Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 97

Survey of Palestinian media

December 2010 to April 2011

Prepared by
Near East Consulting
Ramallah

May 2010
Table of Content
I. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................... 4
II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..................................................................................................... 4
III. METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................. 6
IV. POLITICAL AND LEGAL ENVIRONMENT AFFECTING MEDIA ............................... 9
A. Political Environment ________________________________________________________ 9
B. Legal Environment _________________________________________________________ 14
V. MEDIA MAPPING .............................................................................................................. 17
A. Number of Organizations According to activity _________________________________ 17
B. Year of Establishment ______________________________________________________ 17
C. Affiliation _________________________________________________________________ 18
D. Funding __________________________________________________________________ 19
E. Objectives of the Media Organizations _________________________________________ 19
F. Location of Media Organizations _____________________________________________ 20
G. Source of Permit ___________________________________________________________ 21
H. Geographical Reach ________________________________________________________ 22
I. Staffing ___________________________________________________________________ 23
J. The Main Focus of Media Organizations _______________________________________ 24
K. Sources of Information ______________________________________________________ 25
L. Obstacles and Restrictions Confronting Media Organizations in Palestine ___________ 25
M. Self-Evaluation ____________________________________________________________ 26
N. List of Main Media Organizations ____________________________________________ 27
VI. AUDIENCE SURVEY: RATINGS AND PERCEPTIONS ................................................ 31
A. Importance of News ________________________________________________________ 31
B. Most Important Source of Information ________________________________________ 32
C. Most Trusted Source of Information___________________________________________ 34
D. Broadcast Media Ratings and Consumer Habits _________________________________ 36
1. Palestinian TV and radio ............................................................................................................................36
2. Most popular TV stations...........................................................................................................................37
3. Most popular Radio stations.......................................................................................................................41
4. Viewing and listening habits ......................................................................................................................43
5. Duration of watching and listening to broadcast media .............................................................................46
E. Newspaper Readership ______________________________________________________ 47
1. Readership levels .......................................................................................................................................47
2. Reasons to read the newspaper...................................................................................................................49
3. Most trusted newspapers ............................................................................................................................51
F. Internet and New Media_____________________________________________________ 53
1. Internet access ............................................................................................................................................53
2. Frequency of usage ....................................................................................................................................55
3. Reasons for using the Internet....................................................................................................................57
4. Social Networking......................................................................................................................................60
G. Public Perceptions of the Palestinian Media ____________________________________ 62
1. Freedom of journalists................................................................................................................................62
2. Journalists’ performance ............................................................................................................................65
3. Perceptions of Palestinian broadcast media ...............................................................................................66
4. What distinguishes local stations ...............................................................................................................68
5. Preferred programmes ................................................................................................................................70
6. Objectivity of Local Coverage ...................................................................................................................72
VII. JOURNALISM TRAINING IN THE PALESTINIAN TERRITORIES ........................... 76

2
A. Universities _______________________________________________________________ 77
B. Palestinian NGOs __________________________________________________________ 79
C. International NGOs ________________________________________________________ 81
VIII. CONCLUSION.............................................................................................................. 84
IX. RECOMMENDATIONS ...................................................................................................... 85
X. ANNEXES ............................................................................................................................ 87
A. Audience Questionnaire _____________________________________________________ 87
B. Media Organizations Questionnaire ___________________________________________ 91
C. List of figures______________________________________________________________ 94
D. List of tables_______________________________________________________________ 96

3
ANALYSIS OF PALESTINE'S MEDIA ENVIRONMENT

I. INTRODUCTION

This survey was conducted by Near East Consulting for Fondation Hirondelle, with funding from
the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation.

Fondation Hirondelle is a Swiss non-governmental organization founded by journalists in 1995


to bring independent, professional information to populations in crisis and transition countries. It
has worked in Kosovo, Nepal and East Timor. Fondation Hirondelle currently has radio stations
in several African countries, including the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan, where it
co-manages the UN radio stations.

In Palestine, Fondation Hirondelle has been working with the Hope Flowers School and
Community Centre in Bethlehem to launch a new radio station for peace and human dignity. Yet
the Palestinian media scene is crowded, complex and rapidly evolving. An independent, up to
date and comprehensive survey of the sector is therefore a vital policy tool for all stakeholders.

It is in this context that the survey came about. Fondation Hirondelle launched an open call for
proposals in October 2010 for a partner to implement the survey in Palestine. In consultation
with the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, it selected Near East Consulting of
Ramallah. NEC carried out the audience survey and media mapping in December 2010, and
focus groups in February 2011. In March, Fondation Hirondelle and NEC organized a workshop
in Ramallah to present the initial findings and discuss them with media practitioners in Palestine.

The work has taken place over several months, owing to the quantity and complexity of the
information. This report looks not only at the current media players in Palestine and audience
attitudes towards them, but also at other aspects affecting the work of the media in Palestine,
such as the political and legal context, and journalism training. It includes recommendations
drawn up by NEC, in consultation with local analysts and media players, on how to strengthen
independent media in Palestine.

II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

There are 192 functioning media organizations in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPTs).
Out of 184 media organizations that responded to our mapping survey, 27 are TV stations and
66 are radio stations. 145 are in the West Bank (including East Jerusalem), and 39 in the Gaza
Strip.

Most Palestinian TV and radio stations broadcast only to the governorate or district where they
are based. Only 19% of TV stations and 19% of radio stations claim to broadcast throughout the
OPTs.

More than three-quarters of media outlets (80%) say their funding comes mainly from private
sources such as advertising. Only 4% say they get government funding, while 16% say they are
financed by local and international NGOs.

More than half of all the media organizations (53%) say they have suffered restrictions at some
time in the past such as closure, threats and attacks on staff or property. A majority 75% see the

4
Israeli occupation as the main restriction they currently face, but a significant number also cited
the PA government in Ramallah and the Hamas government in Gaza.

Palestinians are hungry for news. Thirty-six percent of Palestinian adults surveyed by NEC said
they always follow the news, while 57% said they sometimes do and only 6% said they never
follow the news.

Forty-two percent of Palestinians say international satellite TV is their most important source of
information, compared with only 24% for local TV, 20% for Internet, 8% for local radio and 3%
for newspapers.

A majority of Palestinians (70%) have access to the Internet, mainly at home (85%), and three-
quarters use the Internet daily. Perhaps surprisingly, there is wider access to the Internet in
Gaza (76%) than in the West Bank (67%). Young people spend the most time surfing the
Internet, with 28% of 18-24 year olds saying they spend more than four hours daily.

Sixty percent of Palestinians surveyed use social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. Of
these, 21% use them extensively, 24% moderately and 15% rarely. Again, usage is most
pronounced among the young, with 33% of people in the 18-24 age group saying they use
social networks extensively.

The five most watched TV stations in the OPTs are Qatar-based news channel Al Jazeera (31%
watched it the day before the survey); the Palestinian Authority station Palestine TV (18%);
MBC entertainment channels (18%); Al-Arrabiyah news channel, which also belongs to the
Dubai-based MBC, (7.5%); and Abu Dhabi TV (5%). These stations are all available on satellite,
which is widely used by households in both the West Bank and Gaza.

The five most popular radio stations are Ajyal (15%), the Palestinian Authority station Sout
Falastin (8%), Sout-al-Aqsa (7%), Al Quds (6%), and private station Raya FM. Sout-al-Aqsa,
which is close to Hamas, and Sout Al Quds, which is close to Islamic Jihad, are listened to
mostly in Gaza.

Most local TV and radio stations have only a tiny share of the overall market. Preferred
programmes on local TV and radio deal with news, Palestinian politics and municipal/ local
issues, but about one-third of Palestinians in the audience survey said they do not believe that
local TV and radio coverage of local issues is objective. Of these people, more than 60% cited
political partisanship as the main reason, followed by self-censorship, lack of professionalism
and financial restrictions.

Focus group participants said they thought low audiences for local stations were because of
weak financial resources, lack of professionalism, absence of original, independent news
reporting and lack of variety in local programming.

5
III. METHODOLOGY

The core research for this report consisted of a Media Mapping exercise, an Audience Survey
and a series of Focus Groups. The methodology for each of these is described below.

Media Mapping

The first step was drafting a questionnaire that was used to interview most media organizations
in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPTs) face to face or by phone. NEC developed the
questionnaire in consultation with Fondation Hirondelle and a number of media experts. Prior to
the fieldwork, the questionnaire was pretested and minor modifications were made pursuant to
the pre-test.

After finalizing the questionnaire, the research team embarked on preparing a list of media
organizations active in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and in the Gaza Strip. To this
end, NEC made use of all of the available directories on media organizations in Palestine
including the yellow pages, PASSIA1, the list of the Ministry of Interior and of the Ministry of
Information. NEC consulted many organizations and individuals. After all sources were
exhausted, 440 organizations were listed.

Many of the listed media organizations were difficult to locate. NEC’s team searched on the
Internet or asked other institutions about them. Some were located in this way.

After finalizing the lists, NEC assigned well-experienced interviewers who were instructed on
how to administer interviews in their respective areas. Prior to the interview, the responsible
person in each media institution was contacted by the field coordinator to set an appointment for
the visit.

Less than half of the 440 organizations listed were found to be functioning. Their status is given
in the table below. Data analysis is based only on the 184 media organizations functioning
currently and interviewed for this survey.

Table 1: Status of listed media organizations in Palestine


The status of the media organizations Number of organizations
Functioning currently and interviewed 184
Refused to answer but known to be functioning 8
Interviewed but closed 10
Closed and not interviewed 59
No information about them 179

1
PASSIA is the Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs’ Jerusalem.

6
Audience Survey

The survey was conducted in December 2010 by Near East Consulting (NEC), and covered
some 2,700 households. NEC used Computer Aided Telephone Interviewing (CATI), employing
random digit dialling of household landlines, to select a representative sample across the West
Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip.2 In drawing the sample, NEC ensured that
the sampling frame took into consideration all the communities in the OPTs enumerated by the
Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) during the 2007 Census.

Due to the lack of homogeneity among the Palestinians, NEC divided the OPTs into five
geographical areas: North West Bank, Middle West Bank, South West Bank, North Gaza Strip
and South Gaza Strip. About 550 randomly selected telephone numbers were assigned to each
region. Thus, in reality, five samples were drawn. About 2,700 interviews were completed out of
some 3,500 dialled numbers. Following is the margin of error for each of the five areas as well
as for the West Bank, for the Gaza Strip, and for the OPTs as a whole.

Figure 1: Margin of error for the various areas

Sample of 2,699 for the Fondation Hirondelle survey


+/- 1.89% Margin of error

WEST BANK GAZA STRIP


Sample of 1583 Sample of 1116
+/- 2.5% Margin of error +/- 2.9% Margin of error

North WB Middle WB South WB North GS South GS

Sample of Sample of Sample of Sample of Sample of


548 489 546 539 577

+/- 4.2% +/- 4.4% +/- 4.2% +/- 4.3% +/- 4.1%
Margin of Margin of Margin of Margin of Margin of
error error error error error

95% 95% 95% 95% 95%


Confidence Confidence Confidence Confidence Confidence
level level level level level

The questionnaire was drafted by NEC in close cooperation with Fondation Hirondelle, so as to
capture the required information and facilitate analysis according to pre-determined variables.
The questionnaire was pre-tested in both the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (total of 40
interviews in both regions) prior to the interviewing process, and was modified slightly based on
the outcome of the pre-test.

NEC relied on a pool of experienced interviewers. Most of NEC’s interviewers are college
students or have a degree in one of the disciplines in the social sciences. They are a mix of
young women and men who were trained extensively prior to this survey on how to administer
this particular questionnaire. Supervisors were always present to provide the interviewers with
instructions.

2
For East Jerusalem, NEC used the phone prefix there and added randomized four digits to select
households. Commercial offices were excluded from the interviews.

7
Once the questionnaire was finalized and pre-tested, NEC proceeded with data collection.
NEC’s surveying operation was functional on a daily basis during the second half of December
2010 from 9 am until 9 pm, so as to ensure that all household members were present.3

Data was checked and cleaned both by supervisors in the field and at the end of the survey to
ensure that it had been properly entered and that no interviewer bias occurred.
Data was weighted according to population size and male-female ratios, using data from the
PCBS census of mid-2007. The variables that were used in the analysis were: age of
respondents, gender, place and area of residence, poverty level, and region. The analysis
focused primarily on statistically significant relationships.

In general, the analysis focused on two sets of variables. The first was on the basis of region of
residence of the respondents, and the second was on the national level. As mentioned earlier,
when the analysis was carried out on the national level, weighting according to population size
was carried out in order to reflect the representation of each region and also the actual size of
the West Bank as opposed to the Gaza Strip. However, when the analysis was done according
to each of the five regions, the data was not weighted.

Focus Groups

Focus groups are a valuable methodology for obtaining in-depth qualitative information on
topics of interest. However, it is important to keep in mind that results cannot always be
generalized across the entire population.

Three focus groups were conducted on February 11, 12 and 13, 2011, as part of research on
how people perceive the Palestinian media. The purpose was also to obtain deeper insight on
some of the audience survey findings, such as why people apparently evaluate the Palestinian
media positively although the majority do not follow these media outlets.

The focus groups were conducted by NEC in Nablus, Ramallah, and in Deir El Balah in the
Gaza Strip with respectively 12, 13 and 10 participants. In Gaza and Nablus, the groups
consisted of different age groups, from both sexes and from different educational levels. The
third group in Ramallah consisted of youth participants with ages ranging from 20 to 30 years
old.

Imad Freij, a media professional and journalist, moderated the Nablus and Ramallah focus
groups while the one in Gaza Strip was conducted by Naema Abu Hmeid, a consultant with
wide experience in focus group discussions. Each group lasted approximately ninety minutes.
The moderators used a similar manual and questions for comparability purposes.

3
A significant proportion of Palestinians move during the week to other districts, such as
Ramallah, for employment and they return home during weekends.

8
IV. POLITICAL AND LEGAL ENVIRONMENT AFFECTING MEDIA

A. Political Environment

Historical Overview

Palestinian broadcasting was not allowed until after the Israeli-Palestinian peace accords of
1993, known as the Oslo accords. However, the Palestinian written press has a long and rich
tradition. Palestine was one of the first Arab countries to publish and distribute newspapers. By
the beginning of the First World War, the number of newspapers in Palestine reached thirty-six,
covering political, literary, comic and other issues4. But most of these newspapers did not
circulate for long periods. One exception is Falastin newspaper5 which published from 1911 up
to the creation of Israel in 1948 and the Palestinian Annakba.6

Following Annakba, the Palestinian media in the West Bank came under the control of Jordan,
while the Gaza Strip came under Egyptian laws and regulations. Between 1951 and 1967, the
Palestinian press continued to develop in the Jordanian-controlled West Bank, despite
censorship that was imposed on the three main newspapers: Al-Quds, Al-Difa’, and Al-Jihad. In
the Gaza Strip, a number of newspapers and magazines were also published, most prominent
of which were “Gaza Newspaper”, “Al-Watan Al-Arabi” and “Al-Tahreer”.

1967 Arab-Israeli War

After June 1967 when Israel occupied the remaining parts of historic Palestine, the Israeli
military occupation clamped down on the Palestinian press, and daily newspapers ceased
publication. In order to fill the gap, Israel published two newspapers in Arabic immediately after
the war. The first one, ”Al-Youm”, failed immediately while the other one, “Al-Anba”, lasted a
little longer. However, it too stopped publishing after a few years due to lack of readership
among the Palestinians, who saw it as a mouthpiece for the Israeli occupation.

Palestinian newspapers re-emerged from 1968 and especially in the early 1970s, albeit subject
to heavy Israeli restrictions7. Israel granted 22 permits for Palestinian dailies and periodicals in
Jerusalem. Mahmoud Abu Al-Zuluf, the publisher of Al-Jihad newspaper, which ceased
publication after the 1967 war, got a permit from Israel to publish it again. He resumed
publishing it in 1968 under the name of Al-Quds . Many other newspapers also followed, such
as “Al Shaab”, “Al Fajr”, “Al Talee’a” and “Al-Nahar”. In the Gaza Strip, the press was limited to
only two magazines, “Al Oloum” and “Al-Usbou’ Al-Jadeed”. The Palestinian media was not
limited to the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPTs), but was vibrant in most areas with large
Palestinian populations, especially in Lebanon and Syria where the Palestine Liberation
Organization (PLO) operated.

4
Taryan, Majed. 2009. “Palestinian Press: Origin and development.”
www.minfo.ps/arabic/index.php?pagess=main&id=143
5
Najjar, Aida. 1905. Palestinian Press and the National Movement 1900-1948, Arab Institute for
Studies and Publications: In Arabic. books.google.com/books?isbn=9953367671
6
The period when Palestinians were expelled from their homes in historic Palestine.
7
For the various military orders, restricting media and access to information see Rabah, Jamil &
Fairweather, Natasha. "Israeli Military Orders in the Occupied Palestinian Territories: 1967-1992".
Jerusalem Media & Communication Centre, East Jerusalem, West Bank (1993)

9
The political and ideological diversity of Palestinian factions in the years before the Oslo peace
accords led to the establishment of diverse media organizations, both inside and outside
Palestine. This diversity allowed for political and social debates among all sectors of Palestinian
society in the OPTs and in the Diaspora. However, there were still two major factors hindering
press freedom and the quality of information provided to the Palestinian public: the Israeli
occupation and the nature of the Palestinian leadership. Israel imposed considerable restrictions
on the Palestinian media, and the Palestinian factions also interfered substantively in the
media's work.

Israeli measures ranged from licensing restrictions to censorship of material in the Palestinian
print media. Stories related to resisting the occupation, the harshness of Israeli measures or the
political rights of individuals were censored. PLO publications were also banned and people
attempting to access them penalized. Prior to the 1993 Oslo accords, Palestinians were not
permitted to broadcast in the OPTs. Only Israeli broadcasters were allowed. Israel jammed
broadcasts of the PLO radio in exile, to stop people listening to it in Palestine.

Palestinian factions tended to interfere in the media to serve their own ideological and political
interests rather than freedom of expression. Locally published newspapers became highly
politicized and were rarely platforms for diverse viewpoints. Indeed, it got to a point where all
employees in a newspaper would be members of the party that funded or owned it. This
environment led to a situation where the Palestinian media was internationally ineffective and
locally distrusted.

After Oslo

Audiovisual media in Palestine was formally allowed for the first time under the 1993 Oslo
peace accords8 between Israel and the Palestinians. After Oslo, many radio and TV stations
were allowed to operate and have proliferated.9 However, while permits are granted by the
Palestinian Authority, the frequencies still belong to Israel. Walid Batrawi of Internews Network
describes PA broadcast licences as being rather a kind of “no-objection certificate”. Israel has
obstructed some local TV and radio stations, saying their frequencies were interfering with the
communication networks of Israeli settlement and military posts.

With the arrival of the Palestinian Authority (PA) in 1994, many newspapers and magazines of
diverse political and ideological viewpoints were allowed to operate. The first newspaper
granted permission by the Palestinian Authority was “Falastin” (pro-Hamas), followed by ”Al
Hayyat Al-Jadida” for Fateh, “Al Wattan” for Hamas, “Al Istiqlal” for Islamic Jihad, as well as Al-
Ayyam and Al-Quds, which both claim to be independent.

The Fateh-Hamas split of 2007, as well as other political, legal and economic constraints,
continue to pose considerable challenges to media in the OPTs, as will be discussed below.

The Current Political Context

The Palestinian media continue to face a number of challenges directly related to the political
situation. These include Israeli occupation, and the bitter internal split between Fateh and
Hamas in 2007. It remains to be seen how the reconciliation accord signed in May 2011
between Fateh and Hamas will be implemented, and how it will affect the media.

8
Nablus TV, headed by Ayman Nimer, was the first TV station to operate prior to Oslo but its
broadcast was limited.
9
See the mapping chapter for a list of audio-visual media organizations that are currently in
operation.

10
Attacks on the press unfortunately remain frequent in the Palestinian territories. Following is a
list of violations against the media committed by both the Israeli Army and the Palestinian forces
in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip in 2010.

Type of Violation Israeli Palestinian TOTAL


Attacks 89 10 99
Detention 19 17 36
Arrests 18 14 32
Summons for Investigation 3 17 20
Raids 0 8 8
Prevention of Coverage 3 4 7
Travel restrictions/ Deportation 3 3 6
Destruction of property 3 0 3
Threats 1 2 3
Closures/Blockades 0 2 2
Equipment confiscation 0 1 1
Frequency disruption 0 1 1
TOTAL 139 79 218
MADA Annual Violations Report: 2010, Madacenter.org
http://www.madacenter.org/madaeng/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=298:201
0-annual-report&catid=69:annual-reports&Itemid=82

Israeli Restrictions

The restrictions stemming from the continued Israeli occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza
Strip are undoubtedly less when compared to the period prior to Oslo. Still, Israel continues to
have a significant negative influence nowadays on the Palestinian media environment.

For more than ten years now, Israeli restrictions have prevented Palestinians from moving freely
between the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. Freedom of movement in the West Bank is still
subject to strict Israeli Army measures which have transformed some areas into isolated
cantons, preventing mobility between them. This has led journalists and media staff to restrict
themselves to their offices and their areas. In addition Palestinians, including journalists and
media staff, are prevented from entering Jerusalem and Israel, except in rare cases of
conditional permits granted for limited periods.

In addition to restrictions on freedom of movement, there are many examples of measures


carried out by the Israeli army against journalists and media officials in the West Bank and the
Gaza Strip. According to the Palestinian Center for Development and Media Freedoms (MADA),
the year 2010 witnessed a marked increase in Israeli violations against public freedoms and
against Palestinian journalists in the OPTs. According to MADA's 2010 annual report, the Israeli
army committed 139 violations against Palestinian journalists that year, including 89 attacks, 19
detentions, 18 arrests, 3 cases of property destruction and 3 summonses for investigation.

Of the areas most affected by violations against journalists, Hebron had the highest number of
reported incidences with 53, of which 45 were perpetrated by Israeli forces. The high density of
soldiers in this region - an estimated 2,000 deployed to protect approximately 500 Jewish
settlers - often leads to harsh implementation of Israel’s unofficial but institutionalized blackout
of media reportage in the region.

Ramallah was the second most affected region with 28 Israeli violations. The highest number
occurred at the checkpoints of Qalandia and Atara, as well as the surrounding villages of Bili’in
and Ni’lin which hosts weekly demonstrations against the Wall. In Jerusalem, there were over

11
30 violations, the majority of which occurred whilst journalists were covering clashes sparked by
Palestinian house demolitions and evictions10.

Continued Israeli ownership of broadcasting frequencies and airwaves constitute another


problem. “Due to the ownership of frequencies by Israel, any station is vulnerable to closure by
the Israeli authorities under the pretext of interfering with Israeli communication,” says Walid
Batrawi of Internews in Palestine. This has indeed occurred at various times. For example,
Israeli authorities closed Tarik Al-Mahabba and Minbar Al-Hurriya radio stations during the
second Intifada on allegations that they were interfering with the communication network of Ben
Gurion airport. These stations were allowed to resume broadcasting after they installed new
equipment and filters.

Internal Palestinian Dispute

In addition to the above challenges, Palestinian media professionals have been widely affected
by the political division that took place when the Islamic movement of Hamas took control of the
Gaza Strip in the summer of 2007. “No doubt that the internal Palestinian division negatively
impacted Palestinian media,” says Adel Zanoun, a reporter with Agence France-Presse in
Gaza. “The most important impact was the gradual retreat among journalists from ethical,
professional and objective values and standards to political agendas, and the consequent
exploitation of the news outlets in the respective areas. As such, many of the news outlets
contributed, by agreeing to be a tool of the division, in strengthening the division itself”11.

Walid Batrawi agrees. “The attention of the media is concentrated on the split between the West
Bank and the Gaza Strip,” he says. “This attention led to the strengthening of partisan media.
Journalists became more ideological and less objective as a consequence of this polarization.”

Rarely, for example, do media organizations close to Fateh or Hamas cover each other’s news
objectively. “Al Ayyam is biased against Hamas and it covers Hamas mainly from a negative
perspective unlike the way it covers Fateh related news,” says Naela Khalil, who works for
Birzeit University media centre and also as a correspondent for the Al Ayyam newspaper. “At
the same time, Hamas media outlets such as Al-Aqsa TV and Filasteen newspaper neglect to
cover stories such as the arrest of Fateh members in Gaza by Hamas.”

The increased partisanship of journalists in the aftermath of the split has gone hand in hand with
many attacks on the press, ranging from detention of journalists to banning newspapers and
magazines and harassing bloggers. In 2010, there were 79 violations by Palestinian security
forces on journalists, including 10 attacks, 17 detentions, 14 arrests, 8 raids, and 17
summonses for investigation12.

For example, Asma Al-Ghoul, a journalist in the Gaza Strip, says she is constantly harassed by
Hamas for her sympathy with Fateh. As for Fateh violations, in February 2010, a Palestinian
court sentenced journalist Tareq Abu Zeid from the city of Jenin to imprisonment and a fine after
charging him with working as a reporter for Al-Aqsa satellite television channel13. Similarly, last
July the reporter Amer Abu Arafeh from the city of Hebron was sentenced to three months'
imprisonment for reporting deemed critical of the Ramallah government.

10
MADA annual report 2010
11
Interview by phone, January 2011.
12
MADA annual report 2010.
13
The official TV satellite channel of Hamas.

12
In the wake of the 2007 split, Fateh and Hamas both banned newspapers that they see as close
to the other side. Newspapers published in the West Bank (Al-Quds, Al-Ayyam, and Al-Hayyat)
are not available in the Gaza Strip, while the Al-Risala and Filasteen newspapers, published in
Gaza, are not available in the West Bank. In addition to restrictions against the print and audio-
visual media, bloggers have also been harassed, especially in the Gaza Strip.

Palestinian media coverage since the internal split has also been characterized by increased
timidity and self-censorship. According to Walid Batrawi, “after the split in June 2007 between
the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the media in general turned to report issues that are unlikely
to be criticized or opposed by their government or public. Reporting on the division between the
West Bank and the Gaza Strip and about the Israeli occupation characterized the Palestinian
media in the past two years. Social and other issues were rarely covered.”

Another big problem, is that the internal split has paralyzed the Palestinian legislature and thus
blocked attempts to develop new legislation that could improve the regulatory framework for
media (see below for more detail).

13
B. Legal Environment

In general, until the establishment of the Palestinian Authority in 1994, the regulations,
decisions, and procedures of the Israeli army were the only regulator of the media and
journalism. Following the establishment of the Palestinian Authority, there are now a battery of
different laws and regulations. These include Israeli-Palestinian agreements, outdated penal
laws dating as far back as the British Mandate in Palestine, and PA legislation. The latter
consists of provisions in the Basic Law and the 1995 Press Law, which has not been updated
owing to the Fateh-Hamas split and resulting paralysis in the Palestinian legislative process.

Israeli-Palestinian agreements impacting the media sector include the Oslo accords and the
Interim Agreement of 1995 which says, among other things, that “Israel and the Council
[Palestinian Authority] shall seek to foster mutual understanding and tolerance and shall
accordingly abstain from incitement, including hostile propaganda against each other and,
without derogating from the principle of freedom of expression, shall take legal measures to
prevent incitement by any organizations, groups or individuals within their jurisdiction”. Although
worthy in their expression, some observers say these provisions have been used against the
press. According to Dr. Isabelle Daneels, “the restrictions embedded in the Palestinian-Israeli
agreements have had serious ramifications on Palestinian democracy, including on the freedom
of the press14”. According to the chief editor of Wafa News Agency, Hisham Abdullah, “it is
forbidden in the West Bank to criticize the PA-Israel security coordination on the pretext that it
threatens national security”15.

“The Palestinian media is governed by a set of legislation, some go back to the British mandate
period, others are rooted in the period when Jordan was in control of the West Bank, and others
originated following the establishment of the Palestinian Authority,” says Abu Arqoub, an expert
on the Palestinian media and the legal environment.

The following are the main laws that govern the media in Palestine:

The Penal Laws

The British Mandate Penal Law No.47 for the year 193616 set severe restrictions on freedom of
opinion and expression. Article 59-2 of the law stipulates that any individual who prints,
publishes, or produces any material with the intention of corruption is liable and subject to
prosecution. Corruption in this regard means incitement against the government or the judicial
process or to incite the local Palestinians against the rule of law or to hatred among the various
sectors of the population. According to Abu Arqoub, this law could be interpreted as a severe
restriction on journalists who may be accused for criticizing the government or any of its
officials17.

The Jordanian Penal Law No. 60 for the year 1960 also contains severe restrictions and
remains active in the West Bank. According to Mr. Abu Arqoub, this law penalizes any person

14
Interview with Dr. Isabelle Daneels, author of a doctoral dissertation on “Democracy in
Palestine”. Ramallah, April 2011.
15
For example, Nawaf Amer, the director of programs and production in Al-Quds TV was arrested
by Fateh security sources in the West Bank on several occasions for having political views that differ from
those of the PA in Ramallah.
16
Used mainly in the Gaza Strip.
17
Interview with Muhammad Abu Arqoub, Director of Media Studies at Pen Media, April 5, 2011
.

14
writing anything that may threaten state security or disturb relations with other countries, as
stated in Article 118. Articles 121, 130, 131, and 150 also penalize anyone who publishes or
distributes material that may contribute to weakening the reputation of the state.

The Palestinian Basic Law

The Basic Law, was first signed by Yasser Arafat in 2002, with amendments in 2003 and 2005.
It guarantees freedom of the press within the confines of the law. According to its Article 19,
“Every person shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and expression, and shall
have the right to publish his opinion orally, in writing, or in any form of art, or through any other
form of expression, provided that it does not contradict with the provisions of law.”

Article 27 of the Basic Law also states that:

1. [e]stablishment of newspapers and all media means is a right for all, guaranteed by this
Basic Law. Their financing resources shall be subject to the scrutiny of the law.
2. Freedom of audiovisual, and written media, as well as freedom to print, publish,
distribute and transmit, together with the freedom of individuals working in this field, shall
be guaranteed by this Basic Law and other related laws.
3. Censorship of the media shall be prohibited. No warning, suspension, confiscation,
cancellation or restriction shall be imposed upon the media except by law, and pursuant
to a judicial ruling.

The Press Law of 1995

The Press Law of 1995 was enacted by the late President Yasser Arafat and was never revised
by the Palestinian Legislative Council. Despite some interpretations that the Press Law imposes
restrictions on the print media, such as the stipulations in Article 7a18 and article 3719, the law
provides the media with a number of advantages. These include the acknowledgment of the
freedom of the press, the media, and journalism. Moreover, it stipulates that the executive
authority shall not take any action against the press and journalists except in accordance with a
judicial ruling.

Articles 2 and 3 of the Press Law guarantee freedom of opinion and expression for each
Palestinian, the freedom to access, publish, circulate and comment on information. Moreover,
Article 4 provides that the task of the press is to inform citizens of facts, ideas, trends and
information on the local level, as well as on the Arab, Islamic and international levels. It also
ensures the right of journalists to search for information, news and statistics that are of interest
to the public, and to analyze, publish and comment on them in accordance with the law. Article
5 also grants individuals, groups, and political parties the right to have their own newspapers
and publications.

18
Article 7a states that “all printed material shall refrain from publishing material that is in
contravention with the principles of liberty, national responsibility, and human rights….and shall regard
freedom of expression, opinion, access to information as a right for the citizens as it is for newspapers
and magazines”.
19
Prohibition on publishing material that is against the truth and contempt of religions, threatening
national unity, incitement to commit a crime, planting the seeds of hatred, rancor, discord and disharmony
and stirring sectarian strife, disclosing classified information about the police and public security, the
secret proceedings of the National Council and the Council of Ministers and information intended to
create distrust of the national currency, personal information, news, reports, letters, articles and photos
that are contrary to ethics and morals are prohibited.

15
Article 6 also provides for freedom of information. It stipulates that official departments shall
work to facilitate the task of journalists and researchers, and provides for the right of journalists
to protect confidential sources.

Challenges

Although Article 4 of the Palestinian Press Law provides for freedom of the press, Article 7
stipulates that it is “illegal to publish anything that goes against the general system, without
defining what this means. Indeed, the Law institutes a number of sweeping restrictions on the
content of what may be published, many of which are unacceptably broad and/or vague20”.

Media experts also say that despite the existence of laws enshrining freedom of the press and
of expression, these laws all too frequently have not been adhered to21. A case in point was the
arrest of George Qanawati from the Bethlehem radio station who was detained by Palestinian
security forces in November 2010 on the pretext that he had quoted sources that gave
“inaccurate information”. Over the years, many such incidents have occurred in both the West
Bank and in the Gaza Strip. In the West Bank, for example, Imad Titi, the correspondent of Al-
Quds Satellite Channel22, was reprimanded by the PA’s security forces on several occasions
and his material was confiscated in accordance with the Penal Law. In the Gaza Strip, the editor
in Chief of Al-Ayyam newspaper Akram Hanieh and Baha’ Bukhari, a cartoonist at the
newspaper, were sentenced in absentia by the Hamas Government.

According to the veteran journalist Nabhan Khreishah, the 1995 Press Law is the main law
affecting media in the OPTs, and this law is inadequate since it did not take into consideration
the development of the media and the Big Bang in informatics.

The lack of reference to audiovisual media in the Press Law of 1995 is also a problem
especially with regard to licensing and jurisdiction. While, for example, the long-lasting dispute
between the owners of TV and radio stations and the PA government centered mainly on the
amount of fees that the government gets, the actual main problem is related to the confused
jurisdiction of different PA security departments in granting permits to these stations.

According to the head of the Journalists’ Syndicate, Abd An-Nasser Al-Najjar “to a certain
extent, the problem of the fees constituted an obstacle. However, the main dilemma is in the
contradiction created by one security department that grants the approval and the opposition of
another department on grounds that has nothing to do with the law. It is the nature of the
prevailing laws that leads to these contradictions23”.

The lack of specific laws and regulations covering the audiovisual sector have led to grave
problems as in 2010 when a number of radio and TV stations were prohibited from broadcasting
due to lack of permits24.

The prevailing confusion prompted media professionals and other parties to work on a draft
Audiovisual Law. This draft has been presented to President Abbas for his approval and could,
once passed, help clarify many of the issues that have impeded the work of Palestinian
organizations working in the audiovisual field.

20
Toby Mendel and Dr. Ali Khashan, “The Legal Framework for Media in Palestine and under
International Law”, http://www.article19.org/pdfs/analysis/palestine-media-framework.pdf
21
Muhammad Abu Arqoub, interview April 2011.
22
Close to Hamas
23
Interview with Abd-Anasser Al-Najjar, January 2011.
24
Most were allowed later to broadcast after rectifying their permit conditions.

16
V. MEDIA MAPPING

This chapter is based mainly on information provided by media organizations themselves in


response to a questionnaire (see Methodology for more detail). This should be borne in mind
when reading the results. Nevertheless, the mapping exercise provides a comprehensive
overview of the media sector in the West Bank, East Jerusalem and Gaza, including information
about the main activities, location, reach and resources of the media organizations involved.

A. Number of Organizations According to activity

There are a total of 192 media organizations currently functioning in the OPTs, of which 184
responded to this survey. Survey results are based on those that responded.

Out of the 184 media organizations that responded, 145 are based in the West Bank and 39 in
the Gaza Strip. The majority are broadcasters, with 66 Palestine-based radio stations and 27 TV
stations. Of the rest, roughly half are involved in the written press (including Internet-based) and
in production, while half say they offer media services such as research and training.

Figure 2 below shows the breakdown of main activities as given by the organizations.

Figure 2: Type of work


y

66

27
20 18 18
16 16 15
11 8
6 7

n er ls h g y n ia s
io
n
io rc in nc
s
tio er rs
at at ap ica a in e ice c ed g th
e
st st p d e rv u m n
s
ri o
s tr
a ag d d ri O
TV i o ew re ia s se ro se st
ad N Pe i a d e w i a l p a s
R ed e N ed ua
b es
M M M is n et Pr
-v r
io te
ud in
A

B. Year of Establishment

Radio and television stations have mushroomed since 1993, when the Oslo peace accords
made Palestinian broadcasting possible for the first time. Prior to that, there were no radio and
TV stations other than the Israeli ones. There were, however, a number of newspapers
including Al Quds, Al-Shaab, and Al-Fajr. Only the Al-Quds daily, first published in Jerusalem in
1951, still survives to this day.

17
Figure 3: Year of establishment

93% of media organziations in


Al-Quds Palestine were established after
Mainly media offices
newspaper the signing of the Oslo
Agreement

70

53
45

8
1 1 1 1 1

9 56 9 62 9 68 9 74 9 80 9 92 9 98 0 04 1 0
-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 - 20
51 57 63 69 75 87 93 99 05
19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20

A list of the main organizations currently operating, grouped by category, can be found on p. 28
While the number of media organizations surged in the five years following Oslo and continued
to grow, Figure 2 (above) also shows another surge from 2005.

C. Affiliation

For the most part, media organizations in Palestine declare their affiliation as private, although
some of these are known to have political affiliations. For, example, those that declared
themselves to be private include Al Aqsa TV and radio which are affiliated to the Hamas
government in Gaza, and Sout Al Quds radio station which is affiliated to Islamic Jihad. Those
that say they are governmental are Al Quraan Al Kareem radio station, Maseerat Al Tarbya
newspaper, Palestinian Media Center (PMC) and the PA affiliated Palestine TV and Sout
Falastin.

As portrayed in Figure 4, 84% of media organizations say they are private, 3% governmental,
and 12% NGOs. Radio and TV stations mostly say they are private.

Figure 4: Declared affiliation of media organizations


Other
2%
3
NGOs
24 12%
Private 162
5
84% Governmental
3%

18
While 95% of the media organizations in the Gaza Strip say they are private, the percentage in
the West Bank is 79%.

The West Bank has a higher proportion of NGO media organizations than the Gaza Strip: 16%
of media organizations in the West Bank say they are NGOs, whereas the percentage in the
Gaza Strip is only 3%.

Table 2: Declared affiliation of media organizations according to region of residence


Private Government NGO Other
Region West Bank 79% 3% 16% 2%
Gaza Strip 95% 3% 3%
Total 83% 3% 13% 2%

D. Funding

The majority of organizations refused to specify their annual budget. Only 35 of them provided
this information. Based on the information given by the 35, the average annual budget for
private organizations is about US$ 124,000, and for the NGOs US$ 300,000.

The majority of the interviewed organizations said that most of their funding comes from private
sources such as advertising. As illustrated below, 65% said that they rely extensively on
advertising.

Only 4% said their main source of funding is government, while 16% said their funding is mainly
from local NGOs and international support.

Figure 5: The media organizations reliance on ads for their operations

To some extent
17%

Not a lot To a large extent


5% 65%

Not at all
12%

E. Objectives of the Media Organizations

Despite the fact that the majority of organizations are private, only four stated that their main
objective is profit making. The rest mentioned goals and objectives related to enhancing public
participation or reflecting Palestinian needs and aspirations.

19
Figure 6: The main stated objective of the media organizations

Strengthen religion 4
Support the educational system 17
Improve the media environment 24
Activate the role of youth in society 7
Reflect the Palestinian life and reality 33
Improve the organization's work 6
Easing the life on people 4
Spread consciousness 18
Achieve unity and develop education 3
Serve the community 18
Reflect objective opinions 12
Profit making 4
Provide information and media services 5
Support marginilized groups 7
Other missions 19

F. Location of Media Organizations

There are 145 media organizations in the West Bank and 39 in the Gaza Strip. Although the
Gaza Strip represents over 35% of the overall population of the OPTs, its share of media
organizations is only 21%.

In the West Bank, media organizations are concentrated mainly in four areas: Ramallah,
Nablus, Hebron and Bethlehem. As can be seen in Figure 7 below, 34% of all media
organizations are located in the Ramallah governorate.

Figure 7: Location of the functioning media organizations

Ramallah (n=62) 34% Nablus (n=24) 13%

Jerusalem (n=5) 3%

Bethlehem (n=15) 8%

Jericho (n=2) 1%
Tubas (n=1) 1%
Hebron (n=16) 9%
Jenin (n=9) 5%

Tulkarem (n=7) 4%
Salfeet (n=1) 1%
Only21% are Gaza Strip (n=39) 21% Qalqilia (n=3) 2%
located in the
Gaza Strip

Ramallah, the de facto capital of the Palestinian Authority, not only has a concentration of media
organizations but also is home to a wide range of them. As can be seen in Table 3 (below),
media training, research, and production outlets are primarily located in the Ramallah district.
Very few are present in the Gaza Strip. Despite its 1.5 million people, there are only two media
training organizations in the Gaza Strip. This may well reflect perceived and real difficulties of
NGOs to work in the Hamas-controlled territory, which is also subject to a strict Israeli blockade.

20
In Jerusalem, traditional home to Palestinian media, only seven media organizations remain in
operation. This too is likely linked at least in part to tight Israeli restrictions on Palestinian access
to the city.

Table 3: The Media organizations in each governorate

Media research
News agencies

Media services
Radio stations

Media training

based media
Governorate

Newspapers
Functioning
institutions

TV stations

Audi-visual
production
Magazines

Electronic
others
Nablus 24 1 6 6 4 3 1 0 2 0 2 3
Ramallah 62 8 5 11 7 5 6 5 8 3 3 8
Hebron 16 2 1 12 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 2
Qalqilia 3 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Salfit 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tulkarem 7 0 4 4 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Jenin 9 0 2 5 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0
Tubas 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Jericho 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bethlehem 15 2 5 9 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 0
Jerusalem 5 1 0 0 250 0 1 0 2 2 1 1
Gaza Strip 39 2 3 13 4 7 1 2 1 0 2 4
Total 184 16 27 66 16 20 11 7 16 6 8 18

G. Source of Permit

The results of the media mapping show that the majority of media outlets work mainly from one
location or office, and do not have any branches. More than 70% of media organizations do not
have any branches. Very few have more than one branch. The directors of the private media
organizations in particular stated that they do not have the ability to open other branches
because of financial constraints. In addition, the split between the West Bank and the Gaza
Strip has made it more difficult to open branches in both places. Some even closed branches
because of the internal infighting between Fateh and Hamas.

Nearly all (96%) of the media organizations in Palestine say they have a permit. As shown in the
Figure below, 86% of these organizations say they received their permits from the Palestinian
Authority, 7% from the Hamas government in the Gaza Strip and 4% from the Israeli
government (organizations based in East Jerusalem). Only 4% do not have a permit, either
because they are part of a larger institution like Birzeit University, or because they are electronic
based media organizations that do not need to apply for a licence.

25 Al-Quds newspaper, the most prominent Palestinian daily, is published in Jerusalem. It is not included here
because we were unable to reach any of its officials. Survey results include only the 184 media organizations
interviewed.

21
Figure 8: Source of permit

Don't have a permit Israel


4% 4% Gaza govt.
7%

Ramallah govt.
86%

H. Geographical Reach

Not all of the Palestinian media organizations are capable of reaching audiences across the
OPTs. Due to political or technical reasons, many media outlets are restricted in their coverage
to the area where they operate.

In the print media sector, distribution of some newspapers is restricted because of censorship.
Following the bitter 2007 split between Fateh and Hamas, both sides have banned the other's
newspapers in the areas they control. For example, newspapers published in the West Bank
(Al-Quds, Al-Ayyam, and Al-Hayyat26) are not available in the Gaza Strip, while the Al-Risala
and Filasteen newspapers, published in Gaza, are not available in the West Bank.

For TV and radio stations, the limitations are of a different nature. Their ability to reach a wide
audience is largely dependent on their means of transmission and hence on financial resources.
The majority of Palestinian TV and radio stations broadcast mainly to their respective
governorate or district.

Only 19% of TV stations say they broadcast all over the OPTs. These include the PA station
Palestine TV and Wattan TV.

There are more local radio than TV stations that cover more than one governorate (see Fig. 9
below) but still only 19% of radio stations (same percentage as for TV) claim to reach all over
the OPTs. These include Ajyal which has 8 transmitters, Raya FM which has 6, and the the PA
station Sout Falastin which has 5.

26
Al Quds, Al Ayyam and Hayyat Al Jadeeda newspapers are independent daily but they are
close to Fateh.

22
Figure 9: Broadcast reach of Palestinian radio and TV stations
8%
Part of the governorate 5%
31%
All over the governorate 9%
31%
For more than one governorate 44%
4%
All over the West Bank 5%
8%
All over Gaza Strip 19% TV stations
19% Radio stations
All over the oPt 19%

I. Staffing

The increase in the number of media organizations in the past few years has been
accompanied by an increase in the number of personnel. About 50% of media organizations
say they have increased their staff in the last three years, compared with 17% that said that the
number of their staff declined.

Figure 10: The size of the staff at the organization in comparison with the three years ago

Increased
50%

Remained the same


Decreased 34%
17%
A total of about 3,800 people are employed in the media organizations currently functioning in
the OPTs. As indicated in Figure 11 below, 47% are full time media personnel, 33% are in
administration, and 20% are part-time staff.

Figure 11: Personnel in the media organizations according to region


Staff in the functioning media organizations

Full time media personnel


47%

1812 West Bank


Gaza strip

1243
1074
1263 746

566 624
Part time
Administration 20%
33% 188 122
Full time media Administration Part time
personnel

23
The average number of people employed by media organizations in the Gaza Strip (22.46) is
slightly higher than in the West Bank (20.31). Media organizations in the West Bank employ on
average a higher proportion of administrative staff to editorial staff (Table 4).

Table 4: Average and median number of staff members according to region


full time media administrative part-time staff Total staff
personnel staff

Total Mean 9.85 6.90 4.08 20.77


(n=184) Median 5.00 3.00 1.00 12.00
West Bank Mean 8.59 7.47 4.33 20.31
(n=145) Median 4.00 3.00 1.00 12.00
Gaza Strip Mean 14.51 4.82 3.13 22.46
(n=39) Median 10.00 4.00 2.00 17.00

The average number of staff employed in TV stations in the West Bank and Gaza is 31.56,
while for radio stations it is 18.71 and for print media 35.55. On average, the proportion of
administrative staff to editorial staff is lower in radio than in TV and print (Table 5).

Table 5: Average and median number of staff members according to type of work
full time media administrative part-time staff Total staff
personnel staff
TV Mean 15.26 14.11 2.19 31.56
(n=27) Median 8.00 3.00 .00 14.00
Radio Mean 10.26 5.08 3.38 18.71
(n=66) Median 6.00 4.00 3.00 15.50
Print Mean 14.77 15.09 5.68 35.55
(n=22) Median 7.50 6.00 2.00 16.00
Others Mean 8.39 6.15 4.37 18.79
(n=90) Median 4.00 3.00 .00 9.50

J. The Main Focus of Media Organizations

The majority of media outlets said their main focus is news in general and local news in
particular, followed by social issues. This is perhaps not surprising given the Palestinian context.
For NGOs working in media, social issues are the top priority.

Figure 12: The main issue of media organizations

Local news 78

Local and international news 38 Including the


20 Palestinian-Israeli
Entertainment
conflict
Economic issues 28

Social issues 49

Gender 29

Youth 30

Governance 26
29 Mainly for NGOs
Peace
Others 52

24
K. Sources of Information

Approximately 60% of the functioning media organizations say they rely on multiple sources,
both local and international for their information (56% in the West Bank and 38% in the Gaza
Strip). However, only 26% said that they rely mainly on local correspondents for their
information.

Figure 13: Sources of information


Primarily from correspondents 26%

Primarily from local press organizations 8%


Multiple
2% sources
Primarily from int'l press organizations

Primarily from stringers 4%

Rely on different sources 50%

All of the above 8%

Others 2%

L. Obstacles and Restrictions Confronting Media Organizations in Palestine

More than half of the media organizations said they had faced obstacles or restrictions at some
time in the past. Some were confronted with one, others with more than one.

Figure 14: Nature of the obstacle or restriction

Has the organization


Nature of the obstacle or restriction
faced restrictions?

Closure 42

Arrest of a staff member 39

Expropriation of property 36
Yes
97 53% 40
86 Damaging of property
No
47% Assault 36

Preventing publication 27

Threat 33

Other 29

Asked about the main restriction or obstacle that media organizations currently face, the Israeli
occupation was mentioned more than any other restriction. Still, a significant number pointed
also to the governments in Ramallah and Gaza as well as to traditions as obstacles to their
work.

25
Figure 15: The main restriction that faces media organization27

24
People and traditions
11
Owners of media outlet
27
The PA (Ramallah)
17
The Hamas govt. in Gaza
5
Political groups
57
Israel/occupation
6
All of the above
8
Others

An overwhelming majority of organizations (96%) nevertheless said they are free or very free in
terms of information gathering. Only 4% said they were not free.

Figure 16: The extent of freedom that the media organizations have in terms of information gathering
3%
1% 34%

Very free
Free
Not free
Not free at all 96% of the organizations
said that they are very
62% free or free to gather
information

M. Self-Evaluation

The media organizations were also requested to rate the professionalism, objectivity, freedom
and credibility of the Palestinian media sector on a scale of 0 to 10. Scores were in the mid-
range as shown below.

Figure 17: Media sector self-evaluation


Professionalism and objectivity
were rated 6.25 by the audience

5.57 out of 10
Professionalisim

5.3 out of 10
Objectivity

5.79 out of 10
Freedom

5.94 out of 10
Credibility

26
It is interesting to note that these ratings are lower than those given by the general public in our
audience survey (see section VI. G. 2). For example, whereas the public gave journalists 6.58
out of ten for professionalism, media organizations themselves gave only 5.57. The same trend
is seen for objectivity, with the public giving journalists a score of 6.25 out of ten and the media
organizations giving only 5.3.

N. List of Main Media Organizations

This section provides an overview of the most important organizations working in the media,
according to their main activities. For TV and radio stations and newspapers, the organizations
have been selected according to their ratings in the NEC audience survey. For the other
organizations, NEC based its selection on the most well-known organizations.

TV Stations

Table 6: The main Palestinian TV stations


Year of
Name of organization Governorate The director
establishment
Palestine TV Ramallah Ahmed Hazouri 1994
Al Quds educational TV Ramallah Haroun Abu Arrah 1997
Wattan TV Ramallah Muamar Orabi 1996
Nablus TV Nablus Mahmoud Barham 1996
Asia TV Nablus Ayman Kaderi 1996
Gama TV Nablus Abeer El Keelany 1994
Al Salam TV Tulkarem Sarya Al Ashqar 1993
Al Fajer Al Jadeed TV Tulkarem Sameer Al Sargaly 1996
Jenin Al Markezy TV Jenin Sameer Abu El Rub 1997
Al Majd TV Hebron Tariq Al Kayyal 2000
Al Roua'a TV Bethlehem Hamdy Farrag 1994
Bethlehem TV Bethlehem Sameer Esbeih 1997
Al Aqsa TV Gaza Saed Radwan 2005

Radio Stations

Table 7: The main Palestinian Radio stations


Year of
Name of organization Governorate The director
establishment
Voice of Palestine (Sout Falastin) Ramallah Khaled Siam 1994
Raya FM Ramallah Basam Al Walweel 2007
Ajyal Radio station Ramallah Waleed Nassar 2007
Al Quraan Al Karim Radio Nablus Reda Milhes 1993
Tariq Al Mahabeh Radio Nablus Khawla Abed Al Hadi 1994
Al Haya Radio station Nablus Hind Sa'd 1994
Radio Al Najah Nablus Ayman Al Nimer 2003
Radio Alam - Hebron Univ. Hebron Tala E Jaabary 1997
Radio Al Khalil Hebron Amjad Shawar 1997
Marah Radio station Hebron Fawzi Dan'a 1997
Al Shamal Radio station Salfeet Tariq Jebara 2004
Qalqilia TV and Radio Qalqilia Tariq Jebara 2005
Radio Nagham Qalqilia Tariq Jebara 2005
Sout El Ghad Qalqilia Majdy Taha 2005
Radio Jafra Tulkarem Hussam Baleedy 2005
Kol El Nas Radio Tulkarem Adnan Baleedy 2006

27
Radio Zein Jenin Imad Shawahna 2006
Radio Al Ahlam Jenin Tariq Esweetat 2006
Radio Farah and TV net Jenin Fathi Sayed El Natoor 2006
Sout Al Mada Radio Jericho Anees Al Khalidy 2008
Radio Al Qamar Jericho Ihab Barahna 2008
Bethlehem 2000 Radio Bethlehem George Kanawaty 2008
Radio Cool Bethlehem Dany Kameesa 2008
Radio Mawwal Bethlehem Dany Kameesa 2009
Gaza FM Gaza Hussam El Rayes 2003
Al Manar Radio Gaza Talal Abu Rahmeh 2003
Sout Al Aqsa Gaza Ibrahim Daher 2004

Newspapers

Table 8: The main Palestinian Newspapers


Year of
Name of organization Governorate The director
establishment
Al Quds Newspaper Jerusalem Ziad Abu Zuluf 1951
Al Ayyam Ramallah Akram Hanieh 1995
Al Hayat Newspaper Ramallah Hafez Al Barghouti 1995
Al Sanabel magazine Ramallah Fares Abdullah 2003
Little Hands Ramallah Abd Al Razeq Farrag 2003
Maseerat Al Tarbya Newspaper Ramallah Abed Al Hakeem Abu Jamoos 1997
Al Hal Newspaper Ramallah Nebal Thawabteh 2005
The Youth Times Ramallah Hilmy Abu Atwan 1998
Amjad Magazine Ramallah Ghassan Mohammad 2004
Al safeer Al Iqtesady Ramallah Talaat Alawy 2007
Environment and Development Ramallah Sami Khader 2003
prospects
Al Hadath Newspaper Nablus Majed Abu Arab 1994
Al Rowwad (Zawaya) Nablus Raed Shamoot 2001
Israel-Palestine Journal Jerusalem Zyad Abu Zayyad 1993
Al Resaleh Newspaper Gaza Wessam Afefah 1996
Al Isteqlal Newspaper Gaza Khaled Sadeq 1995
Al Watan newspaper Gaza Fathi Tabeel 2003
Palestine newspaper (Falastin Gaza Khader Al Jamaly 2007
newspaper)

News Agencies

Table 9: The main news agencies


Year of
Name of organization Governorate The director
establishment
Associated press Ramallah Haitham Hamad 1960
Wafa News Agency Ramallah Ryad El Hassan 1972
Maan News Agency Bethlehem Raed Othman 2005
Palestine press News Agency Ramallah Waseem Ghareeb 2004
Reuters News Agency Ramallah Crispian Balmer 1851
PNN Bethlehem Fadi Abu Saada 2002
Sama News Agency Gaza Adnan Abu Hasna 2005
Shehab News Agency Gaza Remah Mubarak 2007
Quds Net news agency Gaza Haitham Awwad 2006

Electronic Media

Table 10: The main electronic media organizations

28
Year of
Name of organization Governorate The director
establishment
Ram-Palestine Media Net Ramallah Fareed Majaj 2005
Elamona Ramallah Basem Al Romy 2008
Media Net Ramallah Benaz Batrawy 2004
Al Wasat Today Ramallah Jamil Hamed 2010
Watan News Agency Ramallah Muamar Orabi 2009
Ikhbaryat Media Network Nablus Romal Shahroor 2002
Donia Al Watan Gaza Abedallah Issa 2003
Palestine Information Gaza Nedal Issa 1997
Network

Organizations Working in Media Research and Training

Table 11: The main organizations working in media research and training
Year of
Name of organization Governorate The director
establishment
Institute of Modern Media (Al Quds Ramallah Lusi Nusseibeh 1996
University)
The Palestinian Center for Media Ramallah Hani Al Masri 2005
Research-Badael
Palestinian Media Center (PMC) Ramallah Haidar Awadallah 2001
Media Development Center (MDC)-Birzeit Ramallah Nebal Thawabteh 1996
university
The Palestinian center for development Ramallah Mousa Al Reemawy 2006
and media freedom-MADA
Wide Media Ramallah Mamoun Matar 2005
Sharek Youth Forum Ramallah Bader Zamareh 2002
Pen media Ramallah Laila Othman 2008
Live Media Ramallah Mohammad Jaradat 2005
Pal Media Ramallah Samer Al Kawny 2004
Jerusalem Media and Communication Ramallah Manal Ward 1988
Center (JMCC)
AMIN Network-Internews Ramallah Khaled Abu Aker 1996
The Media Center ( Al Najah University) Nablus Ayman Al Nimer 2003
PYALARA Ramallah Hania Bitar 1999
Bethlehem Media Center Bethlehem Ghassan Olayan 2002
Al Hayat Media Center Tulkarem Morad Yaseen 1995
Mayadeen Media Group Gaza Marwan Al Ghoul 1995
The media center for the holy lands Gaza Isam Abu Khalil 2000
(Maalam)
Al Hurria center for media Gaza Ahmed Hammad 2003

Audio Visual Production

Table 12: The main audiovisual production organizations


establishment
organization

Governorate

The director
Name of

Year of

Super Vision production Ramallah Waleed Sababa 2007


Clackate for media and communication Ramallah Omar Nazzal 2002
Al Majd production company Ramallah Buthaina Al Khoury 2000
Sama production- Multi Media Ramallah zahran Gaghab 2003

29
Diyar visual production Ramallah Sivian Karkishian 2005
Charisma Production and Marketing Hebron Safowat Al qawasmy 2006
Bethlehem Audio-visual Center Bethlehem Saed Abu Hamouda 2008
Al Buraq for Media production Gaza Suhaib Abu Hasna 1999
Palestine media production company Gaza Abd El ghany Jaber 1995

Media Organizations Established in 2010

Table 13: Some of the media organizations established in 2010

Main activity
organization

Governorate

The director
Name of

96 Nisaa FM Radio station Ramallah Maysoun Odeh


Ahla FM radio station Radio station Ramallah Fouad Nimry
Al Wasat Today Electronic Newspaper Ramallah Jamil Hamed
Radio Jafra and production Radio station Tulkarem Hussam Baleedy
Seba (Al Sanabel production Radio station Jenin Suheil Daibes
Radio Cool Radio station Bethlehem Dany Kameesa
Palestine Today TV and radio TV and radio station Gaza Raed Obeid
Damour media company Media and press Ramallah Ashraf Al Ajramy

30
VI. AUDIENCE SURVEY: RATINGS AND PERCEPTIONS

This chapter will present the results of a comprehensive public opinion survey on media in
Palestine. The survey aimed not only to obtain a picture of the public’s behaviour in terms of
usage and reliance on media, but also to gauge how the public views the media in terms of
performance and trust.

The survey covered both the more traditional types of media such as newspapers, radio, and
television, and so-called new media such as the Internet, social networks, and SMS news
services.

By way of background, it is useful to point out that satellite TV is widely available and used by
households throughout the OPTs, including the Gaza Strip. Whereas there is a wide choice of
Arab and international channels, only a few Palestinian TV stations are available on satellite.
These few include Palestine TV, which is the station of the Ramallah-based Palestinian
Authority (PA) and Al Aqsa TV, the station of the Hamas authorities in Gaza.

Both the PA and Hamas also have their own radio stations, respectively Voice of Palestine
(Sout Falastin) and Sout Al Aqsa. According to information given by the stations to this survey,
Sout Falastin has 5 transmitters in the OPTs while Sout Al Aqsa has only 2.

Otherwise, the TV and radio sectors are largely dominated by private enterprises, whose
affiliation and funding is not always transparent. Their geographical reach depends largely on
their political and financial ability to obtain broadcasting capacity.

A. Importance of News

Perhaps not surprisingly, the survey shows that Palestinians are hungry for news. Thirty-six
percent say they always follow the news, 57% say they sometimes do, while only 6% say they
never follow the news.

Figure 18: Frequency of following the news

Never (n=175)
6%
Always (n=983)
36%

Sometimes (n=1540)
57%

Patterns of following the news differ considerably between the younger and older generations,
between men and women, and between the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.

People in the 18 to 24 age group are least likely to always follow the news (26%), while
Palestinians over 55 are the most likely to do so (46%). Nearly twice as many men (47%) as

31
women (26%) say they always follow the news. Although with less pronounced differences, a
higher proportion of Gazans (41%) than Westbankers (34%) always follow the news.

Table 14: Frequency of following the news according to age, gender, and region of residence.
Age of respondent Gender Region of
residence
West Gaza
18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 >=55 Male Female
Bank Strip
Always 26% 36% 42% 42% 46% 47% 26% 34% 41%
Sometimes 65% 57% 54% 54% 51% 48% 67% 59% 54%
Never 9% 8% 5% 4% 3% 5% 8% 7% 5%

B. Most Important Source of Information

Asked about their most important source of information, 42% of Palestinians said it is
international satellite TV, followed by 24% for local (i.e. Palestinian) TV, and 20% for the
Internet. Eight percent said local radio is their most important source of information, while 3%
said newspapers.

Figure 19: Most important source of information

Rel./pol. figures (n=7)


0% Friends and relatives (n=41)
Blogs (n=2) 2%
0% Facebook/Twitter/etc (n=4)
Other (n=30) 0%
1% SMS messages (n=8)
Local radio (n=211) 0%
8% Internet (n=543)
20%

Local TV (n=652) Newspapers (n=77)


24% 3%

Inter'l satellite (n=1123)


42%

Once again, there are clear differences according to age. The younger generation is less likely
to consider radio or TV as their most important source of information. Instead, the Internet is
much more important as a primary source. For example, one-third (33%) of 18-24 year olds say
Internet is their most important source of information. This percentage drops with age, falling to
only 5% for those aged 55 and over.

It is worth noting that women in the OPTs are slightly more likely than males to consider local
radio and TV as their most important source of information. The opposite is true of newspapers
and the Internet, which are more popular with men than women.

32
Table 15: Most important source of information according to age and gender
Age of respondent Gender

Female
18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

>=55

Male
Local radio 6% 8% 7% 10% 9% 6% 9%
Local TV 20% 24% 25% 28% 28% 23% 26%
International TV (satellite) 36% 39% 44% 50% 49% 41% 42%
Newspapers 2% 3% 3% 2% 4% 4% 2%
Internet 33% 24% 16% 7% 5% 23% 17%
SMS messages 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0%
Facebook/Twitter/etc 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Friends and relatives 2% 1% 2% 1% 1% 1% 2%
Religious and political personalities 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0%
Blogs 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Other 0% 1% 2% 1% 3% 1% 1%

The importance attached to certain sources of information also varies according to area of
residence and, to some extent, economic status.

A higher proportion of residents in the Gaza Strip Most participants in a Gaza focus group
(32%) than in the West Bank (19%) refer to local conducted by NEC said they do not read
TV as their most important source of information. newspapers because they do not have
access to them. Some said they resort to
This percentage is highest in the southern Gaza the Internet to read them. Still, many are
Strip (38%). On the other hand, a markedly higher not accustomed to reading newspapers.
percentage of Westbankers (49%) than Gazans
(30%) say international satellite TV is their most important source of information. This
percentage is highest in the northern West Bank (52%).

With regard to the written press, a higher proportion of Palestinians in the West Bank (4%) than
in the Gaza Strip (1%) say newspapers are their most important source of information28. But,
perhaps in compensation for less choice of sources, residents anywhere in the Gaza Strip
(25%) rely more on the Internet as their most important source of information than their West
Bank counterparts (17%).

Table 16: Most important source of information according to region and area of residence, and poverty
level.
Region of Area of residence Poverty
residence
West Bank

Gaza Strip

Above the
Below the
Refugee

poverty

poverty
Village

camp
City

line

line

Local radio 8% 8% 8% 7% 8% 10% 6%


Local TV 19% 32% 26% 21% 25% 27% 22%
International TV (satellite) 49% 30% 38% 49% 40% 40% 44%
Newspapers 4% 1% 3% 2% 1% 1% 4%
Internet 17% 25% 21% 17% 22% 18% 21%
SMS messages 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Facebook/Twitter/etc 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Friends and relatives 2% 1% 1% 2% 2% 2% 1%
Religious/political personalities 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

28
West Bank newspapers are not available in Gaza and vise versa.

33
Blogs 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Other 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1%

Table 17: Most important source of information according to sub-region.


Sub-region
North WB Middle WB South WB North GZ South GZ
Local radio 7% 8% 8% 8% 9%
Local TV 20% 14% 23% 27% 38%
International TV (satellite) 52% 49% 45% 34% 25%
Newspapers 3% 6% 3% 1% 1%
Internet 15% 19% 18% 26% 24%
SMS messages 0% 0% 1% 0% 0%
Facebook/Twitter/etc 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Friends and relatives 2% 1% 1% 1% 1%
Religious and political personalities 0% 0% 1% 0% 0%
Blogs 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Other 1% 2% 0% 1% 1%

C. Most Trusted Source of Information

“We do not follow local radio or TV because


Overall, the sources of information viewed
as most important are also the most their programs are repetitive with many ads in
trusted, but percentage ratings are not between.”
necessarily the same. For example,
(Aya and Marah, young female participants in
whereas 42% consider international
Nablus focus group)
satellite TV to be their most important
source of information, only 34% say they
actually trust the information from these satellite broadcasts most. Conversely, whereas only
24% of the respondents state that Palestinian TV is their most important source of information,
39% say it is their most trusted source of information.

Figure 20: Most trusted source of information.


Other (n=119)
None (n=63)4%
Friends and relatives (n=39)
2%
1%
blogs (n=2)
0%
Rel./pol. figures (n=2)
Local radio (n=159) 0% SMS messages (n=2) (n=2)
Facebook/Twitter/etc
6% 0%0% (n=433)
Internet
16%
Newspapers (n=74)
3%

Local TV (n=867)
32%
Int'l satellite (n=920)
34%

Trust in international TV channels does not differ significantly according to gender or even age.
It is nevertheless highest in the West Bank, and especially in the northern West Bank.

34
Trust in Palestinian TV is highest among the older generation, in the Gaza Strip (especially
southern Gaza) and among those with an average monthly household income that is below the
poverty line.

As for the Internet, trust in it as a source of information is highest among the young, men, those
with a living standard above the poverty line, in cities, and in the Gaza Strip, especially the
northern part of the Strip.

Table 18: Most trusted source of information: according to age and gender.
Age of respondent Gender

Female
18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

>=55

Male
Local radio 6% 4% 6% 8% 7% 5% 7%
Local TV 27% 30% 36% 37% 39% 32% 33%
International TV (satellite) 31% 35% 33% 37% 38% 34% 34%
Newspapers 3% 3% 4% 1% 2% 3% 3%
Internet 26% 19% 12% 7% 5% 18% 14%
SMS messages 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0%
Facebook/Twitter/etc 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Friends and relatives 1% 1% 2% 1% 0% 1% 2%
Religious and political personalities 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Blogs 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Other 3% 4% 5% 6% 6% 4% 5%
None 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 3% 2%

Table 19: Most trusted source of information according to region and area of residence, and poverty level.
Region Area of residence Poverty
West Bank

Gaza Strip

Above the
Below the
Refugee

poverty

poverty
Village

camp
City

line

line
Local radio 6% 6% 6% 6% 4% 7% 5%
Local TV 28% 40% 32% 32% 38% 37% 30%
International TV (satellite) 42% 22% 31% 40% 33% 33% 35%
Newspapers 4% 1% 3% 2% 1% 1% 4%
Internet 14% 20% 18% 13% 14% 13% 18%
SMS messages 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Facebook/Twitter/etc 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0%
Friends and relatives 1% 1% 1% 2% 1% 1% 1%
Religious/political personalities 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Blogs 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Other 3% 7% 5% 2% 6% 6% 3%
None 3% 2% 3% 2% 1% 1% 3%

Table 20: Most trusted source of information according to sub-region.


Sub-region
North WB Middle WB South WB North GZ South GZ
Local radio 4% 4% 8% 7% 6%
Local TV 29% 26% 30% 37% 44%
International TV (satellite) 46% 42% 35% 24% 20%
Newspapers 2% 6% 4% 2% 1%
Internet 12% 14% 16% 22% 17%
SMS messages 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Facebook/Twitter/etc 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

35
Friends and relatives 2% 2% 1% 1% 2%
Religious and political personalities 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Blogs 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Other 3% 3% 2% 5% 10%
None 2% 3% 3% 2% 1%

D. Broadcast Media Ratings and Consumer Habits

1. Palestinian TV and radio

Youth participants in the Ramallah


A big majority of Palestinians (84%) said
focus group said they prefer TV to
they prefer television over radio to obtain
general information, whereas only 14% radio because images help give the
said they prefer radio. This preference for reports credibility.
TV over radio to obtain general information
is uniform across all age groups in the OPTs, among men and women, and among the poorer
and richer segments of Palestinian society. It is also worth noting that the preference for
television is noticeably higher in the West Bank (86%) than in the Gaza Strip (81%), and highest
in villages across the OPTs (88%).

Figure 21: Public preference for the attainment of general information: TV vs. radio
Radio (n=378)
14%
Neither (n=53)
2%

TV (n=2260)
84%
Table 21: Public preference for the attainment of general information: TV vs. radio according to region and
area of residence.
Region of residence Area of residence

West Bank Gaza Strip City Village Refugee camp


TV 86% 81% 83% 88% 79%
Radio 13% 16% 15% 11% 18%
Neither 2% 3% 2% 1% 3%

Television

Having established that television is by far "There is no local TV in the Gaza Strip after the
the most popular medium among internal dispute between Fateh and Hamas,
Palestinians, it is worth finding out more although these stations are important especially
specific information. For example, whereas if they address the people's problems.”
Palestinians prefer satellite TV, do they
normally watch local TV as well? (Mahmoud, male participant in Gaza focus
group)
As illustrated in the figure below, a small
majority (55%) of Palestinians say they normally watch satellite channels, while 12% prefer

36
watching local TV. Nevertheless, 32% prefer watching both local and satellite television. These
preferences are spread evenly across all subgroups questioned for this survey.

Figure 22: Type of TV watching preferences: Local TV vs. satellite


Local TV (n=327)
12% Both of them (n=851)
32%

Satellite channel (n=1456)


55%

2. Most popular TV stations

When asked which TV channels they viewed the day before the survey, the highest percentage
of viewers (31%) said they watched Arab satellite news channel Al Jazeera. Next were
entertainment channels of the Middle East Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) and PA station
Palestine TV both with 18%, followed by satellite news channel Al Arrabiyah29 with 7.5%, Abu
Dhabi TV with 6%, and Hamas station Al-Aqsa TV with just under 4%. As shown in the Figure
below, viewership of other Palestinian TV stations available in parts of the oPt is rather limited.

Figure 23: TV station that was viewed yesterday

30.7%
18.2%
18.2%
11.0%
7.5%
5.0%
3.8%
1.0%
0.8%
0.7%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%

Al Amal

Al Salam
Amwaj
Al Nawras
Al Kull TV

Al Aqsa TV
Al Fajr Al Jadeed

Al Majd
Al Rou’ah TV

Al-manar
BBC
Wattan TV

Abu-dhabi
LBC
Afaq TV

Al-hurra

Al-jazeera
Al Mahed

Norshat

Others
Al-arrabiyah

MBC
Nablus TV
Qalqilya TV

Gama TV

Israel TV

Palestine TV
Egyptian TV
Bethlehem TV

Future TV
Educational TV

Jordan TV
Jenin Merkezi

The following Table below shows a breakdown of responses according to the sub-region in
which the respondents reside. TV stations that did not reach 1% of viewers the day before the
survey have been grouped together as “Others”. The Table shows that in the northern West
Bank, TV stations Jenin Merkezi, Nablus TV and Al Salam each have about 1% of viewers in

29
Part of the MBC group.

37
that sub-region. A similar picture appears for local TV stations in the southern West Bank, such
as Bethlehem TV and Al Majd, which again have about 1% viewership each in their region.

The table below also shows that Hamas station Al-Aqsa TV is considerably more watched in the
Gaza Strip (9%) than it is in the West Bank sub-regions (1% to 2%). Palestine TV is most widely
watched in the southern West Bank (22%) and in the southern Gaza Strip (22%). As for the
Arabic satellite news channels Al-Jazeera and Al-Arabiyah, both seem to enjoy a slightly higher
viewership in the Gaza Strip sub-regions than in those of the West Bank. Conversely, the MBC
satellite channels are much more widely watched in the West Bank than in the Gaza Strip.

Table 22: TV station viewed yesterday according to sub-region


Sub-region
North WB Middle WB South WB North GZ South GZ
% Count % Count % Count % Count % Count
Jenin Merkezi 1% 4 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0
Nablus TV 1% 5 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0
Al Salam 1% 4 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0
Bethlehem TV 0% 0 0% 0 1% 3 0% 0 0% 0
Al Majd 0% 0 0% 0 1% 3 0% 0 0% 0
Al Aqsa TV 1% 4 1% 3 2% 8 9% 35 9% 38
Palestine TV 17% 76 15% 62 22% 96 17% 70 22% 96
Al-Arrabiyah 6% 29 5% 20 4% 17 10% 39 14% 60
Al-Jazeera 30% 137 29% 121 27% 116 35% 144 33% 146
Al-manar 1% 3 2% 9 1% 6 0% 1 1% 4
Abu-Dhabi 5% 21 4% 19 9% 37 4% 18 2% 11
Jordan TV 1% 3 1% 2 0% 0 0% 0 0% 1
Israel TV 0% 1 0% 1 1% 2 0% 0 0% 0
Egyptian TV 0% 1 1% 2 0% 1 1% 4 2% 7
LBC (Lebanon) 1% 5 1% 5 1% 5 0% 1 0% 2
MBC 20% 93 29% 124 20% 85 11% 47 8% 35
Future TV 0% 0 1% 2 0% 1 0% 1 0% 0
Wattan TV 0% 1 0% 1 0% 0 0% 0 1% 3
BBC 1% 3 0% 0 0% 0 1% 2 0% 0
Others 13% 72 11% 50 10% 48 12% 50 8% 38

When respondents were asked which TV stations they watched in the week preceding the
survey, a similar pattern emerged as for stations viewed the day before. Again, Al-Jazeera
remains the most watched satellite channel with 25% (a decrease of 7 points compared to the
previous question). MBC and Palestine TV were each watched by about 20% of the
respondents, Al-Arrabiyah by 9%, and Al-Aqsa TV by roughly 3%.

38
Figure 24: TV station that was viewed last week

25.0%
20.4%
20.0%
12.0%
8.8%
5.9%
3.1%
0.9%
0.8%
0.8%
0.4%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%

Al Salam
Amwaj
Al Nawras

Al Aqsa TV
Al Majd

Al Fajr Al Jadeed

Al-manar
Al Rou’ah TV

Al Mahed

Al-Arrabiyah
BBC

Abu-dhabi
Wattan TV

LBC
Al Sharqa

Al-jazeera
Norshat

Asia TV
Adwaa’ TV

Others

MBC
Nablus TV

Qalqilya TV
Gama TV

Israel TV

Palestine TV
Egyptian TV
Bethlehem TV

Future TV

Jordan TV
When analysed according to sub-region, patterns are again similar to those that emerged for
stations viewed the day before. Once again, Al Aqsa TV, Palestine TV, and Al-Arabiyah were
more widely viewed by Gazans than by Westbankers, while the various MBC satellite channels
were more watched by Westbankers than by Gazans in the week preceding the survey.

Table 23: TV station that was viewed last week according to region
Region
North WB Middle WB South WB North GZ South GZ
% Count % Count % Count % Count % Count
Gama TV 1% 3 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0
Al Salam 1% 3 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0
Wattan TV 0% 0 1% 4 0% 5 0% 0 0% 0
Al Aqsa TV 1% 7 1% 6 1% 5 7% 33 6% 32
Palestine TV 19% 102 17% 81 19% 100 22% 113 23% 120
Al-Arrabiyah 6% 30 5% 26 5% 26 13% 67 16% 86
Al-Jazeera 24% 125 26% 126 24% 127 26% 132 25% 134
Al-Manar 2% 9 1% 3 1% 3 0% 1 2% 8
Abu-Dhabi 6% 32 6% 31 8% 43 5% 25 4% 20
Jordan TV 1% 3 0% 2 0% 2 1% 3 0% 0
Egyptian TV 1% 3 1% 3 1% 4 1% 3 2% 8
LBC (Lebanon) 1% 3 2% 7 0% 2 1% 5 1% 3
MBC 22% 116 27% 131 28% 145 12% 58 13% 68
BBC 0% 1 0% 0 0% 0 1% 3 0% 0
Others 16% 94 10% 57 9% 62 12% 62 10% 55

Finally, when respondents were asked which of the viewed TV stations they most trusted,
the usual suspects reappeared: 38% most trust Al Jazeera, 24% most trust Palestine TV, 11%
Al-Arrabiyah, 8% MBC's entertainment channels, and 3% most trust Al-Aqsa TV.

39
Figure 25: Most trusted TV station

37.5%
23.5%
10.9%
7.7%
5.8%
4.9%
3.1%
2.7%
1.1%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%

Amwaj

Al Salam
Al Nawras

Al Aqsa TV
Al Fajr Al Jadeed

Al Majd
Al Rou’ah TV

Al-manar

Al-Arrabiyah
Al Mahed

BBC

Abu-dhabi
Wattan TV

LBC
Al-hurra

Al-jazeera
Asia TV

Al Sharqa

Others
I don't trust any
MBC
Qalqilya TV

Israel TV

Palestine TV
Bethlehem TV

Egyptian TV
Future TV
Educational TV

Jordan TV
Jenin Merkezi

We have already seen that in the week before the survey, Al-Aqsa TV, Palestine TV, and Al-
Arabiyah enjoyed a higher viewership in the Gaza Strip than in the West Bank, while the MBC
channels were more watched in the West Bank than in the Strip. The results here indicate that
Al-Aqsa TV, Palestine TV, and Al-Arabiyah are also trusted by a higher percentage of Gazans
than Westbankers, while the MBC channels are trusted by a higher percentage of Westbankers
(10%) than Gazans (4%).

Although the viewership of Al-Jazeera is pretty similar in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip,
trust levels are different: a significantly higher percentage of Westbankers (41%) than Gazans
(32%) say they most trust this station.

When the results are broken down by age group, they show that both Al-Aqsa TV and MBC
enjoy the highest level of trust among 18-24 year olds (5% and 11% respectively). On the other
hand, trust in Palestine TV is highest among the 55-and-overs (29%) and lowest among the 18-
24 age group (17%).

Table 24: Most trusted TV station according to region of residence, and age category (most important
stations)
Region of residence Age category
West Bank Gaza Strip <24 25-34 35-44 45-54 >=55
Al Aqsa TV 1% 6% 5% 3% 3% 4% 1%
Palestine TV 20% 29% 17% 24% 26% 27% 29%
Al-Arabiyah 8% 15% 9% 10% 13% 13% 12%
Al-Jazeera 41% 32% 42% 37% 34% 37% 38%
Al-Manar 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1%
Abu-Dhabi 3% 2% 3% 4% 2% 2% 3%
MBC 10% 4% 11% 8% 6% 6% 3%
Others 4% 6% 5% 4% 6% 5% 5%
I don't trust any 7% 3% 6% 5% 6% 5% 5%

40
3. Most popular Radio stations

Respondents in the survey were also asked about their radio listening. When people were
asked which radio station they listened to the day before the interview, more than sixty different
radio stations were named. The top five most listened to, in descending order, are: Ajyal (15%),
Sout Falastin (8%), Sout al-Aqsa (7%), Al-Quds radio (6%), and Raya FM (6%). While Ajyal
and Raya are private stations with a music and entertainment focus, Sout Falastin is the station
of the Palestinian Authority, Sout Al Aqsa is aligned with Hamas and Al-Quds with the Islamic
Jihad movement.

It is perhaps interesting to note that amongst the maze of other stations, 3% listened to the radio
of Al-Najah university, 3% to Gaza FM, 2% to Radio Israel, 1% to the BBC’s Arabic service, and
0.5% to Radio Monte Carlo.

Figure 26: Radio station listened to yesterday

15.2%
13.5%
7.4%
8%
6.1%
6%
3.5%
3.2%
3.1%
2.8%
2.4%
2.3%
1.8%
1.7%
1.5%
1.4%
1.2%
1.2%
1.2%

2%
1.1%
0.9%
0.9%
0.9%
0.8%
0.7%
0.7%
0.6%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.4%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%

Al Ahlam

Al Khalil
Amwaj Radio
Al Asraa Radio

Radio Reef

Al Eman Radio

Ajyal
Alwan Radio
Al Yamam

Al Balad

Al Quds Radio
Al Shamal

Al Shamal
Isis Radio

Kul al Nass Radio

Aya

Al Qamar

Sawt al Aqsa
Al Sharq Radio

Najah University Radio


Salfeet

Al Buraq
Al hurria

Radio One
Orient Radio
Al Medina Radio

BBC
Angham
Al sharq

Nagham
Sama Radio

Nawras Radio

Radio Israel

Sawt As Sha’ab
Hayat FM

Sout Falastin
Baladna Radio

Others
Nablus FM

Raya FM
Dream
96 Nisaa FM

Farah Radio
Mawwal
Gaphra
Sama FM

Sawa FM
Toubas fm

Gaza FM
Bethlehem 2000

Forsan Al Erada
Al Jazeera FM

Monte Carlo

Marah

Minbar al Hurriya
Shabab FM
Al Ahlam

Jericho FM

Hurriyah/Farah
Tariq Al Mahaba

Quraan Kareem

When respondents were asked which radio station they listened to the week before the
interview rather than the day before, a very similar picture emerged. The top five radio stations
remained the same, the only difference being that each of them was mentioned by about 1%
more of the respondents. So the five radio stations with the highest audience in the week before
the interview are: Ajyal (16%), Sout Falastin (9%), Sout al-Aqsa (7%), Raya FM (7%), and Al-
Quds radio (6%).

41
96 Nisaa FM 0.1% Farah Radio 0.1%
Hayat FM; and 0.1% Toubas fm 0.1%
Al Shamal 0.1% Hayat FM 0.1%
Gaphra 0.1% Kul al Nass 0.1%
Sama FM 0.1% Swat El Ghad 0.1%
Orient Radio 0.1% Nagham 0.1%
Al Rabea 0.1% 96 Nisaa FM 0.1%
Al Shamal 0.1%
Monte Carlo 0.1% Gaphra 0.1%
Sawa FM 0.1% Aman 0.1%
Al Yamam 0.2% Al hurria 0.1%
Al Buraq 0.2% Al Shamal 0.2%
Al hurria 0.2% Jericho FM 0.2%
Jericho FM 0.2% Isis Radio 0.2%
Salfeet 0.2% Orient Radio 0.2%
Sama Radio 0.2% Baladna Radio 0.2%
Kul al Nass Radio 0.2% Al Yamam 0.2%
Farah Radio 0.2% Al Buraq 0.2%
Al Eman Radio 0.2% Monte Carlo 0.2%
Dream 0.3% Dream 0.2%

Figure 28: Most trusted radio station


Baladna Radio 0.3% Al Rabea 0.2%
Amwaj Radio 0.3% Aya 0.2%
Radio Reef 0.3% Salfeet 0.2%
Al Ahlam 0.3%
Isis Radio 0.3% Sama Radio 0.3%
Nablus FM 0.3% Nablus FM 0.3%
Figure 27: Radio station listened to last week

Radio Zein 0.4% Shabab FM 0.3%


Mawwal 0.4% Sama FM 0.3%
Shabab FM 0.4% Al Eman Radio 0.3%
Al Sharq Radio 0.4% Radio Reef 0.3%
Al Asraa Radio 0.5% Sawa FM 0.3%

42
BBC 0.5% Amwaj Radio 0.4%
Al Ahlam , 0.5% Al Jazeera FM 0.4%
Al Shamal 0.5% Al Asraa Radio 0.4%
Al sharq 0.6% Radio Zein 0.5%
Al Jazeera FM 0.6% BBC 0.5%
Al Ahlam 0.7% Al Sharq Radio 0.6%
Radio Israel 0.7% Mawwal 0.6%
Al Qamar 0.8% Al Ahlam 0.6%
Nawras Radio 0.8% Al Qamar 0.8%
Nawras Radio 0.8%
Nagham 0.9% Al sharq 0.9%
Al Balad 1.1% Al Balad 1.2%
Hurriyah/Farah 1.1% Nagham 1.3%
Forsan Al Erada 1.1% Angham 1.3%
Tariq Al Mahaba 1.1% Tariq Al Mahaba 1.4%
Angham 1.2% Bethlehem 2000 1.4%
12%, which is 3% higher than its audience in the week before the survey.

Alwan Radio 1.3% Hurriah/Farah 1.4%


Bethlehem 2000 1.7% Radio Israel 1.7%
Al Khalil 1.8% Alwan Radio 1.8%
Gaza FM 2% Forsan Al Erada 1.8%
Minbar al Hurriya 2.2% Al Khalil 2%
Marah 2.4% Marah 2%
Najah University Radio 2.4% Minbar al Hurriya 2.6%
Quraan Kareem 2.7% Quraan Kareem 2.7%
Najah University Radio 2.9%
As with TV, the top most listened to radio stations are also the most trusted ones. The

Sawt As Sha’ab 3.2%


Raya FM 5.2% Sawt As Sha’ab 2.9%
Gaza FM 3.2%
Don't trust any 5.6% Al Quds Radio 5.6%
Al Quds Radio 5.8%
percentages of listenership and trust in these stations are Ajyal, Sout Falastin and Al Quds,

Raya FM 5.9%
Sawt al Aqsa 6.9% Sawt al Aqsa 7.1%
Others 11.4%
more or less the same, except for the PA station Sout Falastin. The trust in this radio station is

Sout Falastin 8.9%


Sout Falastin 11.8% Others 12.4%
Ajyal 14.7% Ajyal 16.2%
4. Viewing and listening habits

The survey shows that TV is most watched in the evening, while radio is most listened to in the
morning. Most people watch or listen at home, but a higher proportion of people listen to radio
outside the house.

In general, the peak-time for watching TV is between 6 and 9 pm. Audiences are picking up
between 3 and 6 pm (15%), and are again lower between 9pm and midnight. This is the case
for all age groups of viewers over 18, for all areas of residence and income groups. Palestinian
men and women have about the same viewing habits, with the exception that a significantly
higher percentage of men (29%) than women (16%) watch TV between 9pm and midnight.

Viewing habits differ considerably between the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. As shown in the
table below, more Gazans (12%) than West Bankers (4%) tend to watch television between
midday and 6pm. On the other hand, a higher proportion of Westbankers (26%) than Gazans
(16%) watch TV between 9pm and midnight.

Figure 29: Time of viewing

Of those who
Throughout the day
watched TV Between 6-9 am
(n=101) 5%
(n=153) 7%
Between 9-12 am Between 9-midnight
(n=155) 7% (n=502) 23%
Between 12-3pm
(n=160) 7%

Between 3-6pm
(n=324) 15%

Between 6-9 pm
(n=808) 37%

Table 25: Time of viewing according to gender, region and sub-region of residence..
Gender Region of residence Sub-region in the GS
Male Female West Bank Gaza Strip North GZ South GZ
Between 6-9 am 7% 7% 8% 5% 6% 5%
Between 9-12 am 5% 9% 6% 8% 8% 9%
Between 12-3pm 6% 9% 4% 12% 11% 14%
Between 3-6pm 13% 17% 13% 19% 17% 20%
Between 6-9 pm 37% 37% 38% 35% 37% 33%
Between 9 till the midnight 29% 16% 26% 16% 18% 14%
Others 4% 5% 5% 4% 4% 4%

A near total majority (96%) watches television at home. The remaining 4% watches TV either in
the office (3%) or when visiting friends (1%). The place of viewing is evenly spread across all
sub-groups under study.

43
Figure 30: Place of viewing
Office (n=71) Café (n=1)
3% 0%
Of those who Other (n=3) Friends (n=17)
watched TV 0% 1%

Home (n=2100)
96%

Whereas TV is more watched in the afternoon and especially the evening, radio is most listened
to in the morning. The audience peaks at 37% between 6 and 9am, and remains quite strong
between 9 and 12 am (26%). The level of audience during various time slots between midday
and midnight remains at 8% to 9%. The focus group discussions also confirmed that radio
stations are listened to mainly during the morning, while TV is watched mainly in the evening.

Figure 31: Time of listening to radio

Throughout the day (n=47)


3%
Between 9 till the mid (n=127)
9%
Between 6-9 pm (n=107)
8%
Between 6-9 am (n=506)
37% Between 3-6pm (n=103)
8%

Between 12-3pm (n=121)


9%

Between 9-12 am (n=357)


26%

The main differences in radio listening habits in terms of time can be found between the young
and older generations, and between the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.

As shown in the table below, the lowest percentage of people listening to the radio between 6
and 9am (25%), as well as between 9 and 12am (21%) can be found among the 18 to 24 year
olds. Only from midday onwards does a slightly higher percentage of this age group compared
to the others listen to the radio. Between 9pm and midnight, the highest percentage of radio
listeners can be found among the 18 to 24 year olds (20%).

Whereas in the West Bank 44% of the respondents listen to the radio between 6 and 9am, this
percentage drops to 27% at that time in the Gaza Strip. From midday onwards, and particularly
between 12 and 3pm, a higher percentage of Gazans than Westbankers listen to the radio.

44
Table 26: Time of listening to radio according to age category and region of residence
Age of respondent Region of
residence

18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

Bank
West

Gaza
>=55

Strip
Between 6-9 am 25% 40% 42% 41% 45% 44% 27%
Between 9-12 am 21% 28% 28% 27% 28% 27% 25%
Between 12-3pm 11% 8% 9% 7% 8% 6% 14%
Between 3-6pm 9% 7% 7% 8% 3% 7% 9%
Between 6-9 pm 11% 8% 6% 8% 3% 6% 11%
Between 9 till the midnight 20% 5% 3% 5% 12% 8% 11%
Others 4% 4% 4% 4% 1% 3% 4%

Unlike TV, Palestinians also listen to the radio outside the house. For example, 19% listen to the
radio in the car, and 9% do so in the office. Still, a large majority (71%) listens to the radio at
home.

Figure 32: Place of listening to radio

Others (n=11) Office (n=121)


1% 9%
Car (n=260)
19%

Home (n=976)
71%

Although radio is mostly listened to at home by all sub-groups, there are some noticeable
differences. As detailed below, a higher percentage of Westbankers (22%),30 people above the
poverty line (25%), and men (27%) listen to the radio while in the car than Gazans (14%), the
poor (12%) and women (9%). Instead, a larger percentage of these last three sub-groups listen
to the radio at home. Also worth noting is that the percentage of men listening to the radio in the
office (13%) is more than three times that for women (4%). Of course, this could be explained
by the lower percentage of women in the labour force.

Table 27: Place of listening to radio according to region of residence, poverty status, and gender
Region of residence Poverty Gender
Below the

Female
poverty

poverty

Above
Gaza
West
Bank

Male
Strip

line

line

the

Home 67% 77% 76% 67% 59% 86%


Car 22% 14% 12% 25% 27% 9%
Office 10% 7% 11% 8% 13% 4%
Others 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1%

30
Although not detailed in the table, it is worth mentioning that within the West Bank, it is especially
Palestinians living in the middle West Bank that make a habit of listening to the radio in the car (29%).

45
5. Duration of watching and listening to broadcast media

TV seems to be watched quite extensively in the OPTs. While one third of the public watches
TV for less than two hours a day, nearly half (47%) watches for 2 to 4 hours a day, and the
remaining 21% watches TV for more than four hours a day.

The duration of watching television seems to be quite evenly spread across all sub-groups
under study for this report, with no significant differences observed.

Figure 33: Duration of watching TV

More than four hours (n=553)


21%
Less than 2 hours (n=820)
32%

2-4 hours (n=1207)


47%

There is less intensive radio listening than TV watching in the OPTs. As illustrated in the figure
below, 59% of the respondents listen to the radio for less than 2 hours a day, 23% listen for 2 to
4 hours, and 18% listen for more than four hours a day.

Figure 34: Duration of listening to radio


More than four hours (n=291)
18%

2-4 hours (n=370)


Less than 2 hours (n=932) 23%
59%

Unlike with TV watching, there are detectable differences between some sub-groups concerning
the daily duration of radio listening. As detailed in the table below, women, Westbankers, and
people with an average monthly income below the poverty line tend to listen to the radio for
longer periods than men, Gazans, and Palestinians living above the poverty line.

Table 28: Duration of listening to radio: according to gender, region of residence, and poverty level.
Gender Region of residence Poverty level
West Bank

Gaza Strip

Above the
Below the
Female

poverty

poverty
Male

line

line

Less than 2 hours 64% 53% 56% 62% 54% 62%


2-4 hours 20% 27% 24% 22% 23% 24%
More than four hours 16% 20% 20% 16% 23% 15%

46
E. Newspaper Readership

Nearly half of the respondents (48%) do not read newspapers. This section will look not only at
why Palestinians read newspapers but why they do not. It will gauge which newspapers
Palestinians trust most, and look at how people evaluate newspapers’ coverage of local news.

1. Readership levels

Overall, 22% of respondents read a newspaper daily, 15% two or three times a week, 10% once
a week, and 5% once a month. The rest do not read them at all.

Figure 35: Newspaper readership


The focus group discussions in Gaza
showed that newspaer articles are
often followed through the internet.
Also, the youth prefer to follow news
Daily (n=573) agency reports like Maan news, Wafa,
etc. on the internet
22%

Do not read newspapers (n=1264)


48%

times a week (n=407)


15%

Once a week (n=263) Once a month (n=140)


10% 5%

The table below clearly shows that frequent newspaper readership (daily or 2-3 times per week)
is least happening in the 18-24 age group. Men (29%) are more than twice as likely as women
(14%) to read a newspaper daily.

Table 29: Newspaper readership according to age and gender


Age of respondent Gender

Female
18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

>=55

Male

Daily 16% 23% 25% 21% 26% 29% 14%


2-3 times per week 12% 19% 15% 16% 14% 17% 14%
Once a week 14% 9% 8% 9% 7% 9% 11%
Once a month 7% 6% 5% 4% 1% 4% 7%
I do not read newspapers 50% 43% 47% 50% 51% 42% 54%

There are also considerable differences between the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. More than
half of Gaza residents (56%) never read newspapers, while this percentage is lower in the West
Bank (43%). A clearly higher percentage of Westbankers than Gazans read the newspaper
either daily or 2 to 3 times a week.31

31
Although not detailed here in the table, it is worth mentioning that within the West Bank, it is
especially Palestinians living in the middle West Bank that least mentioned that they do not read
newspapers (37%), while compared to residents of other sub-regions in the OPTs, they most read a
newspaper daily (29%).

47
Refugee camp dwellers are less likely to read newspapers (56% do not read them) than people
living in villages (47%) and cities (46%). Daily readership of newspapers is mostly found in cities
(24%).

Furthermore, newspaper readership is markedly lower and less frequent among Palestinians
with a monthly average household income below the poverty line than among Palestinians who
are financially better-off.

Table 30: Newspaper readership according to region and area of residence, and poverty status.
Region of residence Area of residence Poverty

West Bank

Gaza Strip

Above the
Below the
Refugee

poverty

poverty
Village

camp
City

line

line
Daily 25% 16% 24% 19% 16% 16% 26%
2-3 times per week 18% 11% 15% 19% 12% 14% 17%
Once a week 9% 11% 10% 10% 10% 10% 10%
Once a month 5% 6% 5% 5% 6% 5% 5%
I do not read newspapers 43% 56% 46% 47% 56% 55% 42%

Those who say they do not read newspapers (nearly half the respondents) were asked why.
More than a third (38%) said it was because they do not like to read newspapers, whether for
lack of interest or lack of time. More than a quarter (27%) said it was because they do not have
access to a newspaper, while 13% said it was because they cannot find the information they
want. Five percent said it was because they cannot read.

Figure 36: Reasons for not reading newspapers

Other reasons (n=202)


(lack of interest, 18%
no time)
Can't read (n=53)
Don't like to read (n=432) 5%
38%
No newspapers around (n=303)
27%
Can't find what I want (n=149)
13%

Young people are more likely to say they do not read newspapers because they do not like to:
44% of 18-24 year olds, compared with 21% of people aged 55 and over. Illiteracy, on the other
hand, is a reason more frequently cited among older people for not reading newspapers.

Women (41%) are more likely than men (34%) to say they do not read newspapers because
they do not like to.

48
Table 31: Reasons for not reading newspapers: according to age category and gender.
Age of respondent Gender

Female
18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

>=55

Male
Don’t like to read newspapers (lack of 44% 40% 36% 37% 21% 34% 41%
interest, no time)
I cannot find what I want of information 13% 13% 10% 14% 20% 13% 14%
I do not have access to a newspaper 20% 28% 30% 27% 28% 27% 26%
I cannot read 2% 1% 6% 7% 15% 4% 6%
Other reason 21% 17% 17% 15% 16% 22% 14%

The biggest problem in the Gaza Strip is lack of access to newspapers. Nearly half (45%) of
Gazans said they do not read newspapers because they do not have access to them, whereas
only 12% of Westbankers gave this as their reason. The lack of access to a newspaper seems
to be more of an issue in the northern Gaza Strip (49%) than in the southern part of the Strip
(38%).

In the Gaza Strip, there are two main newspapers, Al-Risala (Hamas affiliated twice-weekly)
and Filasteen (Hamas affiliated daily), which are banned in the West Bank. Similarly, West Bank
daily newspapers Al-Quds, Al-Ayyam, and Al-Hayyat are banned in the Gaza Strip.

A majority of participants in NEC's Gaza focus group said they do not read newspapers
because they do not have access to them. A female participant said she thought Gazans were
not interested in reading newspapers in any case. However a male participant disagreed. He
said that while there are Palestinian newspapers in Gaza they reflect only the views of Hamas,
and so people use the Internet to read other newspapers reflecting different views.

In the West Bank, the largest group of people who do not read newspapers say it is because
they do not like it (47%). Of all the sub-regions, illiteracy seems to be most widespread in the
southern part of the West Bank (9%).

Table 32: Reasons for not reading newspapers: according to region and sub-region of residence.
Region of residence Sub-region of residence
West Bank

Middle WB
Gaza Strip

South WB
North WB

South GZ
North GZ

I do not like to read newspapers 49% 52% 42% 27% 25%


47% 26%
(lack of interest, no time)
I cannot find what I want of 15% 18% 13% 9% 12%
15% 10%
information
I do not have access to a 12% 10% 14% 49% 38%
12% 45%
newspaper
I cannot read 6% 3% 4% 4% 9% 2% 5%
Other reason 19% 16% 19% 16% 22% 12% 20%

2. Reasons to read the newspaper

As for the 52% of the population who do read newspapers, the top reasons are for local and
international news. However, their reasons are quite varied. In descending order of importance,

49
the reasons for reading newspapers include: mainly for local news (23%), mainly for
international news (21%), for a combination of reasons (16%), for political news (12%), out of
habit (11%), for social news (8%), and for economic news (4%). These reasons are portrayed in
the figure below.

Figure 37: Reason for reading newspapers

Others (n=62)
5% For more than one reas (n=219)
16%
It is a habit (n=151)
11% (death,
marriage, etc)

Mainly for int'l news (n=294) For social news (n=113)


21% 8%

For political news (n=161) For local news (n=316)


12% 23%
For economic news (n=52)
4%

When taking a closer look at the reasons given by Palestinians for reading newspapers, there
are no significant differences according to gender, area of residence or income level. People of
55 and over are, however, more likely to read newspapers for international news.

Table 33: Reason for reading newspapers: according to age.


Age of respondent
18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

>=55
It is a habit 11% 12% 12% 9% 13%
Mainly for international news 21% 24% 16% 21% 30%
Mainly for political views 10% 9% 15% 15% 14%
For economic news 3% 4% 4% 5% 4%
For local news 26% 23% 23% 26% 14%
For social news( death, marriages, etc) 11% 8% 8% 7% 3%
For more than one reason 11% 16% 21% 15% 17%
Others 8% 4% 2% 4% 4%

As can be seen in the table below, a higher proportion of Gazans (16%) than Westbankers
(10%) read newspapers for political views. Only 5% of people living in the Middle West Bank
(includes Ramallah and Jerusalem) gave this as a reason for reading newspapers.

Table 34: Reason for reading newspapers: according to region and sub-region of residence.
Region of Sub-region of residence
residence
West Bank

Middle WB
Gaza Strip

South WB
North WB

South GZ
North GZ

50
It is a habit 10% 13% 11% 12% 7% 13% 13%
Mainly for international news 21% 23% 21% 21% 20% 20% 27%
Mainly for political views 10% 16% 8% 5% 18% 18% 14%
For economic news 3% 5% 2% 2% 6% 6% 4%
For local news 25% 20% 29% 25% 19% 23% 16%
Social news (death, marriage) 9% 6% 8% 8% 12% 7% 6%
For more than one reason 18% 13% 17% 21% 14% 12% 14%
Others 5% 4% 4% 6% 4% 2% 6%

3. Most trusted newspapers

Palestine's oldest newspaper, the Jerusalem based Al Quds daily, is also its most trusted by far,
Palestine's oldest newspaper, the Jerusalem based Al Quds daily, is also its most trusted by far,
with 59%, followed at a distance by Al-Ayyam (16%), Filasteen (9%), Al-Hayatt al-Jadida (7%)
and Al-Risala (3%). A further 4% of people surveyed said they do not trust any newspaper.

Daily newspaper Filasteen and twice weekly Al-Risala are published in the Gaza Strip and are
close to Hamas. They have been banned in the West Bank since the 2007 split between Fateh
and Hamas. Similarly, the West Bank dailies Al-Ayyam, Al-Hayatt and Al Quds are banned in
the Gaza Strip. Al-Hayyat and Al Ayyam are seen as pro-Fateh, while Al Quds is generally
viewed as the most independent.

Figure 38: Most trusted newspaper

None (n=62)
4%

Others (n=20)
1%
Filasteen (n=129)
9%
Al-Quds (n=851)
59% Al-Risala (n=36)
3%
n=1432

Al-Hayatt al-Jadida (n=101)


7%

Al-Ayyam (n=233)
16%

It can be seen from the two tables below that Al Quds is the most trusted newspaper across all
sub groups. However, it enjoys a much higher level of trust in the West Bank (75%) than in the
Gaza Strip (30%). It is more likely to be trusted by those above the poverty line (66%) than
those living below it (48%).

Al-Risala and Filasteen are not trusted at all in the West Bank although this may merely reflect
the fact that they are not available. However, Filasteen enjoys a relatively high level (26%) of
trust in the Gaza Strip, where it comes quite a close second to Al Quds.

Al Quds is most trusted by more than half the respondents in all age groups, although less by
the young than by older people. It is also less trusted by women (56%) than by men (62%).

51
Table 35: Most trusted newspaper: according to age and gender.
Age of respondent Gender

Female
18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

>=55

Male
Al-Quds 53% 59% 64% 64% 64% 62% 56%
Al-Ayyam 17% 18% 14% 15% 11% 14% 19%
Al-Hayatt al-Jadida 9% 8% 6% 3% 7% 7% 7%
Al-Risala 4% 2% 3% 3% 1% 2% 3%
Filasteen 11% 9% 9% 8% 7% 8% 10%
Others 2% 0% 2% 1% 2% 2% 1%
None 4% 4% 3% 5% 8% 4% 5%

Table 36: Most trusted newspaper: according to region and area of residence, and poverty status.
Place of residence Area of residence Poverty
West Bank

Gaza Strip

Above the
Below the
Refugee

poverty

poverty
Village

camp
City

line

line
Al-Quds 75% 30% 58% 68% 45% 48% 66%
Al-Ayyam 15% 19% 16% 15% 18% 19% 14%
Al-Hayatt al-Jadida 7% 8% 7% 7% 5% 8% 7%
Al-Risala 0% 7% 3% 1% 7% 4% 2%
Filasteen 0% 26% 11% 3% 17% 14% 7%
Others 1% 2% 1% 1% 2% 2% 1%
None 3% 8% 4% 5% 4% 5% 4%

Given that respondents' top reason for reading newspapers is for local news, it is interesting to
note that they also evaluate the papers' local news coverage positively. As can be seen in the
figure below, 79% evaluate newspapers’ coverage of local news as either very good (37%) or
good (42%), while only 3% view it as either bad (2%) or very bad (1%). The remainder of the
public stayed neutral on this issue and did not evaluate the coverage of local news as either
good or bad.

Figure 39: Evaluation of newspapers in covering local news


Very bad (n=13)
Very good (n=536) 1%
37% Bad (n=34)
2%

In between (n=248)
17%

Good (n=606)
42%

52
F. Internet and New Media

The importance of the Internet and new media cannot be ignored. At the time of writing, popular
uprisings were taking place across the Arab world, sparked by youth using Internet and social
networks to call for protest against repressive regimes. Inspired by the revolutions in Tunisia
and Egypt in early 2011, youth in the OPTs are also using new media for their own causes. For
example, on 17 February 2011, thousands of Palestinians rallied in Ramallah to demand
reconciliation between Fateh and Hamas. The demonstration was organized through websites
such as Facebook and Twitter.32

1. Internet access

Nearly three-quarters of the population (70%) in the OPTs has access to the Internet. On
average, there are three people using the internet in each household.

Figure 40: Access to the internet

No (n=793)
30%

On average, there are 3


people using the internet
in the Palestinian
households

Yes (n=1848)
70%

As shown in the Table below, young people are better connected than older people: 87% of 18-
24 year olds have access to the internet, whereas this drops to 42% for people aged 55 and
over. Men are more likely to have access to the Internet (77%) than women (63%), while people
on incomes above the poverty line are more likely to be connected (76%) than those below the
poverty line (63%).

Table 37: Access to the internet: according to age, gender, and poverty status.
Age of respondent Gender Poverty
poverty line

poverty line
Above the
Below the
Female
18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

>=55

Male

Yes 87% 77% 65% 53% 42% 77% 63% 63% 76%
No 13% 23% 35% 47% 58% 23% 37% 37% 24%

32
www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=361035

53
Perhaps unexpectedly, there is wider access to the internet in the Gaza Strip (76%) than in the
West Bank (67%). Within the Gaza Strip, there are no notable differences in internet access
between the two sub-regions, but in the West Bank, the internet access percentage is clearly
higher in the middle West Bank (72%) than in the south (66%) or north (63%). Also, there is a
higher internet access percentage in cities (75%) than in refugee camps (68%) and villages
(62%).

Table 38: Access to the internet: according to region and area of residence, and sub-region of residence.
Region of residence Area of residence Sub-region of residence

Gaza Strip

South WB
North WB

South GZ
North GZ
Refugee
Village

Middle
camp
Bank
West

City

WB
Yes 67% 76% 75% 62% 68% 63% 72% 66% 76% 75%
No 33% 24% 25% 38% 32% 37% 28% 34% 24% 25%

Palestinians in the OPTs mostly use the Internet at home (85%). Of the remainder, 9% use the
Internet at work, 2% at school or university, 2% in an Internet café, and the remaining 2% in
other places.

Figure 41: Place where the internet is used


At Café (n=30)
At work (n=166)
2%
9%
Other places (n=30) At school/university (n=43)
2% 2%

At home (n=1563)
85%

While a big majority of Palestinians use the Internet at home, there are nevertheless some
noticeable differences between the sub-groups under study. More men (12%) than women (5%)
use the Internet at work. Also, it is especially people aged between 25 and 54 who use the
Internet at work (12% to 13%). This may well reflect the fact that people in that age group are
more likely to be working outside the home, and that more men than women are in the
workforce. Women are more likely than men to use the Internet at home (90%).

As also detailed in the table below, people with incomes above the poverty line are more likely
to use the Internet at work than those whose average monthly household income falls below it
(4%). This could in part be explained by the fact that poor people are more likely to be
unemployed or to be working in jobs that do not require the Internet.

54
Table 39: Place where the internet is used: according to age, gender, and poverty status.
Age of respondent Gender Poverty

poverty

poverty
Female

Above
Below
18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

>=55

Male

line

line
the

the
At home 89% 82% 85% 82% 91% 82% 90% 88% 84%
At school/university 4% 2% 1% 3% 2% 2% 3% 3% 2%
At a café 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 3% 0% 3% 1%
At work 3% 13% 12% 13% 2% 12% 5% 4% 12%
Other places 2% 2% 1% 1% 3% 2% 2% 3% 1%

As shown in the table below, Internet usage at home is higher in the Gaza Strip (90%) than in
the West Bank (82%), while the opposite is true for Internet usage at work or even at school.
Within the West Bank, Internet usage at home is lowest in the south (79%).

Table 40: Place where the internet is used: according to region and sub-region of residence.
Region of residence Gaza Strip Sub-region of residence

South WB
North WB

South GZ
North GZ
Middle
Bank
West

WB
At home 82% 90% 83% 86% 79% 89% 90%
At school/university 3% 1% 4% 2% 3% 2% 1%
At a café 2% 2% 1% 0% 3% 1% 2%
At work 11% 6% 9% 11% 13% 7% 6%
Other places 2% 1% 3% 1% 2% 1% 1%

2. Frequency of usage

More than three-quarters of Palestinians (76%) use the Internet daily, while 15% use it more
than once a week. Infrequent users are a small minority: 7% say they use it once a week and
only 2% once a month.

Figure 42: Frequency of using the internet

Once a month (n=32)


2%
More than one time a m (n=8)
0%
Other (n=9)
0% More than one time a (n=276)
15%
Once a week (n=124)
7%

Daily (n=1385)
76%

55
While there is little overall difference in the frequency of Internet use between the West Bank
and the Gaza Strip, there are some marked sub-regional differences. Within the West Bank,
daily Internet use is much higher in the middle region (82%) than in the northern (73%) and
southern (72%) sub-regions. Within the Gaza Strip, daily Internet usage is higher in the north
(78%) than in the south (73%).

Table 41: Frequency of using the internet: according to region and sub-region of residence.
Region of residence Sub-region of residence

North GZ
Middle

South

South
North
Bank
West

Gaza
Strip

WB

WB

WB

GZ
Daily 75% 76% 73% 82% 72% 78% 73%
Once a week 6% 8% 7% 5% 5% 6% 11%
More than one time a week 16% 14% 15% 12% 20% 14% 14%
Once a month 2% 1% 3% 1% 2% 1% 1%
More than one time a month 0% 1% 1% 0% 0% 1% 0%
Others 1% 0% 1% 0% 1% 0% 0%

Daily Internet usage is higher in cities (78%) than in villages (71%) and refugee camps (75%). It
is also higher among men (80%) than among women (70%). Also detailed below, daily internet
use is more pronounced among the financially relatively better-off (79%) than among the poor
(70%). The latter, instead, are slightly more inclined than the former to use the internet at least
once a week.

Table 42: Frequency of using the internet: according to area of residence, gender, and poverty status.
Area of residence Gender Poverty

Above the
Below the
Refugee

poverty

poverty
Female
Village

camp

Male
City

line

line
Daily 78% 71% 75% 80% 70% 70% 79%
Once a week 6% 8% 7% 6% 8% 9% 5%
More than one time a week 13% 18% 15% 12% 19% 17% 14%
Once a month 2% 2% 1% 1% 2% 2% 2%
More than one time a month 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 0%
Others 0% 1% 1% 1% 0% 1% 0%

People who use the Internet daily use it quite extensively. Nearly a quarter (23%) say they use it
for more than four hours a day, while the majority (38%) use it for between two and four hours
daily. A further 36% use the Internet for less than two hours a day.

Figure 43: Duration of using the internet

Less than 2 hours (n=654)


36%

I don't use it daily (n=63)


3%

More than four hours (n=417)


23%
2-4 hours (n=691)
38%

56
As can be seen in the below table, 18 to 24 year olds spend most time surfing the net. For
example, 28% of people in this age group use the Internet more than four hours daily, whereas
this is the case for only 13% of Palestinians aged 55 and over. The results also indicate that a
slightly higher percentage of men (25%) than women (20%) spend more than four hours a day
using the internet.

Table 43: Duration of using the internet: according to age and gender.
Age of respondent Gender

Female
18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

>=55

Male
Less than 2 hours 29% 34% 44% 45% 40% 35% 37%
2-4 hours 41% 41% 31% 30% 40% 38% 38%
More than four hours 28% 22% 21% 21% 13% 25% 20%
I don’t use the internet daily 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 2% 5%

There is also a slightly higher percentage of Gazans (25%) than Westbankers (21%) who spend
more than four hours daily on the Internet. It is especially Palestinians residing in northern Gaza
(29%) who spend so much time using the Internet, while southern Gaza has the highest
percentage of people who spend less than two hours per day on it (43%). Within the West Bank,
the highest proportion of respondents who use the Internet more than four hours daily reside in
the middle West Bank (24%).

Table 44: Duration of using the internet: according to region and sub-region of residence.
Region of residence Sub-region of residence
Gaza Strip

South WB
North WB

South GZ
North GZ
Middle
Bank
West

WB

Less than 2 hours 37% 34% 36% 37% 38% 27% 43%
2-4 hours 38% 37% 40% 36% 37% 39% 35%
More than four hours 21% 25% 20% 24% 21% 29% 20%
I don’t use the internet daily 4% 3% 4% 3% 4% 4% 2%

3. Reasons for using the Internet

In the survey, interviewees were asked to select from a list their first and second most important
reasons for using the Internet. The top three reasons given as first most important are: (1) to do
research (42%), (2) for leisure (25%), and (3) to follow the news (17%). The top three reasons
given as second most important are: (1) for leisure (33%), (2) to do research (29%), and (3) to
obtain the news.

If the percentages from the two questions are added together, the reasons for using the Internet
are as follows: (1) to do research (71%), (2) for leisure/ entertainment (58%), (3) to follow the
news (41%), (4) for business purposes (20%), (5) to follow religious programmes (5%), and (6)
for reasons other than those listed (5%).

57
Figure 44: Reasons for using the internet

Research (n=778)
42% Research (n=527)
29%
News (n=312) News (n=437)
17% 24%

Business (n=222) Leisure (n=467) Business (n=142) Leisure (n=603)


12% 25% 8% 33%
Religion (n=23) Religion (n=65)
1% 4%
Others (n=57)
Others (n=35)
3%
2%

FIRST REASON SECOND REASON

Reasons for using the Internet vary significantly across


the sub-groups under study. Please note that, for ease "There are many useful sites on the
of analysis, the percentages given below represent the Internet that are more important than
combined results, i.e. percentages for the first and local TV stations in terms of news
coverage and information."
second most important reasons have been added
together. (Ahmed, 33, Gaza focus group
participant)
As can be seen in the three tables below, using the
Internet for leisure purposes is most popular among 18 to 24 year olds (70%), women (63%),
Westbankers (61%), and the poorer segments of society (62%). Internet usage for this reason is
least popular among Palestinians aged 55 or more (43%) and residents of the northern Gaza
Strip (51%).

Using the Internet for research or to obtain information is most prevalent among the 18-24
(77%) and 55-plus age groups (81%), women (77%), Westbankers (74%), and villagers (76%).

Those who use the Internet to follow the news are more likely to be men (47%), Gazans (47%),
refugee camp dwellers (47%), Palestinians with an average monthly household income below
the poverty line (41%), and – within the West Bank – by Palestinians residing in the middle
region (40%). Of all age groups, 18 to 24 year olds least mentioned that they use the Internet to
follow the news (34%).

As for usage of the Internet for business reasons, it is most likely to occur among men (24%),
and Palestinians who are better-off financially (23%). Perhaps not surprisingly, using the
Internet for business is least likely among 18 to 24 year olds (12%) and those aged 55 and older
(15%).

Finally, the highest percentages of people using the internet to follow up with religious
programmes can be found among Palestinians aged 45 and over (between 9% and 11%),
women (7%), and in the Gaza Strip (7%), particularly the southern Gaza Strip (9%).

58
Table 45: Reasons for using the internet: according to age and gender.
Age of respondent Gender

Female
FIRST AND SECOND REASON COMBINED

18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

>=55

Male
Entertainment 70% 59% 53% 45% 43% 54% 63%
Research/information 77% 65% 70% 70% 81% 66% 77%
News 34% 43% 46% 42% 45% 47% 32%
Business 12% 24% 22% 45% 15% 24% 15%
Religious programs 4% 5% 3% 11% 9% 4% 7%
Others 3% 4% 6% 7% 6% 5% 6%

Table 46: Reasons for using the internet: according to region and area of residence, and poverty status.
Region of residence Area of residence Poverty

Gaza Strip

Above the
Below the
Refugee

poverty

poverty
FIRST AND SECOND

Village

camp
Bank
West

City

line

line
REASON COMBINED

Entertainment 61% 55% 59% 58% 57% 62% 56%


Research/information 74% 68% 70% 76% 69% 71% 70%
News 36% 47% 41% 36% 47% 41% 37%
Business 21% 18% 21% 19% 16% 14% 23%
Religious programs 3% 7% 4% 5% 6% 5% 4%
Others 5% 5% 5% 6% 5% 5% 4%

Table 47: Reasons for using the internet: according to sub-region.


Sub-region of residence
FIRST AND SECOND REASON North WB Middle South WB North GZ South GZ
COMBINED WB
Entertainment 60% 59% 63% 51% 58%
Research/information 75% 69% 76% 69% 65%
News 34% 40% 36% 47% 47%
Business 22% 24% 17% 20% 17%
Religious programs 3% 3% 3% 7% 9%
Others 5% 6% 5% 9% 5%

Two-thirds of the respondents (66%) follow the news on the Internet. Following the news on the
Internet is most prevalent among the young and tends to decrease with age. This trend was
also confirmed in focus groups, where youth participants said they rely more on Internet for
news than any other media. As shown in the tables below, 76% of 18-24 year olds follow the
news on the Internet, whereas only 43% of people in the 55-plus age group do so. Also, a
higher percentage of men (74%) than women (57%) tend to follow the news on the Internet, and
a higher percentage of those above the poverty line (71%) than those living below it (59%).

Following news on the Internet is also more prevalent in the Gaza Strip (73%) than in the West
Bank (61%), and particularly in the northern Gaza Strip (75%). It is significantly less prevalent in
villages (58%) than in cities (70%) and refugee camps (65%). Within the West Bank, the lowest
percentage of people following the news on the Internet resides in the north (57%).

59
Figure 45: Level of following the news on the internet

No (n=801)
34%

Yes (n=1528)
66%

Table 48: Level of following the news on the internet: according to age, gender, and poverty status.
Age of respondent Gender Poverty

Above the
Below the
poverty

poverty
Female
18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

>=55

Male

line

line
Yes 76% 72% 64% 50% 43% 74% 57% 59% 71%
No 24% 28% 36% 50% 57% 26% 43% 41% 29%

Table 49: Level of following the news on the internet: according to region, area, and sub-region of
residence.
Region of residence Area of residence Sub-region of residence
Gaza Strip

South WB
North WB

South GZ
North GZ
Refugee
Village

Middle
camp
Bank
West

City

WB

Yes 61% 73% 70% 58% 65% 57% 64% 64% 75% 70%
No 39% 27% 30% 42% 35% 43% 36% 36% 25% 30%

4. Social Networking

More than 60% of respondents say they use social networks such as Facebook and Twitter,
whereas 39% say they have never done so. Of the 61% who use social networks, 21% use
them extensively, 24% moderately, and 15% rarely.

This habit is considerably more prevalent among the young. Extensive users are most likely to
be under 25, and the age group with the highest percentage of extensive users is the 18-24
(33%). Only 30% of respondents in this age group said they had never used social networking,
compared with 53% of those aged 45-54 and 64% of those aged 55 and over.

The results in the table below further indicate that a lower percentage of women (44%) than
men (36%) have ever made use of social networks, and a slightly lower percentage of Gazans
(42%) than Westbankers (37%).

60
Figure 46: Level of using social networks (e.g. Facebook, Twitter etc.) for information

Extensively (n=395)
21%

Moderately (n=450)
24%

Rarely (n=274) Never (n=723)


15% 39%

Table 50: Level of using social networks (e.g. Facebook, Twitter etc.) for information: according to age,
gender, and region of residence.
Age of respondent Gender Region of residence

Gaza Strip
Female
18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

Bank
West
>=55

Male
Extensively 33% 21% 13% 12% 12% 24% 19% 23% 20%
Moderately 24% 26% 27% 19% 13% 25% 23% 24% 25%
Rarely 13% 17% 15% 16% 12% 15% 15% 16% 13%
Never 30% 36% 45% 53% 64% 36% 44% 37% 42%

SMS News Services

Less than a quarter of Palestinians surveyed (23%) say they use SMS services to receive news
on their mobile phones, while a big majority (77% say they never do so. Of the 23% who do use
such services, 7% do so extensively, 8% moderately, and another 8% rarely.

Figure 47: Level of using SMS for news services


Moderately (n=201)
Rarely (n=194)
8%
8%
Extensively (n=170)
7%

Never (n=1855)
77%

61
The lowest levels of SMS news service usage can be found among the youngest and oldest age
groups: 82% of 18-24 year olds say they have never used such services and 85% of
Palestinians aged 55-plus. The percentage of people who have never used such services is
also higher among women (81%) than men (72%), and higher among poor Palestinians (79%)
than those living above the poverty line (75%).

These results are detailed in the table below.

Table 51: Level of using SMS for news services: according to age, gender, and poverty status
Age of respondent Gender Poverty

poverty

poverty
Female

Above
Below
18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

>=55

Male

line

line
the

the
Extensively 6% 8% 9% 7% 4% 9% 5% 5% 9%
Moderately 7% 10% 10% 7% 5% 10% 7% 7% 9%
Rarely 6% 11% 6% 10% 7% 9% 7% 9% 8%
Never 82% 71% 75% 77% 85% 72% 81% 79% 75%

G. Public Perceptions of the Palestinian Media

The quality of information provided by the media and its image are heavily influenced by the
performance and professionalism of the journalists. Therefore, before going any further, some
attention will be given to the media professionals and the manner in which they are perceived by
the public in terms of (1) the main challenges they face in gathering information, and (2) their
integrity, objectivity, and professionalism.

1. Freedom of journalists

Respondents were first asked how free they think journalists are in terms of information
gathering. Nearly two-thirds said free (53%) or very free (15%), while nearly a third (32%) said
they think journalists are not free when gathering information.

Figure 48: Perceptions about the freedom of journalists in information gathering

Free (n=1397)
53%

Not free (n=591)


22%

Not free at all (n=261) Very free (n=393)


10% 15%

Not free Free

62
A higher proportion of Westbankers (71%) than Gazans (63%) say they believe that journalists
are free to gather information. Within the West Bank, the perception that journalists are free in
gathering information is highest in the middle West Bank (75%) and lowest in the southern West
Bank (66%). It is lowest overall in the southern part of the Gaza Strip (61%).

Table 52: Perceptions about the freedom of journalists in information gathering: according to region and
sub-region of residence.
Region of Sub-region of residence
residence

West Bank

Middle WB
Gaza Strip

South WB
North WB

South GZ
North GZ
Free 71% 63% 72% 75% 66% 65% 61%
Not free 29% 37% 28% 25% 34% 35% 39%

The main restriction on journalists as seen by the public is Israel (25%). Still, there is a
considerable percentage of people who also refer to internal Palestinian pressures on
journalists. Indeed, 16% believe that political groups are the main restriction on journalists, while
10% say it is the Gaza government and 7% the Ramallah government. A further 10% think that
owners of media outlets are themselves the main restriction, while 4% blame people and
traditions. Nearly a fifth (18%) believe journalists are restricted in their work by a combination of
all these factors.

Figure 49: Public perceptions of the main restriction on journalists

There are no restrict (n=189)


People and traditions (n=106) 8%
4%
Owners of media outlet (n=257) All of them (n=461)
10% 18%
The Ramallah govt. (n=174)
7% Others (n=40)
2%
The Gaza govt. (n=245)
10%
Political groups (n=415) Israel (n=630)
16% 25%

A considerably higher percentage of Westbankers (30%) than Gazans (17%) view Israel as the
main restriction on journalists carrying out their work. A bigger proportion of villagers (30%) than
city residents (23%) and refugee camp dwellers (20%) point to Israel as the main restriction on
journalists. Slightly more women (28%) than men (22%) see Israel as the main restriction,
whereas slightly more men than women view political groups and the Gaza government as the
main restrictions facing journalists.
More people in the Gaza Strip (21%) than in the West Bank (3%) point to the Gaza government
as the main restriction on journalists working freely. One might expect from this that a much
higher percentage of people in the West Bank than in Gaza would point to the Ramallah
government, but this is not the case.

63
More people in refugee camps (19%) than in cities (10%) and villages (4%) also point to the
Gaza government as the main restriction on journalists’ freedom. It should be noted that the
highest concentration of refugee camps is located in the Gaza Strip.

Table 53: Perceived main restriction on journalists according to region and area of residence, and gender.
Region of residence Area of residence Gender

West Bank

Gaza Strip

Refugee

Female
Village

camp

Male
City
People and traditions 4% 4% 5% 5% 1% 4% 5%
Owners of media outlet 10% 10% 12% 7% 8% 10% 11%
The Ramallah govt. 8% 5% 7% 8% 5% 7% 6%
The Gaza govt. 3% 21% 10% 4% 19% 11% 8%
Political groups 15% 19% 16% 16% 21% 18% 15%
Israel 30% 17% 23% 30% 20% 22% 28%
Others 1% 2% 2% 1% 2% 2% 1%
None 8% 6% 7% 8% 6% 8% 7%
All of the above 20% 15% 18% 20% 18% 18% 19%

It is interesting to compare the above responses with results from another interview question.
When respondents were later asked who they think most restricts the media in Palestine, only
3% said there are no restrictions on the media. This time more than a quarter (29%) said Israel,
followed by the PA (13%) and Hamas (9%), but 41% believe that all these players restrict
freedom of the media in Palestine.

Figure 50: Perceptions of the main restriction on media freedom in Palestine

There are none (n=64) Others (n=120)


3% 5%
Israel (n=706)
29%

All of them (n=1003)


41%
The PA (n=329)
13%
Hamas (n=220)
9%

Perceptions are not significantly influenced by the age, gender, or poverty status of the
respondent. However, they differ quite significantly according to place of residence. Again, the
highest proportion of people seeing Israel as the main restriction can be found in the West Bank
(35%) and in villages (34%). This is understandable since Israel’s presence in the West Bank is
very visible and many villages are still under Israeli control.

As shown in the table below, a higher percentage of respondents in the West Bank (15%) than
in the Gaza Strip (10%) consider the PA to be the main restriction on media freedom in
Palestine. However a far greater percentage of people in the Gaza Strip (20%) than in the West
Bank (2%) see Hamas as the main restriction.

64
Table 54: Perceived main restriction on media freedom in Palestine: according to region and area of residence .
Region of residence Area of residence
West Bank Gaza Strip City Village Refugee camp
Israel 35% 19% 27% 34% 25%
The PA 15% 10% 15% 12% 9%
Hamas 2% 20% 9% 5% 17%
All of them 40% 43% 41% 42% 41%
Others 4% 7% 5% 4% 6%
There are no restrictions on 3% 2% 3% 3% 2%
the media

2. Journalists’ performance
The majority of the focus group participants think
In the survey, respondents were also asked to that Palestinian media needs to be improved in
evaluate the performance of Palestinian various ways, including technical aspects and
improving the skills of media professionals.
journalists by giving them ratings out of ten for
Focus group discussions also revealed that
professionalism, objectivity and integrity. audiences would like more programs dealing with
local Palestinian issues.
The public evaluated journalists quite evenly in
terms of these three qualities, although they were ranked slightly higher for professionalism than
for integrity and objectivity.

The three scores were then added together, and a score of 0 to 100 was set to provide a
general indicator about how journalists are evaluated in terms of professionalism, objectivity,
and integrity. As noted below, the overall score for the three indicators is 63%.

Figure 51: Evaluation of journalists

The overall score for


6.32 out of 10
the three indicators
together is 63%

6.25 out of 10
Integrity
Objectivity
Professionalism
6.58 out of 10

General public

It is interesting to compare these results with media sector self-evaluation ratings contained in
the previous chapter (see section (V. H) for details) and to note that the public give higher
ratings than the media give themselves.

65
3. Perceptions of Palestinian broadcast media

The survey also sought to find out more about how the Palestinian public perceive their local
media, especially TV and radio stations.

A majority of respondents evaluated Palestinian TV and radio stations positively, with radio
getting a higher percentage of positive evaluations (84%) than TV (73%). Respondents think it
is coverage of local issues that distinguishes Palestinian TV and radio stations from others.
Programmes covering local issues are the preferred ones on these stations. Asked whether the
Palestinian broadcast media covers local issues objectively, the overall response was again
positive, with radio getting a slightly better percentage (68%) than TV (63%). However, in both
cases, around one third said they do not believe the coverage of local issues is objective. Of
these people, more than 60% said the main reason is political partisanship.

Ratings by Category

Respondents were asked to rate their trust in Palestinian and other categories of media on a
scale of 0 to 10. Palestinian media scored 6.7 out of 10, compared with only 5.96 for Arab
media and 6.44 for international media. Only religious media scored higher than the Palestinian
media in terms of trust, with a score of 6.93.
This result is somewhat remarkable given the low audience ratings in this survey especially for
Palestinian TV stations.

Interviewees were also asked to evaluate on a scale of 0 to 10 the main categories of broadcast
media in the Palestinian territories: those supported by the Palestinian Authority; those that are
supported by Hamas; and those that are privately owned.

PA radio and TV are evaluated most positively with a score of 6.66 out of 10. They are followed
in second place by the privately owned media in the West Bank with a score of 6.11 out of 10.
However, both Hamas TV and radio and the private media in the Gaza Strip are evaluated
negatively by the public with scores of less than 5 out of 10.

Figure 52: Ranking of various media on a scale from 1 to 10

Palestinian media 6.7 out of 10

Arab media 5.96 out of 10


Trust
level Religious media 6.93 out of 10

International media 6.44 out of 10

PNA TV and Radio ( W.B.) 6.66 out of 10

Hamas TV (Aqsa) and Radio (Gaza) 4.33 out of 10


Evaluation
Private media (W.B.) 6.11 out of 10

Private media (Gaza) 4.59 out of 10

66
Asked how they rate the performance of Palestinian TV stations, 73% of respondents said it
was good or very good, 20% said it was average and only 7% said it was bad.

Figure 53: Evaluation of the performance of Palestinian TV stations

Very good (n=791)


31%
Very Bad (n=56)
2%
Bad (n=126)
5%

Average (n=498)
Good (n=1056) 20%
42%

As detailed in the table below, the performance of Palestinian TV stations is evaluated most
positively by respondents who are 55 and “I think that people feel that it is a national
older.33 In addition, a higher percentage of obligation to evaluate local stations
West Bank residents (77%) than those in the
positively, it is more related to support than
Gaza Strip (68%) evaluated the performance
to actual evaluation.” (Yousef, 47 , male
of Palestinian TV stations positively.
focus participant from Gaza)

Table 55: Evaluation of the performance of Palestinian TV stations: according to age, region of residence,
and gender
Age of respondent Region of residence Gender
West Gaza
18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 >=55 Male Female
Bank Strip
Good 71% 73% 73% 74% 81% 77% 68% 70% 76%
Average 22% 19% 20% 20% 14% 19% 22% 20% 19%
Bad 8% 8% 7% 4% 4% 4% 10% 10% 5%

In general, Palestinian radio stations are evaluated more positively than Palestinian TV stations,
as 84% of the public said their performance was either “very good” (39%) or “good” (45%).
Focus group discussions suggest Palestinian radio stations are generally viewed as more
independent than TV stations.

33
For ease of analysis, the categories of “very good” and “good” have been merged into one
category (“good”) in the table. The same has been done for the categories of “bad” and “very bad”.

67
Figure 54: Evaluation of the performance of Palestinian radio stations

Very good (n=622)


39% Very Bad (n=17)
1%
Bad (n=35)
2%

Average (n=208)
13%

Good (n=710)
45%

The performance of Palestinian radio stations is viewed more positively in the West Bank than
in the Gaza Strip, as was the case for TV. As detailed below,34 87% of West Bankers view the
performance of Palestinian radio stations as positive, compared with 79% of Gazans. In the
southern part of the Gaza Strip, respondents are also slightly less positive in their evaluation
than in the northern part of the Strip.

Table 56: Evaluation of the performance of Palestinian radio stations: according to region and sub-region
of residence.
Region of residence Sub-region of residence
West Bank

Middle WB
Gaza Strip

South WB
North WB

South GZ
North GZ
Good 87% 79% 88% 88% 85% 81% 77%
Average 11% 17% 10% 9% 12% 15% 19%
Bad 3% 4% 3% 3% 3% 5% 4%

4. What distinguishes local stations

Interviewees were asked to select from a list of options what they think distinguishes Palestinian
TV stations from other TV stations. It is clear from the results that a majority turn to Palestinian
stations for coverage of local news and local politics.

As illustrated in the figure below, a 64% of the respondents said that local news distinguishes
Palestinian TV stations from other TV stations, and another 8% pointed to coverage of local
politics.

There are no marked differences according to subgroups under study in this survey.

34
For ease of analysis, the categories of “very good” and “good” have been merged into one
category: “good” in the table. The same has been done for the categories of “bad” and “very bad”.

68
Figure 55: Perceptions of what distinguishes Palestinian TV stations from other TV stations
Other issues (n=77) Educational, health (n=53)
3% 2%

Entertainment (n=84)
Nothing (n=188) 3%
8%
Religious issues (n=68)
3%

Cultural issues (n=171)


7%

World politics (n=62)


2%

Local politics (n=198)


8%

Local news (n=1582)


64%

A similar pattern emerged when interviewees were asked what distinguishes Palestinian radio
stations from other stations. A majority, albeit a smaller one than for TV, believes it is coverage
of local news (54%) and local politics (8%) that
sets Palestinian radio stations apart from other “Palestinian economic life is absent in local
stations. However, a larger percentage of stations and rarely covered.”
respondents believe that Palestinian radio “I don't see coverage for Palestinian talents
stations distinguish themselves from other on local media outlets.”
stations through their coverage of cultural
issues (10%) and entertainment news (9%). (Focus group participants, Nablus)

These findings are portrayed in the below


figure. Once again, no consistent and significant differences were detected in the opinions on
this issue between the different subgroups used in the analysis for this study.’

Figure 56: Perceptions of what distinguishes Palestinian radio stations from other stations

Educational, health (n=43)


Other issues (n=55)
3%
3%
Entertainment (n=144)
9%
Nothing (n=67)
4%
Religious issues (n=77)
5%
Cultural issues (n=163)
10%

World politics (n=60)


Local news (n=861) 4%
54% Local politics (n=134)
8%

69
5. Preferred programmes

Given the results outlined above, it is perhaps not surprising that people's preferred
programmes on Palestinian TV stations are those that cover Palestinian news and local issues.
As illustrated in the figure below, preferred programmes on Palestinian TV stations are either
the news (36%) or programmes that deal with Palestinian politics (16%) or municipal and local
issues (20%).

Figure 57: Preferred programs on Palestinian TV stations

Others (n=113)
5%
Municipal/local issues (n=509)
20%
News (n=910)
36%
Religious programs (n=189)
8%
Entertainment (n=313)
13%
Palestinian politics (n=408) World politics (n=52)
16% 2%

The results indicate some differences between different subgroups. For example, there is a
more pronounced preference in the West Bank than in the Gaza Strip for watching the news
and programmes that deal with municipal and local issues. In the Gaza Strip, on the other hand,
religious programmes, entertainment programmes and those dealing with world politics seem to
be slightly more popular than in the West Bank.

The results also indicate that preference for watching news on Palestinian TV stations is most
pronounced among people aged 55 and over (50%) and less pronounced among the young,
especially 18 to 24 year olds (32%). conversely, a considerably higher percentage of 18 to 24
year olds (17%) than those aged 55 and over (6%) prefer to watch entertainment programmes
on Palestinian TV stations.

Finally, the results in the table below also show that a higher proportion of men than women like
to watch the news and programmes dealing with politics, while entertainment and religious
programmes are more of a preference among women than men.

Table 57: Preferred programs on Palestinian TV stations: according to region of residence, age, and
gender.
Region of residence Age of respondent Gender
West Bank

Gaza Strip

Female
18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

>=55

Male

News 38% 33% 32% 33% 37% 40% 50% 38% 35%
Palestinian politics 16% 16% 15% 17% 18% 17% 14% 19% 14%
World politics 1% 4% 2% 3% 2% 1% 2% 2% 2%
Entertainment 11% 15% 17% 13% 12% 8% 6% 11% 14%
Religious programs 6% 9% 7% 7% 8% 9% 8% 6% 10%
Municipal and local 21% 22% 20% 21% 16% 20% 20%
23% 17%
issues

70
Others 4% 6% 5% 5% 4% 4% 4% 4% 5%

As for preferred programmes on Palestinian radio stations, the results indicate a bigger majority
of respondents than for TV preferring entertainment programmes (26%) at the expense of news
(25%), Palestinian politics (11%) and programmes on local issues (18%).

Figure 58: Preferred programs on Palestinian radio stations

Others (n=155)
9%
News (n=441) Municipal/local issues (n=314)
25% 18%
Religious programs (n=166)
Palestinian politics (n=191)
9%
11%
Entertainment (n=471)
26%
World politics (n=56)
3%

Results according to sub groups are shown in the two tables below, and provide a picture of
who is most likely to listen to which type of programme on Palestinian radio stations.
For example, the news is most likely to be followed on Palestinian radio stations by men (27%),
and least likely by 18 to 24 year olds (17%). Programmes dealing with Palestinian politics are
again most likely to be followed by men (13%), plus Gazans (13%) and people who are 55 or
older (19%). As for entertainment programmes, these are most liked by 18 to 24 year olds
(41%), but also women (29%), Westbankers (29%) and those with incomes above the poverty
line (28%). They are least liked by refugee camp residents (21%).
Religious programmes are most preferred by women (12%), Gazans (11%), refugee camp
residents (14%), and Palestinians with a monthly household income below the poverty line
(12%). Finally, programmes on Palestinian radio stations that deal with municipal and local
issues are most preferred in the West Bank (20%) and among Palestinians with an average
monthly household income above the poverty line (20%).

Table 58: Preferred programs on Palestinian radio stations: according to age and gender.
Age of respondent Gender
Female
18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

>=55

Male

News 17% 23% 31% 29% 28% 27% 22%


Palestinian politics 11% 10% 8% 11% 19% 13% 8%
World politics 2% 4% 4% 2% 5% 4% 2%
Entertainment 41% 25% 20% 20% 15% 24% 29%
Religious programs 6% 8% 11% 14% 10% 7% 12%
Municipal and local issues 15% 19% 18% 18% 15% 18% 17%
Others 8% 11% 7% 7% 8% 7% 11%

Table 59: Preferred programs on Palestinian radio stations: according to region and area of residence,
and poverty status.

71
Region of residence Area of residence Poverty

West Bank

Gaza Strip

Above the
Below the
Refugee

poverty

poverty
Village

camp
City

line

line
News 24% 25% 25% 24% 23% 27% 24%
Palestinian politics 9% 13% 10% 11% 13% 11% 11%
World politics 3% 3% 4% 2% 2% 3% 3%
Entertainment 29% 22% 28% 26% 21% 23% 28%
Religious programs 8% 11% 8% 10% 14% 12% 7%
Municipal and local issues 20% 14% 17% 19% 18% 15% 20%
Others 6% 12% 9% 9% 9% 10% 7%

6. Objectivity of Local Coverage

Respondents were also asked whether they think local issues are covered objectively on
Palestinian TV and radio stations. These results are worth examining, especially given the
preference expressed for programmes dealing with local issues, and the majority view that it is
local issues that distinguish Palestinian stations from others.

In the case of Palestinian TV stations, an overall majority of 63% believes their coverage is
objective. The remaining 37% believes that it is not.

Figure 59: Attitude about whether Palestinian TV stations cover local issues objectively
Not objective (n=892)
37%

Objective (n=1502)
63%

As detailed in the two tables below, people’s views on the matter diverge quite substantially
between sub groups. The highest proportion of people who believe that Palestinian TV stations
cover local issues objectively can be found among Palestinians aged 55 and over (71%). In
addition, a higher percentage of women (67%) than men (58%) share this view. People in the
Gaza Strip (52%) and in refugee camps (56%) are the least convinced that Palestinian TV
stations cover local issues objectively.

Table 60: Attitude about whether Palestinian TV stations cover local issues objectively: according to age
and gender.
Age of respondent Gender
18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 >=55 Male Female
Objective 64% 60% 62% 63% 71% 58% 67%
Not objective 36% 40% 38% 37% 29% 42% 33%

72
Table 61: Attitude about whether Palestinian TV stations cover local issues objectively; according to
region and area of residence.
Region of residence Area of residence
West Bank Gaza Strip City Village Refugee camp
Objective 70% 52% 63% 64% 56%
Not objective 30% 48% 37% 36% 44%

Of the 37% of the public who believe that local news is not covered objectively on Palestinian
TV stations, a majority of 62% blames political partisanship. In addition, 12% put the blame on
self-censorship, 9% on lack of professionalism, 6% on financial restrictions, and 4% on lack of
incentives.

Figure 60: Reasons for lack of objectivity in the coverage of local news on TV

Political partisanship
62%

Objective
(n=1502)
63% Self-censorship
(n=892)
Not objective
37%
12%

Other reasons
8%
Financial restrictions Lack of incentive
6% 4%

Lack of professionalis
Those who believe that the 9%
coverage is not objective

As seen in the two tables below, some sub-groups of Palestinian society are more likely than
others to blame political partisanship for Palestinian TV stations' lack of objectivity in covering
local news. For example, men are more likely to do so than women, Gazans more than
Westbankers, and refugee camp dwellers more than those living elsewhere. Among the
different age groups, Palestinians aged 55 and older are least likely to blame political
partisanship.
Table 62: Reasons for lack of objectivity in the coverage of local news on TV: according to age and gender.
Age of respondent Gender
18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 >=55 Male Female
Self-censorship 12% 9% 14% 8% 15% 9% 15%
Political partisanship 60% 60% 54% 57% 45% 60% 52%
Financial restrictions 5% 10% 7% 5% 11% 7% 9%
Lack of professionalism and training 9% 9% 10% 11% 12% 10% 9%
Lack of incentive 7% 3% 6% 6% 5% 5% 7%
Other reasons 6% 9% 9% 14% 12% 9% 9%

Table 63: Reasons for lack of objectivity in the coverage of local news on TV: according to region and area of

73
residence.
Region of residence Area of residence
Refugee
West Bank Gaza Strip City Village
camp
Self-censorship 17% 7% 12% 13% 5%
Political partisanship 56% 57% 57% 54% 63%
Financial restrictions 5% 10% 8% 7% 6%
Lack of professionalism and training 8% 11% 10% 9% 10%
Lack of incentive 5% 6% 5% 6% 5%
Other reasons 10% 8% 8% 10% 11%

When asked if Palestinian radio stations cover local issues objectively, a slightly higher
percentage (68%) responded positively than for Palestinian TV (63%). The perceived reasons
for the lack of objectivity by Palestinian radio in dealing with local issues are very similar in
proportion. Once again, political partisanship (67%) is blamed most, followed at a distance by
self-censorship (10%), lack of professionalism (7%), financial restrictions (6%), and lack of
incentives (3%).

Figure 61: Attitude about whether Palestinian radio stations cover local issues objectively and the reasons for lack
of objectivity
Political partisanship
67%

Not objective
(n=490)
(n=1060) 32%
Objective
68%
Self-censorship
10%
Other reasons
6%
Financial restrictions
Lack of incentive
6%
3%

Lack of professionalis
7%
Those who believe
coverage is not objective

As with TV, belief that coverage is objective is weaker in the Gaza Strip (56%) than in the West
Bank (77%). It is also weaker in refugee camps (56%) than in cities (69%) and villages (73%);
and weaker among men (65%) than women (72%). Of all sub-groups under study, people in the
northern Gaza Strip have the lowest level of belief (53%) that Palestinian radio stations'
coverage of local issues is objective.

Table 64: Attitude about whether Palestinian radio stations cover local issues objectively: according to region and
area of residence, and gender.
Region of residence Area of residence Gender
Refugee
West Bank Gaza Strip City Village Male Female
camp
Objective 77% 56% 69% 73% 56% 65% 72%
Not objective 23% 44% 31% 27% 44% 35% 28%

74
Table 65: Attitude about whether Palestinian radio stations cover local issues objectively: according to
sub-region of residence
Sub-region
North WB Middle WB South WB North GZ South GZ
Objective 78% 74% 77% 53% 60%
Not objective 22% 26% 23% 47% 40%

As for perceived reasons for lack of objectivity, political partisanship is most blamed by men,
refugee camp residents, and Gazans, especially residents of the northern Gaza Strip. Among
the different age groups, people aged 55-plus blame political partisanship least. However,
people of 55 and over are the subgroup that puts most blame on lack of professionalism and
proper training.

Table 66: Reasons for lack of objectivity in the coverage of local news on Palestinian radio stations:
according to age and gender
Age of respondent Gender

Female
18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

>=55

Male
Self-censorship 11% 8% 16% 8% 10% 9% 13%
Political partisanship 61% 69% 62% 58% 34% 62% 59%
Financial restrictions 4% 6% 10% 11% 10% 7% 7%
Lack of professionalism and proper training 8% 3% 3% 11% 22% 7% 7%
Lack of incentive 6% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 6%
Other reasons 11% 9% 6% 9% 19% 11% 8%

Table 67: Reasons for lack of objectivity in the coverage of local news on Palestinian radio stations:
according to region and area of residence
Region of residence Area of residence
Refugee
West Bank Gaza Strip City Village
camp
Self-censorship 18% 6% 10% 18% 4%
Political partisanship 58% 63% 61% 57% 67%
Financial restrictions 5% 9% 8% 5% 7%
Lack of professionalism and 5% 8% 8% 3% 7%
proper training
Lack of incentive 3% 5% 4% 6% 3%
Other reasons 11% 9% 8% 11% 13%

Table 68: Reasons for lack of objectivity in the coverage of local news on Palestinian radio stations:
according to sub-region of residence
Sub-region of residence
North WB Middle WB South WB North GZ South GZ
Self-censorship 14% 18% 21% 5% 7%
Political partisanship 51% 61% 61% 71% 55%
Financial restrictions 6% 1% 7% 3% 15%
Lack of professionalism and training 11% 4% 2% 7% 9%
Lack of incentive 5% 3% 2% 4% 7%
Other reasons 14% 14% 7% 11% 7%

75
VII. JOURNALISM TRAINING IN THE PALESTINIAN TERRITORIES

Introduction

Training and capacity building in the media sector has been and still is of great interest to a
number of local and international organizations working in Palestine. Upgrading media
professionals is critical in the development of societies. The better the media professionals, the
more likely it is for the relations between the governed and decision makers to improve.
Moreover, media training will enable journalists to prepare themselves to respond swiftly and
professionally to all types of issues, crises or problems confronting the Palestinians.

Another reason for the increasing interest in journalism training is the growing number of media
organizations that have been established in recent years. As the number of media outlets has
doubled, so the level of international funding for training activities has risen. Many donor funded
training activities now have a specific focus such as women's issues, youth, elections, and
promotion of democracy.

In the following pages, an attempt will be made to assess the media training situation in
Palestine. Little specific documentation currently exists in this field. The information contained in
this chapter is derived from two main sources: information provided by media organizations
themselves in media mapping questionnaires returned to NEC; telephone and face to face
interviews with experts and actors involved in media training in Palestine.

Of those media organizations that answered questionnaires for NEC's media mapping survey,
11 said they work in the training field in the OPT. Five of them said they are NGOs, and six are
private or semi-private organizations. The latter include the media centres of Al Quds and Bir
Zeit universities, known as IMM and MDC respectively. The majority of these organizations are
based in the West Bank and only one is located in the Gaza Strip35.

Background on Media Training in Palestine

The first activities in media training go back to the early 1990s, particularly following the Madrid
Peace Conference in 1991 when the late President Yasser Arafat ordered the establishment of
what was then known as the “technical committees”. The committees included Palestinian
experts in all fields, including the media sector.

The purpose of these committees was to establish an administrative and professional


infrastructure for the Palestinian Authority that was to take control of the administration of all
fields in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.

The establishment of these committees was also linked to an international decision to finance
the capacities of the Palestinians who would be involved in public administration, including the
media sector of the Palestinian Authority. International funding has continued to be a major
factor driving the media training environment since that time.

35
The NGOs are AMIN, Maan Network, PYALARA, Sharek Youth Forum and Wattan TV station.
The private organizations are the Institute for Modern Media (IMM), Media Development Center (MDC),
Media Net, Al Mashreq for media, Al Neda Media center and Wide Media.

76
The establishment of the first local Palestinian Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) was of great
interest to international funders who provided equipment and training and helped to shape the
PBC as the first media training organization in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Finland was the
first country to embark on equipping media organizations and the training of media
professionals in Palestine.

Teams of local media professionals and foreign media experts began training the staff of PBC.
This training was also opened to other Palestinian journalists, such as those who returned to
Palestine after the establishment of the Palestinian Authority with experience of working as
correspondents, producers and so on for Arab and international media outlets, or for the PLO.

A. Universities

Academic Courses and University Training Centres

Several universities in Palestine offer Bachelor's degree courses in journalism, notably Al Quds
in Jerusalem (http://www.alquds.edu), Bir Zeit near Ramallah (http://www.birzeit.edu) and Al-
Najah in Nablus (http://www.najah.edu). Hebron University in Hebron
(http://www.hebron.edu)These universities also have their own media centres offering additional
courses, practical training and resources. The PA Ministry of Higher Education provides a small
percentage of funding for the universities in Palestine, otherwise they are largely dependent on
students' fees, private funds and international organizations who support specific projects at the
universities.

Media Development Center at Bir Zeit University

Bir Zeit University's Media Development Center (MDC) was founded in 1996 as a Radio
Training Program, according to its website (http://www.birzeit.edu/institutes/media_dev), and
has subsequently expanded its journalism activities. Today, the Institute offers academic
programs leading to Bachelor of Arts degrees in Journalism and Radio (under the academic
supervision of the Faculty of Arts), as well as professional diplomas and short-term courses (30
to 60 hours for each course) in TV, Radio and Print Journalism. The number of participants
(graduate students and professionals) is usually around 16 for each course. MDC's trainers are
qualified local, regional and international experts, according to Amani Saleh, coordinator of the
print media unit at MDC (interview with NEC March 2011).

Bir Zeit's MDC has allowed it to enhance its academic programs with practical applications,
notably a students' newspaper and a radio station, on which programs produced by students
are broadcast for a few hours a day. This radio station broadcasts on 94.6 FM in Ramallah and
the surrounding area. Under a 2007 cooperation agreement, the frequency is now occupied
mainly by Radio Monte Carlo Doualiya, the Arabic language subsidiary of Radio France
Internationale. This cooperation agreement also provides that RMC Doualiya will assist Bir Zeit
with “equipment and training sessions in the coming years,” according to the website of the
French Consulate in Jerusalem.

MDC also has a fully equipped TV training unit. It says the TV unit started conducting training
courses in November 2000, “towards the eventual development of a complete undergraduate
program in the field”.

77
Bir Zeit's MDC says one of its aims is to encourage the development of independent media and
related technical skills of local residents and civic organizations. To this end it says its facilities
are “made accessible to grassroots organizations and individuals from the community and the
Institute offers various workshops, seminars and professional diplomas for individuals working in
this field”.

The MDC relies quite heavily on international funding to support its activities. Donors include the
Swedish international development agency SIDA and UN agencies such as UNESCO. It also
seeks partnerships with local and international media institutes and organizations to enhance its
education and training programmes. For example, it has called on the expertise of the Swedish
Journalists Institute (FOYU) to help train a corps of Palestinian media trainers. It also partners
with local media organizations to place journalism trainees in internships. However, according to
an expert at UNESCO, this is often a problem owing to lack of capacity of local media
organizations.

The Institute for Modern Media (IMM) of Al Quds University

The Institute for Modern Media (IMM) of Al Quds University (http://www.imm.ps) has been
involved in media training since 1997 and has three units: Al-Quds Educational Television; the
Academic Media Department; and Community Services. Although part of Al Quds university in
Jerusalem, the IMM is based in Ramallah, meaning that it is easier for Palestinians to access.

Through the Academic Media Department it offers BA degrees in print journalism, television,
cinema and visual communications, as well as a general degree in media. Media
undergraduates spend the first two years based in the Abu Dis campus (Jerusalem
governorate) where they study “all the general university requirements, such as critical thinking
and cultural studies,” according to the IMM website. Thereafter they move to the IMM in
Ramallah where they are given “intensive practical training in television production, graphic
design, cinema production, interviewing etc., with opportunities for the most talented to work as
interns with the AQTV and to become involved professionally”.

IMM says it also focuses on capacity building for all professionals in the field of media. In
partnership with international cultural and diplomatic institutions such as the Goethe Institute,
the French Consulate and the BBC, it organizes training workshops in specialized areas such
as lighting and sound, script writing, production and news writing.

As mentioned above, IMM owns Al Quds Educational TV and their practical training component
is done in conjunction with BBC and Al Jazeera Media Training and Development Center36.
AQTV focuses mainly on programmes for Palestinian children, as well as women and youth
(http://www.imm.ps/qtv.php)

Projects implemented by AQTV have been supported by a number of international donors,


including the European Commission.

Journalism Training at Al-Najah University

Al-Najar national university in Nablus offers a BA programme in Journalism within its


Department of Journalism and Mass Media. The course content can be found on the university
website (http://www.najah.edu/page/852). It is largely academic, although does contain a
practical training component. The university says the practical training has to be done “at any

36
Interview with Ghadeer El Kishek, the administrative director at IMM, March 2011

78
media/ communication agencies and should be consistent with the student's major”. Al-Najah
university has recently established a Media Center which it hopes to develop in the future,
although it does not play a strong role at present.

Al-Najah also has its own radio station, funded by the University and run by employees with the
participation of students. The radio broadcasts round the clock and produces its own news. Its
focus is academic, cultural and social. The radio station has four transmitters in total, including
East Nablus, Tulkarem and Jenin. This allows it to cover the northern governorates of the West
Bank and nearby areas on the Israeli side of the Green Line.

Students participate in the production of some programmes. For example, they conduct
fieldwork and prepare some news reports but they present only one programme called
“Students' Activities”.

Hebron University

Hebron University also has a media department, a media centre and its own radio station, Radio
Alam, funded by the university. Radio Alam broadcasts 24 hours a day on 96.1 FM in the
Hebron area. Its programmes focus mainly on cultural, academic and social issues. The radio
station allows the students to train there on, for example, presentation skills and preparing
programs. (Interview with Maram Al Shareef, Radio Alam, 13/4/2011).

The media centre, established in 2008, offers practical and academic course components,
mainly for students of the university and sometimes for journalists from local broadcasters such
as Radio Marah, Radio Al Hurrieh and Al Amal TV.

The practical components focus on production, lighting techniques, photography and other
media skills. (Interview with Samer Tahboub, media centre at Hebron University, 13/4/2011)

B. Palestinian NGOs

The bulk of media training activities in the Palestinian Territories are carried out by local and
international NGOs. Some limited training activities are also offered by commercial Palestinian
enterprises involved in media services and consulting. In addition, Al Jazeera has a training
centre in Gaza, the Al Jazeera Media Training and Development Center, which offers free
training courses for media graduates and journalists all over the West Bank. It holds about four
courses per year of 60 to 120 hours, in fields such as photography, production and report
writing, according to the Center's Mohammad Thabet.

As NGOs are largely reliant on outside funding for their activities, training programmes often
have a specific donor-driven focus. NEC’s survey of media organizations showed that most of
their training activities have a specific focus such as election coverage, gender issues or youth
issues.

According to NEC's media mapping exercise, the following Palestinian NGOs are involved in
media training activities:

79
Arab Media Internet Networks (AMIN)

According to Director Khaled Abu Aker37, AMIN’s mission is to strengthen the role of media in
enhancing good governance and public participation. After 1997, AMIN started to emphasize
media training. First, training focused on local TV stations that were manned by amateurs who
lacked technical expertise. Soon after, training efforts included the provision of training for local
radio stations as well as for civil society organizations. AMIN is located in Ramallah. It holds
about 25 to 30 media courses per year for about 15 journalists, with a focus on report writing,
radio broadcasting and media coverage of social issues (e.g. issues affecting women, children
and youth. Each course lasts for about 3 to 6 months. AMIN trainers are experienced
professionals with BA and MA degrees in media38.

Maan Network

Maan Network describes itself as a “non-profit media organization founded in 2002 to


strengthen professional independent media in Palestine, build links between local, regional and
international media, and consolidate freedom of expression and media pluralism”. Its activities
include television, video, and radio production; and training courses for Palestinian journalists
and media personnel. The Network includes an online news agency
(http://www.maannews.net/eng/), launched in 2005 with initial funding from Denmark and the
Netherlands.

Radio stations in the Maan Network are: Marah in Hebron, Mawwal in Bethlehem, Al Qamar in
Jericho, Amwaj in Ramallah, Nablus in Nablus, Nagham in Qalqilia, Kul El Nas in Tulkarem, Al
Balad in Jenin, Al Shamal in Salfeet, Tubas FM in Tubas.

The TV stations are; Al Amal in Hebron, Bethlehem in Bethlehem, Al Quds educational TV in


Ramallah, Amwaj in Ramallah, Nablus in Nablus, Qalqilia in Qalqilia, Al Salam in Tulkarem,
Farah in Jenin.

Most Maan trainers come from the BBC, Al Jazeera, and from Maan itself. Maan conducts
about 15 training courses per year in photography and production, as well as reporting on
human rights and good governance, for about 150 students and journalists. Participants come
from different governorates of the West Bank. Training has a strong practical component39.

Wattan TV

Wattan TV in Ramallah started training courses in 2009, with support from UNESCO, the
Belgian Consulate and the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF).
DCAF's media involvement focuses on civil society capacity building on security sector issues.

Wattan TV's training activities are open to journalists from other media as well as its own
employees. According to its director Muamar Orabi, the media training center of Wattan TV
holds about 10 to 12 courses each year in different topics that include capacity building, global
mass media, human rights and environmental reporting. The duration of each course is about
30 hours for no more than 12 persons in each course. According to Muamar Orabi, training is
practically oriented, involving Wattan's various TV programmes and its website. 40

37
Interview in February 2011
38
Interview with Khaled Aker, director of AMIN, March 2011
39
Interview with Osama Al Gafary, director of the research unit at Maan, March 2011
40
Interview with Moamar Orabi, director of Wattan TV, March 2011

80
Youth Organizations

Pyalara (http://www.pyalara.org) is the Palestinian Youth Forum for Leadership and Rights
Activiation. It describes itself as “an independent Palestinian youth organization that seeks to
create young Palestinian leaders who are aware of their rights and duties as equal citizens,
capable of incurring social and political change, and effectively participate in building a
democratic society through specialized media, lobbying and advocacy”. Part of its activities are
geared specifically to youth media, and it has been running training courses since 2002. It
conducts about four courses a year in visual, photography and print media. According to
Pyalara, each course lasts for 2 to 3 months for about 25 school students and colleges. The
trainers are staff from Pyalara. Their monthly newsapaper the Youth Times, and their own TV
programme, broadcast on Palestine TV, involve these trainees41. The program is called "Ali
Soutak".

Donors include the European Commission, Cordaid and Save the Children UK, according to
Pyalara's website. TV production was started with cooperation from the United Nations
Children's Fund UNICEF and Palestine TV (Palestinian Broadcasting Corporation).

Sharek Youth Forum (http://www.sharek.ps) describes itself as an independent Palestinian


organization which “strives to get the voice of youth heard, and acts as a platform for advocacy
on social, economic, cultural and political youth issues”. It was established in 1996 at which time
it was funded by the Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC) and the United Nations
Development Program/ Program of Assistance to the Palestinian People (UNDP /PAPP).
Sharek then gained its autonomy in July 2004 when it registered with the Palestinian Ministry of
Interior as a non- governmental organization with charitable status.

Sharek recently started conducting training courses on new media, democracy and human
rights. About eight courses, of 30 hours each, were completed in 2010 for 150 postgraduate
students. In cooperation with the trainees, Sharek Youth Forum produces a periodical every two
months entitled "the Youth Participation" and they broadcast nine programs on local TV and
radio stations. The trainers in Sharek Youth Forum are professionals working in local TV and
radio stations. Bader Zamareh, the director of Sharek Youth Forum, claimed that about one-half
of the students find working opportunities afterwards42.
Sharek projects are supported by a wide range of international donors, including UN agencies.
On November 30, 2010, Hamas authorities closed all of its Gaza offices, drawing protests from
the UN and human rights organizations.

C. International NGOs

A number of international NGOs are also involved in media training activities in Palestine. They
include:

Internews

Internews is a US-based NGO working around the world to promote media development. It is
specialized in the training of media professionals, especially in broadcast journalism. Internews
responsible for implementing one of the largest media development projects in Palestine, the

41
Interview with Hamdy Hammareh, director of monitoring and development unit at Pyalara, March
2011
42
Interview with Bader Zamareh, director of Sharek Youth Forum, March 2011

81
“Aswatona” project. This project was launched in the West Bank and Gaza Strip in 2006, with a
grant from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). During the four-
years of the Aswatona Project (2006-2010), Internews trained approximately 290 working
journalists, media managers and owners of media outlets in various professional techniques
and fields43.

The Aswatona team worked in close coordination with local independent radio and television
stations, as well as local civil society organizations (CSOs) throughout the West Bank and
Gaza.

The goal of Aswatona: Independent Media Program in the West Bank and Gaza was to
enhance the role of local independent broadcast media in their local communities by
strengthening reporting, enhancing business sustainability, and improving program production
related to issues of local policies, good governance, civil society, and the aspects of democratic
culture in the West Bank and Gaza.

The three main components of the Aswatona project were:

1. Strengthening the local media by creating self-sustaining business models, enhancing


reporting and production capabilities, and skill-building on investigative and issue-
specific journalism, and re-connecting the media outlets with their local communities by
reporting on and working with) on field reporting.

2. Strengthening the knowledge base and awareness of the media and CSOs regarding
each other’s work, as well as strengthening the legal and regulatory sector that govern
the media, and strengthening the networking and informal association of the media
sector in order to professionalize the field.

3. Funding innovative program productions combined with training to build more


cooperative, responsive and professional production capabilities, and implementing a
small grants program focused on CSOs’ communications and work with the media and
community outreach.

BBC World Service Trust

The BBC World Service Trust describes itself as the BBC's international charity. It is funded by
external grants and voluntary contributions, mainly from the UK's Department for International
Development (DFID), the European Union, UN agencies and charitable foundations, according
to the website (http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/trust). It receives a small amount of core
support from the BBC (both in kind and cash).

The BBC World Service Trust received funding for a two-year media support project in the
Palestinian Territories from 2008 to 2010, with a human rights and governance focus. Funders
included the European Union and Denmark. According to its website, the project included media
professionals in television, radio and print, and also involved a partnership with the International
Federation of Journalists (IFJ). Activities included: five media dialogue events; 15 working group
meetings to make recommendations on a more effective journalist association; training and
consultation workshops for 160 media professionals; a training course for 40 media trainers;
online learning, discussion and networking, broadcast debates on media roles and
responsibilities; and development of a handbook of best journalistic practice.

43
Interview with Julia Pitner, Chief of Party Internews Network, January 2011.

82
Search for Common Ground

Search for Common Ground (SFCG) is a US-based international NGO focusing on peace
building and confict prevention. According to its website (http://www.sfcg.org), SFCG “works to
transform the way the world deals with conflict - away from adversarial approaches and towards
collaborative problem solving. We use a multi-faceted approach, employing media initiatives
and working with local partners in government and civil society, to find culturally appropriate
means to strengthen societies' capacity to deal with conflicts constructively”.

SFCG's Jerusalem based programme includes “developing independent media, using the
media to discuss critical issues, convening regional dialogues and building regional cooperation,
and encouraging local capacity building”. Funding comes mainly from the US, EU, Belgium.

Challenges

Media experts interviewed for this study say that while there has been progress, the quality of
media professionalism in the OPTs remains flimsy despite the considerable donor funding that
has been spent on media training in the past decade. Training institutions such as Bir Zeit's
MDC complain of two main problems: difficulties in reaching media decision makers and editors;
and the fact that funding institutions are often more interested in quantity than quality.

With regard to the first problem, the media centres of Al Quds and Al-Najah universities say that
not only is it difficult to involve editors and publishers in training, but that decision makers in
media outlets often prevent their journalists from applying what they have learned in training.
Media expert Khalil Shaheen agrees. He says that training often does not yield results because
the trainees are confronted and challenged by their editors and seniors.

Shaheen is generally rather sceptical about media training in Palestine, saying that it also tends
to be determined by the agenda of the funders and not by the needs of journalists and the
media profession. Abdallah Abdul Rahim, former coordinator of the print media unit at Bir Zeit
University, agrees. “Journalism training was never a purely Palestinian endeavour but foreign in
all respects and subject to donor agendas,” he says. Shaheen says funding priorities for media
training programmes have tended to change with the political environment. At certain times, for
example, when elections and democracy were of concern, media training concentrated on these
issues. During the Intifada, the focus was on the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and now it has
shifted to gender issues and social networking.

According to Abdul Rahim and Nibal Thawabteh, current director of Bir Zeit's Media
Development Center, other challenges to the effectiveness of media training also include:

1. Organizers and trainers often lack adequate qualifications and experience


2. The majority of training courses are not structured according to actual media
requirements
3. Media training organizations often copy each other's syllabuses
4. There is no coordination between the media training organizations, which leads to
duplication
5. Rarely do training courses include a strong practical component.
6. Absence of good journalism training manuals
7. Certain courses mix up trainees with different levels of skills
8. Low level of participation of women journalists
9. Lack of organizations carrying out media training in the Gaza Strip

83
VIII. CONCLUSION

Ironically, consecutive political domination over the Palestinian people in the past ten decades
has promoted plurality in the Palestinian media. Even in the aftermath of Oslo and the
establishment of the Palestinian Authority, the level of plurality has remained substantive
because of the nature of the Palestinian political system and the influence of Palestinian civil
society organizations.

Indeed, the number of media organizations in Palestine has proliferated. While the print media
has remained relatively small, the number of audiovisual media organizations has mushroomed.
These organizations face many challenges including restrictions, threats and harassment from
both the Israeli and Palestinian sides; lack of financial rewards; and in most cases only a small
base of listeners and viewers. These organizations nevertheless continue to function until now.

Some of the reasons behind low audiences and limited profitability are related to lack of
professionalism, unwillingness to cover local news, and competition from other media and the
Internet. International satellite TV channels are the sources of information most trusted by the
Palestinian people, followed by Palestinian TV and radio stations and the Internet. The influence
of the Internet, including social media, is rapidly expanding and is now the most trusted source
of information among the youth.

Nevertheless, despite the weakness of most local broadcasters, most Palestinians say they will
follow local TV and radio stations if they cover local issues and needs properly and if they
improve the quality of their production.

The Palestinian media has undergone serious and difficult challenges in its one hundred year
history. Since Oslo, new realities have surfaced and there are many positive developments.
Laws have been introduced on freedom of information, freedom of starting media organizations,
gathering and accessing information. New legal instruments are under consideration by the
Palestinian Authority, and emphasis on media training has grown. Despite the legal, political
and traditional challenges that continue to confront media organizations, the room for change is
there; especially if media organizations and journalists work on boosting their levels of
professionalism and putting audience needs first.

84
IX. RECOMMENDATIONS

These recommendations were drawn up in consultation with media professionals working in


Palestine, notably during workshops held in Ramallah on March 3, 2011.

To Media Organizations:

1. Put audience needs first by researching and responding to them on a regular basis and
encouraging audience feedback.

2. Build audience trust by catering to their needs in a way that is independent and
professional.

3. Build financial and political independence. This could include looking for synergies and
cost reductions through mergers and partnerships in a crowded market where most
organizations are financially weak. It could also include looking for innovative ways to
generate revenue.

4. Develop a Code of Ethics and ensure that all staff are familiar with it.

5. Develop measures and initiatives to strengthen journalist security.

6. Develop training and capacity building for journalists and directors.

7. Build investigative reporting.

8. Build diverse programming that includes features and human interest stories, not just
focusing on people as victims and numbers.

To Donors and Training Organizations:

1. Ensure that funding for media training and other media projects is based on the needs of
the sector and not on other donor priorities.

2. Ensure that training and other media-related projects are evaluated in terms of impact
and quality rather than quantity.

3. Create an objective training environment.

4. Ensure that training has a strong practical component in a real media environment such
as a newsroom.

5. Promote ways to improve the skills of local trainers.

6. Increase the participation of women journalists in technical courses and workshops.

7. Enhance and increase the capacity of media training organizations in the Gaza Strip.

85
To the Palestinian Authorities:

1. Publicly denounce attacks on the press and ensure that members of the security forces
or other public servants involved in such attacks are held accountable.

2. Remove politically motivated bans on media outlets such as the newspapers Al Quds, Al
Ayyam, Al Hayat Al Jadida (banned in the Gaza Strip), Filasteen and Al-Risala (banned
in the West Bank).

3. Clarify and simplify the process for obtaining audiovisual licences.

4. Give priority to updating the media regulatory environment, in consultation with


representatives of the media sector and civil society.

86
X. ANNEXES

A. Audience Questionnaire
G General
G1 Normally do you follow 1. Always 3. Never G1
news in general? 2. Sometimes 4. 99.NA
G2 What is your most important 1. Local radio 7. Facebook/Twitter/etc G2
source of information? 2. Local TV 8. Friends and relatives
3. International TV 9. Religious and political
(satellite) personalities
4. Newspapers 10. Blogs
5. Internet 11.Other
6. SMS messages 99.DK/NA
G3 What is your most trusted 1. Local radio 7. Facebook/Twitter/etc G3
source of information? 2. Local TV 8. Friends and relatives
3. International TV 9. Religious and political
(satellite) personalities
4. Newspapers 10. Blogs
5. Internet 11. Other
6. SMS messages 12. None
99.DK/NA
J Media professionals J
J1 In your opinion, how free 1. Very free 4. Not free at all J1
are journalists in terms of 2. Free 99. DK/NA
information gathering? 3. Not free
J2 In your opinion, what is the 1. People and traditions 5. Political groups J2
main restriction on 2. Owners of media outlet 6. Israel
journalists? 3. The PA (Ramallah) 7. Others
4. The Hamas govt. in Gaza 8. None
9. All of the above
99. DK/NA
J3 On a scale from 0 to 10 with 0 means extremely bad, and 10 means excellent, In general, how J3
do you evaluate the journalists in terms of the following:
J3a Professionalism 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 88 99 J3a
J3b Objectivity 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 88 99 J3b
J3c Integrity 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 88 99 J3c
EM TV and Radio EM
Em1 Do you prefer radio or TV as 1. Radio 3. Neither Em1
a source for your general 2. TV 99. DK/NA
information?

Em2 With regard to TV, which do 1. Local TV 88. Not applicable Em2
you normally watch? 2. Satellite channel 99. DK/NA
3. Both of them
EM3 Which TV station did you (FROM LISTS) EM3
watch yesterday?
EM4 At what time did you 1. Between 6-9 am 5. Between 6-9 pm EM4
watch? 2.Between 9-12 am 6. Between 9 till the midnight
3. Between 12-3pm 7.Others
4. Between 3-6pm 8. Didn't watch TV yesterday
88. Not applicable
99.DK/NA
EM5 Where did you watch? 1. Home 5. Others EM5
2. Office 6. Didn't watch TV yesterday
3. Friends 88. Not applicable
4. Café 99.DK/NA
EM6 Which TV stations did you (FROM LISTS) EM6
watch this week?
EM7 Which TV station do you (FROM LISTS) EM7
trust most?
EM8 Which Radio station did (FROM LISTS) EM8
you listen to yesterday?

87
EM9 At what time did you listen? 1. Between 6-9 am 5. Between 6-9 pm EM9
2. Between 9-12 am 6. Between 9 till the midnight
3. Between 12-3pm 7.Others
4. Between 3-6pm 8. I didn't listen to radio yesterday
88. Not applicable
99.DK/NA
EM10 Where did you listen? 1. Home 4. Others EM10
2. Car 5. I didn't listen to radio yesterday
3. Office 88. Not applicable
99.DK/NA
EM11 Which Radio stations did (FROM LISTS) EM11
you listen to this week?
EM12 Which Radio station do you (FROM LISTS) EM12
trust most?
PM PRINT MEDIA
PM1 Generally speaking, do you 1. Daily 4. Once a month PM1
read newspapers? 2. 2-3 times per week 5. I do not read newspapers
3. Once a week 99.DK/NA
PM2 Reason for not reading 1. I do not like to read newspapers (lack of interest, no time) PM2
newspapers 2. I cannot find what I want of information
3. I do not have access to a newspaper
4. I cannot read
5. Other reason
88. Not applicable
99. DK/NA
PM3 Which newspapers do you 1. Al-Quds 5. Filasteen PM3
trust most? 2. Al-Ayyam 6. Others
3. Al-Hayatt al-Jadida 77.None
4. Al-Risala 88. I don’t read newspapers
99.DK/NA
PM4 Reason for reading 1. It is a habit 5. For local news PM4
newspapers 2. Mainly for international 6. For social news( death,
news marriages, business…etc)
3. Mainly for political 7. For more than one reason
views 8. Others
4. For economic news 88.Not applicable
99.DK/NA
PM5 How do you evaluate 1. Very good 5. Very bad PM5
Newspapers in covering 2. Good 88.Not applicable
local news? 3. Neutral 99.DK/NA
4. Bad
E Evaluation
E1 On average, how long do 1. Less than 2 hours 88. Not applicable E1
you watch TV stations? 2. 2-4 hours 99. DK/NA
3. More than four hours
E2 On average, how long do 1. Less than 2 hours 88. Not applicable E2
you listen to radio stations? 2. 2-4 hours 99. DK/NA
3. More than four hours
E3 In general, how do you rate 1. Very good 5. Very Bad E3
the performance of 2. Good 88. Not applicable
Palestinian TV stations? 3. Average 99. DK/NA
4. Bad
E4 In general, how do you rate 1. Very good 5. Very Bad E4
the performance of 2. Good 88. Not applicable
Palestinian radio stations? 3. Average 99. DK/NA
4. Bad
E5 In your opinion what 1. Coverage of local news 6. Coverage of entertainment issues E5
distinguishes Palestinian TV 2. Coverage of local politics 7. Educational, health
stations from other TV 3. Coverage of world politics 8. Other issues
4. Coverage of cultural issues 9. There is nothing to distinguish it
stations?
5. Coverage of religious issues 88.Not applicable
99. DK/NA
E6 In your opinion what 1. Coverage of local news 6. Coverage of entertainment E6
distinguishes Palestinian 2. Coverage of local politics issues
radio stations from other 3. Coverage of world politics 7. Educational, health
4. Coverage of cultural 8. Other issues
radio stations?
issues 9.There is nothing to distinguish it
5. Coverage of religious 88.Not applicable
issues 99. DK/NA
E7 What types of programs do 1. News 5. Religious programs E7
you like to watch on 2. Palestinian politics 6. Municipal and local issues

88
Palestinian TV stations? 3. World politics 7. Others
4. Entertainment 99. DK/NA
E8 What types of programs do 1. News 5. Religious programs
you like to listen to on 2. Palestinian politics 6. Municipal and local issues E8
Palestinian radio stations? 3. World politics 7. Others
4. Entertainment 99. DK/NA
E9 Do Palestinian TV stations 1. Yes E9
cover local issues 2. No
objectively 88. Not applicable
99. DK/NA
E10 What in your opinion is the 1. Self-censorship 5. Lack of incentive E10
main reason why this 2. Political partisanship 6. Other reasons
coverage is not objective? 3. Financial restrictions 7. The coverage is objective
4. Lack of professionalism 88. Not applicable
and proper training 99. DK/NA
E11 Do Palestinian Radio 1. Yes E11
stations cover local issues 2. No
objectively 99. DK/NA
E12 What in your opinion is the 1. Self-censorship 5. Lack of incentive E12
main reason why this 2. Political partisanship 6. Other reasons
coverage is not objective? 3. Financial restrictions 7. The coverage is objective
4. Lack of professionalism 88. Not applicable
and proper training 99. DK/NA
E13 How much do you trust the following (on a scale from 0 to 10: 0 means do not trust at all while 10 E13
means trust totally)
E13a Palestinian media 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 88 99 E13a
E13b Arab media 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 88 99 E13b
E13c Religious media 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 88 99 E13c
E13d International media 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 88 99 E13d
A On a scale from 0 to 10 with 0 being not positive at all, and 10 being extremely positive, how do you
evaluate the following?
A1a PNA TV and Radio ( 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 88 99 A1a
W.B.)
A1b Hamas TV (Al-Aqsa) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 88 99 A1b
and Radio (Gaza)
A1c Private media (W.B.) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 88 99 A1c
A1d Private media (Gaza) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 88 99 A1d
A2 Who do you think 1. Israel A2
restricts more the 2. The PA
freedom of media in 3. Hamas
4. All of them (Do not read)
Palestine?
5. Others
6. There are no restrictions on the media (Do not read)
99. DK/NA
I INTERNET AND NEW MEDIA
I1 Do you have access to the 1. Yes 99. DK/NA I1
internet? 2. No
I2 How many people in this ___ ___ members I2
household use the internet
I3 Where do you normally use 1. At home 5. Other places I3
the internet? 2. At school/university 88.Not applicable
3. At Café 99. DK/NA
4. At work
I4 How long do you normally 1. Daily 6. Others I4
use the internet? 2. Once a week 88. Not applicable
3. More than one time a 99. DK/NA
week
4. Once a month
5. More than one time a
month
I5 How long do you normally 1. Less than 2 hours 88. Not applicable ( I don't use the I5
use the internet per day? 2. 2-4 hours internet at all)
3. More than four hours 99. DK/NA
4. I don't use the internet
daily
I6 The first main reason for 1. Entertainment 6. Others I6
using the internet 2. Research/information 88. Not applicable
3. News 99. DK/NA
4. Business
5. Religious programs

89
I7 The 2nd main reason for 1. Entertainment 6. Others I7
using the internet 2. Research/information 88. Not applicable
3. News 99. DK/NA
4. Business
5. Religious programs
I8 Do you follow the news via 1. Yes 99.DK/NA I8
the internet? 2. No
I9 Do you use social networks 1. Extensively 3. Rarely 88. Not applicable I9
(e.g. Facebook, Twitter etc.) 2. Moderately 4. Never 99. DK/NA
and blogs for your own
information?
I10 Do you use mobile phone 1. Extensively 3. Rarely I10
information or news 2. Moderately 4. Never
services? 88. Not applicable
99. DK/NA
D DEMOGRAPHICS
D1 Total number of household ___ ___ members D1
members?
D2 How many people over the D2
age of 18 live in this ___ ___ adults
household?
D3 How many people below the D3
age of 18 live in this ___ ___ children
household?
D4 Gender of respondent 1. Male 2. Female 99. NA D4
D5 Refugee status 1. Refugee 2. Non-refugee 99. DK/NA D5
D6 Age of respondent Age ___ ___ years old D6
99. NA
D7 Educational level 1. Never went to school 4. Until secondary D7
2. Until elementary 5. College and above
3. Until preparatory 99.NA
D8 Do you work or not? 1. I work full time 5. a student D8
2, I work part time 6.Retired
3.Unemployed 99.DK/NA
4.I am a housewife
D9 Household monthly income 1. NIS 5000 and over 7. Between NIS 2000-2499 D9
(please include salaries, 2. Between NIS 4500-4999 8. Between NIS 1500-1999
dividends, rent, shares, etc…) 3. Between NIS 4000-4499 9. Between NIS 1000-1499
4. Between NIS 3500-3999 10. Between NIS 500-999
5. Between NIS 3000-3499 11. Less than NIS 500
6. Between NIS 2500-2999 99. DK/NA
D10 Area of residence 1. City 3. Refugee camp D10
2. Village 99. DK/NA
D11 Governorate Jenin Jericho D11
Toubas Bethlehem
Nablus Hebron
Salfit North Gaza
Qalqilia Gaza city
Tulkarem Rafah
Ramallah Deir al-Balah
Jerusalem Khan Younis

90
B. Media Organizations Questionnaire

Mapping of the media organizations in Palestine


1 Name of the respondent ------------------------------------------------------- 1
2 Phone number of the respondent -------------------------------------------------------- 2
3 Name of organization 3
-------------------------------------------------------
4 Location (Name of place) 4
-------------------------------------------------------
5 The mail address of headquarters 5
-------------------------------------------------------
6 Name of Director 6
-------------------------------------------------------
7 Phone number of director 7

8 Email of director 8
PLEASE PRINT _________________________@_______.________
9 Phone of organization 9

10 Email of organization 10
PLEASE PRINT _________________________@_______.________
11 Website (if available) 11
www.___________________________________________.________
12 Year of establishment ⎟___⎟ ⎟___⎟ ⎟___⎟ ⎟___⎟ 88. DK/NA 12
13 Is there a permit ⎟__1_⎟ YES ⎟_2_⎟ NO 13
14 Source of permit (You can check 1. PA 2.Gaza 2. Israel 88. Not applicable(DON'T 14
more than one) government have a permit)
15 Main activity (You can check more 1. TV station 6.Media training 15
than one) 2. Radio station 7.News agency
3. Newspaper 8.Others (specify)
4. Periodical/magazine
99.NA
5. Media research
16 Affiliation 1. Private 4.other(specify) 16
2. Governmental 99.DK/NA
3. NGO
17 Main source of funding 1. Private 4. Int’l support 17
2. Government 5. Others__________________
3. Local /NGOs 99.NA
support
18 Location of branches 1. Only one in the WB 18
2. Only one in the GS
3. In both the WB and GS
4. Others
19 Number of total branches ⎟___⎟ ⎟___⎟ branch 19
20 # of media professionals ⎟___⎟ ⎟___⎟ members 20
21 # of administrative staff ⎟___⎟ ⎟___⎟ members 21
22 # of part-time staff ⎟___⎟ ⎟___⎟ members 22
23 how far radio and TV 1.Part of the governorate 23
broadcast 2.All over the governorate
3.For more than one governorate
4.All over the West Bank
5.All over Gaza Strip
6.All over the oPt
88.Not applicable
24 # of transmitters 24

88.Not applicable
25 # of prints for newspapers 25

88.Not applicable
26 # of frequency (For radios and 26
TVs)
88.Not applicable
27 Compared to three years ago, has 1. Increased 27

91
the size of the staff at your 2. Decreased
organization increased, 3. Remained the same
decreased, or stayed the same? 88.Not applicable
99. DK/NA
28 The range of the annual budget 28
29 Basic criteria of the organization 29
-------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------

30 Do you rely on advertisements? 1.Yes 2.No 30


31 How much does you organization rely 1. To a large extent 3. Not a lot 31
on ads for its operations 2. To some extent 4. Not al all
88.Not applicable
32 Are advertisement produced by the 1. Home produced 3. Both 32
organization or outside? 2. Produced outside 88. Not applicable
33 Sources of information 1. Primarily from correspondents 33
2. Primarily from local press organizations
3. Primarily from int’l press organizations
4. Primarily from stringers
5. Rely on different sources
6. Others(specify)______________________
34 Do you have a charter or a code 1. Yes 34
of ethics? 2. No
99. DK/NA
35 What is the main focused issue of 1. Local news 35
your organization? 2. Local and international news
3. Entertainment
4. Economic issues
5. Social issues
6. special interest issues (specify)… (gender, youth, governance,
peace….)
99. DK/NA
36 How free are you as a media 1. Very free 4. Not free at all 36
organization in terms of 2. Free 88.Not applicable
information gathering? 3. Not free 99. DK/NA
37 On a scale from 0 to 10 with 0 means extremely bad, and 10 means excellent, In general, how do
you evaluate media organizations in terms of the following:
37a Professionalism 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 99 37a
37b Objectivity 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 99 37b
37c Freedom 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 99 37c
37d Credibility 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 99 37d
38 What is the main mission of your ………………………………………………………………………………… 38
organization? …………………………………………………………………………………

39 To what extent do you think the 1. To a large extent 39


organization was able to achieve 2. To some extent
its own mission? 3. It never achieved its goals
99. DK/NA
40 Have you ever faced any 1. Yes 40
restriction or obstacle? 2. No
99. DK/NA
41 Nature of the obstacle/restriction TYPE OF RESTRICTION YES NO
41a Closure 41a
41b Arrest of a staff member 41b
41c Expropriation of property/equipment 41c
41d Damaging of property 41d
41e Assault 41e
41f Preventing publication 41f
41g Threat 41g
41h Other (specify)……………………………… 41h
42 What is the main restriction that 1. People and traditions 5. Political groups 42
faces your organization? (You can 2. Owners of media outlet 6. Israel/occupation
choose more than one option) 3. The PA (Ramallah) 7. Others (specify)…………….
4. The Hamas govt. in Gaza 88.Not applicable
99. DK/NA
43 Did your organization participate in 1. Yes 43
any training activities? 2. No
st
44 Type of training activity 1 ………………………………………………….. 44
nd
2 …………………………………………………..
3rd…………………………………………………..

92
88.Not applicable

45 Does your organization need training? 1. Yes 45


2. No
st
46 What is the required training? 1 priority………………………………………………….. 46
nd
2 Priority…………………………………………………..
rd
3 Priority…………………………………………………..
88.Not applicable
47 Other relevant information ………………………………………………………………… 47
…………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………
48 Are you functioning currently? 1.Yes 2.No 48
49 Name of the fieldworker ---------------------------------------- 49
50 Date of the interview and place / / Place:------------------------ 50
51 Duration of the interview From: ---------:----------- To:-----------:------------- 51

93
C. List of figures

Figure 1: Margin of error for the various areas ...........................................................................................................7


Figure 2: Type of work ................................................................................................................................................17
Figure 3: Year of establishment ..................................................................................................................................18
Figure 4: Declared affiliation of media organizations................................................................................................18
Figure 5: The media organizations reliance on ads for their operations....................................................................19
Figure 6: The main stated objective of the media organizations.................................................................................20
Figure 7: Location of the functioning media organizations ........................................................................................20
Figure 8: Source of permit ..........................................................................................................................................22
Figure 9: Broadcast reach of Palestinian radio and TV stations................................................................................23
Figure 10: The size of the staff at the organization in comparison with the three years ago......................................23
Figure 11: Personnel in the media organizations according to region.......................................................................23
Figure 12: The main issue of media organizations .....................................................................................................24
Figure 13: Sources of information...............................................................................................................................25
Figure 14: Nature of the obstacle or restriction..........................................................................................................25
Figure 15: The main restriction that faces media organization ..................................................................................26
Figure 16: The extent of freedom that the media organizations have in terms of information gathering ...................26
Figure 17: Media sector self-evaluation .....................................................................................................................26
Figure 18: Frequency of following the news ...............................................................................................................31
Figure 19: Most important source of information.......................................................................................................32
Figure 20: Most trusted source of information............................................................................................................34
Figure 21: Public preference for the attainment of general information: TV vs. radio .............................................36
Figure 22: Type of TV watching preferences: Local TV vs. satellite...........................................................................37
Figure 23: TV station that was viewed yesterday........................................................................................................37
Figure 24: TV station that was viewed last week ........................................................................................................39
Figure 25: Most trusted TV station .............................................................................................................................40
Figure 26: Radio station listened to yesterday ............................................................................................................41
Figure 27: Radio station listened to last week.............................................................................................................42
Figure 28: Most trusted radio station..........................................................................................................................42
Figure 29: Time of viewing.........................................................................................................................................43
Figure 30: Place of viewing ........................................................................................................................................44
Figure 31: Time of listening to radio...........................................................................................................................44
Figure 32: Place of listening to radio .........................................................................................................................45
Figure 33: Duration of watching TV ...........................................................................................................................46
Figure 34: Duration of listening to radio....................................................................................................................46
Figure 35: Newspaper readership..............................................................................................................................47
Figure 36: Reasons for not reading newspapers.........................................................................................................48
Figure 37: Reason for reading newspapers................................................................................................................50
Figure 38: Most trusted newspaper............................................................................................................................51
Figure 39: Evaluation of newspapers in covering local news....................................................................................52
Figure 40: Access to the internet.................................................................................................................................53
Figure 41: Place where the internet is used ................................................................................................................54
Figure 42: Frequency of using the internet .................................................................................................................55
Figure 43: Duration of using the internet ...................................................................................................................56
Figure 44: Reasons for using the internet ...................................................................................................................58
Figure 45: Level of following the news on the internet ...............................................................................................60
Figure 46: Level of using social networks (e.g. Facebook, Twitter etc.) for information ..........................................61
Figure 47: Level of using SMS for news services ........................................................................................................61
Figure 48: Perceptions about the freedom of journalists in information gathering....................................................62
Figure 49: Public perceptions of the main restriction on journalists.........................................................................63
Figure 50: Perceptions of the main restriction on media freedom in Palestine .........................................................64
Figure 51: Evaluation of journalists ...........................................................................................................................65
Figure 52: Ranking of various media on a scale from 1 to 10 ....................................................................................66
Figure 53: Evaluation of the performance of Palestinian TV stations ........................................................................67
Figure 54: Evaluation of the performance of Palestinian radio stations ....................................................................68

94
Figure 55: Perceptions of what distinguishes Palestinian TV stations from other TV stations...................................69
Figure 56: Perceptions of what distinguishes Palestinian radio stations from other stations ....................................69
Figure 57: Preferred programs on Palestinian TV stations ........................................................................................70
Figure 58: Preferred programs on Palestinian radio stations ....................................................................................71
Figure 59: Attitude about whether Palestinian TV stations cover local issues objectively .........................................72
Figure 60: Reasons for lack of objectivity in the coverage of local news on TV........................................................73
Figure 61: Attitude about whether Palestinian radio stations cover local issues objectively and the reasons for lack
of objectivity ................................................................................................................................................................74

95
D. List of tables
Table 1: Status of listed media organizations in Palestine............................................................................................6
Table 2: Declared affiliation of media organizations according to region of residence.............................................19
Table 3: The Media organizations in each governorate..............................................................................................21
Table 4: Average and median number of staff members according to region.............................................................24
Table 5: Average and median number of staff members according to type of work....................................................24
Table 6: The main Palestinian TV stations..................................................................................................................27
Table 7: The main Palestinian Radio stations.............................................................................................................27
Table 8: The main Palestinian Newspapers ................................................................................................................28
Table 9: The main news agencies ................................................................................................................................28
Table 10: The main electronic media organizations ...................................................................................................28
Table 11: The main organizations working in media research and training...............................................................29
Table 12: The main audiovisual production organizations .........................................................................................29
Table 13: Some of the media organizations established in 2010.................................................................................30
Table 14: Frequency of following the news according to age, gender, and region of residence. ...............................32
Table 15: Most important source of information according to age and gender..........................................................33
Table 16: Most important source of information according to region and area of residence, and poverty level. ......33
Table 17: Most important source of information according to sub-region. ...............................................................34
Table 18: Most trusted source of information: according to age and gender. ............................................................35
Table 19: Most trusted source of information according to region and area of residence, and poverty level. ...........35
Table 20: Most trusted source of information according to sub-region. .....................................................................35
Table 21: Public preference for the attainment of general information: TV vs. radio according to region and area of
residence......................................................................................................................................................................36
Table 22: TV station viewed yesterday according to sub-region.................................................................................38
Table 23: TV station that was viewed last week according to region..........................................................................39
Table 24: Most trusted TV station according to region of residence, and age category (most important stations)....40
Table 25: Time of viewing according to gender, region and sub-region of residence.. ..............................................43
Table 26: Time of listening to radio according to age category and region of residence ...........................................45
Table 27: Place of listening to radio according to region of residence, poverty status, and gender ..........................45
Table 28: Duration of listening to radio: according to gender, region of residence, and poverty level. ....................46
Table 29: Newspaper readership according to age and gender..................................................................................47
Table 30: Newspaper readership according to region and area of residence, and poverty status..............................48
Table 31: Reasons for not reading newspapers: according to age category and gender............................................49
Table 32: Reasons for not reading newspapers: according to region and sub-region of residence. ..........................49
Table 33: Reason for reading newspapers: according to age. ....................................................................................50
Table 34: Reason for reading newspapers: according to region and sub-region of residence. ..................................50
Table 35: Most trusted newspaper: according to age and gender. .............................................................................52
Table 36: Most trusted newspaper: according to region and area of residence, and poverty status. .........................52
Table 37: Access to the internet: according to age, gender, and poverty status. ........................................................53
Table 38: Access to the internet: according to region and area of residence, and sub-region of residence...............54
Table 39: Place where the internet is used: according to age, gender, and poverty status.........................................55
Table 40: Place where the internet is used: according to region and sub-region of residence...................................55
Table 41: Frequency of using the internet: according to region and sub-region of residence....................................56
Table 42: Frequency of using the internet: according to area of residence, gender, and poverty status....................56
Table 43: Duration of using the internet: according to age and gender. ....................................................................57
Table 44: Duration of using the internet: according to region and sub-region of residence. .....................................57
Table 45: Reasons for using the internet: according to age and gender.....................................................................59
Table 46: Reasons for using the internet: according to region and area of residence, and poverty status.................59
Table 47: Reasons for using the internet: according to sub-region. ...........................................................................59
Table 48: Level of following the news on the internet: according to age, gender, and poverty status........................60
Table 49: Level of following the news on the internet: according to region, area, and sub-region of residence........60
Table 50: Level of using social networks (e.g. Facebook, Twitter etc.) for information: according to age, gender,
and region of residence. ..............................................................................................................................................61
Table 51: Level of using SMS for news services: according to age, gender, and poverty status ................................62
Table 52: Perceptions about the freedom of journalists in information gathering: according to region and sub-
region of residence. .....................................................................................................................................................63
Table 53: Perceived main restriction on journalists according to region and area of residence, and gender. ..........64

96
Table 54: Perceived main restriction on media freedom in Palestine: according to region and area of residence ...65
Table 55: Evaluation of the performance of Palestinian TV stations: according to age, region of residence, and
gender..........................................................................................................................................................................67
Table 56: Evaluation of the performance of Palestinian radio stations: according to region and sub-region of
residence......................................................................................................................................................................68
Table 57: Preferred programs on Palestinian TV stations: according to region of residence, age, and gender. .......70
Table 58: Preferred programs on Palestinian radio stations: according to age and gender......................................71
Table 59: Preferred programs on Palestinian radio stations: according to region and area of residence, and poverty
status............................................................................................................................................................................71
Table 60: Attitude about whether Palestinian TV stations cover local issues objectively: according to age and
gender. .........................................................................................................................................................................72
Table 61: Attitude about whether Palestinian TV stations cover local issues objectively; according to region and
area of residence. ........................................................................................................................................................73
Table 62: Reasons for lack of objectivity in the coverage of local news on TV: according to age and gender. .........73
Table 63: Reasons for lack of objectivity in the coverage of local news on TV: according to region and area of
residence......................................................................................................................................................................73
Table 64: Attitude about whether Palestinian radio stations cover local issues objectively: according to region and
area of residence, and gender. ....................................................................................................................................74
Table 65: Attitude about whether Palestinian radio stations cover local issues objectively: according to sub-region
of residence..................................................................................................................................................................75
Table 66: Reasons for lack of objectivity in the coverage of local news on Palestinian radio stations: according to
age and gender ............................................................................................................................................................75
Table 67: Reasons for lack of objectivity in the coverage of local news on Palestinian radio stations: according to
region and area of residence .......................................................................................................................................75
Table 68: Reasons for lack of objectivity in the coverage of local news on Palestinian radio stations: according to
sub-region of residence ...............................................................................................................................................75

97