Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 14

*SAWI-ZAA

by
Robert F. Smith
2016 version 3

Introduction
This is an update of my 1969, 1971, and 1977 *Sawi-Zaa Word Comparison papers, which were based
on the 1964 Memorandum (and Master List) on Sawi-Zaa by Pierre Agrinier Bach of the BYU-New World
Archaeological Foundation (NWAF), as described in SEHA Newsletter 112.1 (28 Feb 1969). That
Memorandum, done under the supervision of the late Prof. Morris (Mauricio) Swadesh of INAH,
compared the languages of Oaxaca, Mexico, with Semitic languages. I refined and extended those
comparisons to include ancient Egyptian.
*Sawi-Zaa was the term adopted by Prof. Swadesh to describe the related family of Oaxacan languages,1
including Zapotec, Mixtec, Mazatec, Cuicatec, Popoloca, etc., which are the Nahuatl terms used to
describe those languages, but not derived from the original self-description of the members of that
linguistic family. Specific dialects are occasionally listed (Isthmus Zapotec, Juchitn Zapotec, etc.) and
hypothetical reconstructions are indicated with an asterisk as in the original 1964 Agrinier
Memorandum (Thomas S. Ferguson Papers, BYU Lee Library2).
Otto Jesperson observed that kinship among languages can only be shown via rules of sound transition,
material vocabulary in common, and corresponding structure and constitution. Within the human vocal
system, sounds articulated at or on the same spot can interchange. Agrinier called attention, for
example, to the bilabial shift phenomenon. He cited several shifts within Sawi-Zaa itself. Aside from b:w
(Sabi Sawi), he claimed that the old nasal (voiced) bilabial -m- regularly becomes plosive -b- in
Zapotec, and that the old lateral dental (or liquid) -l- regularly becomes a nasal (voiced) dental -n- in
Mixtec. Otherwise Agrinier hinted that, if we posit a Semitic origin for Sawi-Zaa, there are several
examples of a bilabial shift from -m- to the semi-vowel -w- (sewe, soo, ono, and uu). Sabatino Moscati
has noted that the change of intervocalic -m- to -w- is . . . attested soon after the earliest period of
Akkadian.3 The rule is generally p:b:m:w for Akkadian, Ethiopic, and several other Semitic languages.4
The classic Akkadian example is awilum > abilum > amelum man.5 Some interchange is also apparent
in the b:f category (llibi). In other cases the bilabial appears simply to drop (sa, n-ta).

M. Swadesh, The Oto-Manguean Hypothesis and Macro-Mixtecan, IJAL, 26 (1960), 79-111; Swadesh, The
Phonemic Structure of Proto-Zapotec, International Journal of American Linguistics, XIII (1947), 220-230; a list of
his Sawi-Zaa words is online at http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anexo:Lista_de_Swadesh_en_lenguas_otomangues
2
BYU-MSS 1549, Perry Special Collections.
3
Moscati, Comparative Grammar of Semitic Languages (1964), 8.8, citing von Soden, GAG, 21-22, 31-32.
4
Moscati, Comparative Grammar, 8.8-9; F. C. Corriente, JQR, LX/2 (1969), 158-160.
5
Wiseman, Iraq, XXVIII (1966), 157:3.

2
Original rolled dental -r- may become a plosive dental -d- or -t- (topa, doba, with which compare Yaudic
p:b).6 The d:r interchange is apparent in Finnish as well as in ancient Meroitic script (Meroitic -d- =
Egyptian hieroglyphic -r-).7 The plosive dentals themselves attest other of their own interchanges (de,
ti). In other cases, particularly at word end, the plosive dentals seem to drop entirely (ale, yale, baki,
be, me, and me). Likewise, there seems to be an absence of mimation and nunation (yoo), the rolled
dental -r- appears to drop at word end (si-gi, sa), and the fricative voiceless pharyngeal and laryngeal -and -h- drop or are replaced by the glottal stop or plosive laryngeal --, shifts attested in Akkadian
under Sumerian pressure in archaic Hebrew, Punic, etc.8 (r-iga, kuma*, lasa, ruaa, and sa).
There are a number of other apparent shifts which we havent time to treat here, the r:l and s:
correlations being so universal as not to require mention anywhere. My master list (not available here)
contains a basic table of variant affinities in Appendix I, along with Egyptian variants which follow the
same lines.
Serious study of this question would entail a careful look for loanwords from Spanish, which in turn may
have been deeply influenced by Arabic. In other words, the investigator should have an intimate
knowledge of archaic Spanish and of Arabic.9 Examples of simple borrowing from Spanish include:
Mazatec kointa, miyo, and poente, from Spanish cuidar, amigo, and puente, respectively; Zapotec lapa
rabbit from French lapin? Mixtec een one from Spanish uno (or Dutch een), etc. I know of no SawiZaa words borrowed from Arabic via Spanish, though there probably are instances. Spanish adobe, for
example, is actually an ancient Egyptian word, db, borrowed first by the Arabs (al-dobe, pronounced addobe), and subsequently by the Spanish during the long Moorish occupation.
The closest lexical and structural correlations may eventually have a hand in determining the most likely
source (or sources) for Sawi-Zaa. Compare, for example, the Zapotec pronominal suffix -I for the 3rd
person singular, masculine and feminine! Such a suffix does appear in Arabic, and in Hebrew (though
rarely it is archaic and appears only about 90 times, in poetic passages, whereas in Ugaritic it is a
normal characteristic of prose). It is common usage in the Phoenician dialect of Sidon, as distinct from
that of Byblos.10 One need hardly point out the significance of this for Book of Mormon studies.
Lest there be some doubt as to the wisdom of including Egyptian and Coptic materials in this work, allow
me to point out that the late Prof. H. J. Polotsky, the greatest living Hamito-Semitic (= Afro-Asiatic)
linguistics expert (according to W. F. Albright), has said that the Egyptian language is related both

Moscati, Comparative Grammar, 8.8-9.


P. L. Shinnie, Meroe (1967), 142 (n. 1), 181; O. Jesperson, LND, 207 9.
8
Moscati, Comparative Grammar, 8.53-8.
9
See, for example, J. M. Sol-Sol, Semitic Elements in Ancient Hispania, CBQ, 29/3 (July 1967), 181-188; A.
Steiger, Origin and Spread of Oriental Words in European Languages (S. F. Vanni, 1963); M. S. Serjeantum, A
History of Foreign Words in English (1961); K. L. Pike, Tone Languages (Univ. of Michigan, 1948).
10
W. Lane, BASOR, 194 (1969), 40; J. Friedrich, Phnizisch-punische Grammatik, AnOr 32 (Rome, 1951), 112;
Freedman & Cross, JNES, 10 (1951), 228-230; M. Dahood, Psalms 1-50, Anchor Bible (1965-66), xxi, xxiv.
7

3
lexically and grammatically to Semitic, and that this applies as well to the Berber dialects and to the
Cushitic languages or East Africa all three together being Hamitic.11
With the forgoing in mind, we might look at a single sorting factor: Causative formation. There are 4
basic formative prefixes added to verbs in the Afro-Asiatic family of languages. The h- and - causative
prefixes may be eliminated and with them Hebrew, Moabite, Thamudic, Classical Arabic, and Ethiopic,
since they do not appear in Sawi-Zaa (Mixtec sa- is the causative prefix, undoubtedly related directly to
si make, and to Zapotec sa make). We are left with the - causative of Akkadian, Ugaritic, biblical
Aramaic, and Syriac (rarely), and with the - causative of various Ancient South Arabic dialects such as
Minaean and of ancient Egyptian, Coptic (rarely), and of some modern Arabic dialects. Such a process
of elimination may be followed for a host of linguistic tests. By the above two tests alone (causative and
pronominal), Ugaritic seems to have fared well, and we may want to search for more specific indicators
among the languages to which it is most closely related, e.g., Syriac, Old Aramaic, North Canaanite, etc.
Only further study along such lines may confirm or deny what are now merely suspicions.
Philologico-cultural items might also be more closely examined: Who or what is the meaning of the
obvious confusion of various terms embodied in *Sawi-Zaa itself meaning, presumably, Cloud-Cloud
in Mixtec and Zapotec, respectively. Sawi or Sabi is supposed to be the basic Storm-god of these people
(representing thunder and lightning, etc.). Agrinier saw a mixture of cognate words all bound up in the
same basic meaning: Zapotec sa, za, zaa cloud; Mixtec sabi, sawi rain; cloud; rain-god; dewi, as in an-dewi heavens; and possibly even Zapotec zawi black. It may well be that the Nahuatl for the BenZaa Cloud-People, Tsapotekatl or Zapotecatl, came from the very name of their Storm-god.
There are several corresponding ancient Near Eastern gods. We will discuss here only the Akkadian Z
(Sumerian AN.IM.DUGUD.U), the great cloud, or storm-bird. He was sometimes considered to be an
evil bird of prey. He was also known as Great-Mountain and Wind-Mountain = Sabu (where he
nested). He even took the place of Enlil as Lord of the World on occasion. As IM.DUGUD he was
generally associated with Ningirsu Lord of the Storm of Enlil.12 There are other items associating him
with Pegasus (hence Aquarius and the 11th Babylonian month, abu wind, storm, rain), and with
Merodach-Marduk. Another item: Babylonian zau temble, shake, quake, corresponds with Hebrew
zw and Arabic jw.13 All these tidbits of information jibe well with what we already know, but this is
only an example of how we might profitably approach this question.
In many cases, standard mutation of consonants, metathesis, elision, and the like, are explanation
enough for the differences among the comparisons. The similarities may be accounted for through
extensive borrowing. However, since these comparisons are random and unsystematic, it is not clear
what the primary relationship should be. The Egyptian equivalents are, for example, often (but not

11

Polotsky, Egyptian, in At the Dawn of Civilization, ed. E. A. Speiser, vol. I of The World History of the Jewish
People, ed. B. Netanyahu (Tel Aviv: Massada, 1964), 122-123; cf. T. Thacker, Relationship of the Semitic and
Egyptian Verbal Systems (Oxford, 1954).
12
T. Fish, BJRL, 31/1 (Jan 1948), 8, and passim.
13
Muss-Arnolt (1905).

4
always) better than the Semitic. Whatever the case, there are some indications here that Sawi-Zaa may
be related to a language of the Afro-Asiatic family.
Word List
abi, r-abi < *ami (Zap) to tell, say. Cf. Heb. mar say; command
ale, yale (Zap) be born; beget. Cf. Heb. ylad, Ug. yld, Arab. walada, Akk. (w)aldu beget; bear;
Eg. ir(i), Copt. aa, r, eire make, create; beget
asi, assi (Zap), usu (Mixt) sleep [see Zap yoo below). Heb. yn, ena sleep; Ug. yn; Arab. wasina
slumber, sleep; Eg. n, hn sleep, close eyes??
ba, baa, paa (Zap) grave; dead, as in Yu-paa Land-of-the-Dead (Mitla); see also , below. Cf. Eg. b
soul, spirit; bbt, bbw grave, niche; hole, cavity
bada-na (Zap), n-daa (Mixt), tha (Pop) hand. Cf. Heb.-Ug.-Arab. yad hand; Heb. ntan; Ug. ytn;
Akk. iddu hand; nadnu give; Eg. dt, dt, drt hand (hand-glyph is phonetic d-); d(w), rdi,
wdi, wd give; put, push; Copt. tore, toet, tn hand
badu (Zap) child. Cf. Gk. pedi child; Heb. bat daughter; ben son; Heb. yeled; Ug. yld, wld; Akk.
lidu; Arab. walad child; Eg. imt, im child; pupil; id, id boy; idyt girl
baki (Zap) to dress. Cf. Heb. bagad to dress, cover; begged garment; Eg. pqt, pg, pqt garment
of byssus, fine linen; pqi mourning apparel
b < p, pe (Mitla Zap) wind, breath, spirit, vital life force (prefix pi-, pe-, bi-, be-, as in Pitao, which
see below at ta, tao; see also ba, baa, paa, above). Cf. Eg. b soul, spirit
bee (Mixt) house. Cf. Heb. bayit, bet-; Aram. be- house (of) Akk. btu house; Eg. pr; Copt. pi
(the) house
ben, bene, benne, bini, binni, peni (Zap) man; men, people, as in Bini-Gulaza People-of-the-BigRock (Giengola), or in Benne-Zaa, Ben Zaa, Peni-Zaa Zapotecas, People-of-the-Clouds. Cf.
Heb. ben, bne, banim, son; sons; people-of-(tribe), as in Bne-iyyon People-of-Zion (Ps
149:2, Lam 4:2, Joel 2:23); Arab. ibn, beni-; Eg. bnw man, male??; bnnw sons??; bnn beget;
begotten; be begotten; bn, bnbn copulate
bi- (Zap), biani (Zap J), hme-ni (Maz), ma- (Mixt) what, thing, place. Cf. Eg. bw place, position,
quality, thing (abstract formative prefix), as in bw-nfr beauty; m, mi, m who, what?
(interrogative pronouns); pn, pny this, that; Heb. m- (noun formative prefix); ma, me, mi
what, who? (interrogative and indefinite pronouns), thing, person, place, etc. Agrinier says:
Old m regularly becomes b in Zapotec.
bi-guji (Zap) son-in-law. Heb. atan, meatan, Arab. mtun groom, son-in-law; Eg. tr, Copt. hotri
marry, unite; grg-pr marry, found-a-house
bija, gu-bida, pija, piya < *mia (Zap) sun; bidi (Zap) dry. Cf. Eg. psd, pzd, bd shine, illumine;

5
bs(w) flame, fire, blaze; w sun; dry; Heb. eme, Aram. ima, Arab. ams, Akk. amu sun
bi-ji, bidi (Zap), i (Maz) seed; zaa (Zap) bean. Cf. Eg. bi, by, si, y kinds of seed and grain;
bdt(y), bty emmer; Copt. sou, soou grain; Heb. eora barley; zera seed; zara, zara
sow, scatter; zry grain, barley; Sum. E, Akk. eu, Hitt. e barley; grain; wheat
i, chi (Zap), i (Mixt) ten. Cf. Heb. eer, Akk. eer(et), Arab. aar(at) ten; Eg. md(w) ten
ila, chila (Zap) alligator, crocodile. Cf. Eg. n infested-with-crocodiles; Akk. ru, ru snake,
serpent
de, te (Zap) ashes, cinders; dust. Eg. t, Copt. to, tho land, earth, soil, ground, dust; Heb. adama
earth, land
dopa, topa, toppa (Zap) four. Cf. Heb. arba, Akk. erb, Arab. rabaa, arba four; Heb. roba, reba,
Arab. ruba quarter; Eg. ifd, fdw, Copt. fdoou four
dyi (Zap I) God. Cf. Arab. ys Lord < Copt. Djs, Djo(e)is, Tos Lord
ele (Zap) flame (see Zap lli below). Cf. Heb. & Arab. la-, la-, conveying a licking, flashing concept;
Eg. r, Copt. re sun
gaae (Zap) cut; break up; beat. Cf. Heb. qaa, qaa hew, cut off; gaza, gazaz cut, shear; gada,
gadad cut, prune; break into pieces; Eg. qdd hew, cut; gw cut down; break, smash;
ti cut into, carve, engrave, sculpt; d mace; di damage, destroy
bi-gana (Zap) priest (full-time). Cf. Heb. kohen, Arab. kahin(a) priest
gappe, ape (Zap) cloudy; drop (day-name). Cf. Eg. gp-pt, gp, igp, gb, Dem. gpt, Copt. epe cloud
(note Eg. gp-n-mw cloudburst); Heb. gebe, Arab. jubb, Akk. gubbu pool, cistern; Hindu
Apa(s) Water ( a Vasu)
gella (Zap) for (instrumental), faculty, quality. Cf. Heb. galal for, account, as in bi-glal because, on
account of, circumstance, reason, cause
gesa (Zap) willow-tree. Cf. Sum. GI, Akk. i, e, Heb. e(a) tree, wood; Eg. t, it tree, wood, stick
gidi (Zap) skin, hide; scar tissue. Cf. Heb. gid(dim) sinew, skin; meat; geled, Arab. jil skin; Eg. gsw
skin, hide??
giii (Zap) thorn. Cf. Heb. qo thorn, brier, thorn-bush; qe end, tip; Eg. qs spear, harpoonbone; bone; qd thorn, scrub, stubble; t wood, tree; impaling pole
giji (Zap) strong, hard, difficult. Cf. Heb. qae, qaa hard, difficult; Eg. qsn pain; painful, difficult;
dangerous; qsnt trouble, misfortune
gira (Zap), keen (Pop), n-kayi-he (Maz) all, entire. Cf. Heb. kol, Arab. koll all, entire

6
gola (Zap) big, as in Giengola (Quiengola), Big-Rock. Cf. Ug. gdl, Heb. gdl, gdola big, great
guki, ikke (Zap) king; chief. Cf. Arab. aqan, awaqin king(s), emperor(s)
h (Maz) one. Cf. Heb. ad, ed, Ug. ad, Arab. aad, waid one; Eg. , w(yw) one
hme-ni (Maz) what (see Zap. bi-, biani, above). Cf. Eg. m, m-ny who, what?; Ug. mn, Akk. mannu,
mn, Syr. man(a) who, what? Syr., Arab. man who? (interrogative pronouns)
-I (Zap) he, she, it, 3 sgl pronominal suffix (see Zap ni 3 sgl inanimate dependent & indep. pronoun).
Cf. archaic Heb. -i, Phoen-Sidonian -y he, she, it, 3 sgl pronominal suffix (JNES 10:228-230;
BASOR 194:40; Dahood Psalms, I:XXI, XXIV, citing Ps 2:6, etc., for 90 instances)
iyya-lo (Zap J), uuya (Zap) see (see Zap uiha seer, below). Cf. Heb. ayin, Arab. an, ayen eye;
fountain; uyun eyes; Ug. n see; eye; Heb. oyen see; look askance, be envious; ra,
roe, Arab. roya, ra, raay see; Eg. ir(t) pupil; eye; see; n, yn well, fountain; nw see,
look, observe; Copt. nau see; alo, alooue pupil(s) of eye
jiba (Zap) rub smooth. Cf. Heb. pi smooth, bare; apa, ipup rub, file, scrape, smooth; Eg.
b(y), Copt. of, ob to shave, clip; Eg. bb cut to pieces; Copt. obeb sharpen, incite;
Eg. b, f, ff, f, ff, Copt. off destroy, ravage
kani (Mixt) kill (see Zap utu, below). Cf. Eg. qn(w) kill, harm; murder, violence; Heb. qen (Job 29:18),
Eg. qnt, qn(i) be strong, conquer, prevail over; qnqn beat; Heb. naka, naka kill; strike, beat
n-kibi < *kimi (Zap) miser. Cf. Heb. qama, gaba, qaba, Arab. qm gather, collect; Eg. kp seize;
kf seize, grasp, collect taxes; b pilfer,deceive, defraud; ff heap up, collect
laa (Zap) that. Cf. Eg. n(y) this, that (demonstrative particle), the (pl definite article); Copt. nai,
ne, nou these; those-who-are-of-
labi (Zap) take to heart, pay attention. Cf. Heb. um lb give heed (give heart), pay attention; Eg.
rdi ib (nt) give attention to (give heart); Ug. lb, Akk. libbu heart
lasa (Zap) thin, lean. Cf. Heb. raze, raza thin, lean; Eg. nd(s) little, small, thin
li- (Zap), participle formative prefix; ni- (Mixt), past participle formative prefix. Cf. Heb. l-, n-, participle
& infinitive formatives; Eg. r, ir, participle & infinitive formative
lije (Zap) advise (see Zap luchi, luje, below). Cf. Eg. nd ask, inquire; advocate, defend by word; take
counsel, seek advice; argue; ndnd take counsel; Arab. naia advise
lli (Zap) lick (see Zap ele, above). Cf. Heb. & Arab. la-, la-, conveying a licking, lapping concept;
Eg. r, Copt. ro mouth
llibi (Zap) breathe. Cf. Eg. nfw, nfy, n(y)f, Copt. nif(e) blow, breathe; Eg. nf, Copt. nif(e) breath, air,
wind; Heb. napa breathe, blow; Arab. nafas breath

7
loo, lao (Zap) eye; face; flower; lu (Zap) eye (see Zap iyya-lo, u-uya, above). Cf. Eg. ir(t), Copt.
alo(oue) eye(s), pupil(s)
luchi, luji (Zap) tongue (see Zap lije, above); sain (Mixt) language. Cf. Arab. luga, lisn, Akk. linu,
Ug. lanu, Heb. ln language; tongue; Eg. rs, n, ls, Copt. las, les speech, language;
tongue; Eg. gnn tongue
m-be, nabe (Zap) very (see Zap rabe, rooba, below). Cf. Akk. rab, Ug. rabbu, Heb. rab(ba), marbe
plenty, much; but note also Spanish muy bien very well
mani-wini (Zap) bird; small-bird. Cf. Eg. mnw(t), mnyt, mnt pigeon; swallow; bnw heron; phoenix
mini (Mixt) lake. Cf. Gk. limni lake; Arab. m, maa, Heb. may(im), Aram. mayin, Edom. min, Saba.
mwn water; Eg. mw(y), miw, nw(y), nwyt water(s), pool, flood; mr canal; artificial lake;
trough; Copt. moou water
na- (Zap), n- (Mixt), adjective & participle formatives. Cf. Heb. n-, adjective & participle formative
(< niphal-passive forms); Eg. n(y), demonstrative & possessive adjectives; r, ir, participle
formative
na- (Zap), nya (Mixt), li (Maz) not. Cf. Eg. n, nn, Copt. n , , , an not (double negative); Heb. lo, Arab.
la no, not
na, naa, naa (Zap), naa (Mixt), i-nana (Ixc), a-n (Maz) I, me (independent pronoun); a (Zap) I, me
(dependent personal pronoun). Cf. Heb. any, Arab. ana; Eg. n, ni, Copt. I, anok, ang I, me
ndani (Zap) belly. Cf. Heb. been belly
ndi, ndi (Zap) this; xi, nga (Zap) that; nge, dxange (Zap) that-over-yonder. Cf. Eg. nty that,
which (relative adjective/pronoun), Copt. ent-, nt- that (relative convertor); Aram. dna, Akk.
annita, ESA dn, Neo-Babyl. agannutu this; Akk. u, i, a, Amorite u, i which (relative
pronoun)
nesa (Zap) pass water, micturate; nisa, niz(a), nissa, nez (Zap) water, liquid. Cf. Heb. naza spurt,
sprinkle; nazal, nozel flow; liquid; Eg. ns emit fluid; n expel, displace; nt, n, nn
emission; saliva; nt vase, pot; water; sprinkle; ntt, ntnt liquid; emission, secretion
neza, ne-za (Zap) road (see Zap za, below). Cf. Heb. sa, za, na, nasa travel, go, move; Eg. (s)wd
go, come, advance; ni(y), siy, zi walk, move, come, go
ngiu, n-giiu (Zap) man. Cf. Eg. ng(w) bull; ox
ni- (Zap), subjunctive formative prefix. Cf. Eg. ir when, if (conditional particle)
u, nya (Mixt), nhy (Otom) people, as in Nya-Sawi Mixtekatl, Cloud-People. Cf. Eg. n these;
nw, n()y, Copt. nai, ne, ni, nou those-who-are-of- (demonstrative & possessive adjectives);
Akk. ni people

8
pandaga, lag, ga, laie < *bal-laga (Zap) leaf. Cf. Arab. waraqa, Heb. ale, leaf, foliage; Heb. yeraqot
greens; Akk. wrq, arqu be fresh, green; Eg. iqt vegetable, greens
piquii (Zap) bird. Cf. Eg. bik falcon; but see Spanish pequeo small
ppappa (Zap) to fly. Cf. Heb. p, nopep to fly; op bird, fowl; Eg. py winged-disk; p, pi to fly;
ff a fly
rabe (Zap) chief; roba, roo-ba (Zap) much, great, big; ro (Zap) stout (see Zap m-be, na-be,
above). Cf. Heb. rab(ba), rabab great, vast, much; elder, leader, master, commander; Eg.
rp(t), rpy prince, hereditary chief, noble (Gk. Horpais); wr(w) great one; god; prince, noble,
elder, chief; wr king
ri- (Zap), habitual formative prefix. Cf. Heb. l-, n-, participle formatives; Eg. r, ir, a participle formative
r-iga (Zap) empty. Cf. Arab. farij, rayqa, Heb. reyq(a) empty; Eg. g(w), ngw. Copt. goou empty,
lack; without
roa, rua, ruaa (Zap) mouth, as in r-o to drink; r-o(-ago) to eat; r-abi to tell, say; r-o-yaa to bite,
chew. Cf. Eg. r, Copt. ro mouth; utterance; language; Heb. rua, Arab., Ug. ru, Geez roh
wind; breath; breathe, blow
r-udi, dii, ti (Zap), tahon (Pop) to give. Cf. Eg. (r)di, di(t), Copt. (e)t(a)-, ti- to give, grant; make;
cause; Eg. d(w), wd, wdi give; put, place; Heb. ten, natan, tet-, Akk. ndi, idi, nadu, nadnu,
Ug. ytn, Arab. eddy, a give
ruiji, ruiji (Zap) plays, laughs. Cf. Eg. rwt, rrt joy; r joyful; rr; Copt. rae rejoice; Akk.
riatu joy
sa (Zap), saan (Mixt), i-ne (Maz), iye (Pop) grease. Cf. Heb. emen, Arab. smn grease, oil, fat; Ug.
mn oil; mt fat; Akk. amnu oil, fat; Eg. hpn fat; smy, smi cream; curds
sa (Zap), si (Mixt) make; a (Mixt) work; sa- (Mixt), causative prefix. Cf. Heb. e-, conditional and
causal clause prefix; Eg. & Arab. - causative prefix; Copt. s(a)- rare causative prefix; Eg.
form, fashion; build; Heb. aa make, do; labor, work
saa (Mixt), se (Maz), e (Pop) bird. Cf. Eg. t chick, nestling; s, z, phonetic for bird-glyph (pintail
duck) used generically
saa (Zap) music. Cf. Eg. m(i), mw sing, play; musician; Arab. m play music; Heb. ar, ir(a)
sing, chant; song
sabi, sawi, dzaui, dzahui (Mixt) cloud; rain; rain-god, as in 19th day-name; sa, za, zaa < *saha (Zap)
cloud (as in usabi, Ben-Zaa). Cf. Gk. dios, zeus, Hittite siu-, iu-, siwanna, Sanscrit dyas sky;
god; Assyr. sau tempest; storm-god; Akk. Zu, Sabu Storm-bird-god; Ug. zw, zz roar,
bellow; Samaritan & Arab. zaa, zazaa shake, burst open; Syriac zaua, Gk. Zoue, Lihyanite
Dy earthquake, Temblor-god; Samaritan zuwa trembling, terror; Eg. d, D storm, stormwind, Storm-god; -pt storm, hurricane, tempest; im rainstorm; Heb. aar, eirim

9
storm, rain; Akk. amu heaven; rain; iban cloudy; saaba, ihab cloud; ama, Heb.
amaim heaven, sky; cloud
sewe < *eme (Mixt) name. Cf. Heb. m, Ug. m, Akk. umu, Arab. m, im name; Eg. dm, dm(it),
dmw to name, entitle
si, ui (Zap) buy. Cf. Eg. w haggle, trade; wyt merchant; do business; wyty, Copt. eot trader,
dealer; Akk. mu buy
si-gi (Zap) to lie, tell falsehood. Cf. Heb. eqer liar; aqar to lie; aga(g), ug err, go astray
(inadvertently); Eg. kz lie, deceive??
soo < *somo (Mixt) ear; hear; o-o (Maz) ear. Cf. Heb. ozen, Arab. wedn ear; Heb. omea,
ama, Arab. amia hear; Eg. idn ear; sdm, Copt. sotm hear
suba, zuba (Zap) sit. Cf. Heb. ub, yaab, yaob, iba, Assyr. sib sit
suka (Mixt), uba (Zap) to swim. Cf. Heb. aa, au swim
suwi (Pop), wi (Ixc) fire; so (Maz) hot; i (Maz), ema (Pop) dry. Cf. Eg. sw day; w sun; light;
fire; heat; wy, wi, Copt. ooue be dry, hot, arid; drought, heat; Eg. w Shu, god of wind
and light, the firstborn of R; m(m) hot; mw summer; z, zi(w) flame, fire; d firedrill; Assyr. isu, Akk. iatu, Sum. I.ZI, Heb. e fire
aku (Zap) rough (see giji, above). Cf. Heb. qae difficult, hard (metathesis?)
eela (Zap), i-n (Maz), ii (Pop) husband. Cf. Heb. i man; husband; Ug. d, Eg. si, s man
i, xi (Zap) that, who, which, relative pronoun. Cf. Heb. e-, , Byblian-Phoen. , , z, relative
pronouns
idi, xidxi (Zap) breast, nipple. Cf. Heb. ad, Ug. td, Arab. tady, Eg. t breast, bosom
oo, opa (Zap) six. Cf. Heb. e, ia, Akk. eet, Arab. sitta, Eg. sis(w), srsw, Copt. so, soou, seu
six
oone, ono (Zap) eight. Cf. Heb. mone, Arab. tamanya, Eg. mn(w), Copt. moun eight
ta-(Mixt), conditional prefix. Cf. Eg. ti, a conditional particle (non-enclitic)
ta, to, tao (Zap & Mixt) mount, hill; great, and augmentative, as in Pitao The-Great-Spirit. Cf. Eg.
dw(i), dw, Copt. toou mountain
t-chuppa, topa < *t-u (Zap) two. Cf. Heb. tayim, nayim, Akk. ina, Ug. tn, Arab. etneyn, Eg. snw(y),
Copt. snau, snte two
tiipi (Azp) whistle. Cf. Heb. apap, ipap whistle, twitter, chirp, pip; ippr, Arab. ufr bird;
Eg. twt twittering, piping

10

tii (Zap) side. Cf. Heb. ad side


too (Zap & Mixt) lord; n-ta (Maz) good. Cf. Heb. b, Ug.-Akk. bu, Arab. ayyib good; Eg. tw,
dw to praise, worship; dw priest; ntr, ntr, Copt. noute god
ttu (Zap) who, which. Cf. Heb. zu, ze, ESA d, dw, Arab. du, de, Aram. zi, di, de, demonstrative pronoun
-tu (Zap) you, pl pronominal suffix; tu (Zap) you, pl dependent pronoun. Cf. Eg. tw, tw you, sgl
dependent pronoun; but note Spanish t you
tni, tanni, dni (Zap) hill (see Zap ta, tao, above). Cf. Heb. tel, Arab. tell, tall hill, mound; Eg. dw,
dw(i), Copt. toou, (e)dn-, do- mountain
uiha (Zap) seer (see Zap iyya-lo, uuya, above), as in Uiha Tao Great Seer, High Priest & Judge
Tarascan Petamut Annunciator-High Priest. Cf. Eg. Wr m(w) Great Seer, High Priest of R
at n-Heliopolis; Heb. roe seer
uttu, -utti (Zap) kill; -atti (Zap), uu < *umu (Mixt), me (Maz), me (Ixc) die, perish; moku, mahu
(Mixt) death, and 6th day-sign. Cf. Heb. met, mawet, Akk. mitu, Arab. mawt die; death;
Eg. mt, mwt, mit, Copt. mou die; death; muut, meut to kill; Eg. sm kill; mww funeral
dancers; but note Spanish muerte death
yaa (Zap) unripe. Cf. Eg. i green; Heb. yaroq, yaraq green
yaya (Mixt) head; chief. `Cf. Eg. dd head; ddt chief (priest); high official; council; Copt. dod,
do head; chief
yela, gela (Zap) night. Cf. Heb. layil, layla, leyl- night; gr night
yi-su (Mixt) deer. Cf. Heb. ss, Ug. ssw, Akk. sis, Eg. ssm(t), ss, zz horse; , s, sw bubalisantelope
yii (Zap) grass. Cf. Heb. dee, Akk. du grass; Heb. eb, Arab. ub grass
yo- (Mixt), declarative prefix (non-future). Cf. Eg. I, iw, Copt. e-, superordinator, affirmative, and verb
to be, is, are, as in iw-wn there is, and with nominal subjects
yoo (Zap) old (see Zap assi, usu, above). Cf. Heb. yaan old; flabby, withered; yaen sleep; Eg.
isw old age, infirmity; iswt antiquity; is, iz, s be old
yu (Zap) land, earth, country. Cf. Eg. t, it, Copt. eiohe land, earth
yuun, ya(), -y, iy (Mixt), y h (Trique), i-h (Cuicatec) god; saint, sacred personage. Cf. Heb.
YHWH, Yah)u), Yo, Yeho Yahweh-god, Lord-Yahweh
zawi, nayzz, yasse (Zap) black. Cf. Heb. sody, zaham black; foul, loathsome; Arab. as-swad,
sawida black; Eg. zwy, dw darkness, night

11
ze, ji (Zap) day. Cf. Eg. sw, zw day; dww today
zulla (Zap) throw. Cf. Heb. zore, zara, zara, zaraq, zoreq sow, toss, fan, cast, throw, scatter;
winnow
aiba (Zap I) sky, heaven. Cf. Heb. amayim sky, heavens; Eg. pt, Copt. pe sky, heaven
uji < *suki (Zap) drunk. Cf. Heb. akar, ikor drunk; Eg. zwt, zwi, zwri, Copt. so drink; Eg. dh, t(i)
drink to drunkenness; drunken; drunkard; Copt. thii, the drunk
[2016 update of RFS 1969, 1971, and 1977 word comparison lists; version 3]

12
Bibliography
Agrinier Bach, Pierre, Linguistic Evidence for the Presence of Israelites in Mexico, SEHA Newsletter,
112.1 (28 Feb 1969):4-5, available online at http://www.ancientamerica.org/library/
media/HTML/ajljssvj/aaf31.htm?n=0 .
Campbell, Lyle, American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America , Oxford Studies
in Anthroplogical Linguistics 4 (Oxford Univ. Press, 1997/2000).
Campbell, Lyle, Historical Linguistics: An Introduction, 2nd ed. (MIT Press, 2004).
Foster, Mary LeCron, Old World Language in the Americas, 1, paper presented April 20, 1992, at the
annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers, San Diego, CA. in UCB Archives,

BANC MSS 2012/225, series 4, carton 4, folder 26.


Foster, Mary LeCron, Old World Language in the Americas, 2, paper presented Sept 7-10, 1992, at the
annual meeting of the Language Origins Society, Selwyn College, Cambridge University,
Cambridge, England. in UCB Archives, BANC MSS 2012/225, series 4, carton 4, folder 26.
Foster, Mary LeCron, The Transoceanic Trail: The Proto-Pelagian Language Phylum, Pre-Columbiana: A
Journal of Long-distance Contacts, I/1-2 (1998):88-114.
Foster, Mary LeCron, PIE, comparative American Indian languages and Mayan-Afro-Asiatic
languages, in UCB Archives, BANC MSS 2012/225, series 8, cardfile box 13.
Freedman, David Noel, and Frank Moore Cross, The Pronominal Suffixes of the Third Person Singular in
Phoenician, JNES, 10 (1951):228-230.
Herrod, James B., Notes on Spoken Early Acheulian (EAPL): Semantic Field and Correspondences to
Cognitive Operations in Biface Technology, version 1, Feb 14, 2003. Online at
http://www.originsnet.org/spokeachul92k.pdf .
Jesperson, Otto, Language: Its Structure and Development (N.Y., 1964).
Jett, Stephen C., Nicotine and Cocaine in Egyptian Mummies and THC in Peruvian Mummies; a Review
of the Evidence and of Scholarly Reaction, Pre-Columbiana: A Journal of Long-distance
Contacts, 2/4 (2002):297-313.
Jett, Stephen C., Pre-Columbian Transoceanic Contacts: The Present State of the Evidence, NEARA
Journal, 36/2 (Winter 2002):1-5, online at
http://www.neara.org/images/pdf/precolumbiantransoceanic.pdf , or = NEARA (2003)
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/200580296_PreColumbian_Transoceanic_Contacts_The_Present_State_of_the_Evidence/file/e0b49514caec664
3ac.pdf , and
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:T7szfqL6O2gJ:www.researchgate.net/p
ublication/200580296_PreColumbian_Transoceanic_Contacts_The_Present_State_of_the_Evidence/file/e0b49514caec664
3ac.pdf+proto-pelagian+phylum&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=safari .

13

Jimnez Moreno, Wigberto, Mesoamerica Before the Toltecs, in Paddok, ed., Ancient Oaxaca, 3-81.
Kelley, David H.,Linguistics and Problems in Trans-Pacific Contacts, Proceedings of the 35th
International Congress of Americanists, held in Mexico, 1962, 1 (1964):17-18.
Kelley, David H., The Nine Lords of the Night, Contributions of the University of California
Archaeological Research Facility, #16 (Berkeley: U.C. Dept of Anthropology, Oct 1972) but see
Robert F. Smiths review and extensions.
Lane, W., The Phoenician Dialect of Larnax tes Lapethou, BASOR, 194 (1969):39-45.
Paddok, John, ed., Ancient Oaxaca (Stanford, 1966).
Sol-Sol, J. M., Semitic Elements in Ancient Hispania, CBQ, 29/3 (July 1967):181-188.
Sorenson, John L, A Complex of Ritual and Ideology Shared by Mesoamerica and the Ancient Near East,
Sino-Platonic Papers No. 195 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Department of East Asian
Language and Civilization, 2009). Online at http://sino-platonic.org
Sorenson, John L., and Carl. L. Johannessen, Scientific Evidence for Pre-Columbian Transoceanic Voyages
to and from the Americas, Sino-Platonic Papers No. 133, CD-ROM edition (Philadelphia:
University of Pennsylvania, Department of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, 2004).
Sorenson, John L., and Carl. L. Johannessen, Biological evidence for pre-Columbian transoceanic
voyages, in Victor H. Mair, ed., Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World, Perspectives on the
Global Past, 2 (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 2006), 238-297.
Sorenson, John L., and Carl. L. Johannessen, World Trade and Biological Exchanges before 1492 (New
York and Bloomington, IN: iUniverse, 2009).
Spores, Ronald, The Mixtec Kings and Their People (Univ. of Oklahoma, 1967).
Stubbs, Brian D., Elements of Hebrew in Uto-Aztecan: A Summary of the Data, Preliminary Report STU-88
(Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1988).
Stubbs, Brian D., A Few Hundred Hints of Egyptian and Two Dialects of Hebrew (or Northwest Semitic)
in Uto-Aztecan, 2004 manuscript, 142pp.
Stubbs, Brian D., Exploring the Explanatory Power of Semitic and Egyptian in Uto-Aztecan (Provo: Grover
Publications, 2015).
Swadesh, Morris, The Phonemic Structure of Proto-Zapotec, IJAL, XIII (1947):220-230.
Swadesh, Morris, Lexico-Statistic Dating of Prehistoric Ethnic Contacts, With Special Reference to North
American Indians and Eskimos, PAPS, 96 (1952):452-463.
Swadesh, Morris, Ochenta lenguas autctonas, in Leonard Cook, ed., Esplendor del Mexico antiguo, I

14
(Mexico: Centro de Investigaciones Antropologicas de Mexico, 1959), 85-96.
Swadesh, Morris, Linguistics as an Instrument of Prehistory, Southwestern Journal of Anthropology,
XV/1 (1959):20-35. Same as following:
Swadesh, Morris, La linguistica como instrumento de la prehistoria (INAH, 1960), published also in Acta
Anthropologia, poca 2a, II/2 (1960):93-127.
Swadesh, Morris, The Oto-Manguean Hypothesis and Macro-Mixtecan, IJAL, 26 (1960), 79-111.
Swadesh, Morris, Algunes orientaciones generales sobre la escritura Maya, Estudios de Cultura Maya,
VII (1968):33-47, esp. 39 on Old World New World comparisons.
Swadesh, Morris, The Origin and Diversification of Language, ed. Joel Sherzer (Chicago: Aldine/
Atherton, 1971/ reprint New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction/ Rutgers, 2006).
Waterhouse, Viola, The Grammatical Structure of Oaxaca Chontal, Publication 19 of the Indiana Univ.
Research Center in Anthropology, Folklore, and Linguistics, International Journal of Linguistics,
28 (1962).
Wauchope, R., ed., Handbook of Middle American Indians, V, Linguistics, ed. N. A. McQuown (Univ.
of Texas. 1967), for detailed surveys on Middle American linguistics.
Wiercinski, Andrzej, Inter- and Intrapopulational Racial Differentiation of Tlatilco, Cerro de las Mesas,
Teotihuacan, Monte Alban and Yucatan Maya, Actas, Documentos y Memorias, 39a Congreso
Internacional de Americanistas, Lima, 1970, 1 (Lima, Peru: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, 1972):
231-248.