. Complete the following procedure for aligning the
feature reticule:

1. In the Sample Positioning window, move the pointing device to the desired location.

Note: For best results, align the feature reticule with a unique, easily recognizable
surface feature.

2. Once the cursor is properly aligned with the desired feature, click the right button on the
mouse.

68 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Basic Functions
Power-down

Figure 3.4h Update Alignment Reticule

019B
3. Click Update Alignment Reticule in the pop-up menu that appears (see Figure 3.4h). Click
Yes in the Confirmation dialog box that pops up to update the feature reticule alignment.
The feature reticule moves to the new location.

3.5 Power-down
The following section describes the procedures to power-down the Dektak 6M.

3.5.1 Power-down

1. Exit the Dektak software.

a. Select File > Exit from the menu bar.

2. Exit Windows XP.

a. Select Start > Shut Down. Click Shut Down in the dialog box that appears.

3. Turn off the power switch on the right side of the Dektak 6M E-Box.

4. Turn off the power switch at the front of the computer.

5. Turn off the power switches on the (optional) printer and the monitor.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 69


Chapter 4 Single Scan Operation

This chapter details a step-by-step exercise for performing routine step height measurements on the
10 kÅ calibration standard (optional). It is a continuation of the exercise begun in Chapter 3 of this
manual. The exercise teaches the user the basic operational skills required to program and run
simple scan routines. This chapter includes the following topics:

• Create a Single-Scan Automation Program: Section 4.1

• Enter Scan Length: Section 4.2

• Position Scan Start Location: Section 4.3

• Run a Scan Routine: Section 4.4

• Changing Units Before or After a Scan: Section 4.5

• Reference/Measurement Cursors: Section 4.6

• Stage Leveling: Section 4.7

• Software Leveling: Section 4.8

• Setting the Zero Point: Section 4.9

• Delta Average Step Height Measurement: Section 4.10

• Plot Magnification: Section 4.11

• Save Boundaries: Section 4.12

• Data Printout: Section 4.13

• Saving an Automation Program: Section 4.14

• Aborting an Operation: Section 4.15

The Dektak 6M operates via a mouse and keyboard. The user interface screens work in conjunction
with the mouse and keyboard. You may want to become familiar with the Dektak 6M user interface
by reading Chapter 3 prior to completing this exercise.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 71


Single Scan Operation
Create a Single-Scan Automation Program

4.1 Create a Single-Scan Automation Program


Prior to running a scan routine, you must first create an automation program. Automation programs
are files that contain all the necessary information for performing single- or multiple-scan routine
sequences. The procedure for creating a new single-scan automation program is described below.

1. In the Startup window, select File > New from the system menu bar or click the Create
New Automation Program icon to display the Automation Programs window containing
the default automation program (default.mp). See Figure 4.1a.

2. If you are currently in an automation program that has had changes made to it, a dialog box
will appear asking if you want to save your changes to the current automation program. Click
Yes to save the current automation program.

Note: Be aware that if the current automation program was previously loaded and
then modified, it will be saved under its original file name. If you want to
preserve the original automation program, first select File > Save As... at the
menu bar and choose a new file name for the modified program. Then select
File > New.

Note: If you select Window > Automation Programs from the system menu bar, the
current automation program will be opened (if there is one); otherwise, the
default automation program will be opened.

Figure 4.1a New Automation Program

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Single Scan Operation
Create a Single-Scan Automation Program

The Automation Program window contains a default scan routine. You can double-click the
highlighted scan routine (or select Window > Scan Routines from the system menu bar; or, click
the Switch to Scan Routines Window icon) to display the parameters for the scan routine in the
Scan Routines window (see Figure 4.1b).

Figure 4.1b Scan Routines Window with Default Scan Routine (#1 of 1)

You can edit the options for this automation program and add or modify scan routine parameters.
These features are discussed in more detail in Chapter 5.

3. You can save the automation program with selected parameters for specific scan operations.
See Saving an Automation Program: Section 4.14 for more information.

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Single Scan Operation
Enter Scan Length

4.2 Enter Scan Length


Use the following procedure to enter the scan length for the new automation program:

1. Select Window > Scan Routines from the system menu bar or click the Switch to Scan
Routines Window icon to display the Scan Routines window (see Figure 4.1b).

2. Click any of the nine underlined items in the Scan Parameters section to open the Scan
Parameters dialog box (see Figure 4.2a).

Figure 4.2a Scan Parameters

For this exercise, enter 1000 µm in the Length field (see Figure 4.2a).

3. Click OK to close the dialog box.

Note: Click Apply instead of OK to accept your entry and keep the Scan
Parameters dialog box open. You can adjust other scan parameters such as
scan ID, Duration, horizontal Resolution, Stylus Force and Measurement
Range (see Chapter 7).

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Position Scan Start Location

4.3 Position Scan Start Location


You must position the Dektak 6M scan start location manually. Because the magnification of the
standard optics is set, we know that the width of the video display in the Sample Positioning
window on the computer monitor is approximately 2.6 mm (2,600 µm). If our scan length is
1,000 µm, we know that this distance will be equal to 26 percent of the distance of the video image
on the monitor. You can use these numerical relationships to estimate scan lengths for any specific
scans you may wish to perform.

The narrow portion of the width of the “dog bone” on the calibration standard is approximately
200 µm (see Figure 4.3a). This portion, in the center of the calibration standard, is the NIST
(National Institute of Standards and Technology) traceable calibrated step height. The widest
portion of the dog bone is 1,000 µm.

Figure 4.3a Stylus Reticule Positioned Properly

Wide Portion:
y 1,000 µm
Dog Bone

Narrow Portion:
y 200 µm
Stylus Reticule
225

For this exercise, follow this procedure to enter the scan location.

1. Select Window > Sample Positioning to display the Sample Positioning window.

2. Use the X-Y Positioning Knobs (see X-Y Positioning: Page 12) at the front of the Dektak
6M to ensure the sample is positioned beneath the stylus.

3. Select Profiler > Tower Down.

4. Use the Illumination Adjustment icons to adjust the illumination to view the sample.

5. Position the stylus reticule to the left of the narrowest portion of the dog bone on the
calibration standard, so that the vertical line of the stylus reticule is parallel with the length of
the dog bone (see Figure 4.3a).

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Run a Scan Routine

4.4 Run a Scan Routine


1. Click the Run Currently Active Scan Routine icon, the F4 key, or select Run > Scan from
the menu to run a scan routine.

The following sequence of events occurs when you initiate a scan:

a. The Data Plot window displays with the scaled grid superimposed over the camera
view pane of the stylus and calibration standard.

b. The stylus lowers onto the surface. After a brief pause, the stage backs up slightly and
the scan commences. As the stylus scans across the calibration standard, the full scale
profile trace plots on the scaled grid in real time.

Note: Because the camera is mounted at the right side of the stage, during a scan the
video image shows the sample moving from right to left below the stylus. In
actuality, during a scan the scan stage is moving from front to back.

c. Once the scan is complete, the stylus lifts off the surface and the stage returns to the
location where the scan originated. The profiler then automatically replots and rescales.
The image displayed on the monitor should resemble Figure 4.4a.

Figure 4.4a Calibration Standard Profile

180A

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Changing Units Before or After a Scan

4.5 Changing Units Before or After a Scan


You can specify different units before or after a scan. After you have done this, the data plot, scan
parameters, measurement parameters, ranges, and Analytical Function calculations all appear in the
new units that you have specified.

You can toggle the type of notation between Fixed and Scientific. The system automatically
determines the number of decimal places as follows:

• Angstroms - no decimal places

• Microns - four decimal places

• Nanometers - one decimal place

To change units before or after a scan:

1. On the Setup menu, click Configuration Settings. The Configuration Settings window
appears.

2. Under User Interface, click Units. The All Units dialog box appears.

Figure 4.5a All Units Dialog Box

3. Make your changes to the Height (Z) and Notation settings.

4. Click OK.

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Single Scan Operation
Reference/Measurement Cursors

4.6 Reference/Measurement Cursors


The reference (R) cursor and measurement (M) cursor define the portion of the profile trace for
leveling or performing analytical functions. You can adjust the bandwidth at each cursor to average
the data points within the cursor’s bandwidth. This is useful for leveling and average step height
measurements.

4.6.1 Basic Cursor Positioning

Cursor positioning is critical for obtaining accurate results. The simplest way to reposition the
cursors is to use the mouse to drag the R and M cursors flags at the top of the cursors to new
positions in the data plot.

Selecting both R and M cursors allows you to reposition the cursors while maintaining the same
distance between them. Hold down the Ctrl key while dragging with the left mouse button on the R
or M cursor flag. Now, dragging either flag causes both cursors to move simultaneously.

Refer to the following sections for alternate procedures to position the cursors and increase/
decrease cursor bandwidth:

• Cursor Positioning Using Arrows: Section 4.6.3

• Numeric Entry Cursor Positioning: Section 4.6.4

For this exercise, use the default cursor band widths for leveling and measuring. To activate the
default cursor bands select Plot > Default Bands from the menu bar (see Figure 4.6a).

Note: To clear the cursor bandwidths, select Plot > Clear Bands

Figure 4.6a Setting Default Cursor Band Widths

R Cursor Band R Cursor M Cursor M Cursor Band

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Reference/Measurement Cursors

4.6.2 Setting Cursor Bandwidths

The simplest way to change the bandwidth of the cursors is to use the mouse to drag the double-
triangle handles at the bottom of the cursors to new widths in the data plot (see Figure 4.6b).

Note: When the cursors are near the edges of the plot, the handles might not be
visible.

To specify numerical values for the bandwidths, select Plot > Band Widths... from the menu bar
(see Figure 4.6b). Enter the desired values for the R and M cursor widths in the Set Band Widths
dialog box that pops up.

Figure 4.6b Setting Cursor Band Widths: Handle and Dialog Box

181B

R Cursor Bandwidth Handle

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Reference/Measurement Cursors

4.6.3 Cursor Positioning Using Arrows

The R. Cursor and M. Cursor sections (in the data plot box at the bottom of the window) indicate
the locations of the cursors and their bandwidths. The Å numbers in the box indicate the points at
which the cursors intercept the profile trace in relation to the vertical scale (see Figure 4.6c).

Figure 4.6c Data Plot Box

182A
Special cursor-control arrow buttons at the bottom-right of the data plot pane allow you to work
with the cursors (see Figure 4.6d). You can position the cursors by selecting a cursor, and then
clicking and holding the left and right arrow buttons. Similarly, you can increase or decrease the
selected cursor’s bandwidth by clicking the up and down arrow buttons.

Figure 4.6d Cursor-Control Arrows

Note: You can also use the arrow keys on the keyboard to position the selected cursor
and change its bandwidth. Hold down the CTRL key while you press the arrow
keys.

1. Click the red R button (or press CTRL+R) to select the reference cursor.

2. Click the green M button (or press CTRL+M) to select the measurement cursor.

3. Press the F button (or press CTRL+F) to move the cursors or change their bandwidths at high
speed. Press the F button (or press CTRL+F) again to move the cursors or change their
bandwidths at slow speed.

Note: After you have selected a cursor with the right or left cursor-control arrow, you
can double-click in the data plot pane to snap the selected cursor to the
horizontal location of the mouse pointer.

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Stage Leveling

4.6.4 Numeric Entry Cursor Positioning

The white boxes in the data plot box display the cursor position (Pos) in relation to the horizontal
scale, and their bandwidths (Width). See Figure 4.6c. Another way to alter cursor locations and
bandwidths is by using the keyboard to numerically enter new values in these boxes.

Note: For this exercise, the location of the R cursor should be set at 100 µm with the
M cursor at 900 µm.

1. Click in the upper white box indicating the R cursor horizontal Position. A blinking prompt
appears in the box.

2. Enter 100 using the keyboard and press ENTER. The R cursor repositions at 100 µm.

3. Click in the lower white box indicating the M cursor horizontal Position. A blinking prompt
appears in the box.

4. Enter 900 and press ENTER. The M cursor repositions at 900 µm.

The ASH section displays the vertical difference between the points at which the R and M cursors
intercept the profile trace. The Distance section below it displays the horizontal distance between
the cursors.

4.7 Stage Leveling


Manual coarse leveling is an important aspect of the Dektak 6M operation. The closest possible
manual leveling will ensure the best instrument performance. The manual leveling thumbwheel,
located below the front of the stage, levels the stage about a pivot axis directly centered below the
stylus (see Figure 4.7a).

Figure 4.7a Stage Leveling Thumbwheel


150A

Thumbwheel

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Single Scan Operation
Software Leveling

This allows for sample surfaces not parallel to the reference surface block to be leveled
(perpendicular to the stylus). The procedure for manually leveling the stage is described below.

1. Stage leveling can be performed while a scan is in progress to view the affect of leveling on
the profile trace in real time. To run a scan, click Run > Scan.

2. As the stage is moving and a trace is being generated on the screen, turn the leveling
thumbwheel until the profile trace is tracking in a horizontal line. Clockwise rotation raises
the trace and counterclockwise will lower the trace.

3. Again click Run > Scan. The profile must appear totally within the graphic boundaries to
achieve the minimum acceptable manual leveling. If not, repeat the manual leveling
procedure above.

Note: For maximum performance of this instrument, it is very important to position


the sample surface to within +/-0.01º of level.

To verify that the maximum possible level has been obtained, the cursors should be placed to
intersect the same horizontal plane.

The Slope analytical function can be used to determine to what degree the stage is out of level (see
Geometry Parameters: Section 6.5). The slope of the trace between the cursors will be displayed
in degrees. This angle indicates the amount that the trace is out of level. If the angle is greater than
+/-0.01º, repeat the above steps to obtain minimum possible slope/maximum possible level.

Note: If the trace is extremely out of level, change the measurement range to the
maximum range of 2,620 kÅ. Level the trace as described above, change to a
lower range and repeat the procedure until leveled.

4.8 Software Leveling


Although the stage may have been manually leveled, ensuing scans may show the profile trace
slightly tilted. Software leveling allows the system to quickly level the profile trace without
actually having to completely level the stage. You must software level the profile trace in order to
obtain accurate step height measurements or accurate readings from analytical functions. Software
leveling sets the reference and measurement cursors at zero to establish reference for
measurements.

Complete the following procedure to software level a trace:

1. Position the R and M cursors along the baseline of the step.

2. Click the Level icon, press F7, or select Plot > Level from the system menu bar. The profile
trace will replot and level with the R and M cursor intercepts at zero (see Figure 4.8a).

You can also program software leveling into the scan routine to level the trace automatically at the
conclusion of the scan by selecting Edit > Enter Software Leveling. For more information see
Software Leveling: Section 7.2.1.

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Single Scan Operation
Setting the Zero Point

Figure 4.8a Cursor Positioning for Software Leveling

Baseline

4.9 Setting the Zero Point


You may select any point on the profile trace as the zero point. The zero point is the point of
reference from which all measurements are taken. Software leveling sets both the R and M cursor
intercepts at zero. However, when the Zero function is activated, it sets the zero point only at the R
cursor intercept.

1. Position the R (reference) cursor at the desired zero location.

2. Select Plot > Zero (or press F8 on the keyboard) to automatically replot the profile trace and
establish the zero point at the R cursor intercept (see Figure 4.9a).

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Single Scan Operation
Delta Average Step Height Measurement

Figure 4.9a Setting the Zero Point

Zero Point

4.10 Delta Average Step Height Measurement


Once you run the scan routine and properly level and zero the profile, you can obtain an accurate
step height measurement of the calibration standard using the delta average step height analytical
function. Analytical functions are calculated using the R and M cursors. The cursor positions
shown in Figure 4.10b are correct for the delta average step height calculation, with the R cursor at
the base of the step and the M cursor at the top of the step.

Complete the following procedure to calculate the delta average step height:

1. Click the Analytical Functions icon or select Analysis > Analytical Functions to display
the Analytical Functions dialog box (see Figure 4.10a).

2. In the Height section, select ASH to activate the delta average step height function.

3. In the Band Widths dialog box that pops up, you can enter new bandwidth values or accept
the values displayed. Click OK.

4. Click the Measure radio button located at the bottom of the Analytical Functions dialog
box.

Note: The Measure and Program radio button would enter the ASH function into
the current scan routine to be performed automatically when the current scan
routine runs again.

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Plot Magnification

Figure 4.10a Analytical Functions Dialog Box for Data Plot Window

186A
5. Click the COMPUTE button to calculate the average step height. The value displays in the
Analytic Results area to the left of the data plot pane (see Figure 4.10b).

Figure 4.10b Step Height Measurement

185B

4.11 Plot Magnification


Once you run the scan and plot the profile trace, a portion of the data plot display can be isolated
and magnified for more detailed analysis of the profile trace.

1. To magnify an area of interest, move the mouse pointer into the data plot grid.

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Single Scan Operation
Save Boundaries

2. Move the pointer to one corner of the area of the data plot pane you want magnified and left-
click on that location. Hold down the mouse button.

3. Drag the pointer device away from the first corner at a diagonal to expand the box.

4. Release the mouse button when the box covers the area of interest. For this exercise, the
boundaries should look similar to those shown in Figure 4.11a. In the Plot menu that now
pops up, you can choose Replot, to replot the profile trace with the new boundaries (similar
to Figure 4.12a).

Note: Click the REPLOT icon or select Plot > Replot from the menu bar if you want
to replot and display the original profile trace.

Figure 4.11a Plot Magnification

187A

4.12 Save Boundaries


Complete the following procedure to save the new set of boundaries:

1. Select Plot > Save Boundaries to display a dialog box requesting an identification number
under which to save the boundaries (see Figure 4.12a).

Note: You may use any number between 1 and 9.

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Save Boundaries

2. Enter an identification number for the plot boundaries using the keyboard (for this exercise
enter 1).

3. Click OK to clear the dialog box and save the current boundaries in memory under
identification number 1.

Note: If previous boundaries were saved under identification number 1, the new
boundaries replace the old.

4.12.1 Showing Saved Boundaries

1. Select Plot > Show Boundaries to display the saved boundaries.

Note: All of the boundaries currently saved in memory will display on the data plot
pane along with their identification number.

Figure 4.12a Save Boundaries

188A

4.12.2 Restoring Saved Boundaries

The restore function allows you to replot the profile trace displayed on the data plot screen using a
set of boundaries saved in memory.

1. Select Plot > Restore from the menu bar to display a dialog box requesting the identification
number of the desired boundaries to be restored (see Figure 4.12b).

2. Enter the identification number using the keyboard. (For this exercise, enter 1.)

3. Click OK to replot the current scan trace using the saved boundaries.

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Single Scan Operation
Data Printout

Figure 4.12b Restoring Saved Boundaries

189A
4.13 Data Printout
You may obtain a printout of all the scan data with the plotted profile, a summary of the scan data,
the scan routine form, the automation program form, the expanded APS form and the automation
program summary, using a Windows-compatible printer.

• Select File > Print, press CTRL+P, or press the F10 key, to display a standard Windows
dialog box listing various printer options.

or

• Click the PRINT icon to produce a printout on the currently active printer.

Note: Drivers for the Windows-compatible printer must be installed before use.

4.14 Saving an Automation Program


You may store an automation program on the Dektak 6M hard disk or on a diskette to open, rerun,
or alter the automation program at a later time. For the purpose of this exercise, follow the
procedure described below to save the automation program created in this chapter exercise onto the
C drive.

1. Click the Automation Program icon or select Window > Automation Programs from the
system menu bar to display the Automation Programs window (see Figure 4.14a).

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Saving an Automation Program

Figure 4.14a Automation Programs Window

Select File > Save As from the Automation Program window menu bar to display the Save
Dektak Data or Program dialog box (see Figure 4.14b).

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Single Scan Operation
Aborting an Operation

Figure 4.14b Save Dektak Data or Program Dialog Box

191A
2. Enter the file name and file type (for this exercise you can accept the file name
’Default.mp’).

3. Click Save.

Note: The dialog box closes and the Automation Program is now saved on the hard
disk under the designated file name.

4.15 Aborting an Operation


To abort a Dektak 6M operation, select the Abort icon or press the ESC or A key on the keyboard.

90 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Chapter 5 Multiple Scan Operation

This chapter continues the exercise introduced in Chapters 3 and 4 using the optional 10 kÅ
calibration standard. By building on the experience gained in creating and performing a single scan
operation, you can use the Dektak 6M to produce complex multi-scan sequences. Chapter 5
discusses the following items:

• Automation Program Description: Section 5.1

• Opening a New Automation Program: Section 5.2

• Editing an Automation Program: Section 5.3

• Program Entry: Section 5.4

• Editing Scan Routines: Section 5.5

• Automation Program Options: Section 5.6

• Exporting a Scan Data Plot: Section 5.7

5.1 Automation Program Description


The automation program is the basis for all operations performed on the Dektak 6M. Automation
programs are stored in files on the hard disk, giving the Dektak 6M ample program storage
capability. Basic knowledge of Microsoft Windows commands will help in understanding and
creating automation programs. For more information, see the Microsoft Windows XP operating
system user guide and user reference.

The Automation Program window displays the current scan routines along with their data
destination options. This window allows you to program the Dektak 6M for performing multi-scan
operations at various locations on a sample or the same location on multiple samples.

The Automation Program window menu bar contains File and Edit menus items not available in
other windows. These menus are described in further detail in Chapter 8.

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Opening a New Automation Program

5.2 Opening a New Automation Program


For the purpose of the exercise, open a new automation program to create a multi-scan automation
program.

1. In the Startup window, select File > New from the system menu bar or click the Create
New Automation Program icon to display the Automation Programs window containing
the default automation program (default.mp). See Figure 5.2a.

2. If you are currently in an automation program that has had changes made, a dialog box will
appear asking if you want to save your changes to the current automation program. Click Yes
to save the current automation program.

Note: Be aware that if the current automation program was previously loaded and
then modified, it will be saved under its original file name. If you want to
preserve the original automation program, first select File > Save As... at the
menu bar and choose a new file name for the modified program. Then select
File > New.

Note: If you select Window > Automation Programs from the system menu bar, the
current automation program will be opened (if there is one); otherwise, the
default automation program will be opened.

Figure 5.2a New Automation Program

120A

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Multiple Scan Operation
Editing an Automation Program

5.3 Editing an Automation Program


The procedure below describes how to copy a current scan routine to create an automation program
containing multiple scan routines. An automation program may contain up to 10,000 scan routines;
however, for the purpose of the exercise, you will create an automation program containing three
scan routines.

1. Click the Copy to Range icon or select Edit > Copy To Range to display a dialog box for
entering the lower and upper limits of the range (see Figure 5.3a).

Figure 5.3a Copy to Range Dialog Box

125A
Note: The flashing insertion point appears in the field labeled To Scan Routine #.

2. Enter a numerical value into the field (enter 2 for the exercise).

3. Click on the field below labeled Through Scan Routine #.

4. Enter a numerical value into the field (enter 4 for the exercise).

5. Click OK.

Note: The current scan routine 1 copies to scan routines 2, 3 and 4 (listed in the Scan
Routines area at the right side of the Automation Program window). Scan
routine 2 is now the current scan routine.

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Multiple Scan Operation
Program Entry

5.4 Program Entry


The scan routine is identified in the Scan Routines area by three entries: the left number is the scan
number, the center entry is the Scan Type and the right number is the Scan Length in µm (see
Figure 5.4a).

Figure 5.4a Scan Routines Area

233A

Double-click any of the scans listed in the Scan Routines area to open the Scan Routines window
to display the parameters for that scan routine.

All four scan routines in your current automation program have the same values. You can enter new
values for each scan routine using the functions described below in the Scan Routines windows.

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Multiple Scan Operation
Program Entry

5.4.1 Scan Routines Window

The Scan Routines window allows you to edit the scan parameters and display parameters, and
choose data processing settings, for each scan routine in your automation program (see Figure
5.4b). The scan routine number is shown in the title bar at the top of the window, as well as the total
number of scan routines in the automation program.

Figure 5.4b Scan Routines Window

The scan routine shown in the Scan Routines window is the routine that was selected (highlighted)
in the Automation Program window. There are several ways to display the other scan routines
(without returning to the Automation Program window).

• Click the Previous Scan Routine icon or the Next Scan Routine icon to display the
previous or next scan routine, respectively.

• Select Edit > Previous or Edit > Next at the menu bar to display the previous or next
scan routine, respectively.

• Press CTRL+< or CTRL+> on the keyboard to display the previous or next scan routine,
respectively.

• Select Edit > GoTo... at the menu bar (or press CTRL+G) to open the Go To dialog box,
where you can type in a scan routine number. Then press the ENTER key.

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Multiple Scan Operation
Editing Scan Routines

5.5 Editing Scan Routines


You use the Scan Parameters for Routine # dialog box to make changes to an existing scan
routine.

5.5.1 Scan Parameters

Select any of the parameters in the Scan Parameters section of the Scan Routines window to
open the Scan Parameters for Routine # dialog box (see Figure 5.5a). Use this dialog box to enter
new values such as the scan length or duration for the scan routine.

Note: You can use the << and >> buttons in this dialog box to display and change the
parameters for the previous and next scan routines, respectively.

Figure 5.5a Scan Parameters for Routine #: 2 of 4 Dialog Box

5.5.2 Display Parameters

Select any of the parameters in the Display Parameters section of the Scan Routines window to
open the Display Parameters dialog box (see Figure 5.5b). Use this dialog box to enter new values
such as the cursor positioning or display range for the scan routine.

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Multiple Scan Operation
Editing Scan Routines

Figure 5.5b Display Parameters Dialog Box

5.5.3 Data Processing Settings

Select either of the entries in the Data Processing section of the Scan Routines window to open
the Data Processing Parameters dialog box (see Figure 5.5c). Use this dialog box to choose
values for filters and smoothing.

Note: Entering a value of zero (0) disables the function.

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Multiple Scan Operation
Editing Scan Routines

Figure 5.5c Data Processing Parameters Dialog Box

For details on filters, see: For details on smoothing, see:


Determining the Cutoff Wavelength: 6.7 Smoothing: 6.15
Activating the Cutoff Filters: 6.8 Activating the Smoothing Function: Section 6.16
Entering Filter Cutoffs into a Scan Routine: 6.9 Entering Smoothing into a Scan Routine: 6.17

5.5.4 Analytical Functions

Select Edit > Append Analytical Functions to open the Analytical Functions dialog box. Use
this dialog box to select the analytical functions to be appended to the scan routine. See : Chapter 6
for details.

Note: If you want to append the same analytical functions to all of the scan routines in
your automation program, you can save time by using the Global Edit Mode,
described in the next section.

5.5.5 Global Editing of Scan Routine Parameters

You can change individual scan parameters within each scan routine of an automation program at
any time. Use the Global Edit Mode to edit the parameters of all the scan routines simultaneously
within the automation program.

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Multiple Scan Operation
Editing Scan Routines

To become familiar with the Global Edit Mode, follow the steps in the exercise given below. (It is
assumed you are still working with your new automation program containing four scan routines.)

1. Select Window > Scan Routines to display the Scan Routines window. The highlighted
scan routine is displayed. (It does not matter which one.)

2. Click the Global Edit icon or select Edit > Global Edit Mode.

Note: A Global Edit Warning dialog box pops up to emphasize that Global Edit
Mode affects all of the scans in the current automation program. Click YES to
continue. A global edit symbol (similar to the icon) is displayed in the status bar
at the bottom of the window:

3. Click an entry in the Display Parameters section to open the Display Parameters dialog
box (see Figure 5.5b).

4. Click the Automatic Leveling check box.

5. Enter 50 into each Cursor Width box.

6. Click OK to close.

7. Select Edit > Append Analytical Functions to display the Analytical Functions options.

8. In the R cursor box enter 300.

9. In the M cursor box enter 900.

10. Under Height Parameters, click the ASH check box.

11. In the Band Widths dialog box that pops up, enter 50 for each cursor width, and click OK
(see Figure 5.5d).

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Multiple Scan Operation
Editing Scan Routines

Figure 5.5d Analytical Functions Dialog Box for the Scan Routines Window

186C
12. Click Add to append the analytical function (see Figure 5.5e).

Figure 5.5e Analytical Function Appended

13. Click Done when finished.

14. Select Edit > Global Edit Mode to disable Global Edit Mode.

15. Display each scan routine in turn, and notice that all four scan routines have been modified.

16. Select File > Save As...

17. Enter the desired file location and file name. The path of the file location is C:\Program
Files\Veeco\Dektak32\Programs\, unless you have changed it (see Section 8.5).

Note: You must include the file name extension “.mp”.

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Automation Program Options

5.6 Automation Program Options


You can select various options for the automation program to be performed at the conclusion of
each scan routine (see Figure 5.6a).

Figure 5.6a Automation Programs Window: Automation Programs Options Section:

258A
Several data-destination options are available in the Dektak application:

• Data File, Data Export;

• Automation Program Summary (APS) File, APS Export;

• Printer Output

In addition, a Timing option allows you to pause before each scan until you decide to continue, or
specify a time delay between scans.

The procedure to select these options is described on the following pages.

5.6.1 Data File/Data Export

The data file and data export options allow you to save the data plot from the scan routine just
concluded either as a Dektak data file or as ASCII data on the Dektak 6M hard disk, the network, or
portable media. You can re-display the plotted profile at a later date for further analysis.

When you save your data using the Data File option, the system always saves it as a *.dat file or
other listed file type. This file type, which is not user-definable, allows you to open the file in the
Dektak program.

When you save your data using the Data Export option, you can export it as a *.csv file that can be
opened in other data-processing programs.

Note: You can also save scan data using the Export ASCII Data dialog box as
described in Exporting a Scan Data Plot: Section 5.7.

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Automation Program Options

1. In the Automation Programs window, click Data File or Data Export in the Automation
Program Options section to display the General page in the Automation Program
Options dialog box.

Figure 5.6b Automation Program Options Dialog Box: General Page

177A
2. In the Scan Data section, you have the following choices:

• Accept the default file to save the scan data.

Note: Unless otherwise specified, data automatically saves to the Default data file in
the Dektak32\Data\Default folder on the C: drive.

• Click the button to open the Select a Data File dialog box where you can select a data
file or specify a new one. (For the exercise, enter Exercise.dat in the File name field.
Then click Save to close the dialog box.)

• Check the box Select At Run Time, which allows you to wait until the scan has run
before you choose the file to save the scan data.

3. Under Export in the Scan Data section, you have the following choices:

• Check the box None, which prevents ASCII scan data from being exported.

• Check the box Select At Run Time, which allows you to wait until the scan has run
before you choose the file to save the exported ASCII scan data.

• Click the button to open the Specify a File dialog box where you can select a text file or
specify a new one for your exported ASCII scan data.

4. In the Auto Program Summary (APS) section, you have the following choices:

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• Leave the boxes unchecked, which prevents APS data from being saved.

• Check the box Compute & Display, which selects the default file to save the APS data
that will be computed. You can click the button to open the Select a Data File dialog
box where you can select a text file or specify a new one for your APS data.

• Check the box Select At Run Time, which allows you to wait until the scan has run
before you choose the file to save the APS data.

Note: See Enabling Automation Program Summary (APS): Section 5.6.2, for
additional information and an exercise.

5. Under Export in the Auto Program Summary (APS) section, you have the following
choices:

• Check the box None, which prevents ASCII APS data from being exported.

• Check the box Select At Run Time, which allows you to wait until the scan has run
before you choose the file to save the exported ASCII APS data.

• Click the button to open the Specify a File dialog box where you can select a text file or
specify a new one for your exported ASCII APS data.

6. When you have finished, click OK to close the Automation Program Options dialog box.

Note: Click Apply instead of OK if you want to keep the dialog box open to make
other selections.

Opening Saved Scan Data Plot

For the purpose of the exercise, you will run the current automation program to demonstrate how
the data file option saves data plots to the selected filename.

1. Click the Run Automation Program icon or select Run > Auto Program to run the
automation program and save the data plot.

2. Select File > Open at the conclusion of the automation program to retrieve the data plots
through the Load Dektak Data or Program File dialog box (see Figure 5.6c).

3. Under Files of type, confirm that Scan Data has been selected.

Note: A directory listing of the saved data plots appears. The data plot from scan
routines 1, 2, 3 and 4 are filed under Exercise.001.dat, Exercise.002.dat,
Exercise.003.dat, and Exercise.004.dat, respectively.

4. Select Exercise.001.dat and click OPEN to redisplay the data plot from scan routine 1.

Note: The data plot from scan routine 1 replots and redisplays.

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Figure 5.6c Load Dektak Data or Program File Dialog Box: Scan Data

5.6.2 Enabling Automation Program Summary (APS)

The Automation Program Summary (APS) Option provides a summary and listing of the analytical
function results for an automation program. If your system includes the Advanced Automation
Program Summary (Advanced APS) Option, you have another APS output option: During each
scan, you can display a real-time plot that shows user-set upper and lower pass/fail criteria versus
the actual scan results. See Appendix A for the description and part number of the Advanced APS
option. For instructions on using this option, see Appendix F.

Note: All scan routines within the automation program must have identical scan
routine parameters before the automation program summary can be computed.
This may be accomplished using the global edit mode in the Scan Routines
window.

For the exercise, do the following:

1. Click the Automation Programs icon or select Window > Automation Programs to
display the Automation Program window.

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2. In the Automation Programs Options section, click APS File to display the General page
in the Automation Program Options dialog box (see Figure 5.6b).

3. In the Auto Program Summary (APS) section of the General page, check the box
Compute & Display. Then click the button to open the Select a Data File dialog box.

4. In the File name field, enter the filename Exercise for your APS data. (The extension .aps
will be added automatically.) Click Select to close the dialog box.

5. In the Automation Program Options dialog box, select the Extended page (see Figure
5.6g).

6. Check the box Print APS to produce a printout of the automation program summary. Click
OK to close the Automation Program Options dialog box.

7. Select Run > Auto Program to run the current automation program and compute, display,
print, and save the automation program summary.

5.6.3 Automation Program Summary Window

The Automation Program Summary window provides data in tabular form on the just concluded
automation program (see Figure 5.6d).

• The items in the bar above the table include: automation program filename, number of
scan routines (at the far right side of the bar--not shown in the figure), and automation
program start time and date.

• The column headings display the locations of the reference and measurement cursors for
each analytical function.

• The first five row headings provide the mean, standard deviation, minimum, maximum,
and range of the analytical function for all the scan routines.

• The remaining items in the table provide the individual analytical function results for
each scan routine.

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Figure 5.6d Automation Program Summary Window

Figure 5.6e Automation Program Summary Window - Examples

Scans Selected (a) Scans Excluded (b)

Excluding Selected Scans

Use the following procedure to exclude selected scan results from the calculations displayed in the
first five rows.

1. Left-click the mouse on a row containing scan-routine results to be excluded.

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• Use the CTRL key on the keyboard along with the left mouse button to select
multiple rows.

• Use the SHIFT key on the keyboard along with the left mouse button to select two
rows and all of the rows in between.

The selected scan row(s) will be highlighted (see Figure 5.6e - screen a).

Note: You can use the CTRL key on the keyboard along with the left mouse button on
a row that has been selected if you want to de-select it.

2. Select Edit > Exclude from the menu bar. Alternatively, you can:

• Click the Exclude icon in the toolbar.

• Press CTRL+X on the keyboard.

• Right-click the mouse on a highlighted row and select Exclude from the pop-up
menu.

3. The excluded scan rows will display grayed-out data (see (see Figure 5.6e - screen b), and
the calculations in the first five rows will not include the data from those rows.

4. You can change any rows from excluded to included status by selecting the rows as
described above. Then select Edit > Include from the menu bar. Alternatively, you can:

• Click the Include icon in the toolbar.

• Press CTRL+I on the keyboard.

• Right-click the mouse on a highlighted row and select Include from the pop-up
menu.

Re-Running Selected Scans

Use the following procedure to re-run certain scan routines if desired, without re-running the entire
automation program.

1. Left-click the mouse on a row containing scan-routine results to be re-run. (It does not matter
if the row has previously been excluded.)

• Use the CTRL key on the keyboard along with the left mouse button to select
multiple rows.

• Use the SHIFT key on the keyboard along with the left mouse button to select two
rows and all of the rows in between.

• Press CTRL+A on the keyboard to select every scan row.

2. The selected scan row(s) will be highlighted (see Figure 5.6e).

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3. Select Edit > Re-run Scans from the menu bar. Alternatively, you can:

• Click the Re-run Scans icon in the toolbar.

• Press CTRL+U on the keyboard.

• Right-click the mouse on the highlighted row and select Re-run Scans from the
pop-up menu.

Note: Be sure not to click Run. That will run all of the scans, regardless of your
exclusions.

4. The automation program will run all of the scan routines that were highlighted, and the new
data will be displayed in the Automation Program Summary window in those rows. The
calculations displayed in the first five rows will be updated.

Note: Use the above procedures only on summary data that has just been acquired.
Re-running scans with APS data that has been loaded from a file would
produce meaningless results.

Printing, Loading or Saving APS Files

1. Click the Automation Program Summary icon or select Window > Auto Prog Summary
to display the automation program summary.

2. Select File > Print > Auto Program Summary (APS) to print an automation program
summary.

3. Select File > Open to open the Load Dektak Data or Program File dialog box (see Figure
5.6f).

Note: A listing of the files saved under the .aps file extension will display.

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Figure 5.6f Load Dektak Data or Program File Dialog Box: APS Data

195A
4. Click the desired filename and click Load.

5. Select File > Save or File > Save As to save an automation program summary to a file from
the APS Window.

6. Enter the desired filename in the dialog box that pops up and click Save.

5.6.4 Printer

Note: This section applies only if a printer is connected to the computer or the
network. The printer may require setup before the initial use (see Section 5.7).

1. In the Automation Programs window, click Data File or Data Export in the Automation
Program Options section to display the General tab of the Automation Program Options
dialog box.

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Automation Program Options

Figure 5.6g Automation Program Options, General Tab

2. In the Scan Data section, you have the choices listed below:

• Accept the default file to save the scan data.

Note: Unless otherwise specified, data automatically saves to the Default data file in
the Dektak32\Data\Default folder on the C: drive.

• Click the button to open the Select Data File dialog box where you can select a data file
or specify a new one. For this exercise, enter Exercise.dat in the file name field. Then
click Save to close the dialog box. Leave the other options at their default settings.

• Select the Select At Run Time check box, which allows you to wait until the scan has
run before you choose the file to save the scan data.

3. In the Export section, you have the choices listed below:

• Select the None check box, which prevents ASCII scan data from being exported.

• Select the Select At Run Time check box, which allows you to wait until the scan has
run before you choose the file to save the exported ASCII scan data.

• Click the button to open the Specify File dialog box where you can select a text file or
specify a new one for your exported ASCII scan data. The Additional Options section

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Automation Program Options

in this dialog box allows you to choose either tabs or commas as data delimiters, and to
specify whether to overwrite or append data when using an existing file.

4. In the Auto Program Summary (APS) section, you have the following choices:

• Leave both check boxes cleared, which prevents APS data from being saved.

• Select the Compute & Display check box, which selects the default file to save the
APS data that will be computed. You can click the button to open the Select Data File
dialog box, where you can select a text file or specify a new one for your APS data.

• Select the Select At Run Time check box, which allows you to wait until the scan has
run before you choose the file to save the APS data.

Note: See Enabling Automation Program Summary (APS): Section 5.6.2, for
additional information and an exercise.

5. In the Export section, you have the following choices:

• Select the None check box, which prevents ASCII APS data from being exported.

• Select the Select At Run Time check box, which allows you to wait until the scan has
run before you choose the file to save the exported ASCII APS data.

• Click the button to open the Specify File dialog box, where you can select a text file or
specify a new one for your exported ASCII APS data.

6. When you have finished, click OK to close the Automation Program Options dialog box.

5.6.5 Pause During Autoprogram

In the Automation Programs window, click Timing in the Automation Program Options section
to display the Extended tab in the Automation Program Options dialog box (see Figure 5.6g).

The Timing section allows you to program a pause or time delay between each scan routine to
allow the operator time to visually inspect or record scan data. Three options are available: No
Pause During Processing, Adjust Position Before Each Scan, and Delay.

• When you select No Pause During Processing, all scan routines within the automation
program run one right after another.

• When you select Adjust Position Before Each Scan, the system stops after each scan
routine to allow you to make any necessary adjustments to the sample position. Select
Run > Continue to move to the next scan routine in sequence contained in the
automation program.

• Finally, the Delay selection permits you to type in a time delay in seconds between
scans.

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Exporting a Scan Data Plot

5.7 Exporting a Scan Data Plot


Rather than using the automation program export functions as described in Data File/Data
Export: Section 5.6.1, you can export one or more data plots using the Export ASCII Data dialog
box. If you specify the short pass filter and the long pass filter that generate roughness and
waviness scan data, you can export that data along with the raw data. For more information, see
Display Parameters: Section 5.5.2.

1. Click the Export Scan Data icon or select File > Export. The Export ASCII Data dialog
box appears.

Figure 5.7a Export ASCII Data Dialog Box

2. Click the Data folder and navigate to the file(s) you want to export.

3. In the Save in field, Navigate to the location where you want to save the files.

4. Make your selections in the Additional Options section.

5. Click Export.

Opening Saved Scan Data Plot

For the purpose of this exercise, you will run the current automation program to demonstrate how
the data file option saves data plots to the selected filename.

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Exporting a Scan Data Plot

1. Click the Run Automation Program icon or select Run > Auto Program to run the
automation program and save the data plot.

2. Select File > Open at the conclusion of the automation program to retrieve the data plots
through the Load File dialog box (see Figure 5.6c).

3. Under Files of type, confirm that Auto has been selected. This displays all stored Dektak
files, including data and program files.

Note: The data plot from scan routines 1, 2, 3 and 4 are filed under Exercise.001.dat,
Exercise.002.dat, Exercise.003.dat, and Exercise.004.dat, respectively.

4. Select Exercise.001.dat and click OPEN to replot and redisplay the data plot from scan
routine 1.

Figure 5.7b Load File Dialog Box

To open a Dektak scan in Wyko®, Vision®, see Appendix D.

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Chapter 6 Analytical Functions

The analytical functions included as part of the standard Dektak software allow you to perform
complex analytical computations on the profile data quickly and easily. You may enter multiple
analytical functions into a scan routine to automatically calculate surface texture parameters on like
samples. You can also perform analytical functions at the conclusion of a scan by selecting the
desired parameters one-by-one.

• Analytical Functions Description: Section 6.1

• Roughness Parameters: Section 6.2

• Waviness Parameters: Section 6.3

• Height Parameters: Section 6.4

• Geometry Parameters: Section 6.5

• Analytical Function Exercise: Section 6.6

• Determining the Cutoff Wavelength: Section 6.7

• Activating the Cutoff Filters: Section 6.8

• Entering Filter Cutoffs into a Scan Routine: Section 6.9

• Data Type Selection: Section 6.10

• Entering Data Type into a Scan Routine: Section 6.11

• Measuring and Entering Analytical Functions: Section 6.12

• Entering Analytical Functions into a Scan Routine: Section 6.13

• Deleting Analytical Functions or Results: Section 6.14

• Smoothing: Section 6.15

• Activating the Smoothing Function: Section 6.16

• Entering Smoothing into a Scan Routine: Section 6.17

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Analytical Functions Description

6.1 Analytical Functions Description


The Dektak application has thirty different analytical functions for measuring surface texture. The following
section provides the abbreviation for each function as it appears on the screen, along with a brief description
of the parameter. By using these functions to analyze the profile data, you can obtain valuable information
for controlling and monitoring a production process.

The analytical functions are grouped by applications: roughness, waviness, height, and geometrical
parameters.

There are two similar versions of the Analytical Functions dialog box, depending on the window that is
active when the dialog box is opened.

• To open the Analytical Functions dialog box from the Scan Routines window, click
the Append Analytical Functions to Current Scan Routine icon, or select Edit >
Append Analytical Functions from the menu bar. See Figure 6.1a at the left. (For
further information on this version of the Analytical Functions dialog box, see
Entering Filter Cutoffs into a Scan Routine: Section 6.9.)

• To open the Analytical Functions dialog box from the Data Plot window, click the
Display Analytical Functions Dialog Box icon, or select Analysis > Analytical
Functions from the menu bar. See Figure 6.1a at the right. (For further information on
this version of the Analytical Functions dialog box, see Measuring and Entering
Analytical Functions: Section 6.12.)

Figure 6.1a Analytical Functions Dialog Boxes

158B
158A

(from Scan Routines window) (from Data Plot window)

If you plan to conduct extensive surface texture analysis, refer to the ANSI B46.1 specification on
surface texture. You can obtain a copy of this specification from the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, telephone number:
1.800.THE.ASME.

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Roughness Parameters

6.2 Roughness Parameters


The following parameters are listed alphabetically.

Maxdev (Maximum Deviation)

Calculates the furthest data point above or below the mean line.

MaxRa (Maximum Ra)

Identifies the portion of the assessment length which has the highest Ra. The assessment length,
defined by the cursors, divides into nineteen overlapping segments. Each segment is equal to one-
tenth of the assessment length distance. The Ra is calculated for each segment. The R cursor
positions in the center of the segment with the highest Ra. You can program only one MaxRa into a
scan program.

Ra (Average Roughness)

Formerly known as Arithmetic Average (AA) and Center Line Average (CL), Ra is the universally
recognized, and most used, international parameter of roughness. It is the arithmetic average
deviation from the mean line (see Figure 6.2a).

Figure 6.2a Ra Roughness Analytical Function


159

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Analytical Functions
Roughness Parameters

Rp (Maximum Peak)

The maximum height or the highest peak of the profile roughness above the mean line, within the
assessment length (see Figure 6.2b).

Figure 6.2b Rp Roughness Analytical Function

160
Rq (Root-Mean-Square (RMS))

Determines the root-mean-square value of roughness corresponding to Ra (see Figure 6.2c). Rq has
the greatest value in optical applications where it is directly related to the optical quality of a
surface.

Figure 6.2c Rq Roughness Analytical Function


161

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Analytical Functions
Roughness Parameters

Rt (Maximum Peak to Valley)

The sum total of the maximum peak and maximum valley measurements of roughness within the
assessment length (Rt = Rp + Rv) (see Figure 6.2d).

Figure 6.2d Rt Roughness Analytical Parameters

162
Rt is the sum total of the maximum valley and maximum peak of
roughness.
Rt = R p + R v

Rv (Maximum Valley)

The lowest point, or the maximum depth of the profile roughness below the mean line, within the
assessment length (see Figure 6.2e).

Figure 6.2e Rv Roughness Analytical Function


163

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Analytical Functions
Roughness Parameters

Rz_din (Ten Point Height Average)

The average height difference between the five highest peaks and the five lowest valleys in
accordance with DIN 4768/1 specification published by the Deutsche Institut fuer Normung c.v.
(see Figure 6.2f).

Figure 6.2f Rz Roughness Analytical Parameter

164

Skew (Skewness)

The symmetry of the profile about the mean line. It will distinguish between asymmetrical profiles
of the same Ra or Rq. Skewness is non-dimensional.

Note: For best results, software level the scan trace prior to calculating any analytical
functions.

L
1

3
R SK = -----------3- r ( x ) dx
LR q
0

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Waviness Parameters

6.3 Waviness Parameters


The following parameters are listed alphabetically.

Wa (Arithmetic Average of Waviness)

The average deviation of waviness from the mean line (see Figure 6.3a). (Corresponds to Ra.)

Figure 6.3a Wa Waviness Analytical Function

165

WMaxdev (Maximum Deviation of Waviness)

Measures the distance of the furthest data point above or below the mean line of the waviness
profile. (Corresponds to Maxdev.)

Wp (Maximum Peak of Waviness)

Measures the maximum height of the highest peak of the waviness profile above the mean line.
(Corresponds to Rp.)

Wq (Root-Mean-Square of Waviness)

Determines the root-mean-square (RMS) value of waviness. (Corresponds to Rq.)

Wt (Maximum Peak to Valley of Waviness)

The sum total of the maximum peak and maximum valley measurements of waviness
(Wt=Wp+Wv). (Corresponds to Rt.)

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Height Parameters

Wv (Maximum Valley of Waviness)

The lowest point, or the maximum depth of the waviness profile below the mean line. (Corresponds
to Rv.)

Note: Waviness calculations are performed on raw profile data unless you activate
the low pass waviness filter.

6.4 Height Parameters


The following parameters are listed alphabetically.

ASH (Delta Average Step Height)

Used to obtain a step height measurement in applications where roughness or noise is present on
the profile trace. It computes the difference between two average height measurements.

Avg Ht (Average Height)

Calculates the average height of a step with respect to the zero line, using the R and M cursors to
define the area of measurement.

HSC (High Spot Count)

The number of peaks per inch (or cm) that project above a line that is parallel to the mean line. A
peak must cross above the threshold and then back below it.

Pc (Peak Count)

The number of peaks that project through a selectable band centered about the mean line of the
assessment length. Pc is expressed in peaks/inch or peaks/cm.

Peak (Maximum Peak)

Calculates the maximum height above the baseline as determined by the cursor/trace intercepts.

P_V (Maximum Peak to Valley)

Calculates the vertical distance between the maximum peak and maximum valley.

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Geometry Parameters

TIR (Total Indicated Reading)

Calculates the vertical distance between the highest and lowest data points between the cursors.

Valley (Maximum Valley)

Calculates the maximum depth below the baseline determined by the cursor/trace intercepts.

6.5 Geometry Parameters


The following parameters are listed alphabetically.

Area (Area-Under-The-Curve)

Computes the area of a profile between the R and M cursors with respect to the horizontal zero grid
line. You must level the profile for accurate results. If the profile is above the zero line, area is
expressed as a positive value in square μm. If the profile is below the zero line, the result will be a
negative value.

Perim (Perimeter)

Calculates the outside perimeter of a profile between the R and M cursors. A horizontal reference
line is created using the R and M cursor intercepts. You must level the profile for accurate results.

Radius

A least-squares-arc is fitted to the data points and the radius is calculated from the equation for a
circle. The algorithm does not distinguish between concave and convex shapes. To maximize the
accuracy of the results, the following factors must be considered: (1) the sample shape must
approximate a sector of a circle, and (2) the stylus tip must traverse the apex of the sample if it is a
sphere. Using the largest radius stylus possible helps minimize the error. (3) Repeatability errors
may dominate the measurement if the chord rise is less than 100Å for scans longer than 1 mm.

Slope

Calculates the arc tangent of the ratio of the vertical distance to the horizontal distance between the
R and M cursor/trace intercepts. The result is expressed in degrees. Slope is useful only for
relatively shallow slopes. If the stylus radius is too large or the step too steep, the stylus contacts the
upper edge of the step before the lower edge and the slope measurement will be inaccurate.

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Analytical Function Exercise

Sm (Mean Spacing Between Peaks)

Calculates the mean spacing between peaks, as defined by downward crossing of the mean line,
followed by an upward crossing to the next downward crossing. If the distance between these
downward crossing points is less than 1 percent of the measurement length, than this peak is
ignored. Sm is expressed as micro-inches or microns.

Tp (Bearing Ratio)

The percentage of points along the assessment length that project above a line that is parallel to the
mean line.

Volume

The integration-by-shells technique is used to find the volume of a solid. This is accomplished by
rotating the lamina delineated by the scan trace and a line segment connecting the cursor intercepts
through 180 degrees about a vertical axis located half way between the cursors.

6.6 Analytical Function Exercise


This exercise demonstrates how to perform an average roughness measurement at the conclusion of
a scan. For the purpose of this exercise, use an optically flat sample, such as the glass of the
optional calibration standard. Position the calibration standard so that a 2 mm scan traverses across
the glass portion of the standard without encountering a step (see Figure 6.6a).

6.6.1 Run Scan and Level Trace

1. Select Window > Automation Programs to display the Automation Programs window.

2. Select File > New from the menu to enter the default scan routine into the current automation
program.

3. Select Run > Scan with the stage in position to run the current scan routine.

Note: Once you run the scan routine and the profile plots, you must level the trace.

4. Select Plot > Level to replot and level the trace.

Note: Software level the trace prior to initiating any analytical function to obtain
accurate results.

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Analytical Function Exercise

Figure 6.6a Calibration Standard Positioning for a Roughness Measurement

Stylus

Dog bone

167
Approximately 2 mm

6.6.2 Average Roughness Measurement

Once you run the scan and level the profile trace, you may perform an analytical function from the
Data Plot window. The procedure for executing the Average Roughness (Ra) analytical function
on the raw profile data is described below. The analytical function domain is on the data between
the R and M cursors. You can relocate the cursors if desired, but for this exercise use the default
cursor setting of 100 and 1900 µm for a 2 mm scan.

1. Select Analysis > Analytical Functions to display the Analytical Functions dialog box
with selections for setting roughness, waviness, heights, and geometry parameters.

2. Click Ra under Roughness in the Analytical Functions dialog box (see Figure 6.6b).

3. Click Measure in the Analytical Functions dialog box (selecting Measure and Program
automatically enters the analytical function into the scan routine program).

4. Click Compute to clear the dialog box and calculate the average roughness.

Note: The result from the Ra function and the cursor locations display in the Analytic
Results area located on the left of the Data Plot window. An asterisk appears
next to the Ra indicating that the analytical function was calculated on raw,
unfiltered data.

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Determining the Cutoff Wavelength

Figure 6.6b Compute Ra

199A
6.7 Determining the Cutoff Wavelength
The Dektak application is equipped with short pass and long pass digital filters for filtering out
high and low frequency signals. The cutoff frequencies define the intended difference between
roughness and waviness.

The filters are designed in accordance with the ANSI B46.1 specification on surface texture. The
wavelengths are user selectable from 1 to 200,000 µm.

The appropriate cutoff wavelength varies from application to application; however, the cut-off
wavelength must be less than the scan length. Also, the cutoff value will not be accepted if fewer
than 8 data points are available per cutoff wavelength. The Scan Resolution parameter displayed
on the Scan Routines window provides the number of µm per sample for a given scan length and
speed. The minimum acceptable cut-off wavelength must be at least eight times longer than the
value listed as the scan resolution. This can be otherwise defined as: μm per sample x 8 = minimum
acceptable cut-off wavelength. Veeco recommends for typical applications the cutoff filter be set at
1/5 the scan length.

For example, the default scan routine used for the purpose of this exercise has a scan length of 2000
μm, a scan duration of 1 second and a scan resolution of 0.513 µm per sample. Multiplying 0.513
by 8 equals 4.10, so the minimum acceptable cut-off wavelength is 5 µm. The scan length must
equal the cut-off wavelength, so the maximum cutoff length is 2000. Therefore, you must select a
cut-off value between 5 and 2000 µm.

There are three separate cut-off filters for selecting the wavelength bypass frequency. The three
filters are described below.

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Activating the Cutoff Filters

Short (High) Pass Filter

This filter calculates roughness data, filtering out low frequency waviness signals and allowing
high frequency roughness data to pass through.

Long (Low) Pass Filters

This filter calculates waviness data, filtering out high frequency roughness signals and allowing
low frequency waviness data to pass through.

Band Pass Filter

When you select the band pass filter, both the short pass and long pass filters are enabled to
calculate the roughness data, creating a band that filters out high frequency signals above the band
and low frequency signals below the band.

6.8 Activating the Cutoff Filters


To obtain accurate roughness measurements, activate the short pass filter. The procedure for
activating the short pass and long pass filters is described below.

1. Select Analysis > Cutoff Filter from the Data Plot window menu bar to display a dialog
box for setting the roughness and waviness filters (see Figure 6.8a).

2. Enter a value of 200 in the Short Pass Filter Cutoff field.

3. Enter a value of 200 in the Long Pass Filter Cutoff field.

4. Click OK to replot the profile trace with three separate scan traces.

Note: The white trace represents the raw profile data, the yellow trace represents the
roughness profile as determined with the short pass filter, and the red trace
represents the waviness profile as determined by the long pass filter.

Figure 6.8a Roughness and Waviness Filters Dialog Box


200A

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Entering Filter Cutoffs into a Scan Routine

6.9 Entering Filter Cutoffs into a Scan Routine


You can enter the short pass and long pass filters into the scan routine to automatically calculate
roughness and waviness analytical functions. The procedure for entering filter cutoffs into a scan
routine is described below.

1. Under Data Processing in the Scan Routines window, click Filter Cutoffs to open the Data
Processing Parameters dialog box (see Figure 6.9a).

2. Enter a cutoff value of 200 µm in the Short Pass Filter Cutoff box for calculating
roughness.

3. Enter a cutoff value of 200 µm in the Long Pass Filter Cutoff box for calculating waviness.

4. Click OK to close the dialog box and enter the cutoff values into the scan routine.

Figure 6.9a Data Processing Parameters Dialog Box

6.10 Data Type Selection


You may select the type of data to display in the Data Plot window. You may display the raw,
roughness, and waviness profile data either individually or simultaneously. The procedure for
selecting the data type is described below.

1. Select Plot > Data Type to display a dialog box for selecting the raw, roughness, or
waviness data type.

Note: All three selections should be activated as indicated by their respective check
boxes (see Figure 6.10a).

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Entering Data Type into a Scan Routine

Figure 6.10a Data Type Dialog Box

Click to
clear

197A
2. Click to clear the Waviness check box.

3. Click OK to replot the data with the roughness and raw data profiles displayed and the
waviness profile deleted.

6.11 Entering Data Type into a Scan Routine


You can predetermine the type of profile data to display at the conclusion of a scan by entering the
selected data types into the scan routine. The procedure for entering the data type into a scan
routine is described below.

1. In the Display Parameters section of the Scan Routines window, click Display Data Type
to open the Display Parameters dialog box, where you can select from three display
options: raw, roughness, and waviness (see Figure 6.11a).

Note: When you use the default scan routine, the raw profile data is entered as the
Display Data Type parameter. For this exercise, all three data types are
displayed.

2. Click the Waviness and Roughness check boxes to enter all three data types into the scan
routine.

Note: You cannot select the roughness data type unless you first activate the short
pass filter. Likewise, you cannot select the waviness data type unless you
activate the long pass filter.

3. Click OK when finished.

Once you enter the analytical functions, cutoff filters, and display data types into the current scan
routine, they automatically execute whenever the current scan routine runs.

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Measuring and Entering Analytical Functions

Figure 6.11a Display Parameters Dialog Box

203A
6.12 Measuring and Entering Analytical Functions
Once you activate the short pass roughness filter, perform the average roughness analytical
function a second time. You may enter one or more analytical functions into the current scan
routine from the Data Plot window to be automatically calculated whenever the current scan
routine runs. As an exercise, the procedure for measuring the Ra function and entering it into the
scan routine is described below.

1. Select Analysis > Analytical Functions from the Data Plot window to display the
Analytical Functions dialog box (see Figure 6.1a at the right).

2. Under Roughness in the Analytical Functions dialog box, click Ra.

3. Select Measure and Program in the Analytical Functions dialog box (see Figure 6.12a).

4. Click Compute to close the Analytical Functions dialog box, perform the measurement,
and enter the average roughness into the current scan routine.

Note: The result from the Ra function displays in the Analytic Results area on the
left side of the Data Plot window (see Figure 6.12a). The different results from
the first Ra are calculated on the unfiltered raw profile data (shown with an
asterisk) and the second Ra calculated on the filtered roughness data (shown
without an asterisk).

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Entering Analytical Functions into a Scan Routine

Figure 6.12a Analytical Functions Dialog Box (Data Plot Window) / Analytic Results

198B
Analytic Results Section

Analytical Functions Dialog Box 198A

6.13 Entering Analytical Functions into a Scan Routine


You may enter one or more analytical functions into the Scan Routines window to be
automatically calculated at the conclusion of the scan. The procedure for entering analytical
functions into the scan routine is described in the exercise below.

1. Select Window > Scan Routines to display the Scan Routines window.

2. Select Edit > Append Analytical Functions to display the Analytical Functions dialog
box.

3. Under Waviness in the Analytical Functions dialog box, click Wa.

Note: You may set the cursors at different locations for each individual analytical
function.

4. Enter 0 in the R Cursor box.

5. Enter 1900 in the M Cursor box.

6. Click Add to enter the Wa function into the Analytical Functions area on the right side of
the Scan Routines window (see Figure 6.13a).

7. Click Done when complete.

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Deleting Analytical Functions or Results

Figure 6.13a Analytical Functions Dialog Box (Scan Routines Window) / Analytic Functions

201B
201A

6.14 Deleting Analytical Functions or Results


When the Scan Routines window is displayed and an analytical function is listed, you can access
the delete function from the Analytical Functions area.

When the Data Plot window is displayed and an analytical result is listed, you can access the delete
function from the Analytical Results area.

The procedure for deleting an analytical function from the Scan Routines window is described in
the exercise below. (The procedure for deleting an analytical result from the Data Plot window is
similar.)

1. Move the mouse pointer to the right-hand portion of the Scan Routines window where the
analytical functions are listed.

2. Select (highlight) the analytical function you want to delete (for the purpose of this exercise,
select Wa).

3. Select Edit > Delete Analytical Functions to display the Delete Analytical Functions
dialog box (see Figure 6.14a).

Note: If there is no analytical function selected (highlighted), the dialog box will not
display.

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Smoothing

Figure 6.14a Deleting Analytical Functions

204A

204B
4. Click OK in the Delete Analytical Functions dialog box to delete the highlighted analytical
function from the scan routine.

Note: If there are several analytical functions listed, and you want to delete a group of
them, select (highlight) the first function in the group, select Edit > Delete
Analytical Functions, and enter the number of items to be deleted in the
Delete Analytical Functions dialog box.

6.15 Smoothing
Whenever you activate the smoothing function, the roughness, waviness, or raw profiles are
calculated using the smoothed data. The smoothing function reduces high frequency/low amplitude
noise on a trace. Some applications involve films deposited over rough substrates. This substrate
roughness transfers to the film surface, which can make measurements difficult or questionable.

The smoothing function may be used in one of two ways. In applications where rough samples will
be run on a regular basis, you may enter smoothing into the scan routine. In this way, the smoothing
function performs automatically on each scan profile. You may also select the smoothing function
after a scan has completed. Both methods for smoothing are discussed on the following pages.

The Dektak application offers three degrees of smoothing. The higher the degree, the more
smoothing will be realized.

• Degree 1: 5-point smoothing

• Degree 2: 11-point smoothing

• Degree 3: 23-point smoothing

Once you select the degree of smoothing, a prompt asks for the value of the vertical distance
between the maximum peak to valley roughness. Determine the maximum peak to valley distance
of the high frequency low amplitude noise and enter this or a greater value. (You can easily use the
TIR analytical function to determine the noise band.) The smoothing function smooths all data
within the specified noise band by examining each data point in turn and comparing it with the
previous and following points.

For example, if Degree 1 is selected, five consecutive data points are used in the smoothing
calculation. If they lie within the specified noise band, a running calculation is started. A first-order
curve is fitted to all consecutive points lying within the noise band. As new points are examined,

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Activating the Smoothing Function

the routine calculates the new value of each point by looking at the four closest points that lie
within the band.

When the algorithm encounters a point that lies outside the band, the calculation is interrupted. The
new point is left as is and becomes a center point of a new noise band. If the next five points are
within the new band, the calculation restarts. If subsequent points lie outside the band, they are
plotted as is and each becomes a new reference point.

This technique is preferable to straight filtering since the slope of the profile is maintained.

6.16 Activating the Smoothing Function


You may perform smoothing on profile data at the conclusion of a scan. The procedure for
activating the smoothing function from the Data Plot window is described below.

1. Select Window > Data Plot to display the Data Plot window with the replotted profile data.

2. Select Analysis > Analytical Functions to display the Analytical Functions dialog box.

3. Under Height, click TIR.

4. Select Measure.

5. Click Compute.

Note: The total indicated reading peak-to-valley distance is calculated.

6. Select Analysis > Smoothing to display a dialog box for entering smoothing parameters (see
Figure 6.16a).

7. Choose one of three available degrees of smoothing (for the purpose of this exercise, choose
2 in the Degree section).

8. Enter a value equal to or greater than the value displayed as the TIR result in the Band field.

9. Click OK to smooth and replot the raw profile data.

Figure 6.16a Smoothing Dialog Box


206A

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Entering Smoothing into a Scan Routine

6.17 Entering Smoothing into a Scan Routine


You may enter smoothing into the current scan routine to execute automatically at the conclusion of
the scan. The procedure for entering smoothing into the scan routine is described below.

1. Select Window > Scan Routines to display the Scan Routines window.

2. In the Data Processing section, click a Smoothing to display the Smoothing tab of the Data
Processing dialog box.

3. Choose the desired smoothing Degree (1, 2, or 3) (see Figure 6.17a).

4. Determine the smoothing band value by performing the Total Indicated Reading (TIR)
analytical function on the scan to be smoothed.

5. Enter a value equal to or greater than the TIR value in the Band field.

6. Click OK to automatically smooth the profile data whenever the current scan routine
executes.

7. To clear smoothing, click Smoothing in the Data Processing section and enter “0” in the
Band field.

Figure 6.17a Data Processing Dialog Box: Smoothing Tab

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Chapter 7 Scan Routine Parameter Description

This chapter describes the various scan parameters and display parameters of the Scan Routines
window (see Figure 7.0a).

Figure 7.0a Scan Routines Window

121A

You can enter up to 200 different scan routines into a single automation program file. Each scan
routine within an automation program contains all the necessary parameters for performing a
specified scan. These individual parameters are user selectable, providing extraordinary flexibility
to adopt the Dektak program to a wide range of applications.

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Scan Parameters

Scan routine parameters discussed in this chapter include:

• Scan Parameters: Section 7.1

• Display Parameters: Section 7.2

• Data Processing Parameters: Section 7.3

• Step Detection Option: Section 7.4

7.1 Scan Parameters


All of the scan parameters are user selectable and can be accessed from the Scan Routines
window. To display the Scan Routines window, select Window > Scan Routines from the menu
bar. The procedure for setting the various scan parameters is described below. To display the Scan
Parameters dialog box, click any of the parameters under Scan Parameters, such as Scan ID or
Scan Length (see Figure 7.0a).

7.1.1 Scan ID

This parameter allows you to assign a fifteen-digit scan identification file name or number.

1. To display the Scan Parameters dialog box, click any of the parameters under Scan
Parameters (see Figure 7.0a).

2. In the ID section enter the desired file name or number using the keyboard (see Figure 7.1a).

Note: Most special characters are allowed in the file name, but no spaces.

3. Click OK to close the dialog box and enter the ID into the scan program.

Note: Click Apply if you want to enter the ID into the scan program but keep the
dialog box open to make additional entries.

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Scan Parameters

Figure 7.1a Scan Parameter Dialog Box: ID

You can specify the type of stylus that is installed in your system. The Stylus Type parameter
allows you to specify which stylus type is being used.

4. To display the Scan Parameters dialog box, click any of the parameters under Scan
Parameters (see Figure 7.0a).

5. In the Stylus Type section choose the desired stylus type from the drop-down list (see Figure
7.1b).

6. Click OK to close the dialog box and enter the stylus type into the scan program.

Note: Click Apply if you want to enter the stylus type into the scan program but keep
the dialog box open to make additional entries.

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Scan Parameters

Figure 7.1b Scan Parameter Dialog Box: Stylus Type

7.1.2 Scan Length

Scan lengths from 50 µm to 30,000 µm (30 mm) are possible.

1. To display the Scan Parameters dialog box, click any of the parameters under Scan
Parameters (see Figure 7.0a).

2. In the Length field enter the desired scan length using the keyboard (see Figure 7.1c).

Note: The scan length is expressed in microns (µm).

3. Click OK to close the dialog box and enter the length into the scan program.

Note: Click Apply if you want to enter the length into the scan program but keep the
dialog box open to make additional entries.

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Scan Parameters

Figure 7.1c Scan Parameter Dialog Box: Length

The Duration setting displays the amount of time it takes to complete a given scan. Scan duration,
in conjunction with scan length, determines the horizontal resolution of a scan. Therefore, scan
speed is directly related to the resolution. For example, a 13-second scan provides 3900 Sample
data Points. You can set the scan duration from 3 to 200 seconds for a maximum of 60,000 data
points per scan. Select a longer scan duration for long scan applications and measurements of very
fine surface roughness requiring the highest horizontal resolution. When high throughput is the
primary consideration, use a shorter scan duration. For most applications, a 10-20 second scan
provides adequate resolution and throughput.

4. To display the Scan Parameters dialog box, click any of the parameters under Scan
Parameters (see Figure 7.0a).

5. In the Duration field enter the desired scan duration (in seconds) using the keyboard (see
Figure 7.1d).

6. Click OK to close the dialog box and enter the duration into the scan program.

Note: Click Apply if you want to enter the duration into the scan program but keep
the dialog box open to make additional entries.

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Scan Parameters

Figure 7.1d Scan Parameter Dialog Box: Duration

7.1.3 Scan Resolution

The Resolution parameter displays the horizontal resolution for the scan length and scan speed
(duration) entered into the scan routine. The scan resolution is expressed in μm per sample,
indicating the horizontal distance between data points. Data points are the points along the scan
path at which data samples are taken. The more data points taken during a given scan length, the
shorter the distance between data samples. Therefore, a scan routine with the lowest number of
µm/sample provides the best possible horizontal resolution.

Note: The resolution automatically adjusts in accordance with the new duration
value.

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Scan Parameters

Figure 7.1e Scan Parameter Dialog Box: Resolution

7.1.4 Scan Type

You can choose the type of scan to be run. The Scan Type parameter allows you to specify which
scan type to use.

1. To display the Scan Parameters dialog box, click any of the parameters under Scan
Parameters (see Figure 7.0a).

2. In the Scan Type section choose the desired scan type from the drop-down list: Standard
Scan, Static Tower Scan, or Static Scan (see Figure 7.1f).

• Standard Scan: A normal scan type, in which the scan is performed across the surface
of a sample. The tower is nulled before each scan; therefore, each successive scan has its
own reference point.

• Static Tower Scan: A special scan type, in which the scan is performed across the
surface of a sample, but the tower is nulled before only the first scan. Each successive
scan therefore uses the same initial reference point.

• Static Scan: A special scan type, in which the scan is performed at the same point (the
stage does not move). The tower is nulled before the scan. This scan type is primarily
used for determining the noise and drift of the system.

3. Click OK to close the dialog box and enter the scan type into the scan program.

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Scan Parameters

Note: Click Apply if you want to enter the scan type into the scan program but keep
the dialog box open to make additional entries.

Figure 7.1f Scan Parameter Dialog Box: Scan Type

Figure 7.1g Stylus Force

You can set the stylus force from 1mg to 15 mg force. The Stylus Force parameter allows you to
adjust the stylus force.

4. To display the Scan Parameters dialog box, click any of the parameters under Scan
Parameters (see Figure 7.0a).

5. In the Stylus Force field enter desired stylus force (see Figure 7.1h).

6. Click OK to close the dialog box and enter the stylus force into the scan program.

Note: Click Apply if you want to enter the stylus force into the scan program but
keep the dialog box open to make additional entries.

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Scan Parameters

Figure 7.1h Scan Parameter Dialog Box: Stylus Force

7.1.5 Measurement Range

The available vertical resolution depends upon the Measurement Range selected. When
measuring extremely fine geometries, the 65 kÅ range provides a vertical bit resolution of 1 Å. For
general applications, the 10 Å vertical resolution of the 655 kÅ range is usually adequate. When
measuring thick films or very rough or curved samples, select the 2620 kÅ range with 40 Å
resolution.

1. To display the Scan Parameters dialog box, click any of the parameters under Scan
Parameters (see Figure 7.0a).

2. In the Meas Range field, select one of the measurement ranges from the drop-down list: 65
kÅ, 655 kÅ or 2620 kÅ (or 1 mm, optional). See Figure 7.1i.

3. Click OK to close the dialog box and enter the measurement range into the scan program.

Note: Click Apply if you want to enter the measurement range into the scan program
but keep the dialog box open to make additional entries.

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Scan Parameters

Figure 7.1i Scan Parameter Dialog Box: Measurement Range

7.1.6 Profile

The Profile setting scales the measurement range according to the profile selected. Three different
profiles are available for a variety of sample surface characteristics (see Figure 7.1j).

Figure 7.1j Sample Surface Profiles

• Valleys: Provides 90 percent of the measurement range below the zero horizontal grid
line. Used primarily for measuring etch depths.

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Scan Parameters

• Hills and Valleys: Provides 50 percent of the measurement range above the zero
horizontal grid line and 50 percent below. Used in most applications, especially if the
surface characteristics of the sample are not well known, or if the sample is out of level.

• Hills: Provides 90 percent of the measurement range above the horizontal grid line.
Used primarily for measuring step heights.

1. To display the Scan Parameters dialog box, click any of the parameters under Scan
Parameters (see Figure 7.0a).

2. Select the desired profile (see Figure 7.1k).

3. Click OK to close the dialog box and enter the selected profile into the scan program.

Note: Click Apply if you want to enter the selected profile into the scan program but
keep the dialog box open to make additional entries.

Figure 7.1k Scan Parameter Dialog Box: Profile

Figure 7.1l Additional Parameters

You can choose to enable a soft touchdown when the stylus is lowered onto the sample. Soft
touchdown is particularly appropriate for soft samples when a Static Tower scan type is being used,
to prevent damage to the sample. The Additional Parameters section allows you to make this
selection.

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Scan Parameters

4. To display the Scan Parameters dialog box, click any of the parameters under Scan
Parameters.

5. In the Additional Parameters section check the Soft Touchdown box to enable this feature
(see Figure 7.1m).

Note: This feature is available only when a Static Tower scan type has been selected.

6. Click OK to close the dialog box and enable soft touchdown in the scan program.

Note: Click Apply if you want to enable soft touchdown in the scan program but keep
the dialog box open to make additional entries.

Figure 7.1m Scan Parameter Dialog Box: Additional Parameters

Figure 7.1n

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Display Parameters

7.2 Display Parameters


The Scan Routines window contains additional parameters under the heading Display Parameters
allowing automatic manipulation of the graphic display of the profile trace. The display parameters
are described below.

7.2.1 Software Leveling

You can program the Dektak application to software level the profile trace automatically, in
relation to the cursor/trace intercepts, at the conclusion of a scan. In order to obtain accurate step
height readings and analytical calculations, you must software-level the trace. You can also enter
cursor band widths to perform delta average leveling.

1. In the Display Parameters section of the Scan Routines window, click Software Leveling
(see Figure 7.0a) to open the Leveling tab (see Figure 7.2a) .

2. Select the Automatic Leveling check box, and then click Apply.

3. Click the Cursors tab (see Figure 7.2b), and make your settings according to these
guidelines:

• When the default band width is 0, the trace levels using only two points at the
R and M Cursor locations.

• If you know the desired cursor widths, you can enter them into the scan routine. The
Width field in the R Cursor section sets the width of the reference cursor (R), while the
Width field in the M Cursor section sets the width of the measurement cursor (M).

4. Click OK to enter automatic leveling and the leveling cursor widths into the scan routine.

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Display Parameters

Figure 7.2a Display Parameters Dialog Box: Software Leveling

Figure 7.2b Display Parameters Dialog Box: Cursors Tab

Note: You can also enter cursor band widths from the Data Plot window. A delta
averaging technique provides a roughness average reading of the section of the
profile trace within the bands. The profile trace can then be leveled according
to the two average readings. See Setting Cursor Bandwidths: Section 4.6.2.

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Display Parameters

7.2.2 Reference/Measurement Cursors

The R Cursor and M Cursor parameters allow you to enter the reference and measurement cursor
locations in relation to the horizontal scale of the Data Plot window into a scan routine. Whenever
the scan routine executes, the cursors automatically position at the programmed locations.

If you know the desired cursor settings, you can numerically enter the settings directly into the scan
routine in the Scan Routines window.

Note: You MUST select Automatic Leveling for cursor positioning values to take
effect (see Software Leveling: 7.2.1).

If you know the desired cursor settings, you can numerically enter the settings directly into the scan
routine in the Scan Routines window.

1. In the Display Parameters section of the Scan Routines window (see Figure 7.0a), click R.
Cursor or M. Cursor to open the Cursors tab (see (Figure 7.2c) .

2. Enter the desired cursor location for the R and/or M Cursor, and then enter the Bandwidth
values.

3. Click OK to enter the cursor positions into the scan routine.

Figure 7.2c Display Parameters Dialog Box: Cursors Tab

7.2.3 Entering Cursor Positions from the Data Plot Window

If you do not know the desired cursor settings, you can enter cursor locations into the current scan
routine from the Data Plot window.

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1. To set the cursor locations for leveling, run a sample scan of the feature to measure.

2. Position the reference cursor at a location along the reference plane (such as the base of a
step or the lip of an etched depth) once the scan is complete (for more information on cursor
positioning see Reference/Measurement Cursors: Section 4.6).

3. To level the trace accurately, position the measurement cursor some distance away from the
reference cursor, but along the same horizontal plane (such as the base of the step or the lip
of the etched depth).

4. Once the cursors are properly positioned, select Edit > Enter Software Leveling from the
menu bar to enter the new cursor locations into the scan routine.

Note: The software leveling function now occurs at the specified cursor locations
whenever the current scan routine executes and software leveling has been
selected.

7.2.4 Display Range

The Automatic Ranging feature automatically scales and ranges the profile trace to fill 80% of the
data plot display. However, in some applications where repetitive or like scans are compared, you
can preset the graphic scale by numeric entry.

1. In the Display Parameters section of the Scan Routines window (see Figure 7.0a), click
Display Range to open the Range tab (see (Figure 7.2d) .

2. Do one of the following:

• To allow the system to automatically set the range , click Automatic Ranging.

• To set the display range at a specified value, click Set Range Values to activate
fields for entering the upper and lower boundaries of the graphic scale. Enter the
desired setting for the lower boundary in the Lower Bound box and the upper
boundary in the Display Range box.

3. Click OK.

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Display Parameters

Figure 7.2d Display Parameters Dialog Box: Display Range

7.2.5 Display Data Type

This parameter allows you to display the raw profile data, roughness and waviness profile (see
Figure 7.2e). You can display the raw profile and roughness or waviness profiles individually or
simultaneously, to easily correlate the profiles.

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Data Processing Parameters

Figure 7.2e Display Parameters Dialog Box: Display Data Type

See Entering Data Type into a Scan Routine: Section 6.11 for a detailed description of the
function and use of the Display Data Type parameter.

7.3 Data Processing Parameters


The Data Processing section of the Scan Routines window contains options that allow you to
activate filter cutoffs and smoothing filters. For a full description of the Smoothing and Filter
Cutoffs options, see Data Processing Settings: Section 5.6.3.

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Step Detection Option

Figure 7.3a Data Processing Parameters Dialog Box: Filters Tab

Figure 7.3b Data Processing Parameters Dialog Box: Smoothing Tab

7.4 Step Detection Option


The Dektak 6M provides optional features for Step Detection. See Appendix C for instructions
regarding these features.

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Chapter 8 Menu and Toolbar Descriptions

This chapter provides brief descriptions of the various menus, menu selections and toolbars
available in the Dektak software not discussed in detail in previous chapters.

This chapter includes the following topics:

• Startup Window: Section 8.1

• File Menu: Section 8.2

• Run Menu: Section 8.3

• Profiler Menu: Section 8.4

• Setup Menu: Section 8.5

• Calibration Menu: Section 8.6

• Window Menu: Section 8.7

• Help Menu: Section 8.8

• Automation Programs Window Menu Selections: Section 8.9

• Scan Routines Window Menu Selections: Section 8.10

• Sample Positioning Window Pop-Up Menu Selections: Section 8.11

• Data Plot Window Menu Selections: Section 8.12

• Auto Prog Summary Window Menu Selections: Section 8.13

• Toolbars and Icons: Section 8.14

The Dektak program uses Microsoft Windows XP as the operating system. Whenever you first
access the Dektak program, or close all windows, the Dektak Startup window displays (see Figure
8.1a). The menu bar and the toolbar below it continually display at the top of all Dektak windows,
and the status bar displays at the bottom. Each Dektak window has its own specific menus and
toolbars. All of the various menu items and toolbar icons are described in the following sections.

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Startup Window

8.1 Startup Window


The Dektak user interface consists of a variety of windows. When no other window is active, the
Startup window appears. As shown in Figure 8.1a, it contains a default menu bar, toolbar and
status bar .

Figure 8.1a Startup Window


Default Toolbar
Menu Bar

Progress Notification Current Stage


Status Bar Icon Position Position
Messages Position

Default Menu Bar

The default menu bar (see Figure 8.1a) provides access to the different types of operations
available. The various menus contained within the default menu bar in the Startup window come
under the headings File, Run, Profiler, Setup, Calibration, Window and Help.

A description of the contents of each menu, the keyboard shortcuts (if any) associated with the
menu items, and instructions for accessing them are provided in the following sections of this
chapter.

Note: Menu items appear “grayed out” when the function is not currently available.
For example, the menu item File > Print is not available when there is nothing
to be printed.

Note: Combination keystrokes are indicated by “+”. For example, “Ctrl+N” means
hold down the Ctrl key, press and release the N key, and then release the Ctrl
key.

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File Menu

Additional Menus

Most of the other windows contain at least one additional menu, as described in the following
sections.

Toolbar

Each window contains a unique toolbar, consisting of a set of icons to perform various functions
when clicked. You can open some menu items with icons located in specific toolbars. See Toolbars
and Icons: Section 8.14, for a complete description of each toolbar.

Status Bar

A status bar is visible at all times, located at the bottom of the screen. The status bar contains
window-specific status messages, a progress bar (when appropriate), a notification icon when
Global Editing Mode is active, and the current position of the mouse pointer (see Figure 8.1a).

8.2 File Menu


The File menu allows you to open and save files, and print scan data and parameters. To access the
File menu, select File from the menu bar (see Figure 8.2a).

Figure 8.2a File Menu

New... Ctrl+N

The New command creates a new automation program with a single scan containing the default
scan parameters.

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
File Menu

Open... Ctrl+O

The Open command opens an automation program or other previously saved files. Select File >
Open to display a list of available files.

Save Ctrl+S

The Save command by default saves any recent changes to the current automation program.
However, if the Data Plot window is active, scan data is saved. Likewise, if the Automation
Program Summary window is active, APS summary data is saved.

Save As...

The Save As command by default saves an automation program under a different file name. Select
File > Save As to display a list of file names currently in use, and type a new file name to use. If the
Data Plot window is active, scan data is saved under a different file name. Likewise, if the
Automation Program Summary window is active, APS summary data is saved under a different
file name.

Export... Ctrl+E

The Export command by default exports an automation program as an ASCII file with a .txt file
extension. Select File > Export to display a list of .txt file names currently in use, and type a new
file name to use. If the Data Plot window is active, scan data is exported under a different .txt file
name. Likewise, if the Automation Program Summary window is active, APS summary data is
exported under a different .txt file name.

Print... Ctrl+P

Select File > Print to print a form appropriate for the active window. (If there is no predefined form
for the window, the print function acts as a print-screen command, printing the entire current active
screen.)

Explore Dektak Directory... Ctrl+Alt+E

Opens Windows Explorer at the active directory (\Veeco\Dektak32 by default).

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Run Menu

Exit... Alt+F4

Closes the Dektak application (after confirmation)

8.3 Run Menu


This pull-down menu runs a scan routine or an automation program. To access the Run menu,
select Run from the menu bar (see Figure 8.3a).

Figure 8.3a Run Menu

Scan F4

Select Run > Scan to run the current scan.

Auto Program F5

Select Run > Auto Program to run all of the scan routines in the current automation program,
beginning with scan routine 1.

Auto Program From Ctrl+F5

Select Run > Auto Program From to run the current automation program beginning at the
selected scan routine.

Continue

The Continue function has two purposes:

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Profiler Menu

• Select Run > Continue to run the next scan in sequence of a multiple scan automation
program, when the autoprogram function (Adjust Position Before Each Scan) has
been activated.

• Select Run > Continue to continue at the next scan in sequence of a multiple scan
automation program, when the automation program was aborted.

8.4 Profiler Menu


This pull-down menu is used for controlling profiler functions. To access the Profiler menu, select
Profiler from the menu bar (see Figure 8.4a).

Figure 8.4a Profiler Menu

Tower Up Ctrl+F3

Select Profiler > Tower Up to lift the stylus and raise the tower and optics up to the home position.

Tower Down Ctrl+Shift+F3

Select Profiler > Tower Down to lower the tower and optics down to the stylus null position, and
then raise the stylus from the sample.

Stylus Up Ctrl+F2

Select Profiler > Stylus Up to lift the stylus off the sample surface without raising the tower. This
allows the user to view the video image of the sample surface while positioning the stage, without
contact between the stylus and sample.

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Setup Menu

Stylus Down Ctrl+Shift+F2

Select Profiler > Stylus Down to lower the stylus onto the sample surface unless the tower is
already in the home position. The tower and stylus automatically raise a small amount off the
sample surface whenever the sample stage repositions.

Reset Hardware Ctrl+Alt+R

Select Profiler > Reset Hardware for a complete hardware reset (same as the software
initialization sequence).

8.5 Setup Menu


Use this menu to set up the Dektak 6M (see Figure 8.5a).

Figure 8.5a Setup Menu

Configuration Settings

Select Setup > Configuration Settings and press the CTRL key or enter the password in the
dialog box to open the Configuration Settings dialog box. As shown in Figure 8.5b, this dialog
box includes two sections—User Interface and Hardware.

Note: Click OK after making your selections to close the dialog box. Click Apply
instead of OK if you want to keep the dialog box open to select other icons.

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Setup Menu

Figure 8.5b Configuration Settings Dialog Box

With the exception of Illu-


mination, do not change
these factory-set hardware
settings.

8.5.1 User Interface Settings

Click the following icons to access settings that affect the appearance of your Dektak 6M software.

Diagnostics

These settings are for engineering use only.

• When Output to Console is selected, the Tracer log goes to the console. A message
indicates that activated real-time tracing may result in slower overall performance.

• When Start Tracer is selected, the Tracer begins to log information about the operation
of the Dektak 6M.

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Setup Menu

Figure 8.5c Diagnostics Dialog Box

Directories

These settings allow you to specify the default working directories for data, program, export, and
3d Map files. Select the Make shortcuts available system wide check box if you want icons for
the directories to appear in file dialog boxes such as Open, Save and Save As.

Figure 8.5d Directories Dialog Box

Data Stitching

These settings are available only if your system includes the 200 MM Scan Capability with
Stitching Option, which is described in Appendix G.

Shortcuts

This dialog box allows you to assign analytical functions to keyboard shortcuts. For more
information, see Viewing the Sample: Section 3.4.

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Setup Menu

Figure 8.5e Shortcuts Dialog Box

Use the drop-down lists to assign an analytical function to the F11 and F12 keys.

Figure 8.5f Drop-down List of Analytical Functions

Units

• In the All Units section, select Angstroms, um, or nm.

• In the Notation section, select Fixed or Scientific. The system then makes the
appropriate Decimal Places setting. This field cannot be modified by the user.

Note: You can change the units in which information is displayed before or after a
scan. For more information, see Section 4.5 .

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Setup Menu

Figure 8.5g Units Dialog Box

Visual

In the General section, click Show Sidebar Buttons to display them on the screen. Different
buttons are available for each screen.

Figure 8.5h Sidebar Buttons in Data Plot Window

Sidebar
buttons

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Setup Menu

If your system includes the Advanced APS Option, select Advanced View to gain more
functionality than is provided by the standard APS. For more information, see Appendix F.

Note: If your system does not include the Advanced APS Option, the Advanced
View check box is not available.

Figure 8.5i Visual Dialog Box

8.5.2 Hardware Settings

CAUTION: The Dektak 6M hardware settings are set at the factory and should not be
modified by the user. Changing hardware settings affects both scan results and
the performance of the Dektak 6M tool. Furthermore, it may void the warranty.
The only exception is the Illumination setting, which is discussed in this
section.

Note: After you change Dektak 6M hardware settings, a few seconds of delay occurs
while the system downloads the parameters to the E-box.

Illumination

This dialog box allows you to set the increment to be used when changing the sample illumination
(see Stylus Reticle Alignment: Section 3.4.5). Enter a value between 1 and 255 for the
Illumination Increment for the Low Mag Camera and for the High Mag Camera.

Figure 8.5j Illumination Dialog Box

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Calibration Menu

8.6 Calibration Menu


This pull-down menu is used for setting the vertical calibration and the vertical force of the stylus.

Figure 8.6a Calibration Menu

Stylus Force...

This selection opens the Force Calibration dialog box.

Figure 8.6b Force Calibration Dialog Box

In this dialog box you can choose the measurement range in the Stylus LVDT section, and
manually select the amount of force to be placed on the stylus to change the position of the stylus in
the Force DAC section.

To calibrate the stylus force, follow the instructions given in the three steps listed at the right side of
the dialog box.

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Window Menu

Vertical

Select Calibration > Vertical to open the vertical submenu, which offers the following two
choices.

Set...
Clear...

Select Set or Clear to display a dialog box for setting and clearing the vertical calibration of the
Dektak 6M. (See Vertical Calibration: Section 9.2 for more information.)

8.7 Window Menu


This pull-down menu provides access to the various Dektak windows (see Figure 8.7a).

Figure 8.7a Window Menu

Automation Programs Ctrl+1

Select Window > Automation Programs to make alterations to the automation programs.

Scan Routines Ctrl+2

Select Window > Scan Routines to edit the scan parameters.

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Window Menu

Sample Positioning Ctrl+3

This selection enables a real-time video display allowing you to position the stage accurately to the
points of interest on a sample, using the knobs at the front of the Dektak 6M.

Data Plot Ctrl+4

You can access the Data Plot selection only after a scan routine has run and plotted, or if previously
saved scan data has been loaded from a file. The data plot screen displays the scaled profile trace.

Auto Prog Summary Ctrl+5

This selection allows you to access the Auto Program Summary. Once APS is enabled in the
Automation Program window and the automation program has run, the data will display.
Alternatively, you can load and display APS data that was previously saved in a file.

Close All Windows Ctrl+6

Select Window > Close All Windows to return to the Dektak Startup window (see Figure 8.1a).

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Help Menu

8.8 Help Menu

Figure 8.8a Help Menu

Contents F1

Select Help > Contents to display the Help system, or the Dektak6M-Help.pdf file. You can also
open Help by pressing F1 on the keyboard.

About

Select Help > About to view the number of the currently installed version of the Dektak software.
The Help dialog box also provides a number of convenient links and functions, which are described
after Figure 8.8b.

Figure 8.8b General Tab of the About Dektak32 Help Dialog Box

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Automation Programs Window Menu Selections

General Tab

On the General tab you can:

• Click a link to open the Release Notes for this version of the Dektak software.

• Click a link to contact Veeco Technical Support (USA only).

• Click a link to open the home page of the Veeco web site.

• Click a button to back up your Dektak system settings.

• Click a button to restore your Dektak system settings.

• Click a button to view your system information.

Installed Options Tab

On the Installed Options tab, you can view a list of the add-on software options that are installed
in your system.

Registration Tab

On the Registration tab, you can:

• View your registration information.

Click a link to open the Dektak license agreement Select Help > About to view the Dektak version
and system information.

8.9 Automation Programs Window Menu Selections


When the Automation Programs window is open, an additional menu selection is provided (see
Figure 8.9a). This menu is briefly described below. A more detailed description of the use and
functions of the menu items is provided in Single Scan Operation: Chapter 4 and Multiple Scan
Operation: Chapter 5 of this manual.

Figure 8.9a Automation Program Window: Edit Menu

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Scan Routines Window Menu Selections

8.9.1 Edit Menu

Insert Default Scan… Insert

Inserts a default scan routine at the highlighted scan in the list, or at the specified scan index
number.

Delete Scan Delete

Removes the highlighted scan from the list.

Delete Scan Range Ctrl+Delete

Removes scans from the list within a specified range

Copy To… Ctrl+C

Copies the highlighted scan to a specified location in the list.

Copy To Range… Ctrl+A

Copies the highlighted scan to each of a specified range of scan locations in the list.

8.10 Scan Routines Window Menu Selections


When the Scan Routines window is open, an additional menu selection is provided (see Figure
8.10a). This menu is briefly described below. A more detailed description of the use and functions
of the menu items is provided in Multiple Scan Operation: Chapter 5 of this manual.

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Scan Routines Window Menu Selections

Figure 8.10a Scan Routines Window: Edit Menu

8.10.1 Edit Menu

Next Ctrl+>

Makes the next scan in the automation program list the active scan.

Previous Ctrl+<

Makes the previous scan in the automation program list the active scan.

GoTo... Ctrl+G

Makes the specified scan in the automation program list the active scan. Type the scan number in
the pop-up Go To dialog box and press the ENTER key.

Append Analytical Functions… Insert

Opens the Analytical Functions dialog box, where functions may be selected to be attached to the
scan routines.

Delete Analytical Functions… Delete

Opens the Delete Analytical Functions dialog box, where one or more analytical functions may be
deleted from the scan routines.

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Sample Positioning Window Pop-Up Menu Selections

Global Edit Mode Ctrl+B

Toggles the Global Edit Mode on or off. When on, changes made to the current scan routine are
also made in all the other scan routines within a multiscan automation program.

8.11 Sample Positioning Window Pop-Up Menu Selections


When the Sample Positioning window is open, you can open a pop-up menu (see Figure 8.11a) by
right-clicking the mouse in the video/graphics display area. Several of the menu items are the same
as ones listed in the Run and Profiler menus. The other menu items are described below.

Figure 8.11a Sample Positioning Window Pop-Up Menu

Save Video Image...

The video image of the sample surface can be saved as an image file which can be exported into
other programs or documents for later viewing. You can choose to save the video image as a jpeg
file (.jpg extension), a bitmap file (.bmp extension), a tiff file (.tif extension) or a tga file (.tga
extension). The procedure for saving the video image is described below.

1. In the Sample Positioning window, adjust the focus and sample position until the desired
video image of the sample surface is displayed on the screen.

2. Right-click the mouse anywhere in the video/graphics display area.

3. Click Save Video Image in the pop-up menu.

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Sample Positioning Window Pop-Up Menu Selections

4. The Save Video Image dialog box displays, enabling the current video image to be saved in
the format you select. Enter the desired file name and directory location and click OK.

Video Overlay Settings...

Select Video Overlay Settings to open the Video Settings dialog box. This dialog box allows you
to adjust parameters on the video card. See Video Overlay Adjustment: Section 9.9.1.

Video

Select Video to open the video submenu, which offers the following three choices.

Video Only

Select Video > Video Only to project the video image of the sample surface from the Dektak 6M
camera on the monitor.

Graphics Only

Select Video > Graphics Only to display the graphic screen on the monitor without the video
image.

Video and Graphics

Select Video > Video and Graphics to superimpose the graphic screen over the video image of the
sample surface.

Stylus Reticule

Select Stylus Reticule to open the stylus reticule submenu, which offers the following two choices.

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Data Plot Window Menu Selections

Align...

Select Stylus Reticule > Align to open the Stylus Alignment window, where you can align the
targeting cursor to the stylus tip. Then double click the left mouse button to open a Confirmation
dialog box, where you can choose whether or not to update the stylus reticule location, or cancel
and close the window. (See Stylus Reticule Alignment: Section 3.4.3 for more information.)

Reset...

Select Stylus Reticule > Reset to open a Confirmation dialog box, where you can choose whether
or not to reset the stylus reticule location to its default (centered) location.

Update Alignment Reticule

Select Update Alignment Reticule to align the feature reticule with surface features away from the
stylus to more accurately position the stylus prior to scanning. (See Feature Reticule Alignment:
Section 3.4.4 for more information.)

8.12 Data Plot Window Menu Selections


When the Data Plot window is open, additional menu selections are provided (see Figure 8.12a).
These menus are briefly described below. A more detailed description of the use and functions of
the menu items is provided in Single Scan Operation: Chapter 4 and Analytical Functions:
Chapter 6 of this manual.

Figure 8.12a Data Plot Window: Edit, Plot and Analysis Menus

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Data Plot Window Menu Selections

8.12.1 Edit Menu

Delete Results... Delete

Deletes selected analytic results (if any). Select (highlight) the analytic result in the list at the left
side of the Data Plot window, and then select Edit > Delete Results... In the pop-up Delete
Analytical Results dialog box, choose one of the following:

• Select Delete 1 Item(s) to remove the highlighted analytic result from the list.

• Type a number in the field to remove that number of analytic results from the list,
starting with the highlighted one.

• Select Delete All to remove all analytic results from the list.

Enter Software Leveling

Select Edit > Enter Software Leveling to capture the current positions of the R and M cursors.

8.12.2 Plot Menu

Replot F6

Re-plots the trace according to the boundaries settings. Also redisplays the original boundaries if no
boundary box is being drawn on the plot.

Level F7

Levels the trace at the current R and M cursor intercepts.

Zero F8

Changes the zero position of the graph vertically to align with the intercept of the R cursor and the
plot.

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Data Plot Window Menu Selections

Data Type...

Opens the Plot Data Type dialog box (see Figure 8.12b), where you can choose Raw, Roughness
and/or Waviness in the Scan section. See Smoothing: Section 6.15 for details.

Note: The Step Detection and Stress sections in this dialog box are for use with the
optional Step Detection and Stress Measurement software packages. See
Appendix A (Options, Accessories and Replacement Parts) for the
descriptions and part numbers of these options. The stress measurement option
is described in Appendix B, and the step detection option is described in
Appendix C.

Figure 8.12b Plot Data Type Dialog Box

Clear Bands

Resets the bands to zero width at the R and M cursors.

Default Bands

Sets the width of the bands at the R and M cursors to the number of samples acquired in 1 second,
according to the formula:

300 * (scan length) / (number of data points) (EQ 1)

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Data Plot Window Menu Selections

Band Widths...

Opens the Set Bandwidths dialog box (see Figure 8.12c), where you can type in the widths of the
bands at the R and at the M cursors.

Figure 8.12c Set Bandwidths Dialog Box

Boundaries

Select Boundaries to open the boundaries submenu, which offers the following three choices:

Save...

Opens the Save Boundaries dialog box, where you can assign a number between 1 and 20 to the
current boundary box.

Restore...

Opens the Restore Boundaries dialog box, where you can recall a saved boundary box by
specifying the number that you previously assigned to it.

Show

Displays the boundary boxes on the plot, with their assigned numbers appearing in their upper left
corners.

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Auto Prog Summary Window Menu Selections

8.12.3 Analysis Menu

Analytical Functions… Insert

Opens the Analytical Functions dialog box, where functions may be selected in real time to be
attached to the current scan and computed.

Note: Analytical functions are not appended to the scan routine. In order to do that,
you would use the Append Analytical Functions… item in the Scan Routines
window Edit Menu (see Scan Routines Window Menu Selections: Section
8.10).

Cutoff Filters...

Select Analysis > Cutoff Filters to open the Roughness and Waviness Filters dialog box, where
you can specify values for Long Pass and Short Pass Filter Cutoffs. Check the box if you want to
apply a Band Pass Filter.

Smoothing...

Select Analysis > Smoothing to open the Smoothing dialog box, where you can specify the
Smoothing degree and Smoothing band.

8.13 Auto Prog Summary Window Menu Selections


When the Auto Prog Summary window is open, an additional menu selection is provided (see
Figure 8.13a). This menu is briefly described below. A more detailed description of the use and
functions of the menu items is provided in Automation Program Summary Window: Section
5.6.3 of this manual.

Figure 8.13a Auto Prog Summary Window: Edit Menu

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Toolbars and Icons

8.13.1 Edit Menu

Include Ctrl+I

Enables selected scan routine(s) to be used in the summary calculations.

Exclude Ctrl+X

Excludes selected scan routine(s) from being used in the summary calculations.

Re-run Scans Ctrl+U

Re-runs selected (highlighted) scan routines in the automation program.

8.14 Toolbars and Icons


Each window includes a toolbar containing a series of icons allowing you to perform a variety of
different functions with a click of a button. These icons and their respective functions are described
in the sections below for each window.

Note: Some similar icons have slightly different functions depending on the particular
toolbar in which they appear.

8.14.1 Customizing the Toolbars

You can customize the toolbar in each window to include only those icons you want. To customize
a toolbar, right-click anywhere in the toolbar ribbon to pop up the Toolbar menu (see Figure 8.14a).

Figure 8.14a Toolbar Menu

Select Customize... to open the Customize Toolbar dialog box (see Figure 8.14b).

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Toolbars and Icons

Figure 8.14b Customize Toolbar Dialog Box

The dialog box shown in the figure is associated with the Startup window, but is typical of the
dialog box you would obtain at any window. (The specific contents of the list boxes reflect the
toolbar of the particular Dektak window that is displayed.)

The Current toolbar buttons list box at the right shows the buttons (icons) currently on the
toolbar for the window that is displayed.

The Available toolbar buttons list box at the left contains buttons that are not on the toolbar, but
are available for use.

1. To add a button (or a separator) to the toolbar, select (highlight) the item in the Available
toolbar buttons list box and double-click it, or click the Add -> button. Your selection will
be moved to the Current toolbar buttons list box and placed beneath the currently
highlighted item in the list. (The separator line always remains available for use.)

2. To remove a button (or a separator line) from the toolbar, select the item in the Current
toolbar buttons list box and double-click it, or click the <- Remove button. Your selection
will be removed from the list and placed in the Available toolbar buttons list box. (If you
selected a separator line, it will simply be removed.)

3. To change the location of an item in the toolbar, select the item in the Available toolbar
buttons list box and click the Move Up or Move Down button, as appropriate.

4. Click Close to accept your changes, or Reset to return to the default toolbar configuration.

5. If you want to save your modified toolbar for use the next time you launch the Dektak
program, be sure to right-click anywhere in the toolbar ribbon to pop up the Toolbar menu
and click Save (see Figure 8.14a).

6. To return to the default toolbar configuration at any time, right-click anywhere in the toolbar
ribbon to pop up the Toolbar menu and click Reset to Default. To keep the default
configuration, click Save.

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Toolbars and Icons

8.14.2 Startup Window Toolbar and Icons

Figure 8.14c Startup Window Toolbar

Table 8.14a Startup Window Toolbar Icon Descriptions

Description Icon
New: Create new automation program.

Open: Open automation program file.

Save: Save currently active automation program.

Export: Export currently active automation


program.

Automation Program Window: Switch to


Automation Program Window.

Scan Routines Window: Switch to Scan


Routines Window.

Sample Positioning Window: Switch to Sample


Positioning Window.

Data Plot Window: Switch to Data Plot


Window.

Automation Program Summary Window:


Switch to Automation Program Summary
Window.

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Toolbars and Icons

8.14.3 Automation Programs Window Toolbar and Icons

Figure 8.14d Automation Programs Window Toolbar

Table 8.14b Automation Programs Window Toolbar Icon Descriptions

Description Icon
New: Create new automation program.

Open: Open automation program file.

Save: Save currently active automation program.

Print: Print automation program parameters.

Export: Export currently active automation


program.

Copy: Copy currently selected scan routine.

Copy to Range: Copy currently selected scan


routine to a range of scan routines.

Delete: Delete currently selected scan routine.

Delete Range: Delete range of scan routines.

Run Scan Routine: Run currently active scan


routine.

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Toolbars and Icons

Run Automation Program: Run automation


program.

Scan Routines Window: Switch to Scan


Routines Window.

Sample Positioning Window: Switch to Sample


Positioning Window.

Data Plot Window: Switch to Data Plot


Window.

Automation Program Summary Window:


Switch to Automation Program Summary
Window.

8.14.4 Scan Routines Window Toolbar and Icons

Figure 8.14e Scan Routines Window Toolbar

Table 8.14c Scan Routines Window Toolbar Icon Descriptions

New: Create new automation program.

Open: Open automation program file.

Save: Save currently active automation program.

Print: Print automation program parameters.

Previous Scan: Select and display previous scan


routine of a multiscan automation program.

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Toolbars and Icons

Next Scan: Select and display next scan routine


of a multiscan automation program.

Append Functions: Append analytical functions


to current scan routine.

Global Edit: Enables and disables global edit


mode for scan routines.

Run Scan Routine: Run currently active scan


routine.

Run Automation Program: Run automation


program.

Automation Program Window: Switch to


Automation Program Window.

Sample Positioning Window: Switch to Sample


Positioning Window.

Data Plot Window: Switch to Data Plot


Window.

Automation Program Summary Window:


Switch to Automation Program Summary
Window.

8.14.5 Sample Positioning Window Toolbar and Icons

Figure 8.14f Sample Positioning Window Toolbar

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Toolbars and Icons

Table 8.14d Sample Positioning Window Toolbar Icon Descriptions

Description Icon
Increase Illumination: Increases sample
illumination.

Decrease Illumination: Decreases sample


illumination.

Video Display: Display video only.

Graphics Display: Display graphics only.

Video and Graphics Display: Display both


video and graphics.

Tower Up: Lift the stylus, raise the tower and


optics to the home position.

Tower Down: Lower the tower and optics to the


stylus null position. The stylus is then raised
from the sample.
Stylus Up: Lift the stylus off the sample surface,
while the tower and camera remain in the null
position.
Stylus Down: Move the tower down to the null
position. Lower the stylus.

Run Scan Routine: Run currently active scan


routine.

Run Automation Program: Run automation


program.

Abort: Abort current operation.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 189


Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Toolbars and Icons

Automation Program Window: Switch to


Automation Program Window.

Scan Routines Window: Switch to Scan


Routines Window.

Data Plot Window: Switch to Data Plot


Window.

Automation Program Summary Window:


Switch to Automation Program Summary
Window.

8.14.6 Data Plot Window Toolbar and Icons

Figure 8.14g Data Plot Window Toolbar

Table 8.14e Data Plot Window Toolbar Icon Descriptions

New: Create new automation program.

Open: Open scan data file.

Save: Save scan data.

Export: Export scan data.

Print: Print scan data and parameters.

Display Analytical Functions: Display


Analytical Functions Dialog Box.

190 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Toolbars and Icons

Level: Level the trace at the current R and M


cursor intercepts.

Replot: Performs the replot function on the scan


trace.

Toggle Data Plot Size: Toggle data plot size.

Run Scan Routine: Run currently active scan


routine.

Run Automation Program: Run automation


program.

Abort: Abort current operation.

Automation Program Window: Switch to


Automation Program Window.

Scan Routines Window: Switch to Scan


Routines Window.

Sample Positioning Window: Switch to Sample


Positioning Window.

Automation Program Summary Window:


Switch to Automation Program Summary
Window.

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Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Toolbars and Icons

8.14.7 Automation Program Summary Window Toolbar and Icons

Figure 8.14h Automation Program Summary Window Toolbar

Table 8.14f Automation Program Summary Window Toolbar Icon Descriptions

New: Create new automation program.

Open: Open automation program summary file.

Save: Save automation program summary.

Export: Export automation program summary.

Print: Print automation program summary.

Include Scans: Include the currently selected


scans.

Exclude Scans: Exclude selected scans.

Rerun Scans: Rerun scans.

Run Scan Routine: Run currently active scan


routine.

Run Automation Program: Run automation


program.

Automation Program Window: Switch to


Automation Program Window.

192 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Menu and Toolbar Descriptions
Toolbars and Icons

Scan Routines Window: Switch to Scan


Routines Window.

Sample Positioning Window: Switch to Sample


Positioning Window.

Data Plot Window: Switch To Data Plot


Window.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 193


Chapter 9 Calibration, Maintenance, and
Warranty

This chapter includes the following topics:

• Care and Handling: Section 9.1

• Vertical Calibration: Section 9.2

• Calibrating the 65 kÅ Range: Section 9.3

• Calibrating the 655 kÅ Range: Section 9.4

• Calibrating the 2620 kÅ Range: Section 9.5

• Clearing the Vertical Calibration: Section 9.6

• Cleaning the Reference Block and Teflon Pads or Tapes: Section 9.7

• Stylus Replacement and Tip Cleaning: Section 9.8

• Optics Adjustment: Section 9.9

• Service Contracts: Section 9.10

• Major Repairs: Section 9.11

• Veeco Instruments Statement of Limited Warranty: Section 9.12

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 195


Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Care and Handling

9.1 Care and Handling


Like any precision instrument, the Dektak 6M requires care in handling and operation. Please
adhere to the following recommendations:

• Allow the Dektak 6M to warm up for approximately 15 minutes prior to use to stabilize
the electronics.

• Do not use leadscrew lubricants. The leadscrews are Teflon-coated and require no
additional lubricant.

• Always position the sample so that only the stylus tip touches the sample (never the
stylus arm or sensor housing).

• Always keep the profiler door of the environmental enclosure closed when the Dektak
6M is not in use.

• Never connect or disconnect any cables when power is on.

• Do not lower the tower without the stage assembly in place.

• Do not move a sample during a scan.

• Avoid vibration and shock during measurements, such as an operator or observer


touching or bumping a surface close to the instrument or the instrument itself during a
scan.

• Always raise the tower and optics assembly into maximum vertical position when the
system is not in use, even when power is left on.

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Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Care and Handling

9.1.1 Preventative Maintenance

Stage

Contamination of the stage will cause scan performance to degrade. To avoid this, Veeco
recommends cleaning the stage regularly depending on use. Clean the stage before scanning if
visible contamination is present on the exposed reference block. Use the procedure set forth in
Preparing for Stage Installation: Section 2.4 to clean the stage. Generally, use the following
guidelines for cleaning the stage:

• Heavy use: Clean weekly, or more frequently if environmental contamination is present.

• Minimum use: Clean quarterly.

Dektak 6M Exterior

Clean the exposed surfaces of Dektak 6M using a soft cloth and isopropyl alcohol or deionized
water. Clean the profiler at a minimum of every six months, in addition to cleaning the profiler
whenever visible contamination is present.

CAUTION: Dispose of wipes in an appropriately labeled solvent-contaminated


waste container.

ATTENTION: Jeter les compresses de nettoyage daus une poubelle correctement


étiquettée pour les solvents.

VORSICHT: Entsorgen Sie Alkohol-getränkte Tücher in einem dafür


vorgesehenen Behälter für Lösungsmittel abfälle.

Teflon Pads or Taps

Replace the Teflon pads or tapes on the bottom and sides of the stage every three years, or as
needed. Contact Veeco for service.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 197


Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Vertical Calibration

9.2 Vertical Calibration


Software calibrate the Dektak 6M regularly (at least once a month) to ensure vertical measurement
accuracy. Use 50 kÅ and 100 kÅ calibration standards for this purpose. Additional calibration
standards are also available to calibrate the instrument for a wide variety of applications. Step-
height calibration standards range in thickness from 200 to 100,000 angstroms. All calibration
standards are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology and include a
certificate of calibration.

Note: Setting the vertical calibration for the Extended Vertical Range option requires
use of the 750 µm step height standard provided with the option
(see Section 9.5.4).

9.2.1 Vertical Calibration Help Window

The Dektak application provides user instructions for setting vertical calibration. You can display
these instructions from any window. The procedure to display the Vertical Calibration Help
dialog box is described below.

1. Select Calibrate > Vertical > Set at the menu bar to display the Vertical Calibration Help
dialog box (see Figure 9.2a).

Figure 9.2a Vertical Calibration Help Dialog Box


219A

2. As shown in the dialog box, you must first run a scan using a calibration standard and
calculate the average step height function on the scan data. Detailed instructions for sample
positioning and running a scan are provided in Chapters 3 and 4 of this manual.

3. Then you enter the actual step height of the calibration standard. The software compares the
measured with the actual values of the calibration standard’s step height, and automatically
sets a calibration factor.

Note: You will have the choice of using the same calibration values for all
measurement ranges, or calibrating each range separately. The following
procedures show how to calibrate each range separately.

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Calibrating the 65 kÅ Range

9.3 Calibrating the 65 kÅ Range


1. Place a 50 kÅ calibration standard on the center of the stage.

2. Select Window > Sample Positioning to display the Sample Positioning window.

3. Use the X-Y Positioning Knobs (see X-Y Positioning: Page 12) at the front of the Dektak
6M to ensure the sample is positioned beneath the stylus.

4. Select Profiler > Tower Down.

5. Use the Illumination Adjustment icons to adjust the illumination to view the sample.

6. Position the stylus reticule to the left of the narrowest portion of the “dog bone” on the
calibration standard, so that the vertical line of the stylus reticule is parallel with the length of
the dog bone (see Figure 9.3a).

Figure 9.3a Stylus Reticule Position

Wide Portion:
y1,000 µm
“Dog Bone”

Narrow Portion:
y 200 µm
Stylus Reticule
225

9.3.1 Scanning the 50 kÅ Calibration Standard

1. Select File > Open... from the menu bar, and then in the popup dialog box select the
VERT_65K.mp program from the \Dektak32\Programs directory. Click Load.

2. Select Run > Scan from the menu bar (or press the F4 key on the keyboard) to run one scan.

3. Observe the trace as displayed in the Data Plot window.

a. If the trace rises or falls as it progresses across the plot, level the stage manually (see
Stage Leveling: Section 4.7).

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Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Calibrating the 65 kÅ Range

b. If the step does not start at 500 µm, move the stage in the appropriate direction and run
another scan (see Position Scan Start Location: Section 4.3). Repeat until the step
starts at 500 µm.

4. The resulting plot should resemble Figure 9.3b below.

Figure 9.3b 50 kÅ Calibration Standard Plot

220B
9.3.2 Calculating Average Step Height

1. Select Run > Auto Program from the menu bar (or press the F5 key on the keyboard) to run
the five scans in the VERT_65K.mp program.

2. At the conclusion of the automation program, the Auto Prog Summary window opens to
display the summary results for the measured ASH. The figures in the first column should
resemble those shown in Figure 9.3c.

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Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Calibrating the 65 kÅ Range

Figure 9.3c Summary Results in APS Window of VERT_65K.mp Program

220K
9.3.3 Setting the Vertical Calibration

1. Select Calibration > Vertical > Set... from the menu bar to open the dialog box (see Figure
9.3d).

Figure 9.3d Setting Vertical Calibration Parameters - 65 kÅ Range


220C

2. In the Set Vertical Calibration dialog box, select Set For This Range Only in the Set
Options section.

3. Enter the Measured Step Height obtained from the measured mean value of the step height
(ASH) as displayed in the Auto Program Summary window.

4. Enter the Actual Step Height of the step height standard. Click OK to close the dialog box.

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Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Calibrating the 65 kÅ Range

5. Select Run > Auto Program from the menu bar (or press the F5 key on the keyboard) to run
the five scans in the VERT_65K.mp program.

6. Compare the measured ASH (as corrected by the software) with the actual ASH of the step
height (see Figure 9.3e). If the measured value is within 1% of the actual value, then the
calibration has been correctly set.

Figure 9.3e Example Calibration Results Using a 50 kÅ Calibration Standard

220D

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Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Calibrating the 655 kÅ Range

9.4 Calibrating the 655 kÅ Range


1. Place a 100 kÅ calibration standard on the center of the stage.

2. Select Window > Sample Positioning to display the Sample Positioning window.

3. Use the X-Y Positioning Knobs (see X-Y Positioning: Page 12) at the front of the Dektak
6M to ensure the sample is positioned beneath the stylus.

4. Select Profiler > Tower Down.

5. Use the Illumination Adjustment icons to adjust the illumination to view the sample.

6. Position the stylus reticule to the left of the narrowest portion of the “dog bone” on the
calibration standard, so that the vertical line of the stylus reticule is parallel with the length of
the dog bone (see Figure 9.4a).

Figure 9.4a Stylus Reticule Position

Wide Portion:
y1,000 µm
“Dog Bone”

Narrow Portion:
y 200 µm
Stylus Reticule
225

9.4.1 Scanning the 100 kÅ Calibration Standard

1. Select File > Open... from the menu bar, and then in the popup dialog box select the
VERT_655K.mp program from the \Dektak32\Programs directory. Click Load.

2. Select Run > Scan from the menu bar (or press the F4 key on the keyboard) to run one scan.

3. Observe the trace as displayed in the Data Plot window.

a. If the trace rises or falls as it progresses across the plot, level the stage manually (see
Stage Leveling: Section 4.7).

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Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Calibrating the 655 kÅ Range

b. If the step does not start at 500 µm, move the stage in the appropriate direction and run
another scan (see Position Scan Start Location: Section 4.3). Repeat until the step
starts at 500 µm.

4. The resulting plot should resemble Figure 9.4b below.

Figure 9.4b 100 kÅ Calibration Standard Plot

220E
9.4.2 Calculating Average Step Height

1. Select Run > Auto Program from the menu bar (or press the F5 key on the keyboard) to run
the five scans in the VERT_655K.mp program.

2. At the conclusion of the automation program, the Auto Prog Summary window opens to
display the summary results for the measured ASH. The figures in the first column should
resemble those shown in Figure 9.4c.

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Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Calibrating the 655 kÅ Range

Figure 9.4c Summary Results in APS Window of VERT_655K.mp Program

220L
9.4.3 Setting the Vertical Calibration

1. Select Calibration > Vertical > Set... from the menu bar to open the dialog box (see Figure
9.4d).

Figure 9.4d Setting Vertical Calibration Parameters - 655 kÅ Range


220F

2. In the Set Vertical Calibration dialog box, select Set For This Range Only in the Set
Options section.

3. Enter the Measured Step Height obtained from the measured mean value of the step height
(ASH) as displayed in the Auto Program Summary window.

4. Enter the Actual Step Height of the step height standard. Click OK to close the dialog box.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 205


Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Calibrating the 2620 kÅ Range

5. Select Run > Auto Program from the menu bar (or press the F5 key on the keyboard) to run
the five scans in the VERT_655K.mp program.

6. Compare the measured ASH (as corrected by the software) with the actual ASH of the step
height (see Figure 9.4e). If the measured value is within 1% of the actual value, then the
calibration has been correctly set.

Figure 9.4e Example Calibration Results Using a 100 kÅ Calibration Standard

220G
9.5 Calibrating the 2620 kÅ Range
Note: If you have just performed calibration for the 655 kÅ range, and you have not
moved the calibration standard or the stage, you can skip ahead to Scanning
the 100 kÅ Calibration Standard: Section 9.5.1.

1. Place a 100 kÅ calibration standard on the center of the stage.

2. Select Window > Sample Positioning to display the Sample Positioning window.

3. Use the X-Y Positioning Knobs (see X-Y Positioning: Page 12) at the front of the Dektak
6M to ensure the sample is positioned beneath the stylus.

4. Select Profiler > Tower Down.

5. Use the Illumination Adjustment icons to adjust the illumination to view the sample.

6. Position the stylus reticule to the left of the narrowest portion of the “dog bone” on the
calibration standard, so that the vertical line of the stylus reticule is parallel with the length of
the dog bone (see Figure 9.5a).

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Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Calibrating the 2620 kÅ Range

Figure 9.5a Stylus Reticule Position

Wide Portion:
y1,000 µm
“Dog Bone”

Narrow Portion:
y 200 µm
Stylus Reticule

225
9.5.1 Scanning the 100 kÅ Calibration Standard

1. Select File > Open... from the menu bar, and then in the popup dialog box select the
VERT_2620K.mp program from the \Dektak32\Programs directory. Click Load.

2. Select Run > Scan from the menu bar (or press the F4 key on the keyboard) to run one scan.

3. Observe the trace as displayed in the Data Plot window.

a. If the trace rises or falls as it progresses across the plot, level the stage manually (see
Stage Leveling: Section 4.7).

b. If the step does not start at 500 µm, move the stage in the appropriate direction and run
another scan (see Position Scan Start Location: Section 4.3). Repeat until the step
starts at 500 µm.

4. The resulting plot should resemble Figure 9.5b below.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 207


Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Calibrating the 2620 kÅ Range

Figure 9.5b 100 kÅ Calibration Standard Plot

220E
9.5.2 Calculating Average Step Height

1. Select Run > Auto Program from the menu bar (or press the F5 key on the keyboard) to run
the five scans in the VERT_2620K.mp program.

2. At the conclusion of the automation program, the Auto Prog Summary window opens to
display the summary results for the measured ASH. The figures in the first column should
resemble those shown in Figure 9.4c for the 655 kÅ range.

9.5.3 Setting the Vertical Calibration

1. Select Calibration > Vertical > Set... from the menu bar to open the dialog box (see Figure
9.5c).

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Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Calibrating the 2620 kÅ Range

Figure 9.5c Setting Vertical Calibration Parameters - 2620 kÅ Range

220H
2. In the Set Vertical Calibration dialog box, select Set For This Range Only in the Set
Options section.

3. Enter the Measured Step Height obtained from the measured mean value of the step height
(ASH) as displayed in the Auto Program Summary window.

4. Enter the Actual Step Height of the step height standard. Click OK to close the dialog box.

5. Select Run > Auto Program from the menu bar (or press the F5 key on the keyboard) to run
the five scans in the VERT_2620K.mp program.

6. Compare the measured ASH (as corrected by the software) with the actual ASH of the step
height (see Figure 9.5d). If the measured value is within 1% of the actual value, then the
calibration has been correctly set.

Figure 9.5d Example Calibration Results Using a 100 kÅ Calibration Standard


220I

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 209


Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Calibrating the 2620 kÅ Range

9.5.4 Vertical Calibration for the Extended Vertical Range Option

To set the vertical calibration for the 1mm stylus (the Extended Vertical Range option), use the
750 µm step height standard provided with the option (see Figure 9.5e).

Figure 9.5e Calibrating the Extended Vertical Range Option

252
750 μm Step Height Standard

Scanning on the 750 µm step height standard differs from the step height standards used in
previous exercises. The measured step height (750 µm) is the height of the standard itself, not a
step on the standard. Scan across the top of the standard and on to the chuck surface, calibrating to
the step down.

Note: To scan the 750 µm standard, you must use the Valleys setting under Profile in
the Scan Parameters dialog box (see Profile: Section 7.1.6).

210 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Clearing the Vertical Calibration

9.6 Clearing the Vertical Calibration


Whenever you set the vertical calibration, the old values are automatically cleared and replaced by
the new parameters. However, in some cases, it may be desirable to clear individual ranges or all
ranges. This procedure is described below.

1. Select Calibrate > Vertical > Clear from the menu to display the Clear Vertical
Calibration dialog box (see Figure 9.6a).

Note: The dialog box permits you to clear the vertical calibration from the various
display ranges either individually or from all the ranges.

2. Select the range or ranges to be cleared and click Clear.

3. Click OK to clear the vertical calibration from the selected range or ranges and close the
dialog box.

Figure 9.6a Clear Vertical Calibration Dialog Box

223A

9.7 Cleaning the Reference Block and Teflon Pads or Tapes


Periodically clean the reference block under the scan stage, as well as the Teflon pads or tapes , to
ensure measurement repeatability and optimum performance. The required cleaning frequency
depends on the cleanliness of the environment in which the Dektak 6M operates and the frequency
of usage of the tool. You must remove the Dektak 6M scan stage in order to clean the reference
block and the pads.

Note: Depending on when you purchased your Dektak 6M profiler, it may be


equipped with Stage Assembly 1 (see Figure 2.4a and Figure 2.4b) or Stage
Assembly 2 (see Figure 2.4c and Figure 2.4d). Both stage assemblies are
removed and cleaned in the same manner.

To remove the stage and clean the reference block and Teflon pads or tapes:

1. Verify the stylus and optics are positioned at their maximum vertical height to provide
clearance for removing the stage.

2. Power-down the Dektak 6M profiler and computer.

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Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Cleaning the Reference Block and Teflon Pads or Tapes

3. Carefully remove the environmental enclosure and set it aside.

4. Disconnect the cable connected to the right side of the scan stage.

5. If the system is equipped with the vacuum chuck option, turn off the vacuum source and
disconnect the vacuum line from the stage.

6. Disengage the rack mechanism by inserting a standard 6" flat-head screwdriver into the cam
slot on the right side of the rack drive assembly. Turn the screw fully clockwise (see Figure
9.7a).

Figure 9.7a Cam Slot

Cam

7. Using two hands, remove the stage by sliding it toward you and slightly upwards until the
flag clears the sensors on the right side of the reference block. Then lift it off the reference
block (see Figure 9.7b).

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Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Cleaning the Reference Block and Teflon Pads or Tapes

Figure 9.7b Removing the Stage

Flag

Sensors

153
8. Set the stage upside-down on a clean, level surface.

9. Clean the stage, the Teflon pads or tapes, and the reference block (sides and top) with lint-
free, non-abrasive tissues moistened with deionized water or laboratory grade alcohol.

Note: Always wipe new spots with a clean portion of the tissue to avoid transferring
contamination to another area.

ATTENTION: Do not use other solvents, such as spectrograde acetone, as they


may attack the adhesives used to mount the Teflon pads or tapes.
Only use isopropyl alcohol or deionized water.

ATTENTION: Ne pas utiliser d’autres solvants, tels que de l’acétone pour


spectrographie, qui pourraient attaquer les adhésifs utilisés pour
monter les protections en Téflon. N'utiliser que de l'alcool
isopropylique ou de l'eau dé-ionisée.

ATTENTION: Lösungsmittel wie Azeton können den Kleber, mit dem die
Teflonunterlagen an der Unterseite des Probentisches befestigt
sind, angreifen und sollten daher nicht verwendet werden.
Verwenden Sie nur Isopropylalkohol und demineralisiertes
Wasser.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 213


Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Cleaning the Reference Block and Teflon Pads or Tapes

CAUTION: Dispose of wipes in an appropriately labeled solvent-contaminated


waste container.

ATTENTION: Jeter les compresses de nettoyage daus une poubelle correctement


étiquettée pour les solvents.

VORSICHT: Entsorgen Sie Alkohol-getränkte Tücher in einem dafür


vorgesehenen Behälter für Lösungsmittel abfälle.

10. Buff the reference block and stage pads in a circular pattern with a clean, dry lint-free wipe.

ATTENTION: Do not touch the Teflon pads or tapes or the reference block after
cleaning.

ATTENTION: Ne pas toucher les protections en Téflon ou la surface des blocs


après leur nettoyage.

ATTENTION: Berühren Sie die Teflonumterlagen nach dem Reinigen nicht.

11. Inspect the Teflon pad or tape surfaces to ensure that no debris or excess adhesive is
embedded in the pads.

Note: If you need new teflon pads or tapes, contact Veeco.

12. Reinstall the stage assembly. See Installing the Stage: Section 2.5 for the procedure to
reinstall the stage assembly.

13. Reinstall the environmental enclosure.

14. Power-up the Dektak 6M profiler and computer, followed by the E-box. You now can run
the Dektak software.

Note: If the scan stage does not home during initialization, the scan drive motor may
not be engaged.

214 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Stylus Replacement and Tip Cleaning

9.8 Stylus Replacement and Tip Cleaning

9.8.1 Replacing the Stylus

All Dektak 6M styli have the same shank size but differ in the radius of the diamond tip (see Figure
9.8a). The procedure to remove and/or replace a stylus is described below.

Figure 9.8a Stylus Assembly

022
Note: The stylus suspension system is delicate. Use only the stylus replacement
fixture when removing or installing a stylus.

1. Select Profiler > Tower Up to raise the stylus and optics tower to the maximum vertical
position.

2. Remove the stylus air shield using a small slot screwdriver to gently pry the shield down and
away from the sensor head (see Figure 9.8a). Do NOT touch the stylus.

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Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Stylus Replacement and Tip Cleaning

Figure 9.8b Removing Stylus Air Shield

Sensor Head

(pry here)
Stylus Air Shield

023
3. Remove the stylus using the stylus replacement fixture.

Figure 9.8c Generation 3 Stylus Replacement Fixture

Note: The quick release stylus mechanism enables fast and easy stylus replacement.

a. Verify the fixture is in the disengaged position (the magnet wheel is rotated so a notch is
visible). See Figure 9.8d.

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Stylus Replacement and Tip Cleaning

Figure 9.8d Generation 3 Stylus Replacement Fixture - Magnet Positions

Magnet Magnet
Wheel, Wheel,
Notch Green Dot
Visible Visible

Alignment
Pins

Stylus
Channel

184
183

Magnet Disengaged Magnet Engaged


(Stylus Released) (Stylus Captured)

b. Place the stylus replacement fixture underneath the sensor head.

c. Align the pins of the stylus replacement fixture with the stylus sensor housing
(see Figure 9.8e).

Figure 9.8e Align Stylus Replacement Fixture

d. Push the stylus replacement fixture up until the bottom of the sensor head is against the
top of the stylus replacement fixture (see Figure 9.8f). Be sure the stylus is seated in the
channel on the fixture. If necessary, gently tap the end of the stylus shaft (NOT the tip)
with your finger to align the shaft with the channel.

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Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Stylus Replacement and Tip Cleaning

Figure 9.8f Scan Head Flush with Fixture

187
Note: If the stylus is not properly seated in the channel, it will tend to rotate when you
remove it.

e. Rotate the magnet wheel to engage the magnet in the stylus replacement fixture.

f. Carefully lower the stylus replacement fixture.

The stylus is held in place magnetically (see Figure 9.8g).

Figure 9.8g Generation 3 Fixture with Captured Stylus

Stylus
188

4. To remove the stylus from the stylus replacement fixture, disengage the magnet (rotate the
wheel in either direction so a notch is visible) and gently lift the stylus out of the fixture.

To install the stylus:

5. Replace the stylus with a new one if necessary.

6. Place the stylus in the stylus replacement fixture and rotate the magnet wheel back to the
engaged position (green dot).

7. Raise the stylus replacement fixture until it is once again in place under the sensor head.

8. Rotate the magnet wheel to the disengaged position.

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Stylus Replacement and Tip Cleaning

9. Carefully lower the stylus replacement fixture.

10. Replace the stylus air shield, being very careful not to touch the stylus tip.

11. Align the stylus reticle position with the video image of the stylus tip.

Note: See Optics Adjustment: Section 9.9 for instructions for adjusting the video
image of the stylus tip.

12. Run a test scan to verify that the stylus is functioning. Reset the stylus force if necessary.

9.8.2 Cleaning the Stylus

A stylus may need to be cleaned periodically to remove any dust particles from the tip. Use the
following procedure to clean the stylus tip.

1. Select Stylus > Tower Up to raise the tower to the maximum vertical position.

2. Remove any samples from the stage.

3. Clean the tip using a lint-free swab or wipe moistened with deionized water or laboratory
grade alcohol. Lightly touch the tip with the lint-free swab or wipe to remove dust. You may
also use a small soft-bristle paintbrush.

CAUTION: Dispose of wipes in an appropriately labeled solvent-contaminated


waste container.

ATTENTION: Jeter les compresses de nettoyage daus une poubelle correctement


étiquettée pour les solvents.

VORSICHT: Entsorgen Sie Alkohol-getränkte Tücher in einem dafür


vorgesehenen Behälter für Lösungsmittel abfälle.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 219


Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Optics Adjustment

9.9 Optics Adjustment


After replacing a stylus, you may need to adjust the optics to align the video image so that the
stylus tip appears in the center of the screen. Alignment and focus of the Dektak 6M optics must be
performed in the sequence outlined here. If a specific adjustment is acceptable as is, skip to the next
instruction.

Note: If the optical setup is substantially out of range, multiple iterations of this
procedure may be required to optimize all adjustments.

Note: To adjust the optics illumination, see Optics Illumination Adjustment:


Section 3.4.2.

Note: Depending on when you purchased your Dektak 6M profiler, it may be


equipped with Optical Subassembly 1 (see Figure 9.9a and Figure 9.9b) or
Optical Subassembly 2 (see Figure 9.9c and Figure 9.9d).

Focus and Alignment

1. Turn the zoom adjustment (if installed) to obtain a reasonable size of the Dektak 6M video
image (see Figure 9.9c).

2. Turn the focus adjustment to sharpen the image (see Figure 9.9c).

Figure 9.9a Optical Subassembly 1 (Fixed Optics)

220 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Optics Adjustment

Figure 9.9b Optical Subassembly 1 - Alignment Knobs

For horizontal
adjustment, Loosen these
turn this knob. screws prior to
any adjustment.

For vertical image


alignment, turn
this knob.

Figure 9.9c Optical Subassembly 2 - Alignment Knobs (Front View)

Horizontal Image
Alignment Knob
209A

Focus Adjustment Zoom Adjustment

3. Turn the horizontal and vertical alignment knobs (see Figure 9.9b, Figure 9.9c, and Figure
9.9d) to place the image where desired.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 221


Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Optics Adjustment

Figure 9.9d Optical Subassembly 2 - Alignment Knobs (Rear View)

Horizontal Image
Alignment Knob

209A
Vertical Image
Alignment Knob

9.9.1 Video Overlay Adjustment

You can also change parameters on the video card to improve the optics. Alter the digital
processing parameters in the Video Setup dialog box. Use the following procedure to access this
box:

1. Select Setup > Video Overlay Settings from the menu bar to open the Video Setup dialog
box (see Figure 9.9e). This dialog box allows you to adjust parameters on the video card.

222 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Optics Adjustment

Figure 9.9e Video Setup Dialog Box

Adjustments Section

Standard Section
(Do not alter)

Input Type Section


(Do not alter)
157A

Note: Do NOT alter any parameters in the Standard and Input Type sections of the
Video Setup dialog box.

2. Change the parameters in the Adjustments section you wish to alter, and click OK to return
to the Dektak application software.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 223


Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Service Contracts

9.10 Service Contracts


To maximize equipment operation and avoid major repairs, Veeco offers customized service
contracts to meet customer needs and to extend the one-year factory warranty. Service contracts
include routine maintenance to keep the equipment up to factory specification.

For more information on service contracts, contact your local Veeco Service Center.

9.11 Major Repairs


The Dektak 6M cannot be readily repaired after major component failures without the assistance of
specialized test equipment and software routines. In the event of equipment failure, please call the
Veeco Service Center nearest you for assistance (see Service Contracts: Section 9.10).

Before calling the Veeco Service Center, do the following:

1. Restart the Dektak application by closing the Windows application, power-down the profiler
and computer, then turning the power back on.

2. Verify all cables are properly connected and free of obvious damage.

3. Verify all power cords are connected properly.

4. Verify that sample illumination is properly adjusted.

5. Verify that the air shield is properly installed.

6. Verify the tower moves up and down when you activate the Tower Up and Tower Down
functions from Profiler menu.

Note: All parts of the Dektak 6M must be serviced by the manufacturer or designated
representative.

224 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Veeco Instruments Statement of Limited Warranty

WARNING: Never open the profiler, E-Box, computer console or video


monitor when connected to the primary power source. Major
service should only be performed by qualified, factory-trained,
Veeco service personnel.

AVERTISSEMENT: Ne jamais ouvrir l’ordinateur ou l’écran video lorsqu’ils sont


branchés sur une source de courant. Toute intervention majeure
devrait seulement être réalisée par du personnel qualifié et formé
par Veeco.

WARNUNG: Computerkonsole und Videomonitor dürfen unter keinen


Umständen geöffnet werden, während sie an die
Spannungsversorgung angeschlossen sind. Größere
Wartungsarbeiten sollten nur von qualifiziertem, und durch Veeco
ausgebildetes Personal durchgeführt werden.

9.12 Veeco Instruments Statement of Limited Warranty


This product is covered by the terms of the Veeco standard warranty as in effect on the date of
shipment and as reflected on Veeco's Order Acknowledgement and Quote. While a summary of the
warranty statement is provided below, please refer to the Order Acknowledgement or Quote for a
complete statement of the applicable warranty provisions. In addition, a copy of these warranty
terms may be obtained by contacting Veeco.

WARRANTY. Seller warrants to the original Buyer that new equipment will be free of defects in
material and workmanship for a period of one year commencing (a) on final acceptance or (b) 90
days from shipping, whichever occurs first. This warranty covers the cost of parts and labor
(including, where applicable, field service labor and travel required to restore the equipment to
normal operation).

Seller warrants to the original Buyer that replacement parts will be new or of equal functional
quality and warranted for the remaining portion of the original warranty or 90 days, whichever is
longer.

Seller warrants to the original Buyer that software will perform in substantial compliance with the
written materials accompanying the software. Seller does not warrant uninterrupted or error-free
operation.

Seller's obligation under these warranties is limited to repairing or replacing at Seller's option
defective non-expendable parts or software. These services will be performed, at Seller's option, at
either Seller's facility or Buyer's business location. For repairs performed at Seller's facility, Buyer
must contact Seller in advance for authorization to return equipment and must follow Seller's
shipping instructions. Freight charges and shipments to Seller are Buyer's responsibility. Seller will

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 225


Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Veeco Instruments Statement of Limited Warranty

return the equipment to Buyer at Seller's expense. All parts used in making warranty repairs will be
new or of equal functional quality.

The warranty obligation of Seller shall not extend to defects that do not impair service or to provide
warranty service beyond normal business hours, Monday through Friday (excluding Seller
holidays). No claim will be allowed for any defect unless Seller shall have received notice of the
defect within thirty days following its discovery by Buyer. Also, no claim will be allowed for
equipment damaged in shipment sold under standard terms of F.O.B. factory. Within thirty days of
Buyer's receipt of equipment, Seller must receive notice of any defect which Buyer could have
discovered by prompt inspection. Products shall be considered accepted 30 days following (a)
installation, if Seller performs installation, or (b) shipment; unless written notice of rejection is
provided to Seller within such 30-day period.

Expendable items, including, but not limited to, styli, lamps, pilot lights, filaments, fuses,
mechanical pump belts, V-belts, wafer transport belts, pump fluids, O-rings and seals ARE
SPECIFICALLY EXCLUDED FROM THE FOREGOING WARRANTIES AND ARE NOT
WARRANTED. All used equipment is sold 'AS IS, WHERE IS,' WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED.

Seller assumes no liability under the above warranties for equipment or system failures resulting
from (1) abuse, misuse, modification or mishandling; (2) damage due to forces external to the
machine including, but not limited to, acts of God, flooding, power surges, power failures,
defective electrical work, transportation, foreign equipment/attachments or Buyer-supplied
replacement parts or utilities or services such as gas; (3) improper operation or maintenance or (4)
failure to perform preventive maintenance in accordance with Seller's recommendations (including
keeping an accurate log of preventive maintenance). In addition, this warranty does not apply if any
equipment or part has been modified without the written permission of Seller or if any Seller serial
number has been removed or defaced.

No one is authorized to extend or alter these warranties on Seller's behalf without the written
authorization of Seller.

THE ABOVE WARRANTIES ARE EXPRESSLY IN LIEU OF ANY OTHER


EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES (INCLUDING THE WARRANTY OF
MERCHANTABILITY), AND OF ANY OTHER OBLIGATION ON THE PART
OF SELLER. SELLER DOES NOT WARRANT THAT ANY EQUIPMENT OR
SYSTEM CAN BE USED FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR WITH ANY
PARTICULAR PROCESS OTHER THAN THAT COVERED BY THE
APPLICABLE PUBLISHED SPECIFICATIONS.

NO CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY. Seller shall not be


liable for consequential damages, for anticipated or lost profits, incidental, indirect, special or
punitive damages, loss of time, loss of use, or other losses, even if advised of the possibility of such
damages, incurred by Buyer or any third party in connection with the equipment or services
provided by Seller. In no event will Seller's liability in connection with the equipment or services
provided by Seller exceed the amounts paid to Seller by Buyer hereunder.

Buyer is advised that, if the equipment is used in a manner not specified by the manufacturer, the
protection provided by the equipment may be impaired.

226 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Calibration, Maintenance, and Warranty
Veeco Instruments Statement of Limited Warranty

Claims for Shipment Damage

No claim will be allowed for equipment damaged in shipment sold under standard terms of F.O.B.
Factory. Within thirty days of purchaser’s receipt of equipment, Veeco must receive notice of any
defect which purchaser could have discovered by prompt inspection of equipment. In any event,
Veeco shall have the option of inspection at purchaser's premises or at Veeco’s plant before
allowing or rejecting the claim.

Service

Field service is available worldwide. Service and installations are performed by factory-trained
Veeco service personnel. Contact your local Veeco sales/service office for prompt service.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 227


Appendix A Options, Accessories and
Replacement Parts

Table A.1a Options

Item Description Part No.


Extended Vertical Increases maximum vertical 994-000-007
Range measurement range from 262 µm to 1
mm for measuring large steps or curved
surfaces.
Ceramic Vacuum Removable chuck provides sample 838-071
Chuck restraint for small samples and pieces of
samples. Vacuum source required.
Monitor 17" high resolution flat panel display 701-298
color monitor.
Vibration Isolation Isolates the scan head from floor 150-122
Table vibration, which can affect instrument
resolution and repeatability. Requires
80 psi air supply.
Vibration Isolation Bench-top isolation system. Requires 150-122
Platform 80 psi air supply.
220/240 Volt System Configuration changes for 220/240 volt 997-007-551
Assembly power.
Zoom Optical Provides 1.1 - 4.6 mm horizontal field 452-000-011
Subassembly of view

Intel® Pentium® 4 1 GB RAM and 40 GB or greater IDE 838-012-1


microprocessor HD with a CD-RW/DVD combination
drive.
Stress Measurement Calculates tensile or compressive stress on 997-007-552
Software processed wafers.
Step Detection Provides multi-step detection capabilities 994-000-010
Software and automatically measures and calculates
negative and positive step transitions.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 229


Options, Accessories and Replacement Parts

Item Description Part No.


N-Lite Low Force Allows stylus-to-surface engage routines for 775-229
Package ultra-low force profiling.
Dektak 6M 2D Wyko® Vision® provides a wide range 778-161
Wyko® Vision® of options for displaying and analyzing
Analysis Package the 2D scan.
Dektak 6M Advanced During a scan, displays live plots that can 775-293
Automation Program show upper and lower pass/fail criteria.
Summary (Advanced After a scan, the data can be replotted, fil-
APS) Software tered, and otherwise manipulated. The
Advanced APS option is interchangeable
with the standard APS function.

Table A.1b Accessories

Item Description Part No.


LIS III STYLI: Color Code Description
B-Type Technology
Orange Assy, Stylus, 5 µm 838-031-1
(Standard)
Gray Assy, Stylus, 2.5 µm R. 838-031-2
Red Assy, Stylus, 12.5 µm 838-031-3
Black Assy, Stylus, 25 µm 838-031-4
LIS III STYLI: Color Code Description
A-Type Technology
Orange Assy, Stylus, 5 µm 838-030-1
(Specials)
Assy, Stylus, 0.7 R. x 45° 838-030-3
Gray Assy, Stylus, 2.5 µm R. 838-030-4
Yellow Assy, Stylus, 0.2 µm 838-030-5
Red Assy, Stylus, 12.5 µm 838-030-6
Black Assy, Stylus, 25 µm 838-030-7
Chisel Type 838-030-9
Individual Calibration Nominal 200 Å measurement 138365
Standards
Nominal 500 Å measurement 138366

Nominal 1 kÅ measurement 138367

Nominal 5 kÅ measurement 138368

Nominal 10 kÅ measurement 138369

Nominal 50 kÅ measurement 138370

Nominal 100 kÅ measurement 138371

230 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Options, Accessories and Replacement Parts

Item Description Part No.


Calibration Standards Five Calibration Standards: 138375
Set
Certified nominal 200 Å and 500 Å, and
NBS traceable nominal 1 kÅ, 5 kÅ, and 50
kÅ measurements. May be used with all
Stylus Profilers. Includes a Certificate of
Calibration and clear plastic membrane
case.
Note: Factory Recertification of Calibration Standard(s) available.
VLSI Calibration Nominal 8 nm measurement 085381
Standards
Nominal 18 nm measurement 085382

Nominal 44 nm measurement 085383

Nominal 88 nm measurement 085384

Nominal 180 nm measurement 085385

Nominal 450 nm measurement 085386

Nominal 940 nm measurement 085387

Nominal 1.8 µm measurement 085388

Nominal 8.0 µm measurement 085389

Nominal 24.0 µm measurement 085390

Nominal 50.0 µm measurement 085391

Installation and On-site advanced system installation, 800571


Maintenance operation and application training for one
day (maximum 8 hours), maximum 3
people. USA only.
Clean Room Manual Operator manual printed on clean room 004-610-100
paper.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 231


Options, Accessories and Replacement Parts

Table A.1c Replacement Parts

Item Description Part No.


Environmental Conductive translucent enclosure protects 838-063
Enclosure for Stage sample and scan area from the adverse
Assembly 1 (small affects of dust, acoustic noise and air flow.
footprint)
Environmental Conductive translucent enclosure protects 838-049
Enclosure for Stage sample and scan area from the adverse
Assembly 2 affects of dust, acoustic noise and air flow.
Fixed Optical Provides 2.6 mm horizontal field of view 452-000-011
Assembly

232 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Appendix B Stress Measurement Option

Note: Stress Measurement is an optional feature that must be installed in the Dektak
software prior to use.

B.1 Description of Stress


The Dektak stress formula is calculated as shown in Figure B.1a.

Figure B.1a Dektak Stress Measurement Formula

The Dektak stress algorithm creates a curve comprising stress values for every data point on the
scan trace. If a pre-stress (pre-deposition) scan data file is saved, the calculation proceeds (on all the
scan data points) as follows:

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 233


Stress Measurement Option
Description of Stress

1. A running average with a window size of 1/10 the scan length loads and smooths the pre-
stress scan data.

2. The smoothed data is further smoothed using a segmented third order polynomial
interpolation technique.

3. The first and second derivatives of the smoothed data trace derives the curvature trace.

4. Steps 1-3 are also applied to the post-stress scan data producing a curvature trace for the
post-stress scan data.

5. The stress curve computes from the comparison of the two curvature traces.

6. The maximum and average compressive and tensile stresses are calculated from the stress
curve, and displayed in the Stress Results dialog box.

Figure B.1b Stress Results Dialog Box (Example)

237A
Note: Only those values of the stress curve between the cursors are considered.

B.1.1 Three-Point Substrate Suspension

To compensate for substrate deflection created by gravity or by a vacuum hold stage, the stress
option kit provides three-point substrate suspension. Three 0.25" diameter steel ball bearings
suspend the substrate above the stage surface. These ball bearings insert into the holes on top of the
stage. A magnet is also provided for removing the ball bearings from the stage. If necessary, raise
the alignment pins on the stage by turning them clockwise.

B.1.2 Stress Reference

Prior to calculating stress, you must establish a reference. You can calculate stress using a straight
line as the reference, or by producing a preliminary reference scan on the sample prior to
processing. In order to accurately measure stress accurately, the reference scan and the scan
produced after thin film deposition must have identical scan parameters, including cursor locations
(stress computes the data between the reference and measurement cursors). For this reason, save
the scan parameters used to produce the original reference scan in an automation program file to
use after deposition.

234 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Stress Measurement Option
Identifying Substrate Characteristics

Once you produce the reference scan, save the scan in a data file. The data file is then used as the
reference for comparison and stress calculation.

B.2 Identifying Substrate Characteristics


To collect substrate statistics:

1. Position the R and M cursors to surround the portion of the scan trace over which to collect
stress statistics.

2. If a reference scan is used to compute stress, use the exact scan parameters for the reference
scan to produce the scan on the substrate after deposition. Whether you use the default
straight line reference or a reference scan to calculate stress, scan the substrate after thin film
deposition.

Note: The scan will automatically plot.

3. Once you complete the scan on the substrate after deposition, enter the characteristics of the
substrate being measured for stress into the stress calculation:

a. Select Analysis > Compute Stress to display the Stress Parameters dialog box (see
Figure B.2a).

Note: The Thin Film Substrate box of the Stress Parameters dialog box displays
the material, orientation, and elasticity of the thin film substrate. Several
options are stored in memory to compute stress in a variety of applications.

Figure B.2a Stress Parameters Dialog Box


213A

4. Click Select... in the Thin Film Substrate section to view the pre-programmed thin film
substrate elasticity constants

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 235


Stress Measurement Option
Entering Stress Parameters

Figure B.2b Elasticity Constants Dialog Box

212A
5. Select the thin film substrate to be measured for stress and click OK.

B.3 Entering Stress Parameters


Once you identify the substrate material and orientation, you can enter other stress parameters in
the Stress Parameters dialog box (see Figure B.2a).

1. Verify the correct value displays in the Elasticity field. If the elasticity of the substrate is
different than the value displayed, click the field and enter the correct value.

2. Click the Substrate thickness field and enter that value in μm.

3. Click the Film thickness field and enter that value in μm.

4. Click OK if the stress is to be measured against the default straight line reference to display
the stress result.

5. Click Select... in the PreDeposition Data File section if the stress is to be measured against
a reference scan produced earlier and saved in a data file. The Specify a File dialog box
opens.

6. Browse the data folder and choose the appropriate file. Click Load to close the Specify a
File dialog box.

7. Click OK to close the Stress Parameters dialog box and open the Stress Results dialog box
(see Stress Results: Section B.4).

236 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Stress Measurement Option
Stress Results

B.4 Stress Results


The statistical results display in the Stress Results dialog box. You can view these results at any
time after stress has been computed by selecting Analysis > Stress Results from the Data Plot
window.

Figure B.4a Stress Results Dialog Box

237A
You can obtain a printout of stress results by either selecting the Print button from the Stress
Results dialog box or as part of the Scan Data Summary printout.

Upon completion of the stress computation, you can display the stress data traces on the scan data
plot. Select Plot > Data Type... from the menu bar or right-click on the plot and select Data
Type... to open the Plot Data Type dialog box (see Figure B.4b).

Figure B.4b Plot Data Type Dialog Box: Stress Plots


237B

Note: Whenever a stress computation is performed, the vertical scale of the plot
changes from angstroms to dynes/cm2.

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 237


Stress Measurement Option
Stress Results

You can select the following types of stress plots from the dialog box:

Curve Fit

Curve fit plots in cyan.

PreDeposition

Pre-deposition data curve plots in blue.

Note: This choice is available only if a pre-deposition data file was loaded.

PostDeposition

Post-deposition data curve plots in green.

Film Stress Curve

Film stress curve plots in orange.

Note: This choice is relevant only if a pre-deposition data file was loaded.

B.4.1 Constraints and Limitations

1. You must hardware level the stage and verify that the stage is in the same leveled position
before running both the pre- and post-stress scans.

2. Both pre- and post-stress scans must have the same number of data points. Do not abort
either scan before completion.

3. The algorithm perfoms best on flat wafers. Surface features can throw off the curve-fitting
algorithm and produce invalid maximum stress values.

238 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Appendix C Step Detection Function

This appendix includes the following topics:

• Step Detection Method: Section C.1

• Step Detection Parameters: Section C.2

• Step Detection Setup: Section C.3

• Regional Flattening: Section C.4

The Dektak 6M Step Detection function (standard in Version 5.35) enables the automatic
computation of analytic functions on scanned features using a two step process. First, the Step
Detection algorithm locates the leading and trailing edge of each scanned feature. Dektak reference
and measurement cursors then automatically position at a relative distance from each detected
edge, where chosen analytic functions (for example, Average Step Height, Slope, Peak, Valley,
Peak to Valley, and so on) compute. The Step Finder is a filter that accentuates the edges of a
scanned feature where a high variation (high frequency) between data points exist.

C.1 Step Detection Method


A least-squares fit algorithm determines the location of feature edges. The following variables are
used by the least-squares fit algorithm to determine the fitting criteria of a line to scanned data
points.

• First Step: Positions the R and M cursors for selected analytical functions relative to the
beginning of the first step that matches the Step Description parameters. If a matching
step is found, the ASH of the left edge and the right edge are the first two entries in the
Analytic Results area.

• Every Step: Positions the R and M cursors for selected analytical functions relative to
every step that matches the Step Description parameters.

Feature edges are determined by the relative change in slope of each line segment and the
proximity (minimum width) from other line segments. The operational procedure for step detection
is described in the following pages.

Rev. H Dektak 8 Manual 239


Step Detection Function
Step Detection Parameters

C.2 Step Detection Parameters


The Step Detection dialog box displays all the necessary parameters for performing the step
detection function (see Figure C.2a).

You can open the Step Detection dialog box from two of the Dektak application windows. One of
the choices displayed in the dialog box depends on the window from which the box was opened, as
explained below.

• To open the Step Detection dialog box from the Scan Routines window, click Step
Detection in the Data Processing section (lower left corner of the window).

• To open the Step Detection dialog box from the Data Plot window containing a plot,
select Analysis > Step Detection from the menu bar.

C.2.1 General Settings Tab

When the dialog box first displays, it defaults to the Every Step detection method on the General
Settings tab (see Figure C.2a).

Figure C.2a Step Detection Dialog Box: General Settings Tab

You can adjust various parameters on this page to suit your requirements.

240 Dektak 8 Manual Rev. H


Step Detection Function
Step Detection Parameters

Note: If you select First Step as the Detection Method, the Every Step tab changes
to a First Step tab.

Figure C.2b First Step Tab

First Step
tab

Detection Range

• Start Position: The position, in μm, to start searching for a step.

• End Position: The position, in μm, to end searching for a step.

Automatic Leveling

When selected, automatically levels the trace with the R and M cursors each placed near an edge at
a Relative Position that you specify, at a distance from the edge that you specify. You can also
specify the Width for each cursor.

Save Changes To Scan Routine

When checked, all entered Step Detection parameters are saved to the current scan routine.

Note: This check box is available only when step detection has been initiated from the
menu bar in the Data Plot window.

Rev. H Dektak 8 Manual 241


Step Detection Function
Step Detection Parameters

Enable Step Detection

When checked, performs Step Detection as specified on a completed scan.

Note: This check box is available only when the dialog box is opened from the Data
Processing section of the Scan Routines window.

C.2.2 Every Step Tab

You may need to change the parameter values on the Every Step tab, depending on the steps to
measure (see Figure C.2c). Click the Every Step tab to display its contents. A description of the
parameters contained in the Every Step tab is provided below.

Figure C.2c Step Detection Dialog Box: Every Step Tab

Every Step
tab

Step Description

• Min Height: Indicates the minimum height (in angstroms) of features to measure. You
can enter decimal values to indicate any portion of angstroms.

• Max Height: Indicates the maximum height (in angstroms) of the features to measure.

• Smoothing: The minimum edge height used to search for potential steps, in angstroms.

242 Dektak 8 Manual Rev. H


Step Detection Function
Step Detection Parameters

• + Steps: When selected, Step Detection searches for the first positive step matching
Step Description parameters.

• - Steps: When selected, Step Detection searches for the first negative step matching
Step Description parameters.

C.2.3 Analytical Functions

• ASH: Compute Average Step Height function.

• Slope: Compute Slope function.

• AvgHt: Compute Average Height function.

• Peak: Compute Maximum Peak function.

• Valley: Compute Maximum Valley function.

• P_V: Compute Maximum Peak to Valley function.

• Compute Average: Compute the average of all results of each analytical function.

C.2.4 First Step Tab

If you select First Step as the detection method, you can click the First Step tab to display the First
Step page. A description of the parameters contained in the First Step page is provided below (see
Figure C.2d).

Rev. H Dektak 8 Manual 243


Step Detection Function
Step Detection Parameters

Figure C.2d Step Detection Dialog Box: First Step Tab

Step Description

• Height: The desired height of the step to detect in angstroms.

• Width: The desired width of the step to detect in μm.

• Distance to Step:

• R: The relative position of the R cursor to the left of the potential step being
detected.

• M: The relative position of the M cursor to the right of the potential step being
detected.

Band Width

• R: Width of R cursor band positioned to the left of the potential step being detected.

• M: Width of M cursor band positioned to the right of the potential step being detected.

244 Dektak 8 Manual Rev. H


Step Detection Function
Step Detection Parameters

Additional Parameters

• Smoothing: Factor used for smoothing. Larger values result in more smoothing.

• Tolerance: Error factor used for calculating the height and width of the matching step.

• + Step: When selected, Step Detection will search for the first positive step matching
Step Description parameters.

• - Step: When selected, Step Detection will search for the first negative step matching
Step Description parameters.

Analytical Functions

Put a check mark in the boxes for the analytical functions desired:

• ASH: Computes Average Step Height function.

• Slope: Computes Slope function.

• AvgHt: Compute Average Height function.

• Peak: Compute Maximum Peak function.

• Valley: Compute Maximum Valley function.

• P_V: Compute Maximum Peak to Valley function.

• Compute Average: Compute the average of all results of each selected analytical
function.

Then select each of the desired functions in turn from the Function drop-down list to enter the
appropriate cursor information in the grid for each function.

Distance To Step

R (μm)

The relative distance from the beginning of the detected step at which to place the R cursor prior to
performing the corresponding analytical function. Negative values fall to the left of the beginning
of the step, positive values to the right. You may enter up to 10 distances for each analytical
function.

M (μm)

The relative distance from the beginning of the detected step at which to place the M cursor prior to
performing the corresponding analytical function. Negative values fall to the left of the beginning
of the step, positive values to the right. You may enter up to 10 distances for each analytical
function.

Rev. H Dektak 8 Manual 245


Step Detection Function
Step Detection Setup

Band Width

R (μm)

R-cursor band width used when performing corresponding analytical function. You may enter up to
10 widths for each analytical function.

M (μm)

M-cursor band width used when performing corresponding analytical function. You may enter up
to 10 widths for each analytical function.

C.3 Step Detection Setup


Step Detection is typically used for finding and measuring steps when performing multi-scan
operations. It scans similar features at multiple locations on multiple samples with the step heights
measured automatically.

Prior to using Step Detection in a multi-scan operation, create a sample scan of the feature to aid in
setting up the Step Detection parameters. Using the scan shown in Figure C.3a as an example of a
sample scan, the following pages demonstrate how to set up and perform Step Detection on a scan
data file.

Figure C.3a shows a scan across a feature with steps (trenches) located at approximately 350 µm
and 1350 µm. The procedure to invoke Step Detection on an existing scan data file is provided
below.

Select Analysis > Step Detection from the menu bar with a scanned profile of multiple steps
displayed in the Data Plot window (see Figure C.3a).

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Step Detection Setup

Figure C.3a Typical Scan of Multiple Steps

3.3.1 Performing Step Detection on a Single Scan

1. With the Step Parameters dialog box displayed, select the Step Detection method (First
Step or Every Step).

2. Select the desired parameters for the scan to measure the scanned step or steps.

3. Click OK.

The resulting scan after you enable Step Detection redisplays the plotted profile and detects and
measures the steps applicable to selected Step Detection parameters.

Selected analytical functions (such as ASH measurement) perform on the detected steps. The steps
are detected, causing the ASH measurement to compute with R and M cursors positioned on either
side of the step and displayed to the left of the plotted profile.

You can now automatically locate the cursors to their corresponding position by highlighting the
desired analytic result.

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Step Detection Setup

C.3.2 Programming Step Detection in a Scan Routine

The same criteria for locating feature edges on a single data file can be used for performing step
detection on similar features during subsequent scans.

1. Select Window > Scan Routines to display the Scan Routines window to enable Step
Detection during a scan.

2. Under Data Processing, click Step Detection to display the default values in the Step
Detection dialog box.

3. Select the Step Detection Enabled check box to enable step detection while scanning.

C.3.3 Programming Step Detection on Multiple Scans

You can use the Automation Program Summary (APS) with step detection to automatically
compute standard deviation and mean values of chosen analytic functions at each detected step for
a series of scans.

1. Select Window > Automation Programs to program a series of scans with Step Detection.

2. Under Automation Program Options, click APS File to open the Automation Program
Options dialog box.

3. At the General page, in the Auto Program Summary (APS) section, click the Compute &
Display check box.

4. Accept the default file, or specify the desired file for the APS summary, and click OK.

5. Select Edit > Copy To... to create a copy of the previously developed scan routine.

6. In the dialog box that pops up, enter a numerical value for the new Scan Routine # into the
field and click OK.

7. Double-click the left mouse button on the newly created scan routine to allow modification
of the new scan routine location.

8. Modify any parameters of the scan routine you wish to alter.

9. Select Window > Automation Programs to run the automation programs.

10. Select Run > Auto Program From... after highlighting the first automation program to
execute.

The result is an Automation Program Summary with Mean, Standard Deviation, Minimum,
Maximum and Range values for ASH measurements at each detected step.

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Regional Flattening

C.4 Regional Flattening


If your sample has small steps of approximately one micron or less, Vision for Dektak allows you
to apply regional flattening to remove scan-to-scan irregularities from the entire dataset. To apply
regional flattening, follow the steps in Appendix D.

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Appendix D Wyko Vision

This appendix includes the following topics:

• Opening a Dektak Scan in Vision: Section D.1

• Vision Overview: Section D.2

• Analyzing Data: Section D.3

• Displaying Data: Section D.4

• Dataset Versus Database: Section D.5

Note: Wyko® Vision®is a purchased option that must be installed in your system
before you can open and analyze a Dektak 6M 2D scan as described below.

D.1 Opening a Dektak Scan in Vision


When you open the results of a Dektak scan in Wyko Vision, the program analyzes the data and
displays it as a 2D (X and Z) trace. This trace appears along with a dialog box that enables you to
view the 2D data as a 3D (X, Y, and Z) plot that is easier to interpret and manipulate.

After you open a Dektak dataset in Vision, you can perform the following routines:

• Terms Removal (Tilt, Curvature, Sphere, and others)

• Masking (both Analysis and Terms)

• Histogram Plot

• Bearing Ratio Plot

• Processed Options

• Power Spectral Density (PSD) and Autocovariance Fourier Analyses

• Many more analyses and processed options

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Opening a Dektak Scan in Vision

To open a Dektak dataset in Vision:

1. Open Vision.

2. From the File menu, select File > Open Stored Dataset.

3. Navigate to the Dektak Data folder and click the file that you want to open. The file must
have a .dat (single scan) extension or a .001, *.00X (part of mapscan) extension. A 2-D trace
appears, along with the following dialog box.

Figure D.1a 2D Data Format Options Dialog Box

4. In the 2-D Data Format Options Dialog box:

• Click OK or Cancel to work with the dataset as a 2-D trace. (This choice is not
recommended, since the unmultiplied dataset is not easy to use (see Figure D.1b).

• Change one of the property parameters and click OK to work with the dataset as a 3-D
plot. For example, change the Length parameter in the Y Data Plot section to match
the Length parameter in the X Data Plot section. When you click OK, the dataset
appears as a rectangular 3D contour plot, as shown in Figure D.1c.

Note: For most uses, adjusting the “aspect ratio” until the Y Data Plot length is
approximately same as the X Data Plot length is sufficient for easy
manipulation of the imported data.

5. From the File menu, select Save Dataset As, and then select .opd file. The system saves the
file as a standard Vision dataset that can be analyzed and displayed using Vision’s many
options.

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Figure D.1b Dektak Scan Shown as 2-D Trace in Vision

Figure D.1c Dektak Scan Shown as a 3D Contour Plot in Vision

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D.2 Vision Overview


The Dektak 3D Mapping Option produces 3-D images of a sample that are converted into data that
the Vision 3D rendering software can analyze and store in a .img file (see D.2.1 Vision Basic
Functions).

D.2.1 Vision Basic Functions

Start-Up Window

Once started, Vision displays a Start-Up window that incorporates both a menu bar and a toolbar
for command selection (see Figure D.2a). Use the Start-Up window as a home base for performing
data analysis, transformations, and image presentation.

Figure D.2a Vision Start-Up Window

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Open

1. Select File > Open Stored Dataset or click the OPEN A DATASET icon to open a scanned
image file and transfer the data into a working data buffer (current data set) for use by the
package (see Figure D.2b). The Open Stored Dataset dialog box appears (see Figure D.2c).
All data analysis, transformations, and image presentations perform from the current data set.

Figure D.2b Open a Dataset Icon

2. Choose the type of file you want to open by selecting the drop-down list box next to the
Open box. Vision opens four different file types: Dektak (*.img), ASCII Files (*.asc), SDF
(*.sdf), and OPD (*.opd).

Note: The default file type for Vision is .img.

3. Select OPEN to browse for a file. A preview of the file you select appears for quick
recognition of the file.

Figure D.2c Open Dialog Box

Preview
Window

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Add or Subtract

Use this option to combine several datasets by adding or subtracting every point in their surface
profiles (see Figure D.2d). The datasets you add or subtract must have same-size arrays. You can
add two or more files together. You can subtract only two datasets.

Figure D.2d Subtract/Add Dialog Box

To add or subtract two or more datasets:

1. Select File > Subtract/Add Files to display the Subtract/Add dialog box.

2. Select two files (or more, if adding) by clicking on the first file, then pressing CTRL and
selecting the next file(s).

3. Specify whether you want to Add or Subtract the files.

4. Select the Auto Center Data check box to center the second surface with respect to the first.

5. If the surfaces are not the same size, select the Auto Zoom Data option to resize the second
surface to match the first.

6. Click OK. The combined dataset is displayed using the default output file. You can now
apply analyses, processed options and masks to the averaged data.

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Note: This option applies to stored datasets. During a new measurement you can
subtract two readings in the same location by making a difference
measurement.

Save

Select File > Save As to save an image. This command is typically used when you have
transformed the dataset and wish to save the results of the transformation independent of the raw
data set.

Printing

You can print the current window from anywhere within the package on an attached printer. There
are three print options available: the entire display contents, the current window, or the client area
of the current window. The entire display command sends every pixel shown on the monitor to the
printer. The current window is defined as the current active Microsoft Windows window, including
the window border, sizing handles, title bar, menu bar, and window client area (contents). The
client area is the portion of a window excluding the title bar, menu bar, and window border, if any.
To print the current window press CTRL+P; to print the entire screen press CTRL+S; to print the
current client area press CTRL+SHIFT+P. The specific portion of the screen is then sent to the
current default printer as defined by Microsoft Windows and the user. The page orientation of the
output automatically changes so the largest possible image prints on a page.

D.2.2 Vision Toolbar

Vision has two modes: Lab mode and Production mode. Lab mode provides access to all analyses
and configuration options. Lab mode has a specific toolbar (see Table D.2a).

Table D.2a Vision Toolbar (Lab Mode)

Table D.2b Production mode is limited to only the basic options required to take measurements according to a
present configuration. A password must be supplied before you can return to Lab mode. Production mode has a
specific toolbar (see Table D.2c).

• Password = Wyko (It is not case sensitive.)

Table D.2c Vision Toolbar (Production Mode)

Table D.2d The menu bar provides access to the most frequently used options of the Vision software. The
icons and buttons of the toolbars are described below (see Table D.2e).

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Table D.2e Vision Menu Bar

Description Button/Icon

Lab Mode Production Mode


Open: Opens a dataset for viewing and analysis.

Save: Saves the current database.

Print: Prints the active dataset.

Processed Options: Opens the Processed Options dialog box,


where you can set various data processing parameters. Lab
mode only.

Edit Masks for this Dataset: Opens the Mask Editor window.

Multiple Region Options: Opens the Options dialog box for


the Multiple Region Analysis.

Custom Analysis Options: Opens the Custom Analysis dia-


log box, allowing you to create custom display files.

Custom Analysis Display: Opens the dialog box that allows


you to select a custom display file for your data.

Units Options: Opens the Units dialog box, which allows you
to change the display units between English and metric.

Database Options: Opens the Database Options dialog box.


Here you can perform most database-related functions, such as
defining a database, updating a master database, or viewing the
contents of a database file.

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Description Button/Icon
Contour Plot: Applies a contour plot display file to the current
dataset.

2D Analysis: Applies the 2D display file to the current dataset.

3D Interactive Plot: Applies the 3D display file to the current


dataset and allows you to interact with the data.

3D Plot: Applies the 3D display file to the current dataset.

Filtered Histogram Analysis: Applies the Filtered Histogram


analysis to the current dataset.

Filtered Bearing Ratio Analysis: Applies the Filtered Bearing


Ratio analysis to the current dataset.

Edit Toolbar: Allows you to edit the buttons that are displayed
on the toolbar.

Set Lab/Production Mode: Allows you to switch between


Lab Mode and Production Mode.

Help: Opens the Vision Help files.

Editing the Toolbar

You can customize the toolbar in both Lab and Production modes to include only those operational
and analysis buttons that you use regularly. Production mode, however, requires that you supply a
password before you can customize the toolbar.

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To edit the toolbar:

1. In Lab mode, click the Edit Toolbar icon or choose Edit > Edit Toolbar. In Production
mode, click EDIT TOOLBAR, then enter your password. Either action opens the Customize
Toolbar window (see Figure D.2e).

Figure D.2e Customize Toolbar Window

The Unused Toolbar Buttons list box contains buttons that are not on the toolbar but are available
for use. The Active Toolbar Buttons list box lists the buttons on the current toolbar.

a. To add a button to the toolbar, select a button in the Unused Toolbar Buttons list, then
click ADD. Your selection is placed beneath the currently highlighted option in the
Active Toolbar Buttons list.

b. To add a separator between tool bar buttons, select a button in the Active Toolbar
Buttons list. Click SEPARATOR to place a separator line beneath the selected button.

c. To remove a button or separator from the toolbar, select a button or separator line in the
Active Toolbar Buttons list, then click REMOVE. If you have selected a button, it is
moved to the Unused Toolbar Buttons list. If you selected a separator line, it is simply
removed.

2. Select any other options that may be applicable:

• LOAD DEFAULT TOOLBAR: Click this button to load the Vision default toolbar options.

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• Save as Default for All Configuration Files: Select this check box to save your most
recent toolbar changes as the default for your current work session, and for all
configuration files. If this box is cleared, the system applies your most recent toolbar
changes only to the current work session.

3. Click OK to accept your changes.

D.3 Analyzing Data


After you have taken a measurement, you can use a number of options and analyses to produce a
vast array of information about your sample data. Analyses calculate a wide range of statistics from
measured data. Analyses can be applied automatically following each new measurement. The name
of the analysis, in this case, is stored with the configuration file. Analyses can also be applied to
stored datasets.

Vision includes several standard analyses, such as producing 2D and 3D plots and displaying
intensity. Most systems include additional analyses for more specific types of measurements. An
analysis typically includes a graphical display file designed to show the calculated statistics, along
with a plot of the data. Many analyses include an Options dialog box that allows you to configure
the analysis to match your measurement

The Analysis menu displays the analysis options included in your system. Frequently accessed
analyses appear directly on the menu. A comprehensive list of installed analyses appears under
Analysis > Custom Options.

Datasets

A dataset contains raw data and parameters for a single measured part. Dataset files have an .img
extension, designating a binary format specific to Dektak datasets. Dataset contents are shown on-
screen in a display file, which typically shows a plot of the raw data and a list of the parameters.

After the measurement is taken, it is saved with a temporary file name, ~last.img. If you want to
store the dataset, you must rename it. Select Save As from the File menu, then provide a path, file
name, and select the type of file you would like to save it as. If you do not save and rename your
file, it will be overwritten the next time a measurement is taken.

Once you store a dataset, you can open it again at any time. To open a dataset, choose File > Open
Dataset, then select the file to open. The data will be shown using the display file that was in use
when the data was saved.

When you open a dataset, you can change the way the file is displayed. To save these changes,
choose File > Save Dataset. The next time you open the dataset, these viewing options will be
used.

Sample data can come from a just-completed measurement, or it can come from an existing dataset
that you have just opened. To open a dataset, select File > Open Existing Dataset, then select the
file to open.

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D.3.1 Processed Options

Processed Options allow you to remove terms, apply filtering, and perform data operations to
enhance the measurement data. Processed options can be applied to the current dataset only or can
be set as the measurement default and saved in the configuration file.

To access these options, select Analysis > Processed Options, or click the PROCESSED OPTIONS
button on the toolbar. Either action opens the Processed Options dialog box (see Figure D.3a).

Note: When you change options in this dialog box and click OK, the changes will be
immediately effected in any currently open display windows. By saving your
configuration, you can assure that your settings will be used each time you
open your configuration file.

Figure D.3a Processed Options Dialog Box - Terms Removal Tab

Within the Processed Options dialog box you can set the options described below.

Terms Removal

Terms removal options remove tilt, curvature, or cylindrical characteristics inherent to your sample
or measurement method (see Figure D.3a).

• Tilt Only: Removes linear tilt from surface measurements. Since a wafer always has
some inherent tilt, this term is almost always removed.

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• Curvature and Tilt: Makes spherical samples appear flat, enabling you to observe the
surface features instead of the spherical shape. Tilt is also removed.

• Cylinder and Tilt: Causes a cylindrical surface to appear flat, allowing you to see the
surface features, not the cylindrical shape. Tilt is also removed.

Filtering

The filtering algorithms create a modified data array to produce one of the following effects on the
current data set (see Figure D.3b).

Figure D.3b Processed Options Dialog Box - Filtering Tab

Low Pass Smoothing (Box Car Filter)

This filter removes the effects of high spatial frequency roughness, smoothing over features that are
smaller than the specified window size. The system eliminates small scale roughness, making the
most significant features of the dataset become easier to distinguish.

Median Smoothing (Median Filter)

The median of the valid points in each window is used as the data element in the new, smoother
array. (In other words, it filters out noisy and "spiked" data.) The median is the value of the middle
point when the points are sorted from smallest to largest.

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High Pass Smoothing (Edge Enhancing Filter)

High spatial frequencies are emphasized. This filter removes major undulations and large-scale
waviness, making small-scale roughness easier to distinguish.

Digital Filters (Fourier Filtering)

Digital filters selectively suppress roughness or waviness in a dataset. These filters work in the
spatial frequency spectrum of the dataset rather than on the pixels themselves. By selecting
different digital filter types, some of frequency content of the dataset can be selectively removed
from the image, accentuating or attenuating features of selected size range. Select from the digital
filter options (see Table D.3a).

Table D.3a Digital Filter Options

Digital Filter Description


Fourier Low Pass Removes spatial frequency components above the specified Low
Digital Cutoff Frequency. It makes the larger features of the
dataset easier to distinguish.
Fourier High Pass Removes spatial frequency components below the specified High
Digital Cutoff Frequency. It accentuates surface roughness by
minimizing the effect of large-scale waviness.
Band Pass Passes spatial frequencies below the High Cutoff and above the
Low Cutoff.
Notch Filter Passes spatial frequencies above the High Cutoff and below the
Low Cutoff.
Fourier Filter Type Select the shape of the digital filter to apply: Rectangle,
Butterworth (default is 3rd Order), or Exponential (the default
is s = standard deviation = 0.2). You can also click Adv. Setup to
access more options for digital filtering.
Low Cut Off Specify the low cut off to be used for Fourier Filtering options.
High Cut Off Specify the high cut off to be used for Fourier Filtering options.

Mask Options

Masks let you temporarily eliminate areas of information from a dataset so that you can focus on
the pertinent data (see Figure D.3c) Using masks, you can also analyze or modify specific portions
of the data. Once you've defined a mask, you can save it to disk, to a dataset, or as part of a
configuration file.

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Figure D.3c Processed Options Dialog Box - Masking Tab

Use Analysis Mask: Activates the mask associated with the current analysis.

• Use Terms Mask: Activates the current terms mask. For the mask option to be valid,
you must set a mask for the selected dataset. If terms are selected for removal, but a
terms mask is not applied, terms will be removed across the entire dataset.

For more information on masks, refer to Section D.4.5.

Data Restore

Data restore (see Figure D.3d) fills in bad pixels in areas from the dataset to allow certain analyses
that require all the data to be valid to work properly.

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Figure D.3d Processed Options Dialog Box - Data Restore Tab

Use Data Restore: Fills in small areas of bad pixels for the interpolation of measurement data.

CAUTION: Data Restore is intended only to improve small areas of bad pixels.
If used with a very rough sample or a sample with large areas of
bad data, the results could be misleading.

• Restore Only Interior: Extrapolate only the specified number of pixels if it connects
two points together.

• Restore Interior and Exterior: Extrapolate all data pixels up to the number specified
below.

• Data Restore Pixels: Set the number of pixels to restore for the above options.

General

Centering data allows analyses involving the entire data set to be carried out (see Figure D.3e).

• Center of Mass of Valid Pixels

• Fit Center to Outside Valid Pixels

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Figure D.3e Processed Options Dialog Box - General Tab

Data Flip rotates an image about a particular axis.

• Data Invert reverses the position of the image.

Dektak

Data Flattening flattens data using averages from the X or Y axes.

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Figure D.3f Processed Options Dialog Box - Dektak Tab

To apply data flattening:

1. Click Flatten Using X Average.

2. Click the Masking tab. Select a flat region on your sample and apply a terms mask through
the entire Y axis.

3. Perform an analysis. The program flattens the data according to the specifications of your
mask.

D.4 Displaying Data


Vision provides a large number of graphical plots, allowing you to produce meaningful data from
test results.

D.4.1 Setting the Units

You may wish to display your data in specific units or in a common unit system. By clicking the
Units icon or by selecting Options > Units, you can display the Units dialog box. This dialog box
allows you to choose which units (English or metric) you prefer to use, and which magnitude you
prefer. This option can be set before the measurement and saved in the configuration file, or it can

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be changed at any time after the measurement. In addition, you can set the units you choose as the
default for future measurements by selecting the Set as Default check box.

D.4.2 Standard Display File

The standard .wdf display file includes the basic statistics from the measurement along with a
contour plot of the results (see Figure D.4a).

Figure D.4a Contour Plot

Title and Note Contour Plot Surface Plot Height (Z)


Fields Box Scale

D.4.3 Display Files for Each Analysis

Vision includes many analysis routines to manipulate measurement results. Typically, each analysis
includes its own display output that shows the relevant statistics and plots for that analysis. The file
type of this output is either .wdf or .cdf (custom display file).

To use the display output from a different analysis:

1. Select Analysis > Custom Options.

2. Select your analysis from the scrolling list.

3. Click Calculate to perform the analysis and display the output.

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Display Custom Files (.cdf)

Your customer representative may provide you with one or more custom display (.cdf) files
designed for your particular application. You can choose to use one of these output files, or you can
create your own .cdf file as well.

To create a custom display file:

1. Select Edit > Create Custom Display. This opens a blank display file for editing.

Note: You may also select Edit > Open Custom Display to view and edit an existing
custom display file. It is often easier to alter an existing file than to create one
from scratch.

2. To add a rectangle to the display, select Edit > New Rectangle. Click the Filled Rectangle
box to add a filled rectangle, then select the fill color. Click OK to add the rectangle to the
display file, then position it and size it on the page.

3. To add headings or other text, select Edit > New Static Text. Enter the text string, its size
and typeface, then click OK. Position the text on the page.

4. To add an analysis result field, select Edit > New Analysis Result. Select the result from the
list, define its text characteristics on the left, then click OK. Position the field on the page.

5. To add a plot, select Edit > New Plot Item. Select the desired plot from the list, choose the
required calculation, then click OK. Position the plot on the page.

6. To add an analysis results table, select Edit > New Plot Item. Select Results Table from the
Type of Plot pull-down menu, then click OK. Position the table on the page.

7. When you have completed the custom display, click the SAVE button on the toolbar, or select
File > Save Custom File As. Save the custom display file for future use.

Select a Default Output File

The “Default Output File” is the display file that appears each time you click the NEW
MEASUREMENT button to take a measurement.

To select the default output:

1. Select Output > Default Output. This action opens the Set Default Output dialog box
(Figure D.4b).

2. Select the default output display format to use. If you choose to use a custom .cdf file, click
BROWSE to select the path to the file.

3. Click OK to accept the new default display.

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Figure D.4b Set Default Output Dialog Box

Setting Titles and User Notes

Vision offers two fields that you can customize on most display files: Title and Note (see Figure
D.4d). The Title and Note are displayed on any of the standard display files. You may also add
them to any custom display files. In addition, Vision allows you to set various “User Notes” that
are saved with the file but do not appear on the display file. They may be viewed when the file is
open. These parameters are optional; they will remain blank if you do not set them.

To set the Title and Notes:

4. Select Options > Set Title/Notes.

5. Enter the title/note text in the appropriate boxes.

6. Click OK. The active dataset is automatically updated.

To set the User Notes:

7. Select Options > Set User Notes.

8. Enter the text in the appropriate boxes.

9. Click OK. The notes are appended to the active dataset. They are not visible on the display
file.

Vision does not automatically save the titles or notes you add to the dataset. To save the changes to
your dataset, select File > Save.

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D.4.4 Standard Plots

Analyses are the specific calculations performed upon measurement data to return particular results
about the test part. Vision can perform many analyses on data. You can open several windows
simultaneously, showing various analyses of the same measurement data. The icons for these plots
are grouped in the Lab mode menu bar (see Figure D.4c)

Figure D.4c Icons for Main Analysis Plots

Contour Plot Filtered Bearing


Ratio Analysis

2D Analysis 3D Interactive 3D Plot Filtered Histogram Analysis

Contour Plot

A contour plot provides a visual, pixel-for-pixel representation of your dataset and applicable
dataset statistics. Data heights are color-coded for easy interpretation. To display a contour plot of
the current dataset, select Analysis > Contour, Analysis > Custom Options > Contour Plot > OK,
or click the CONTOUR PLOT button (see Figure D.4c). This option is available when a dataset is
open.

Figure D.4d Contour Plot

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Contour Plot Box

The Contour Plot Box to the left of the surface plot contains statistics and information about the
plot. The terms regarding the plot in the contour plot are defined below:

• Lateral Surface Area: Lateral surface area of the plot.

• Total Surface Area: Total surface area of the plot.

• Surface Statistics: Surface statistics for the region measured. The statistics are based on
the entire area.

• Ra: Average Roughness

• Rq: Root Mean Square (RMS) Roughness

• Rz: Average Maximum Height

• Rt: Maximum Height of Profile, Rp + Rv

• Terms Removed: Lists the terms removed from the plot.

• Filtering: Lists the filtering options in use.

Surface Plot

A plot of the surface as viewed from directly above (see Figure D.4d). Surface heights are depicted
by the colors on the vertical height scale to the right of the plot.

Height (Z) Scale

A vertical height scale, centered about the mean height (see Figure D.4d). The scale relates colors
(or gray-scale levels) to the surface heights they represent. You can change the vertical scale with
the Output > User Limits command.

• Lateral Surface Area: Lateral surface area of the plot.

• Total Surface Area: Total surface area of the plot.

• Terms Removed: Lists the terms removed from the plot.

• Filtering: Lists the filtering options in use.

Plot Options Menu

Right-click on a contour plot to access these options (see Figure D.4e):

• Plot Options: Opens the Plot Options dialog box.

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• Analysis Options: Opens the Processed Options dialog box.

• Color: Choose the colors used to designate data heights.

• Background Color: Choose a background to enhance readability. If your plot contains


data in the entire field of view, you will not see the effect of changing the background
color.

• Max Contrast: Provides maximum color contrast for data set displays.

• Define Subregion: Zoom in on a rectangular area of your plot. Click Define


Subregion, then click and drag to draw a rectangular region. A new window appears
showing your subregion and its statistics. After you have clicked Define Subregion, but
before selecting the subregion, you may choose Abort Subregion to cancel.

• After defining a subregion, a Zero Mean check box is added to the Processed
Options dialog box. Right-click on the contour plot to open the Contour Plot
menu, select Analysis Options, then select the Zero Mean check box to set the
“zero” height to the mean height of the subregion.

• Duplicate: Make a copy of the plot. You can then make changes to plot options and
compare the plot to the original. Choose Full Resolution to copy every pixel, Half
Resolution to copy every other pixel, or Quarter Resolution to copy every fourth
pixel.

• Save as TIFF: Saves only the contour plot to a tagged image format (.tif) file.

• Save to disk: Opens the Save As dialog box, which allows one to save the dataset.

• Cursor Type: Choose the type of cursor to display.

• Cursor Width: Choose the width of the Crosshair, 2-point or Radial cursors.

Figure D.4e Contour Plot Menu

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2D Analysis

The 2D Analysis displays a contour plot and X and Y profile plots (see Figure D.4f). You can
access the 2D Plot by selecting Analysis > 2D Profile, Analysis > Custom Options > 2D Plot >
OK, or by clicking the 2D ANALYSIS button (see Figure D.4c). This option is available when a
dataset is open.

Note: When you open the results of a Dektak scan in Vision, the program performs
2D-trace analysis on the data and displays it as a 2D plot similar to the one
shown in Figure D.4f.

Figure D.4f 2D Analysis Plot

Contour Plot
on 2D

Cursor
Parameters

2D Analysis Plot

X Profile Y Profile Cursors Statistics

The 2D profiles correspond to the cursor positions on the contour plot. You can view different
profiles in the X and Y directions by moving the cursors on the contour plot. Point to the region of
interest and click the left mouse button or click and drag the cursors.

2D Analysis Plot Cursors

On the 2D Analysis plots, set these cursors at the points of interest by clicking and dragging them to
position (see Figure D.4f). The statistics to the right of the X and Y profile plots refer to the area
between the cursors. The X and Y distance between the two points are shown above and to the right
of the plot.

You can expand the width of each cursor by clicking and dragging the arrows at its base. When
expanded, the height of the cursor is the average height over the cursor region.

When you have selected the Multiple Crosshairs cursor type, you may have several traces on the
profile plots, each of which can have associated cursors. Only the cursors for the currently active

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trace are shown. To show statistics for the different traces, you can click on the trace, or right-click
on the profile plot and select Next Trace or Previous Trace.

Cursor Parameters

These parameters are related to the cursor positions on the contour plot (see Figure D.4f). If no
cursors are present, parameters are based on the farthest left and the farthest right data points. The
Cursor Parameter box appears to the right of the 2D Analysis Plot (see Figure D.4f).

Table D.4a Cursor Parameters

Crosshair Multiple Crosshair 2-Point Radial


X X position of X position of last two cursors X positions of the two end- X position of center of circle
cursor relative touched, and the difference points and the difference and the end of the radius line,
to lower left (delta) between them. (delta) between them. and the difference (delta)
corner. between them.
Y Y position of Y position of last two cursors Y positions of the two end- Y position of center of circle
cursor relative touched, and the difference points and the difference and the end of the radius line,
to lower left (delta) between them. (delta) between them. and the difference (delta)
corner. between them.
Ht. Data height at Data height at crosshair of the Data height at each end- Data height at center of circle
crosshair last two cursors touched, and point and the difference and end of the radius line, and
the height difference between (delta) between them. the difference (delta) between
them. them.
Dist N/A Distance between crosshairs of Distance between the two Radius of the circle.
the last two cursors touched. endpoints.
Angle N/A Angle created by a line The angle of the line. Zero The angle of the radius line.
between crosshairs of the last is horizontal. Zero is horizontal.
two cursors touched. Zero is
horizontal.

X Profile

Data profile corresponding to the X cursor or Radial cursor on the contour plot (see Figure D.4f).

Y Profile

Data profile corresponding to the Y cursor or Circumference cursor on the contour plot (see Figure
D.4f).

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2D Analysis Plot Statistics

Surface statistics for the region between the cursors on the X profile or Y profile (see Figure D.4f):

• Rq: Root mean square (RMS) roughness.

• Ra: Average roughness.

• Rt: Maximum height of profile, Rp + Rv.

• Rp: Maximum peak height.

• Rv: Maximum valley depth.

• Angle: Angle between the two intersection points.

• Curve: Radius of curvature of region between the cursors.

• Terms: Terms removed under Plot Properties.

• Avg Ht.: Average height of region between cursors.

• Area: Area under curve between the cursors.

When one or both cursors are against the edge of the profile plot, the statistics will be shown for the
entire profile.

When using Multiple Crosshairs, your profile plots include a trace for each set of crosshairs. Click
on a trace to show statistics for it. You can also right-click on the profile plot and select Next Trace
or Previous Trace.

The crosshairs corresponding to the active trace are marked on the contour plot. Therefore, you can
look to the contour plot to see for which trace the statistics are shown. Also, the title of the profile
plot appears in the color of the currently-active trace.

3D Interactive

The 3D interactive plot lets you view a dataset in three dimensions, from any angle, and with
various color and lighting effects.

1. Open a dataset, select Analysis > 3D Interactive Plot, Analysis > Custom Options > 3D
Interactive Plot > OK, or click the 3D INTERACTIVE PLOT button to view the dataset in 3-D
(see Figure D.4c).

2. Click and drag in the plot to rotate the dataset in all three dimensions.

Note: While the data is rotating, Vision switches to a low-resolution mode to re-draw
the plot in real time.

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Figure D.4g 3D Interactive Plot

3D Interactive Plot Menu

Right-click on the plot to view the following options in the 3D Interactive menu:

• Analysis Options: Opens the Processed Options dialog box.

• Plot Options: Opens the 3D Settings dialog box where you can adjust lighting, scaling
and other plot options.

• Color: Select the color palette.

• Background Color: Choose the background color for the plot.

Filtered Histogram

The histogram is a line graph representing the number of data points at each surface height. The
vertical axis represents the number of data points contained within equally spaced intervals (bins),
while the horizontal axis represents the surface height.

To generate a histogram choose Analysis > Filtered Histogram > Calculate, or click the
FILTERED HISTOGRAM ANALYSIS button (see Figure D.4c)

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Figure D.4h Filtered Histogram

Filtered Histogram Plot Box Filtered Histogram Plot

Filtered Histogram Plot

In addition to showing the height distribution, the histogram also shows the amount of noise in the
measurement. For a random surface, noise spikes are suggested by infrequently occurring peaks.

Filtered Histogram Options Dialog Box

To access the Filtered Histogram Options dialog box, right-click on the histogram plot then
choose Histogram Options. The following options are available in the Filtered Histogram dialog
box:

• Number of bins: Sets the number of bins (10 to 5000) used in the histogram
calculation.

• Mirror X Axis: Plots the histogram data on an X axis that is centered about zero. This
allows you to see how the data points are distributed about a zero mean level.

• Show All Open Datasets: The histogram for the dataset in the active window is drawn
in black. Histograms for all other open datasets are drawn in different colors on the same
plot. This allows you to compare the actual distributions of multiple datasets.

• Show Gaussian: Displays a Gaussian curve on the histogram, based upon the RMS, the
number of data points, and the current bin size. The curve lets you compare a normal,
random distribution to the actual distribution of your dataset.

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• Show Q Value Stats: Q value statistics are calculated using a certain percentage of data
points from the histogram. At each percentage point, the difference between the highest
bin value and the lowest bin value is calculated. These statistics are useful for
examining how the peak-to-valley changes as the number of data points changes. Q
value statistics are calculated using 80%, 85%, 90%, and 95% of the data points.

• To obtain a more detailed listing of the histogram data and Q value statistics, click
the right mouse button on the histogram. Select Print Table to print two histogram
data tables: one based on the point distribution, and one based on the Q value
distribution. The Q value distribution can be listed in terms of percent (if the Q
Value Table by Percent option is selected) or in terms of peak-to-valley.

• Print Q Value Table by Percent: If this option is selected, the Q value distribution
printed with the Print Table option described above is listed by percentage (in
increments of 5%) for 5% to 100% of the data points. If this option is not selected, the Q
value distribution is listed by peak-to-valley increments.

• Log Scale: If selected, this option displays logarithmic units along the Y-axis of the
plot.

• Set as Default: Check this box to define the current options settings as the default
settings. Any subsequent filtered histogram measurement will be analyzed using these
settings.

Filtered Histogram Plot Box

The Contour Plot Box to the left of the surface plot contains the following statistics and parameters
about the plot:

• Roughness: Roughness statistics for the region measured. The statistics are based on
the entire area.

• Ra: Average Roughness

• Rq: Root Mean Square (RMS) Roughness

• Rz: Average Maximum Height

• Rt: Maximum Height of Profile, Rp + Rv

• Terms Removed: Lists the terms removed from the plot.

• Filtering: Lists the filtering options in use.

Filtered Bearing Ratio Analysis Plot

The bearing ratio curve (also called material ratio curve) is a graphical representation of the tp
(bearing ratio) parameter in relation to the profile level (see Figure D.4i). This curve contains all of
the amplitude information of a profile.

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The display file for the bearing ratio analysis shows the bearing ratio curve, along with various
bearing ratio statistics. You can use the profile plot to mask portions of the data as well.

To generate a filtered bearing ratio histogram, click the FILTERED BEARING RATIO ANALYSIS
button (see Figure D.4c).

Figure D.4i Filtered Bearing Ratio Analysis Plot

Statistics Filtered Bearing Ratio Analysis Plot


Box

Statistics Box

To determine these parameters, the analysis calculates the area of minimum slope of the bearing
ratio curve within a 40% window. This is accomplished by computing the height difference of the
curve’s profile depth axis for points separated by 40% on the tp axis. The bearing ratio curve is first
intersected at 0% and 40%, and the Htp is found. The 40% window is then moved to the right and
the Htp monitored for each point until the minimum Htp value is found.

• tp1: User-defined peak threshold (peak offset)

• tp2: User-defined valley threshold (valley offset)

• Htp: H1 - H2

• H1: Height corresponding to tp1

• H2: Height corresponding to tp2

• Mr1: Peak material component

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• Mr2: Valley material component

• RK: Core roughness depth

• Rpk: Reduced peak height

• Rvk: Reduced valley depth

• V1: Related to Rpk and MR1

• V2: Related to Rpk and MR1

• Ra: Average Roughness

• Rq: Root Mean Square (RMS) Roughness

• Rz: Average Maximum Height

Filtered Bearing Ratio Analysis Options

Right click the Filtered Ratio Analysis plot and click Bearing Options to display the Bearing
Ratio Options dialog box. The following options are available:

• Number of Bins: The bearing ratio calculation uses a histogram of heights. The number
of bins specifies the number of equally spaced height intervals into which the data
points fall.

• Peak Offset: A percentage of the highest pixels in the dataset to be excluded from the
analysis.

• Valley Offset: A percentage of the lowest pixels in the dataset to be excluded from the
analysis.

• Upper (tp1): The peak threshold bearing ratio value, corresponding to the height H1
Used to calculate the Htp height between bearing ratios (see Figure D.4i).

• Lower (tp2): The valley threshold bearing ratio value, corresponding to the height H2.
Used to calculate Htp (see Figure D.4i)

• Set as Default: Select this check box to define the current options settings as the default
settings. Any subsequent bearing ratio measurement will be analyzed using these
settings.

• Show All Open Datasets: The histogram for the dataset in the active window is drawn
in black. Histograms for all other open datasets are drawn in different colors on the
same plot. This allows you to compare the actual distributions of multiple datasets.

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D.4.5 Masking

A mask, by temporarily eliminating regions of data from the display, enables you to focus on
specific regions of interest for your analyses and to perform modifications on specific portions of
your data. You can also create a detector mask to mask detector pixels during a measurement. Once
you have defined a mask, you can store it to disk for future use.

Masks have a number of uses, including:

• Eliminating a bad spot from the sample surface (seen after data is taken).

• Isolating a single area of the sample surface for repeated analyses.

• Showing only those data points within a certain height range.

• Fitting tilt, curvature, or cylinder terms to a region that you specify.

• Eliminating detector pixel elements (while data is taken).

Types of Masks

Vision provides four types of masks—analysis, terms, height threshold, and detector.

Analysis Mask

An analysis mask enables you to block areas of data that could adversely affect your measurements.
You can use an analysis mask to view or analyze specified portions of a dataset. With the analysis
mask applied, the system eliminates the blocked data from the analysis, and the surface statistics
change to depict the masked dataset. Retrieve data that was blocked by turning off the mask and re-
analyzing the data.

Terms Mask

A terms mask acts like a filter, enabling you to define an area over which you can specify an area
that more accurately defines a surface for terms analysis. Terms masks are typically used for
surfaces with steps or other discontinuous features. For example, you can use a terms mask to
perform a tilt, curvature, or cylinder terms fit. The fit performed on the masked area is then applied
to the entire dataset.

A terms mask is particularly useful when you want to fit terms to a surface that has an abrupt
change. If you were to select tilt for terms removal, the resulting dataset would resemble a
sawtooth. This is because the plane that best represents the data must take into account both planes
forming the step. This "best fit" plane is approximately the average of the two plane surfaces;
subtracting it produces the sawtooth. If you define a terms mask that covers only one side of the
step, the terms fit will be based on the best fit plane over the flat part of the sample.

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Height Threshold (Histogram) Mask

A height threshold mask blocks data points of a specified height or range of heights. This can be
useful for looking at surfaces with features of distinctive heights. You can also use a height
threshold mask to mask spikes that are not in the normal distribution of heights. When you create a
height threshold mask, you examine a histogram of height data to determine which heights to mask.

Detector Mask

A detector mask blocks detector pixel elements during a measurement. This is useful for
eliminating regions of the surface from the analysis, such as irrelevant background features. You
can also use a detector mask to eliminate detector pixels that are defective and adversely affect your
measurements. Note that unlike an analysis mask, a detector mask permanently eliminates data
points from the raw data. The only way to “retrieve” these lost data points is to disable the detector
mask and make another measurement of the same surface.

Note: If you use the Data Restore function to restore data points that were included
in the raw data but considered invalid for analysis purposes, the system also
attempts to restore the data points that were permanently blocked with the
detector mask.

Loading and Saving Masks

To load and use an existing mask:

1. Select Edit > Set New Measurement Masks.

2. Locate the mask by clicking the BROWSE button next to the appropriate type of mask.

3. Check the Apply Mask to Stored Data box to apply the mask.

To save a mask to the current Configuration file, click SAVE from the Mask Editor window.

Creating and Editing Masks

Note: Analysis and terms masks are automatically saved with the dataset. Datasets
are stored as raw data and processed data. If a mask is applied during analysis,
the mask will be stored with the processed data. When you reopen the dataset,
the mask can be reapplied to the dataset by turning on the mask. Remember
that with a detector mask, masked regions of data are permanently blocked in
the raw data.

To create or edit Analysis, Terms or Height Threshold masks:

1. Open a dataset.

2. Select Edit > Edit Masks to access the Mask Editor window.

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To create or edit a Detector Mask:

3. Select Measurement Options > PSI Options.

4. Click the EDIT DETECTOR MASK button to open the Detector Mask Editor window.

You can use several cursor tools to create and change the mask. To use cursor tools, first select a
cursor type from the Cursor pull-down menu. Move your cursor to the Mask Editor plot to begin
creating a mask.

For Local (Area) masks, use the Crosshair tool to set an insertion point wherever you click on your
plot. You can also drag to move the cursor point. Once you have an insertion point you can choose
to perform functions to the selected Point of data, to data Above or Below the cursor, or to data to
the Left or Right of the cursor.

Use the four Area tools to create shapes within the mask area:

• Rectangle: Press the left mouse button and drag to create a rectangular area.

• Circle: Press the left mouse button and drag to create a circular area.

• Ellipse: Press the left mouse button and drag to create an elliptical area.

• Polygon: Place the mouse pointer over the location of one point on the polygon. Click
to set your starting point, position the cursor and click once for each side you want to
create, then double-click to set the shape in place. A polygon can have up to 50 sides.

After you've created an area, you can move it by holding down the Shift key while clicking and
dragging it with the left mouse button.

Note: By right-clicking in the Mask viewing region, you can select the size and the
location of the mask to be displayed in pixels or in mm.

You can also perform the following functions on an area:

• Block: Block out sections of data. For example, if you are working with a circular
cursor tool and you select Block, when you click on the INSIDE button the program will
define a mask that blocks all the data inside the circle.

• Pass: Allows data to pass through area(s) that may have been previously blocked. For
example, if you create a blocked inner circle, select Pass, and then click on the INSIDE
button, the program will define a mask that passes the data within the circle.

• Invert: Used to invert the mask; exposed portions of your plot will be masked, and
previously masked portions will be exposed.

• Inside: Applies the selected function (Block, Pass, or Invert) to the inside of the area.

• Outside: Applies the selected function to the outside of the area.

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• Entire: Applies the selected function (Block, Pass, or Invert) to the entire mask. May
be used at any time as long as a cursor tool is not in the process of being created. To
erase the current mask, you can select Pass and then click on Entire.

• Undo: Used to undo the most recent change made to the mask currently defined in the
Mask Editor window.

With a mask visible in the Mask Editor window, select Mask Outline to create an outline of the
mask on the dataset. You can then modify the identical, outlined mask. This is useful when you are
making measurements of samples in which identical features from sample to sample vary slightly
in size or position.

For Height Threshold (Histogram) Masks

The Height Threshold Editor window shows you a histogram of the height distribution for your
sample. You have the option to create a high pass, low pass, or range pass mask.

1. Select the number of cursors you want to use—one cursor for a high or low pass mask, and
two cursors for a selected range.

2. If using one cursor, place your cursor at the cutoff point, then select Left (to mask all data
left of the cursor, lower than the cutoff) or Right (to mask all data right of the cursor, higher
than the cutoff).

3. If using two cursors, place the two cursors at the cutoff points and select Outside (to mask
all data outside the cursor range) or Inside (to mask all data inside the cursor range).

4. Press Mask. The editor will mask the selected region(s) and adjust the histogram
accordingly. You can repeat this process as many times as desired on the same histogram.

Selecting Mask Views

In the Mask Editor window, you can select from three View options:

• Select Data to see data wherever the mask is set to Pass.

• Select Mask to view the mask itself.

• Select Data & Mask to view the data and mask in four color sets. Data appears as either
good or bad, as follows:

• White indicates that data is good and unmasked.

• Green indicates that data is good and masked.

• Black indicates that data is bad and unmasked if a detector mask is not applied. If a
detector mask is applied, black can indicate both bad and masked data.

• Red indicates that data is bad and masked.

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Selecting Data Displays

In the Mask Editor window you can choose to display data before or after processing.

Select Raw to see the data in its unprocessed state, without any terms applied. When making
changes to a mask that has already been applied, raw data is sometimes better to use because the
analysis mask has not been applied to it.

You can also view Processed data that has had masks, terms, or other options applied to it.

Saving Masks

Terms, analysis and detector masks can all be saved independently of a dataset. By saving a mask
separately from the data, you can apply the same mask to different datasets.

To save a mask, open the Mask Editor and select To/From Disk from the Current Mask pull-
down menu. Click Save and enter a file name for the mask. The mask is saved into the specified
directory with a .msk extension.

Applying Masks and Filters

After a mask has been created and saved, you can use the mask for measurements and data analysis.

Applying a Detector Mask

1. Select Edit > Set New Measurement Mask.

2. Enter the path and file name of your saved detector mask in the appropriate slot (or choose
Browse to determine the location of your mask).

3. Close the Mask Editor.

4. Select Hardware > Measurement Options > PSI Options.

5. Select the Use Detector Mask check box.

To Apply an Analysis or Terms Mask to a New Measurement:

6. Select Edit > Set New Measurement Mask.

7. Enter the path and the file name of your saved mask in the appropriate slot (either Terms
Mask or Analysis Mask). You may use the BROWSE button to determine the location of your
mask.

8. Close the Mask Editor.

9. Select Analysis > Processed Options to access the Processed Data Options dialog box.

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10. Check either the Use Analysis Mask or Use Terms Mask box.

11. Select any terms to be removed, if applicable. Filtering, data invert, and data restore options
can also be selected.

12. Click OK to close the dialog box.

With this configuration, all new measurements taken will have the selected mask applied.

Applying a Saved Mask to an Existing Dataset

To apply a saved analysis or terms mask to an existing (unmasked) dataset:

1. Select Edit > Edit Mask.

2. In the Current Mask pull-down menu, select To/From Disk.

3. Click Load.

4. Select your mask and press OK.

The selected mask is applied to the current dataset only.

Saving a Mask to a Configuration File

1. Create the mask.

2. Select On and press SAVE. This saves the current mask, but does not permanently save the
mask to the configuration file or to the disk.

3. Select File > Save Configuration to save the mask to the current configuration file.

D.5 Dataset Versus Database


When you make a measurement, the system determines the height of every point on the sample.
This data is the height profile, also known as the raw data. Vision analyzes this raw data to
determine the pertinent parameters.

You can store data and parameters in two forms through Vision: datasets and databases. Datasets
allow you to view snapshots of your process. Databases allow you to store data over time and to
view trends in your process.

A database stores analysis parameters from one measurement or from many measurements. Vision
database files are comma-separated-variable files with .csv extensions. Raw data is not recorded in
a database.

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The analysis options available for the data in the form of a dataset may also be recorded in a
database, allowing you to compile long-term data or to apply various statistical analysis to your
data.

D.5.1 Vision Databases

Once you have performed a measurement, you can store the results to a Vision database. The basic
steps for working with a database are:

1. Define a database and the fields within it.

2. Select and activate the database.

3. Select whether to log data automatically or manually.

4. Decide whether to add the contents of the current database to a master database.

5. View or print the results of the database file.

Click the DATABASE OPTIONS button (see Figure D.5a) on the toolbar to open the Database
Options dialog box (see Figure D.5b). From here you can reach most of the database functions.

Figure D.5a Database Options Button

Figure D.5b Database Options Dialog Box

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Defining a Database

To work with a database, you must first define the database file to use. If no database file exists, or
if you need parameters that differ from those in existing database(s), you must define a new
database:

1. Click the DATABASE OPTIONS button on the toolbar.

2. Click the DEFINE button to open the Define Database dialog box.

Figure D.5c Define Database Dialog Box

The fields available for use in the database are listed in the left-hand panel. The right-hand
panel shows the fields in the new database. The fields are organized either alphabetically or by
the analyses that create them. (Click Display All Entries to switch between the two views).

3.Select a field in the Available Entries panel, then use the ADD button to move it to the
Selected Entries panel. You can also double-click a field to move it to the Selected Entries
list.

4. To add fields from an existing database, click the TEMPLATE button, then select an existing
database file. All fields in that database are added to the Selected Entries panel for your new
database. The template option is particularly useful when you are creating a master database
file.

Note: All database file(s) used to update the master database must have the same
fields as the master database.

5. To remove a field from the database, choose the field in the right-hand panel and click
Delete. You can also remove a field by double-clicking on it, or remove all fields by clicking
Delete All.

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6. Click the UNITS button to open the Database Units dialog box (see Figure D.5d). Here, you
can set database values for default, metric, or English units. Results logged to the database
will appear in the selected units.

Figure D.5d Database Units Dialog Box

Once you have defined the database, click OK, then specify a name for the file.

Pass/Fail Criteria for Database Fields

You can enter Pass/Fail criteria for each field in the database. All Pass/Fail criteria are stored with
the database.

1. Click Pass/Fail from the Database Options dialog box to open the Define Pass/Fail dialog
box (see Figure D.5e).

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Figure D.5e Pass/Fail Dialog Box

From the Parameter list, select the field for which you want to set pass/fail criteria.

2. Type in the tolerances for the upper and/or lower limits.

3. From the Pass list, select when the part should be passed or failed:

• Always Always pass the part (apply no pass/fail criteria).

• < Pass if the measurement is less than the tolerance.

• <= Pass if the measurement is less than or equal to the tolerance.

• = Pass if the measurement equals the tolerance.

• > Pass if the measurement is greater than the limit.

• => Pass if the measurement is greater than or equal to the tolerance.

4. Repeat for each field that requires Pass/Fail criteria.

Select and Activate a Database

Once you have defined a database, you must select it for use and activate it.

1. Click the DATABASE OPTIONS button on the toolbar.

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2. Type the database path and name under Current Database, or click SET to locate the
database file.

3. Click OPEN to select the database.

4. Select the Database Active check box to activate the database.

5. To deactivate the database, clear the Database Active check box.

Logging Data to a Database

When you are making measurements from within Vision, you can decide to store measurement
results automatically, semi-automatically, or manually:

• Automatic Logging: Automatically stores the results to a database when you close a
dataset. This is the default mode.

• Semi-Automatic Logging: When you close a dataset, asks you whether you wish to
store results. To enable this mode, select the Prompt to Save check box in the Database
Options dialog box.

• Manual Logging: Stores results to a database only when you specifically request it. To
manually log to a database, first make sure that the dataset from which you want to log
data is open as the active window. Then select Options > Log to Database Now from
the main Vision window. Statistics and other information for the active data set will be
logged to the database.

Note: When one or more datasets are open, the Option menu contains the Log to
Database Now command. If a database has been activated and the current data
set has not been logged, this command is available for use. Select this option to
add the current dataset to the database.

Using a Master Database

A master database collects data from one or more databases. As discussed earlier, Vision can gather
per-part measurement results into a database that can be used for statistical process control. You can
also create and use master databases when you make measurements from within Vision.

Master database files and current database files should use the same template to ensure consistency.
To make sure the files are consistent, when you define a new master database file, use the
TEMPLATE button to copy the template of the current database to the new master database.

To work with a master database:

1. Click the DATABASE OPTIONS button on the toolbar to access the Database Options dialog
box.

2. Select and activate the Current Database file you want added to the master database file.

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3. Either type a Master Database path and file name, or click the SET button to open the Select
a Database File dialog box, where you can then choose a master database file.

4. If you want the contents of the current database to be automatically printed after the master
database is appended, select the Auto Print check box.

5. If you want the contents of the current database to be automatically erased after the master
database is appended, select the Auto Clear check box. This option erases logged data, so be
sure you use it judiciously.

6. Click the UPDATE button to append the master database with the contents of the current
database. The current database values are appended to the end of the master database.

Viewing or Printing a Database File

You can view a database file on your computer monitor. Furthermore, you can print a hard copy of
your database file using two different formats.

Viewing a Database File

1. Click the DATABASE OPTIONS button on the toolbar to open the Database Options dialog
box.

2. Click the LIST VIEW button to open the Select Database dialog box, where you can choose a
database to view.

3. Make your selection and click Open. Vision displays a Database List View of the selected
file. This list view includes the name of the database file, logged parameters, statistics, and
pass/fail information (see Figure D.5f).

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Dataset Versus Database

Figure D.5f List View of a Database

To display database results automatically in list view when you open a configuration (.ini) file,
select the Display List View w/ Open Configuration check box in the Database Options dialog
box. Save your configuration.

You can also choose to view one or more of the fields as a graph or histogram. These options are
available from the View menu in list view.

For more information on using the list view options, refer to the Vision Online Help.

Printing a Database File

1. Click the DATABASE OPTIONS button on the toolbar to access the Database Options dialog
box.

2. Click the LIST VIEW button to open the Select Database dialog box, where you can choose a
database file for viewing.

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3. Make your selection and click Open. Vision displays a List View of the selected file.

4. From the database list view pull-down menus, select either File > Print All or File > Print
Stats. If you select Print All, all logged parameters and their statistics are included. If you
select Print Stats, only the statistics are included.

Note: Following an automated measurement, you can click the PRINT button on the
graphical user interface to print the results. Remember that you can also set up
the system to automatically print results following each measurement.

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Appendix E N-Lite Option

This appendix includes the following topics:

• About the N-Lite Option: Section E.1

• Solving Measurement Problems: Section E.2

• Solving Stiction Problems: Section E.3

Note: N-Lite is a purchased option that must be installed in your system before you
can open and analyze a Dektak 6M 2D scan as described below.

Note: Standard stylus force calibration is required after installation of this option.

E.1 About the N-Lite Option


The N-Lite Low Inertia Sensor (LIS) 3 Option allows stylus-to-surface engagement for ultra-low-
force profiling. The sensor enables the stylus force to be adjusted down to 0.03 mg for measuring
very soft films or when using an extremely sharp, sub-micron stylus to measure sub-micron lines
and trenches. Servo control suspends the stylus in a free-floating state, maintaining constant force,
even over long steps.

The above functions mean that you can make scratch-free measurements of resists, polymers, and
soft metals such as gold. High-aspect-ratio, super-sharp, 50 μm styli reach into 10µm deep by 2µm
wide trenches. Such styli enable the accurate measurement of Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) etch
depth and the characterization of deep structures for MEMS.

The N-Lite LIS 3 Option includes the following features:

• Low force servoed sample engage

• Force range: 0.03mg to .5 mg

• Automatic invocation of N-Lite for scans at less than 3mg stylus force

• Reduced-force pre-scan stylus touchdown

• Minimal stylus tip drag—"gore zone"

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About the N-Lite Option

• No impact on Dektak 6M user interface

• Accurate measurement force (± 20mg)

• Vertical positioning accuracy: ± 0.20µm

• Automatic "minimal force" calibration

E.1.1 Main Functions

The following three functions allow the N-Lite Option to produce very low, accurate forces for any
sensor position:

• Servoed Engage

• Fine Positioning

• Stylus Retouch

Servoed Engage

The servoed engage function prevents the stylus from traveling across the sample surface during
tower engagement. This significantly reduces the traverse distance and forces exerted on the
surface. It is especially useful in preventing damage to soft samples with extremely sharp styli. By
default, N-Lite is designed to limit post-contact stylus travel to no more than 5µm vertically during
the servoed engage.

Fine Positioning

Fine positioning precisely locates the sensor relative to the sample surface. During this operation,
the servo is disabled, and the force is set to the minimum value necessary to remain on surface.
There is a small amount of stylus traverse during this phase of the engage.

Stylus Retouch

The retouch accurately establishes the true minimum force necessary for the stylus to engage the
sample surface. During this phase, there is no profiler tower motion. The stylus lifts from the
sample surface and then lowers to retouch the sample surface with the minimum possible force.
This minimum, zero force dynamically shifts the force calibration curve as the final scanning force
is applied, thus providing automatic force calibration. Because the retouch compensates for thermal
and electrical drift in the sensor force mechanism, extremely precise forces (within ±20 µg) are
possible.

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Solving Measurement Problems

E.2 Solving Measurement Problems


Due to the very low forces achievable with N-Lite, it is possible for the sensor to have limited
downward travel from the final engage (null) position. This is because the sensor mechanism is a
balanced pivot arm, with the balance point set so that the zero-force-coil position of the stylus rests
at its upper stop. The force coil is energized to bring the stylus down into visibility and apply scan
forces. Even though the jewel bearings used for the sensor pivot are effectively friction free, it still
takes a small fraction of a milligram of force to swing the pivot-arm across the measurable range.

When engaging N-Lite, it is possible for the sample surface to “disappear” below the reach of the
stylus during scanning. As discussed above, at very low forces the stylus has limited downward
travel from the final engage (null) position. Due to these sensor physics, you must take these steps
to ensure proper use of the tool:

• Using extreme care, manually level the sample to prevent “walk away” from the stylus.

• Run tests and precisely level for map scans to prevent data distortion or loss. This
problem will be evident when the sample “walks away” from the stylus on individual,
intermittent scans in the map, producing “air scans.”

• Specify and test scan forces adequate to deflect the stylus to the bottom of all depressed
sample features. This prevents the detail of these features from becoming lost in
temporary, unintended disengages.

• Know and understand the expected sample/scan shape, ensuring that measured data are
correctly understood and evaluated.

• Solve problems caused by static electricity according to the instructions in Solving


Stiction Problems: Section E.3.

Note: If you are unsure of how to make a particular measurement or experience


difficulties, contact Veeco Applications Support for assistance in designing
specific tests to measure, quantify, and qualify your procedures.

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Solving Stiction Problems

E.3 Solving Stiction Problems


Static electricity is usually responsible for stiction problems during the retouch phase. Take the
following steps to check the system and sample grounding.

1. Install the Dektak 6M Enhanced Grounding kit. This kit is for retrofit and upgrade systems
only.

• Verify the tool’s grounding after installation.

• Verify that the system is properly grounded to the site.

2. Use a digital volt meter (DVM) to verify that the system grounding is functioning properly.

3. Verify that the following grounding equipment is available and in use:

• Static discharge mats

• Wrist straps

• Any other equipment appropriate to your site

Note: Even a non-conducting sample can build up static charge after multiple scans.
This can degrade the performance of the N-Lite software. Use alpha-particle
grounding and/or proper grounding of the sample to prevent this from
occurring.

Note: Static brushes are shipped with all tools.

4. Use proper sample handling.

5. Mount an alpha-particle source on the system, locating it as close to the stylus tip as possible.

Note: Ensure that the source does not interfere with the sample or profiler mechanics

Note: Adjusting the timeout and lift increment parameters in the Dektak 6M
configuration file also can help alleviate stiction problems. For assistance with
editing the configuration file, call Veeco Technical Support. .

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Appendix F Advanced Automation Program
Summary

This appendix contains the following topics:

• Advanced APS Features: Section F.1

• Advanced APS Help: Section F.2

• Activating the Advanced APS Option: Section F.3

• Defining Your APS Entries: Section F.4

• Running a Scan with the Advanced APS Option: Section F.5

• Viewing the Results in the APS Grid: Section F.6

• Filtering the Results: Section F.7

• Redrawing a Plot from the APS Grid: Section F.8

• Annotating a Plot: Section F.9

• Printing a Plot or the APS Grid: Section F.10

• Exporting Your Results to Excel: Section F.11

Note: The Advanced APS is an optional feature that must be installed in the Dektak
software prior to use.

F.1 Advanced APS Features


The Advanced Automation Program Summary (Advanced APS) Option provides more
functionality than the standard APS. For example, the Advanced APS Option allows you to:

• Set upper and lower pass/fail criteria to be considered during the program run.

• View run-time plots that depict the results of your entry definitions.

• After a scan, view your results in an easy-to-read APS grid.

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Advanced APS Help

• Filter your results according to single or multiple criteria.

• Redraw a plot of your results after the scan.

• Annotate the plot in multiple display styles.

• Define the print area of the plot and the APS grid.

• Export your results into native Microsoft® Excel® files.

F.2 Advanced APS Help


When you move analytical functions from the Available panel to the Selected panel in the Entry
Definition window (see Figure F.2a), the common properties of those analytical functions are listed
in the Properties grid. When you modify your selection of analytical functions, the list of common
properties changes accordingly.

When you select an analytical function and also select the Description property in the Properties
grid, a definition of that analytical function appears at the bottom of the Properties grid. (See
Figure F.2a)

This type of “micro help” also operates in the Chart Annotations Editor, which is described in
Annotating a Plot: Section F.9.

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Activating the Advanced APS Option

Figure F.2a Definition of Selected Item

Selection of
the Descrip-
tion property

Definition
of Skew

Selection of
Skew

F.3 Activating the Advanced APS Option


You can use the Advanced APS Option interchangeably with the standard APS function.

To turn the Advanced APS Option on and off:

1. On the Setup menu, click Configuration Settings.

2. In the User Interface section, click Visual. The Visual dialog box appears.

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Figure F.3a Visual Configuration Settings Dialog Box

3. In the APS section, do one of the following:

• Select the Advanced View check box to turn on the Advanced APS Option and use its
features.

• Clear the Advanced View check box to turn off the Advanced APS Option and use the
standard APS instead.

4. Click OK.

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Defining Your APS Entries

F.4 Defining Your APS Entries


Note: See Chapter 5 for instructions on defining a new or modifying an existing
automation program. After a scan, the APS summarizes the results of the
automation program.

To define your APS entries:

1. Do one of the following:

• From the Scan Routines window, click the Append Analytical Functions to Current
Scan Routine icon, or select Edit > Append Analytical Functions from the menu bar.

• From a Data Plot window containing scan data, click the Display Analytical
Functions Dialog Box icon, or select Analysis > Analytical Functions from the menu
bar.

Note: If the Data Plot window does not contain scan data, you cannot open the
Advanced APS Entry Definition window from it.

• On the Analysis menu, click Analytical Functions - Insert.

The Advanced APS Entry Definition window appears.

Figure F.4a Advanced APS Entry Definition Window

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Defining Your APS Entries

2. In the Available panel, click one or more entries that you want to run:

• Select a function and click the single right arrow (>) or double-click a function to move
a single function into the Selected panel.

• Click the double right arrow (>>) to move a selected group of functions into the
Selected panel.

• Click the single left arrow (<) to move selected functions back to the Available panel.

• Click the double left arrows (<<) to move all of the functions in the Selected panel back
into the Available panel.

Note: The properties of your currently selected analytical functions are listed in the
Properties grid. When you add or remove analytical functions, these properties
change accordingly. For more information, see Advanced APS Help: Section
F.2.

3. To change the default cursor settings, enter the positions and widths that are appropriate to
your measurement in the Cursors section of the Properties grid.

Figure F.4b Properties Grid of Entry Definition Window

4. To set upper and lower pass/fail criteria:

a. Enter Lower Tolerance and Upper Tolerance values in the Limits section of the
Properties grid.

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Running a Scan with the Advanced APS Option

b. Select a Lower Operand and Upper Operand from the drop-down lists. Choices are
Always, >, > =, =, <, and < =.

5. To display live plots that show the results of your entry definitions during a scan, click True
in the Enable list in the Plotting section of the Properties grid.

6. Click OK. If you opened the Entry Definition window from the Data Plot window, the
following prompt appears:

Figure 6.4c Program Entries Prompt.

7. Do one of the following:

• Click Yes to transfer the analytical results from the Data Plot window to the current
scan routine.

• Click No to discard the current analytical results.

F.5 Running a Scan with the Advanced APS Option


1. From the Run menu, click Autoprogram.

• If you requested the display of live plots in your APS entry definitions, real-time plots
of your results appear as pop-up windows over the scan data in the Data Plot window.
(See Figure F.5a.)

• If your APS entry definitions included pass/fail criteria, the real-time plots show upper
and lower limits. (See Figure F.5b.)

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Running a Scan with the Advanced APS Option

Figure F.5a Real-time Plot of ASH Results

Figure F.5b Real-Time Plot of Ra Results Showing Upper/Lower Tolerances

Upper Tolerance

Plot of Ra Results

Lower Tolerance

Note: Before or after a scan, you can change the units of measure in which the real-
time plots appear. On the Setup menu, click Configuration Settings. Click
Units, click your desired changes, and then click OK.

At the end of the scan, the APS grid appears. To work with the data shown in the APS grid, follow
the steps in:

• Viewing the Results in the APS Grid: Section F.6

• Filtering the Results: Section F.7

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Viewing the Results in the APS Grid

• Redrawing a Plot from the APS Grid: Section F.8

• Annotating a Plot: Section F.9

• Printing a Plot or the APS Grid: Section F.10

• Exporting Your Results to Excel: Section F.11

F.6 Viewing the Results in the APS Grid


At the end of a scan, the APS grid appears. You can also open this grid from the Automation
Programs window by clicking the Switch to APS Window icon on the toolbar or by selecting
Auto Prog Summary from the Windows menu on the menu bar.

Note: In order to open the APS grid, you must first run an automation program or
open a stored APS file.

Figure F.6a APS Grid

Filtering row

Entry definition
parameters

Failure indicator
of tolerances that
are out of bounds

Results of scans

Scan numbers

Statistical sum-
maries of results

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Filtering the Results

F.7 Filtering the Results


You can filter the results for an analytical function by a single criteria or by multiple criteria.

F.7.1 Filtering by a Single Criteria

To filter the APS results by a single criteria:

1. In the Advanced APS Entry Definition window, select the analytical function whose results
you want to filter.

2. Click the button in the row above the list of APS entry definition parameters. The
Filtering Types list appears.

Figure F.7a Filtering Types List

3. Click a filtering type such as Not Like . The icon for this filtering type now
appears in the filtering cell above the list of APS entry definition parameters.

4. Type your operand in the field beside the icon or select your operand from the list.

5. At any time, click to clear all filtering data.

Note: When you filter one column of the scan results table (for example, the Ra
column), the entire row for each failing scan disappears, so all columns are
affected (for example, the Ra, Rq, Rv, and Rp columns). This situation is
depicted in Figure F.7b and Figure F.7c.

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Filtering the Results

Figure F.7b Unfiltered Scan Results Table

Unfiltered scan
results table list-
ing five scans for
each analytical
function

Figure F.7c Filtered Scan Results Table

Filtered scan results


table listing only
four scans for each
analytical function

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Filtering the Results

Figure F.7d Filtered Scans for ASH


User-specified filtering type
and conditions

List of entry definition


parameters for ASH

List of scans that meet user-


set filtering criteria for
ASH. Note that scans 2 - 9
and scan 20 have been
deleted for failure to meet
the filtering criteria.

F.7.2 Filtering by Multiple Criteria

Filtering by multiple conditions is especially helpful for scans of data such bandpass.

To filter one or more sets of APS results by multiple criteria:

1. In the Entry Definition window, hover the mouse over the filter cell for the entry column
you want to filter.

2. Click the button in the filtering row above the list of APS entry definition parameters.
The Values list appears.

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Filtering the Results

Figure F.7e Value List

3. Select Custom:

• The word “Custom” now appears in the filtering cell above the list of APS
entry definition parameters

• The Enter Filter Criteria for File dialog box appears.

Figure F.7f Enter Filter Criteria for File Dialog Box

4. In Enter Filter Criteria dialog box, do the following:

• Select one or two operators from the Operator drop-down lists.

• Type one or two operands or select them from the list.

• Select either And Conditions or Or Conditions.

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Redrawing a Plot from the APS Grid

• Click Add a condition and enter your condition in the dialog box that appears. To
delete a condition, select it and click Delete Condition.

• Repeat the above steps until you have defined all your filtering criteria.

5. At any time, click to clear all filtering data.

6. Click OK to list only those scans that meet your specified custom filtering criteria. (See
Figure F.7c and Figure F.7d.)

F.8 Redrawing a Plot from the APS Grid


At any time, you can redraw a plot on the APS grid.

To redraw a results plot:

1. Right-click on the APS grid. The following pop-up menu appears.

Figure F.8a APS Grid Popup Menu.

2. Point to Graph Results, and then select the the plot you want to redraw. The redrawn plot
appears as a separate pop-up window.

F.9 Annotating a Plot


You can add annotations to an APS entry definition results plot. For all the annotation options, you
can specify the color, line weight, and other display preferences. For all options but the Line
annotation, you can include text.

Choose one or more of the following annotation options:

• Line to add one or more lines

• Ellipse to add an ellipse-shaped element

• Callout to add a callout element (see Figure F.9a)

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Annotating a Plot

• Box to add a box-shaped element

• Line Image to add a line drawing

Figure F.9a Ra Plot with Callout Annotation

To annotate a results plot:

1. Click Annotations to the left of the plot. (See Figure F.9b) The Annotations menu appears.
(See Figure F.9c.)

Figure F.9b Annotations Button

Click to open
the Annota-
tions menu.

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Annotating a Plot

2. On the Annotations menu, click True to display the annotations on the plot. Click False to
hide them.

Figure F.9c Annotations Menu

Click to open the


Chart Annota-
tions Editor.

Column numbers

Row numbers

3. On the Annotations menu, click Annotations to display the ... icon.


4. Click the ... icon. The Chart Annotations Editor appears. (See Figure F.9d.)
5. In the bottom left pane of the Chart Annotations Editor, click Add to display a list of
annotation options.

6. Click an annotation option to add it to the Annotations panel. The display choices associated
with that option appear in the panel on the right.

7. Click Location and do one of the following. Note that this is a mandatory entry.

• Type the number of the row and the number of the column at which you want your
annotation to appear. Row numbers appear at the bottom of the plot, while column
numbers appear on the left side. (See Figure F.9c.)

• Type the data value that you want to annotate. The system then determines the location
for you.

8. Make your other display choices. For example, for the line annotation option, click Color,
Offset Mode, Style, and/or Thickness and then specify you preferences for each.

9. Click OK. The system redraws the results plot to include your annotations. (See Figure F.9a.)

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Advanced Automation Program Summary
Printing a Plot or the APS Grid

Figure F.9d Chart Annotation Editor

Selected Buttons for


Annotation option sorting options

List of display
choices for
selected annota-
tion option

List of Buttons for adding


Annotation or removing
options options

F.10 Printing a Plot or the APS Grid


To print a plot or the APS grid:

1. Right-click on the plot or APS. A pop-up menu appears.

2. Make one of the following selections:

• Point to Page Setup to select the layout and printing specifications prior to printing.

• Point to Print Preview to see a preview of what will print. If you want to change the
print area, use the box to define the desired area and then zoom in or out to change its
size.

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Exporting Your Results to Excel

• Point to Print to send the plot or APS grid directly to the printer.

Figure F.10a Print Pop-Up Menu on Ra Plot

F.11 Exporting Your Results to Excel


To export a set of results to a native Microsoft Excel format file:

1. Right-click on the APS grid.

2. Point to Export to Excel. The following dialog box appears.

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Exporting Your Results to Excel

Figure F.11a Select File Dialog Box

3. Navigate to the location where you want to save the file and enter a file name.

4. Click Save.

Note: Within Excel, all exported values are stored as text only. If you want to
manipulate these values, you must first manually convert each cell to the Excel
number format.

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Index

Index Automation Program 12, 91


creating 72
editing 93
opening 92
saving 88
Automation Program Options 101
Symbols data file/data export 101
.cdf files 270 pause during autoprogram 111
.opd files 261 printer 109
.wdf files 269 Automation Program Summary (APS) 104
Automation Program Summary Window 105
Numerics Automation Program Summary window
Advanced APS 309
2D Analysis 275
Automation Programs Menu 173
3D Interactive 277
edit menu 174
Average Roughness Measurement 125
A
Avg Ht (Average Height) 122
Abort 90
Accessories 230
B
Acoustics 18
Boundaries
Advanced APS Option 301
saving 86
Annotating plot 314
Boundaries Submenu 181
Defining Entries 305
Boundary Magnification 13
Exporting results to Excel 318
Features 301
C
Filtering results 310
Calculate button 269
Help 302
Calibrating
Printing plot or APS grid 317 65 kÅ range 199
Redrawing plot 314 Calibration
Running scan 307 vertical 198
Turning On 168, 303 Calibration Menu 169
Analyses 272 Calibration Standards 11
Analysis Camera Field of View 10
Custom Display file 270 Care of Dektak6M 196
Analysis Mask 283 CDF file 270
Analytical Functions 13, 116 Clean Room 18
assigning keystrokes 54 Computer 7
entering into scan routine 131 Computer Cable Connections 30
exercise 124 Configuration Settings
measuring and entering 130 Illumination folder 166, 168
Analytical Functions Dialog Box 116, 182 Working Directories folder 165
Area (Area-Under-the Curve) 123 Configuration Settings Dialog Box 163
ASH (Delta Average Step Height) 122 Configuration Settings dialog box 163
Automatic Leveling (Step Detection) 241 Console 7
Contact Information 224
Contour Plot 272
Creating master database 290

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Index

Custom display file 270 Display Parameters 149


Edit 270 display data type 153
Open 270 display range 152
Save 270 reference/measurement cursors 151
Customize Toolbar Dialog Box 183 software leveling 149
Customizing the Toolbars 183 Display Range 152
Cutoff Filters Dog Bone 75
activating 127
entering in scan routine 128 E
Cutoff Wavelength 126
Editing Scan Routines 96
Environmental Humidity 10
D Equipment Damage
Data Export option 101 symbol 3
Data Plot Menu 178, 182 Exclude Selected Scan Results 106
analysis menu 182 Exporting a scan data plot 112
edit menu 179 Extended Vertical Range Option
Data Points Per Scan 9 setting vertical calibration 210
Data Processing 154
Data Restore 265 F
Data Type Facilities Requirements 18
displaying 153 Feature Reticule
entering in scan routine 129 alignment 68
selecting 128 Feedback
Database service 227
.csv format 289 File Menu 159
Creating master database 293 new command 159
Current database 293 Filter
Defining 290 applying 287
defining (creating) 290 Filtered Bearing Ratio Analysis Plot 280
Internal 289 Filtered Histogram 278
List View 294 Filtering 263
Logging Options 293 High Pass 264
Master database 290, 293 Low Pass 263
Master database, Defining fields 290 Median Pass 263
Pass/Fail criteria 291 Floor 19
Printing 294, 295 Force Calibration Dialog Box 169
Selecting 292
Standard display file 269 G
Viewing 294 Geometry Parameters 123
viewing or printing 294 Area 123
Dataset 261 Perim 123
Default Menu Bar 158 Radius 123
Default output file 270 Slope 123
Detection Range (Step Detection) 241 Sm 124
Detector Mask 284 Tp 124
Dimensions 10 Volume 124
Global Edit Mode 98

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Index

Global Editing of Scan Routine Parameters 98 Masks


Graphical plots Analysis 265, 283
Custom display file 270 applying 287
Default output file 270 creating and editing 284
data displays 287
H Detector 284
Handling of Dektak 6M 196 Height Threshold 284
Height Average loading and saving 284
ten point (Rz_din) 120
saving 287
Height Parameters 122
saving to configuration 288
ASH 122
Terms 265, 283
Avg Ht 122
types 283
HSC 122
views 286
P_V 122
Master Database 293
Pc 122
Maxdev (Maximum Deviation) 117
Peak 122
Maximum Sample Thickness 10
TIR 123
Maximum Sample Weight 10
Valley 123
MaxRa (Maximum Ra) 117
Height Threshold 284
Measurement Cursor 151
Help 5
Measurement Range 145
Advanced APS 302
Microsoft Windows 51
Help Menu 172
Microsoft Windows XP 7
High Spot Count (HSC) 122
Monitor Cable Connections 29
Horizontal Resolution 8
Mouse 52
HSC (High Spot Count) 122

N
I New Command 159
Icons
N-Lite 11, 230, 297
attention 3
Fine Positioning 298
Servoed Engage 298
L
Solving measurement problems 299
Leveling
software 82, 149 Solving stiction problems 300
stage 81 Stylus Retouch 298
Leveling (Step Detection) Null 12
automatic 241
Linear Variable Differential Transformer 6 O
OPD Files 261
M Opening Saved Scan Data Plot 103, 112
Maintenance Operating Temperature 10, 18
Dektak 6M exterior 197 Optics
preventative 197 adjusting 220
reference block 211 Optics Illumination Adjustment 64
stage 197 Optics Setup 40
Teflon Pads 197 Option
Major Repairs 224 N-Lite Software 11, 230
Masking Options 264 Options 229

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 323


Index

Options and Accessories 11 Reference Material 5


Relative Humidity 18
P Repairs 224
P_V (Maximum Peak to Valley) 122 Replacement Parts 232
Pc (Peak Count) 122 Re-Run Selected Scan Routines 107
Peak (Maximum Peak) 122 Restore Boundaries Dialog Box 181
Peak to Valley Roughness
maximum (P_V) 122 average (Ra) 117
Peaks Roughness and Waviness Filters Dialog Box 182
mean spacing between (Sm) 124 Roughness Parameters 117
Perim (Perimeter) 123 Maxdev 117
Personal Injury MaxRa 117
symbol 3 Ra 117
Plot Data Type dialog box 180 Rp 118
Plot Magnification 85 Rq 118
Power
Rt 119
connection 18
Rv 119
demand 18
Rz_din 120
requirements 10, 18
Skew 120
Power Supply Setting 27
Rp (Maximum Peak) 118
Powering Down 69
Rq (Root-Mean-Square) 118
Precision Scan Head 7
Rt (Maximum Peak to Valley) 119
Preventative Maintenance 197
Run Menu 161
Printer Selection 5
Rv (Maximum Valley) 119
Printout 88
Rz_din (Ten Point Height Average) 120
Processed Options 262
Data Restore 265
Filtering 263
S
Safety Hazards
Masking Options 264
attention 3
Terms Removal 262
Sample Access Zone 63
Processed options 262
Sample Loading 59
Profile 146
Sample Positioning 12
Profiler Menu 162
Sample Positioning Window 61, 62
Program Entry 94 Sample Stage
Property Damage
diameter 10
symbol 3
rotation 10
translation 10
Q Sample Viewing 63
Quick-Access Menu 57 Save Boundaries Dialog Box 181
Scan Data
R opening 103, 112
Ra (Average Roughness) 117 Scan Data Plot
measurement 125 Exporting 112
Radius 123 Scan Data Storage Requirements 9
Reference Block Scan Duration 141
cleaning 211 Scan ID 138
Reference block, cleaning 32, 35
Reference Cursor 151

324 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D


Index

Scan Length 140 Step Detection 239


entering 74 automatic leveling 241
range 10 detection range 241
Scan Parameters 138 performing on a single scan 247
measurement range 145 programming into a scan routine 248
profile 146 programming on multiple scans 248
scan duration/speed 141 setup 246
scan ID 138 Step Detection Software 10
scan length 140 Step Height
scan resolution 142 delta average 84
Stiction Problems
stylus force 144
N-Lite 300
Scan Resolution 142
Stress
Scan Routine 12 constraints and limitations 238
initializing 76 results 237
Scan Routine Menu 174 Stress Measurement Software 11
edit menu 175, 183 Stress Parameters
Scan Speed 141 entering 236
Scan Speed Ranges 10 Stylus 10
Scan Speeds 8 cleaning 219
Scan Start Location lowering/raising 64
positioning 75 replacing 215
Scanning 12 Stylus Force 144
Service Contracts 224 Stylus Installation 43
Servoed Engage
Stylus Reticule Alignment 66
N-Lite 298
Stylus Retouch
Set Bandwidths dialog box 181 N-Lite 298
Setup Menu 163 Stylus Size 8
Side Bar Buttons 14 Substrate Characteristics
Skew (Skewness) 120 identifying 235
Slope 123 Symbols
Sm (Mean Spacing Between Peaks) 124 attention 3
Smoothing Dialog Box 182 System Menu
system menu bar 158
Smoothing Function 133
System Menu Bar 158
activating 134
System Tray Quick-Access Menu 56
entering into scan routine 135
Software Interface 51
Software Leveling 82, 149 T
Stage Leveling 81 Technical Specifications 10
Teflon Pads
Standard display file 269
replace 197
Standard Plots 272
Terms Mask 283
Start Sequence 55
Terms Removal 262
Startup Window 56
Curvature and Tilt 263
Cylinder and Tilt 263
Tilt 262
Use Analysis Mask 265
Use Terms Mask 265

Rev. D Dektak 6M Manual 325


Index

Tip Vision - continued


cleaning 219 Database, Defining fields 290
TIR (Total Indicated Reading) 123 Opening a Dektak scan 251, 297
Toolbar Processed Options 262
Automation Program Summary window 192 Data Restore 265
Automation Programs window 186 Filtering 263
Data Plot window 190 Masking 264
database options Terms Removal 262
selecting a database 292 Standard Plots 272
New Measurement icon 270 2D Analysis 275
Sample Positioning window 188 3D Interactive 277
Contour Plot 272
Scan Routines window 187
Filtered Bearing Ratio Analysis 280
Startup window 185 Filtered Histogram 278
Toolbars
Toolbar 257
customizing 183 Vision Toolbar
Toolbars and Icons 183 Lab mode 257
Tp (Bearing Ratio) 124 Production mode 257
Volume 124
U
Units W
Changing 77, 166
Wa (Arithmetic Average of Waviness) 121
Warm-up Time 10
V Warranty
Vacuum Connectors 49 claims for shipment damage 227
Valley service 227
maximum (RV) 119 Waviness Parameters 121
Valley (Maximum Valley) 123 Wa 121
Vertical Calibration 198 WMaxdev 121
clearing 211 Wp 121
extended vertical range option 210 Wq 121
Vertical Range 10 Wt 121
Vertical Resolution 10 Wv 122
Vibration Interference 18 WDF file 269
Vibration Isolation Workstation
Window Menu 170
installing 27
WMaxdev (Maximum Deviation of Waviness)
Video Camera 7
121
Video Monitor 7 Wp (Maximum Peak of Waviness) 121
Video Overlay
Wq (Root-Mean-Square of Waviness) 121
adjusting 222
Vision Wt (Maximum Peak to Valley of Waviness) 121
Analyses 272 Wv (Maximum Valley of Waviness) 122
Custom display file 270
Database 290 Z
Activating 292 Zero Point
Defining 290 setting 83
List View 294
Pass/Fail criteria 291
Printing 294, 295
Viewing 294

326 Dektak 6M Manual Rev. D