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ALBERT-LUDWIGS-

UNIVERSITÄT FREIBURG
Prof. Dr. Leonhard Reindl
Lehrstuhl El. Mess- und Prüfverfahren

Signal Processing
Solution Exercise Nr. 2 SS2011
Date of issue: 19.05.11

U[V] 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

I[A] 0.3 0.43 0.61 0.65 0.75
U[V] 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
I[A] 0.9 0.85 1 1.2 1.25
U[V] 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
I[A] 1.35 1.5 1.62 1.7 1.76
U[V] 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
I[A] 1.85 2 2.1 2.23 2.28

Input parameter: U
Measured parameter: I

Exercise:

Calculate the exercises by hand and using MATLAB®!

1) Calculate the coefficients for the straight line approximation of the measured data, and draw
the calculated line in a diagram, as well as the measured data.

I [ A] = a + b ⋅ U [V ]

N
1 N N

1 N N

∑x yn n
−  ∑ xn ⋅ ∑ yn 
N  n =1 
a=  ∑ yn − ∑ xn b  b = n =1N n =1
(page 2.59)
N  n =1  1 N N

n =1
∑n =1
xn2 −  ∑ xn ⋅ ∑ xn 
N  n =1 n =1 

Signal Processing, Solution Exercise Nr. 2 1/6

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UNIVERSITÄT FREIBURG

2) Smooth the series of the measurement using linear fitting with 3 points.

yn +1 + yn + yn −1
yn = (page 2.70)
3

U[V] 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

I_av[A] 0.4467 0.5633 0.67 0.7667
U[V] 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
I_av[A] 0.833 0.9167 1.0167 1.15 1.2667
U[V] 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
I_av[A] 1.3667 1.49 1.6067 1.6933 1.77
U[V] 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
I_av[A] 1.87 1.9833 2.11 2.2033

Signal Processing, Solution Exercise Nr. 2 2/6

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UNIVERSITÄT FREIBURG

3) Calculate the gradient of the smoothed data.

yn +1 − yn −1
yn′ = (page 2.75)
2h

U[V] 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

I_steig[A] 1.1167 1.0167 0.8167
U[V] 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
I_steig[A] 0.75 0.9167 1.1667 1.25 1.0833
U[V] 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
I_steig[A] 1.1667 1.2 1.167 0.8167 0.8833
U[V] 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
I_steig[A] 1.0667 1.2 1.1

Signal Processing, Solution Exercise Nr. 2 3/6

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UNIVERSITÄT FREIBURG

4) Calculate the area under the original series of the measurement

using Kepler’s barrel rule.

Kepler’s barrel rule (page 2.81) is applicable only for an odd number of measuring points!

yn + 4 yn +1 + yn + 2
Kn = 2 ⋅ h ⋅ with n=1,3,5,…,17
6

n 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17

Kn 0,0877 0,132 0,1733 0,2017 0,2517 0,299 0,3393 0,372 0,421

Trapezium rule (page 2.79) for the rest points (measuring point 19 – 20):

y19 + y20
A=h = 0, 2255
2

Total area:

Atotal = ∑ K n + A = 2,5032

Signal Processing, Solution Exercise Nr. 2 4/6

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MATLAB/Scilab solution: UNIVERSITÄT FREIBURG

u=(0.1:0.1:2);
i=[0.3 0.43 0.61 0.65 0.75 0.9 0.85 1 1.2 1.25 1.35 1.5 1.62 1.7 1.76 1.85 2
2.1 2.23 2.28];
n=length(u);
plot(u,i,'*');
hold on; % scilab: set(gca(),"auto_clear","off");
grid on; % scilab: set(gca(),"grid",[1 1]);

% ex 1:
XY=u*i';
X_Y=1/length(u)*sum(u)*sum(i);
X2=sum(u.^2); % oder X2=u*u'
X_2=1/length(u)*sum(u)*sum(u);
b=(XY-X_Y)/(X2-X_2);
a=1/n*(sum(i)-b*sum(u));

p=polyfit(u,i,1);
i_fit=p(1).*u+p(2);
plot(u,i_fit,'r');

% scilab solution:
% function y=FF(x,p),y=p(1)*x+p(2),endfunction
% function e=G(p,z),
% y=z(1),x=z(2);
% e=y-FF(x,p),
% endfunction
% [p,err]=datafit(G,[i;u],[1;0])

% ex 2:
i_a = zeros(1,n);
for k = 2:(n-1)
i_a(k)=(i(k-1)+i(k)+i(k+1))/3;
end
u_av=u(2:19);
i_av=i_a(2:19);
plot(u_av,i_av,'m'); % with magenta color

% ex 3:
n_iav=length(i_av);
for k = 2:(n_iav-1)
end

% alternative solution with polyfit

p_av=polyfit(u_av,i_av,1);

% ex 4
K2=zeros(1,(n-2));

for k=1:2:(n-2)
%Kepler's barrel rule for measuring points 1- 19
K2(k)=(0.1/3)*(i(k)+4*i(k+1)+i(k+2));
%Trapezium rule for last two measuring points (19-20)

Signal Processing, Solution Exercise Nr. 2 5/6

K2(19)=0.1*(i(19)/2+i(20)/2); ALBERT-LUDWIGS-
UNIVERSITÄT FREIBURG
end

% sum all of separate bars

K2_total=sum(K2);

Matlab to Scilab convert:

http://www.scilab.org/product/dic-mat-sci/M2SCI_doc.htm