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SWI 3.

2
TECHNOLOGY

Radiographic Interpretation
Radiographs of Welds
Course reference WIS 10
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Lack of root
penetration

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Lack of root
Fusion

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Excess Penetration

Piping

MAG Process What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Lack of root
fusion with
misalignment

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Excessive root
penetration

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Concave root

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Cluster porosity

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Burn through

What’s the defects?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Cap undercut

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Wormholes/Piping

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Note: Grinding marks on parent plate
TECHNOLOGY
Cap undercut intermittent

Concave root
What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY
Hard Stamping Blow hole/piping

MAG process Lack of root fusion

What’s the defects?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Note: Grinding marks on parent plate Porosity
TECHNOLOGY

Root undercut

Arc strike
Porosity What’s the defects?
indication
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Root undercut

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Incomplete filled
groove

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Longitudinal
crack

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Cap Undercut Intermittent
TECHNOLOGY

Slag Line

What’s the defects?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Slag line Poor stop/start


Slag line

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Elongated slag
lines

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Linear
misalignment

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Lack of sidewall
fusion

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Transverse
cracking

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY
Cap undercut intermittent Slag inclusions

Root piping
What’s the defect?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Lack of sidewall
fusion + slag

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Lack of sidewall
fusion + slag

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY
Lack of root penetration

Burn through

What’s the defects?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Note: Re-shoot lead letters in weld area
TECHNOLOGY

Cluster porosity throughout weld

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Crater crack or
Star crack

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Worm holes

Do you see anything else


Hard stamping

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

HAZ crack

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Lack of root penetration

Copper inclusions

Lack of root penetration

MAG Process What’s the defects?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Note: Grinding marks throughout
TECHNOLOGY

Excess root penetration

Root undercut What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Crater cracks
+ crater pipe

No weld metal

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY
Lack of root penetration

Root undercut

Unfused filler wire

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Excess penetration

Flush weld

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Silica inclusions

MAG Process What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Cluster porosity

What’s the defect?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Cap undercut

Arc strike

What’s the defects?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Do you see anything else?
TECHNOLOGY
Spatter / Debris

Excess Root
Penetration

What’s the defects?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
What else can you see ?
TECHNOLOGY
Spatter

Piping

Gas pore

What’s the defects?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Root undercut

What’s the defects?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
What’s the defects?
TECHNOLOGY
Burn Through

MAG Process

Copper inclusions Lack of Root Penetration

Can you see anything else?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
What’s the defects?
TECHNOLOGY
Lack of root fusion Incomplete filled groove

Lack of root Penetration Lack of root Penetration


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
What's the defects?
TECHNOLOGY
Wormholes/piping
Cap Undercut

Lack of Root Penetration

Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers


SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
What defects can you see?
TECHNOLOGY
Parallel slag lines

Porosity

Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers


SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
What defects can you see?
TECHNOLOGY

Porosity

Crack Lack of sidewall fusion


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Interpass slag
inclusions

What’s the defects?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY
Re-Shoot Lead letter in weld area
Transverse Cracks

Porosity Excess penetration What’s the defects?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
What’s the defects?
TECHNOLOGY
Lack of root penetration

Incomplete filled groove Copper inclusions Incomplete


filled groove
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Tungsten
inclusions

TIG Process
What’s the defects?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Herringbone porosity

What’s the defects?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Note: Grinding marks
TECHNOLOGY
Root concavity
Note: weld repair

Arc strike
What’s the defects?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Note: Re-shoot lead letter in weld area
TECHNOLOGY
Lack of root penetration Excess penetration

Tungsten inclusions

TIG Process

What’s the defects?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
Gas cavities Concave root intermittent
TECHNOLOGY

Slag inclusions
What’s the defects?
Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Light Fog
Light Leaks

What’s the Artefact?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY
What’s the Defect?

Cap undercut

Yellow Fog

What’s the Artefact?

Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers


SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Crimping Mark
After Exposure

What’s the Artefact?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Film Scratch

What’s the Artefact?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Static Discharge

What’s the Artefact?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Chemical Mark

What’s the Artefact?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Chemical Mark

What’s the Artefact?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Water Marks

What’s the Artefact?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Dust/Grime Marks

What’s the Artefact?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Reticulation

What’s the Artefact?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2
Radiographic Interpretation of Welds
TECHNOLOGY

Diffraction Mottle

What’s the Artefact?


Copyright © 2004 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers
SWI 3.2

Any Questions
TECHNOLOGY

Copyright
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2004TWI
TWILtd
Ltd
? M.S.Rogers
M.S.Rogers