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Chapter 6

6-1
Sy
MSS: σ1 − σ3 = S y /n ⇒ n=
σ1 − σ3
Sy
DE: n=
σ
 1/2  2 1/2
σ  = σ A2 − σ A σ B + σ B2 = σx − σx σ y + σ y2 + 3τx2y
(a) MSS: σ1 = 12, σ2 = 6, σ3 = 0 kpsi
50
n= = 4.17 Ans.
12
50
DE: σ  = (122 − 6(12) + 62 ) 1/2 = 10.39 kpsi, n= = 4.81 Ans.
  10.39
12 12 2
(b) σ A , σ B = ± + (−8) 2 = 16, −4 kpsi
2 2
σ1 = 16, σ2 = 0, σ3 = −4 kpsi
50
MSS: n= = 2.5 Ans.
16 − (−4)
50
DE: σ  = (122 + 3(−82 )) 1/2 = 18.33 kpsi, n = = 2.73 Ans.
 18.33

−6 − 10 −6 + 10 2
(c) σ A , σ B = ± + (−5) 2 = −2.615, −13.385 kpsi
2 2
σ1 = 0, σ2 = −2.615, σ3 = −13.385 kpsi
␴B
50
MSS: n= = 3.74 Ans.
0 − (−13.385)
DE: σ  = [(−6) 2 − (−6)(−10) + (−10) 2 + 3(−5) 2 ]1/2 ␴A
= 12.29 kpsi
50
n= = 4.07 Ans.
12.29
 
12 + 4 12 − 4 2
(d) σ A , σ B = ± + 12 = 12.123, 3.877 kpsi
2 2
σ1 = 12.123, σ2 = 3.877, σ3 = 0 kpsi
50
MSS: n= = 4.12 Ans.
12.123 − 0
DE: σ  = [122 − 12(4) + 42 + 3(12 )]1/2 = 10.72 kpsi
50
n= = 4.66 Ans.
10.72
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150 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

6-2 S y = 50 kpsi
Sy
MSS: σ1 − σ3 = S y /n ⇒ n=
σ1 − σ3
 2 1/2  1/2
DE: σ A − σ A σ B + σ B2 = S y /n ⇒ n = S y / σ A2 − σ A σ B + σ B2

50
(a) MSS: σ1 = 12 kpsi, σ3 = 0, n = = 4.17 Ans.
12 − 0
50
DE: n= = 4.17 Ans.
[122 − (12)(12) + 122 ]1/2

50
(b) MSS: σ1 = 12 kpsi, σ3 = 0, n = = 4.17 Ans.
12
50
DE: n= = 4.81 Ans.
[122 − (12)(6) + 62 ]1/2
50
(c) MSS: σ1 = 12 kpsi, σ3 = −12 kpsi, n = = 2.08 Ans.
12 − (−12)
50
DE: n= = 2.41 Ans.
[122 − (12)(−12) + (−12) 2 ]1/3
50
(d) MSS: σ1 = 0, σ3 = −12 kpsi, n = = 4.17 Ans.
−(−12)
50
DE: n= = 4.81
[(−6) 2 − (−6)(−12) + (−12) 2 ]1/2

6-3 S y = 390 MPa

Sy
MSS: σ1 − σ3 = S y /n ⇒ n=
σ1 − σ3
 2 1/2  1/2
DE: σ A − σ A σ B + σ B2 = S y /n ⇒ n = S y / σ A2 − σ A σ B + σ B2
390
(a) MSS: σ1 = 180 MPa, σ3 = 0, n = = 2.17 Ans.
180
390
DE: n= = 2.50 Ans.
[1802 − 180(100) + 1002 ]1/2
 
180 180 2
(b) σ A , σ B = ± + 1002 = 224.5, −44.5 MPa = σ1 , σ3
2 2
390
MSS: n= = 1.45 Ans.
224.5 − (−44.5)
390
DE: n= = 1.56 Ans.
[1802 + 3(1002 )]1/2
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Chapter 6 151

 
160 160 2
(c) σ A , σ B = − ± − + 1002 = 48.06, −208.06 MPa = σ1 , σ3
2 2
390
MSS: n= = 1.52 Ans.
48.06 − (−208.06)
390
DE: n= = 1.65 Ans.
[−160 + 3(1002 )]1/2
2

(d) σ A , σ B = 150, −150 MPa = σ1 , σ3

380
MSS: n= = 1.27 Ans.
150 − (−150)
390
DE: n= = 1.50 Ans.
[3(150) 2 ]1/2

6-4 S y = 220 MPa

(a) σ1 = 100, σ2 = 80, σ3 = 0 MPa
220
MSS: n= = 2.20 Ans.
100 − 0
DET: σ  = [1002 − 100(80) + 802 ]1/2 = 91.65 MPa
220
n= = 2.40 Ans.
91.65
(b) σ1 = 100, σ2 = 10, σ3 = 0 MPa
220
MSS: n= = 2.20 Ans.
100
DET: σ  = [1002 − 100(10) + 102 ]1/2 = 95.39 MPa
220
n= = 2.31 Ans.
95.39
(c) σ1 = 100, σ2 = 0, σ3 = −80 MPa
220
MSS: n= = 1.22 Ans.
100 − (−80)
DE: σ  = [1002 − 100(−80) + (−80) 2 ]1/2 = 156.2 MPa
220
n= = 1.41 Ans.
156.2
(d) σ1 = 0, σ2 = −80, σ3 = −100 MPa
220
MSS: n= = 2.20 Ans.
0 − (−100)
DE: σ  = [(−80) 2 − (−80)(−100) + (−100) 2 ] = 91.65 MPa
220
n= = 2.40 Ans.
91.65
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152 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

6-5
OB 2.23
(a) MSS: n= = = 2.1
OA 1.08
OC 2.56
DE: n= = = 2.4
OA 1.08
OE 1.65
(b) MSS: n= = = 1.5
OD 1.10
OF 1.8
DE: n= = = 1.6
OD 1.1

␴B

(a)
C
B

Scale
1" ⫽ 200 MPa

O ␴A

D
E F (b)

G K
L

(d)

I
(c)

OH 1.68
(c) MSS: n= = = 1.6
OG 1.05
OI 1.85
DE: n= = = 1.8
OG 1.05
OK 1.38
(d) MSS: n= = = 1.3
OJ 1.05
OL 1.62
DE: n= = = 1.5
OJ 1.05
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Chapter 6 153

6-6 S y = 220 MPa

OB 2.82
(a) MSS: n= = = 2.2
OA 1.3
OC 3.1
DE: n= = = 2.4
OA 1.3
OE 2.2
(b) MSS: n= = = 2.2
OD 1
OF 2.33
DE: n= = = 2.3
OD 1
␴B

(a)
C
B

1" ⫽ 100 MPa E (b)

D F
O
␴A

H
J
I
(c)

L
(d)

OH 1.55
(c) MSS: n= = = 1.2
OG 1.3
OI 1.8
DE: n= = = 1.4
OG 1.3
OK 2.82
(d) MSS: n= = = 2.2
OJ 1.3
OL 3.1
DE: n= = = 2.4
OJ 1.3
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154 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

6-7 Sut = 30 kpsi, Suc = 100 kpsi; σ A = 20 kpsi, σ B = 6 kpsi

Sut 30
(a) MNS: Eq. (6-30a) n= = = 1.5 Ans.
σx 20
30
BCM: Eq. (6-31a) n= = 1.5 Ans.
20
30
M1M: Eq. (6-32a) n= = 1.5 Ans.
20
30
M2M: Eq. (6-33a) n= = 1.5 Ans.
20
(b) σx = 12 kpsi,τx y = −8 kpsi
 2
12 12
σ A, σB = ± + (−8) 2 = 16, −4 kpsi
2 2
30
MNS: Eq. (6-30a) n= = 1.88 Ans.
16
1 16 (−4)
BCM: Eq. (6-31b) = − ⇒ n = 1.74 Ans.
n 30 100
30
M1M: Eq. (6-32a) n= = 1.88 Ans.
16
30
M2M: Eq. (6-33a) n= = 1.88 Ans.
16
(c) σx = −6 kpsi, σ y = −10 kpsi,τx y = −5 kpsi
 
−6 − 10 −6 + 10 2
σ A, σB = ± + (−5) 2 = −2.61, −13.39 kpsi
2 2
100
MNS: Eq. (6-30b) n=− = 7.47 Ans.
−13.39
100
BCM: Eq. (6-31c) n=− = 7.47 Ans.
−13.39
100
M1M: Eq. (6-32c) n=− = 7.47 Ans.
−13.39
100
M2M: Eq. (6-33c) n=− = 7.47 Ans.
−13.39
(d) σx = −12 kpsi,τx y = 8 kpsi
 
12 12 2
σ A, σB = − ± − + 82 = 4, −16 kpsi
2 2

−100
MNS: Eq. (6-30b) n= = 6.25 Ans.
−16
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Chapter 6 155

1 4 (−16)
BCM: Eq. (6-31b) = − ⇒ n = 3.41 Ans.
n 30 100
1 (100 − 30)4 −16
M1M: Eq. (6-32b) = − ⇒ n = 3.95 Ans.
n 100(30) 100
 
4 n(−16) + 30 2
M2M: Eq. (6-33b) n + =1
30 30 − 100
Reduces to n 2 − 1.1979n − 15.625 = 0

1.1979 + 1.19792 + 4(15.625)
n= = 4.60 Ans.
2
␴B

1" ⫽ 20 kpsi B (a)

A

O
␴A

C
E
D (b)
K
F

J
L

(c) (d)
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6-8 See Prob. 6-7 for plot.

OB 1.55
(a) For all methods: n= = = 1.5
OA 1.03
OD 1.4
(b) BCM: n= = = 1.75
OC 0.8
OE 1.55
All other methods: n= = = 1.9
OC 0.8
OL 5.2
(c) For all methods: n= = = 7.6
OK 0.68
OJ 5.12
(d) MNS: n= = = 6.2
OF 0.82
OG 2.85
BCM: n= = = 3.5
OF 0.82
OH 3.3
M1M: n= = = 4.0
OF 0.82
OI 3.82
M2M: n= = = 4.7
OF 0.82

6-9 Given: S y = 42 kpsi, Sut = 66.2 kpsi, ε f = 0.90. Since ε f > 0.05, the material is ductile and
thus we may follow convention by setting S yc = S yt .
Use DE theory for analytical solution. For σ  , use Eq. (6-13) or (6-15) for plane stress and
Eq. (6-12) or (6-14) for general 3-D.

(a) σ  = [92 − 9(−5) + (−5) 2 ]1/2 = 12.29 kpsi

42
n= = 3.42 Ans.
12.29
(b) σ  = [122 + 3(32 )]1/2 = 13.08 kpsi
42
n= = 3.21 Ans.
13.08
(c) σ  = [(−4) 2 − (−4)(−9) + (−9) 2 + 3(52 )]1/2 = 11.66 kpsi
42
n= = 3.60 Ans.
11.66
(d) σ  = [112 − (11)(4) + 42 + 3(12 )]1/2 = 9.798
42
n= = 4.29 Ans.
9.798
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Chapter 6 157

␴B

(d)
H
1 cm ⫽ 10 kpsi

G
O
␴A
C (b)
D
A

B (a)

F
(c)

For graphical solution, plot load lines on DE envelope as shown.

(a) σ A = 9, σ B = −5 kpsi
OB 3.5
n= = = 3.5 Ans.
OA 1
 
12 12 2
(b) σ A , σ B = ± + 32 = 12.7, −0.708 kpsi
2 2
OD 4.2
n= = = 3.23
OC 1.3
 
−4 − 9 4−9 2
(c) σ A , σ B = ± + 52 = −0.910, −12.09 kpsi
2 2
OF 4.5
n= = = 3.6 Ans.
OE 1.25
 
11 + 4 11 − 4 2
(d) σ A , σ B = ± + 12 = 11.14, 3.86 kpsi
2 2
OH 5.0
n= = = 4.35 Ans.
OG 1.15

6-10 This heat-treated steel exhibits S yt = 235 kpsi, S yc = 275 kpsi and ε f = 0.06. The steel is
ductile (ε f > 0.05) but of unequal yield strengths. The Ductile Coulomb-Mohr hypothesis
(DCM) of Fig. 6-27 applies — confine its use to first and fourth quadrants.
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(a) σx = 90 kpsi, σ y = −50 kpsi, σz = 0  σ A = 90 kpsi and σ B = −50 kpsi. For the
1 1
n= = = 1.77 Ans.
(σ A /S yt ) − (σ B /Suc ) (90/235) − (−50/275)
(b) σx = 120 kpsi, τx y = −30 kpsi ccw. σ A , σ B = 127.1, −7.08 kpsi. For the fourth
1
n= = 1.76 Ans.
(127.1/235) − (−7.08/275)
(c) σx = −40 kpsi, σ y = −90 kpsi, τx y = 50 kpsi . σ A , σ B = −9.10, −120.9 kpsi.
Although no solution exists for the third quadrant, use
S yc 275
n=− =− = 2.27 Ans.
σy −120.9
(d) σx = 110 kpsi, σ y = 40 kpsi, τx y = 10 kpsi cw. σ A , σ B = 111.4, 38.6 kpsi. For the
S yt 235
n= = = 2.11 Ans.
σA 111.4
Graphical Solution:
␴B
OB 1.82
(a) n = = = 1.78
OA 1.02
OD 2.24
(b) n = = = 1.75
OC 1.28
OF 2.75
(c) n = = = 2.22
OE 1.24
OH 2.46
(d) n = = = 2.08 H (d)
OG 1.18
1 in ⫽ 100 kpsi
G

O ␴A
C (b)
D

B (a)

F
(c)
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Chapter 6 159

6-11 The material is brittle and exhibits unequal tensile and compressive strengths. Decision:
Use the Modified II-Mohr theory as shown in Fig. 6-28 which is limited to first and fourth
Sut = 22 kpsi, Suc = 83 kpsi
Parabolic failure segment:
 

S B + 22 2
S A = 22 1 −
22 − 83

SB SA SB SA
−22 22.0 −60 13.5
−30 21.6 −70 8.4
−40 20.1 −80 2.3
−50 17.4 −83 0

(a) σx = 9 kpsi, σ y = −5 kpsi. σ A , σ B = 9, −5 kpsi. For the fourth quadrant, use

Eq. (6-33a)
Sut 22
n= = = 2.44 Ans.
σA 9
(b) σx = 12 kpsi, τx y = −3 kpsi ccw. σ A , σ B = 12.7, 0.708 kpsi. For the first quadrant,
Sut 22
n= = = 1.73 Ans.
σA 12.7
(c) σx = −4 kpsi, σ y = −9 kpsi, τx y = 5 kpsi . σ A , σ B = −0.910, −12.09 kpsi. For the
third quadrant, no solution exists; however, use Eq. (6-33c)
−83
n= = 6.87 Ans.
−12.09
(d) σx = 11 kpsi,σ y = 4 kpsi,τx y = 1 kpsi. σ A , σ B = 11.14, 3.86 kpsi. For the first quadrant
SA S yt 22
n= = = = 1.97 Ans.
σA σA 11.14
␴B
30
Sut ⫽ 22

␴A
30

–50

Sut ⫽ 83

–90
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160 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

.
6-12 Since ε f < 0.05, the material is brittle. Thus, Sut = Suc and we may use M2M which is
basically the same as MNS.
(a) σ A , σ B = 9, −5 kpsi
35
n= = 3.89 Ans.
9
(b) σ A , σ B = 12.7, −0.708 kpsi
35
n= = 2.76 Ans.
12.7
(c) σ A , σ B = −0.910, −12.09 kpsi (3rd quadrant)
36
n= = 2.98 Ans. ␴B
12.09
(d) σ A , σ B = 11.14, 3.86 kpsi
35
n= = 3.14 Ans.
11.14
1 cm ⫽ 10 kpsi

Graphical Solution: H (d)

G
OB 4
(a) n = = = 4.0 Ans. ␴A
OA 1 O
C D (b)

A
OD 3.45
(b) n = = = 2.70 Ans. E
OC 1.28
OF 3.7 B (a)
(c) n = = = 2.85 Ans. (3rd quadrant)
OE 1.3
F
OH 3.6
(d) n = = = 3.13 Ans. (c)
OG 1.15

6-13 Sut = 30 kpsi, Suc = 109 kpsi

Use M2M:
(a) σ A , σ B = 20, 20 kpsi
30
Eq. (6-33a): n= = 1.5 Ans.
20

(b) σ A , σ B = ± (15) 2 = 15, −15 kpsi
30
Eq. (6-33a) n= = 2 Ans.
15
(c) σ A , σ B = −80, −80 kpsi
For the 3rd quadrant, there is no solution but use Eq. (6-33c).
109
Eq. (6-33c): n=− = 1.36 Ans.
−80
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Chapter 6 161

(d) σ A , σ B = 15, −25 kpsi

 
n(15) −25n + 30 2
Eq. (6-33b): + =1
30 30 − 109
n = 1.90 Ans.

OB 4.25
(a) n = = = 1.50
OA 2.83
OD 4.24 ␴B
(b) n = = = 2.00 B (a)
OC 2.12
OF 15.5
(c) n = = = 1.37 (3rd quadrant) A
OE 11.3
OH 5.3
(d) n = = = 1.83
OG 2.9
O ␴A

1 cm ⫽ 10 kpsi
G
D
(b)

H
(d)

F
(c)

6-14 Given: AISI 1006 CD steel, F = 0.55 N, P = 8.0 kN, and T = 30 N · m, applying the
DE theory to stress elements A and B with S y = 280 MPa
32Fl 4P 32(0.55)(103 )(0.1) 4(8)(103 )
A: σx = + = +
πd 3 πd 2 π(0.0203 ) π(0.0202 )
= 95.49(106 ) Pa = 95.49 MPa
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16T 16(30)
τx y = = = 19.10(106 ) Pa = 19.10 MPa
πd 3 π(0.0203 )
 1/2
σ  = σx2 + 3τx2y = [95.492 + 3(19.1) 2 ]1/2 = 101.1 MPa

Sy 280
n= 
= = 2.77 Ans.
σ 101.1
4P 4(8)(103 )
B: σx = = = 25.47(106 ) Pa = 25.47 MPa
πd 3 π(0.020 )
2
 
16T 4V 16(30) 4 0.55(103 )
τx y = + = +
πd 3 3 A π(0.0203 ) 3 (π/4)(0.0202 )
= 21.43(106 ) Pa = 21.43 MPa
σ  = [25.472 + 3(21.432 )]1/2 = 45.02 MPa
280
n= = 6.22 Ans.
45.02

6-15 Design decisions required:

• Material and condition
• Design factor
• Failure model
• Diameter of pin
Using F = 416 lbf from Ex. 6-3
32M
σmax =
πd 3
 
32M 1/3
d=
πσmax
Decision 1: Select the same material and condition of Ex. 6-3 (AISI 1035 steel, S y =
81 000).
Decision 2: Since we prefer the pin to yield, set n d a little larger than 1. Further explana-
tion will follow.
Decision 3: Use the Distortion Energy static failure theory.
Decision 4: Initially set n d = 1
Sy Sy
σmax = = = 81 000 psi
nd 1
 
32(416)(15) 1/3
d= = 0.922 in
π(81 000)
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Chapter 6 163

Choose preferred size of d = 1.000 in

π(1) 3 (81 000)
F= = 530 lbf
32(15)
530
n= = 1.274
416
Set design factor to n d = 1.274
Sy 81 000
σmax = = = 63 580 psi
nd 1.274
 
32(416)(15) 1/3
d= = 1.000 in (OK )
π(63 580)
π(1) 3 (81 000)
F= = 530 lbf
32(15)
530
n= = 1.274 (OK)
416

6-16 For a thin walled cylinder made of AISI 1018 steel, S y = 54 kpsi, Sut = 64 kpsi.
The state of stress is
pd p(8) pd
σt = = = 40 p, σl = = 20 p, σr = − p
4t 4(0.05) 8t
These three are all principal stresses. Therefore,
1
σ  = √ [(σ1 − σ2 ) 2 + (σ2 − σ3 ) 2 + (σ3 − σ1 ) 2 ]1/2
2
1
= √ [(40 p − 20 p) 2 + (20 p + p) 2 + (− p − 40 p) 2 ]
2
= 35.51 p = 54 ⇒ p = 1.52 kpsi (for yield) Ans.
. .
For rupture, 35.51 p = 64 ⇒ p = 1.80 kpsi Ans.

6-17 For hot-forged AISI steel w = 0.282 lbf/in3 , S y = 30 kpsi and ν = 0.292. Then ρ = w/g =
0.282/386 lbf · s2 /in; ri = 3 in; ro = 5 in; ri2 = 9; ro2 = 25; 3 + ν = 3.292; 1 + 3ν = 1.876.
Eq. (4-56) for r = ri becomes
   
3+ν 1 + 3ν
σt = ρω 2
2ro + ri 1 −
2 2
8 3+ν
Rearranging and substituting the above values:
   
Sy 0.282 3.292 1.876
= 50 + 9 1 −
ω2 386 8 3.292
= 0.016 19
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164 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

Setting the tangential stress equal to the yield stress,

 
30 000 1/2
0.016 19
or n = 60ω/2π = 60(1361)/(2π)
= 13 000 rev/min

Now check the stresses at r = (rori ) 1/2 , or r = [5(3)]1/2 = 3.873 in

 
2 3+ν
σr = ρω (ro − ri ) 2
8
 
0.282ω2 3.292
= (5 − 3) 2
386 8

= 0.001 203ω2
Applying Eq. (4-56) for σt
   
2 0.282 3.292 9(25) 1.876(15)
σt = ω 9 + 25 + −
386 8 15 3.292

= 0.012 16ω2
Using the Distortion-Energy theory
 1/2
σ  = σt2 − σr σt + σr2 = 0.011 61ω2
 1/2
30 000
0.011 61
So the inner radius governs and n = 13 000 rev/min Ans.

di = 3.5 − 2(0.065) = 3.37 in

p(di + t)
σt =
2t
500(3.37 + 0.065)
σt = = 13 212 psi
2(0.065)
pdi 500(3.37)
σl = = = 6481 psi
4t 4(0.065)
σr = − pi = −500 psi
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Chapter 6 165

These are all principal stresses, thus,

1
σ  = √ {(13 212 − 6481) 2 + [6481 − (−500)]2 + (−500 − 13 212) 2 }1/2
2
σ  = 11 876 psi
Sy 46 000 46 000
n= 
= 
=
σ σ 11 876
= 3.87 Ans.

6-19 Table A-20 gives S y as 320 MPa. The maximum significant stress condition occurs at ri
where σ1 = σr = 0, σ2 = 0, and σ3 = σt . From Eq. (4-50) for r = ri
2ro2 po 2(1502 ) po
σt = − = − = −3.6 po
ro2 − ri2 1502 − 1002
σ  = 3.6 po = S y = 320
320
po = = 88.9 MPa Ans.
3.6

6-20 Sut = 30 kpsi, w = 0.260 lbf/in3 , ν = 0.211, 3 + ν = 3.211, 1 + 3ν = 1.633. At the inner
  
σt 3+ν 1 + 3ν 2
=ρ 2ro + ri −
2 2
r
ω2 8 3+ν i
Here ro2 = 25, ri2 = 9, and so
  
σt 0.260 3.211 1.633(9)
= 50 + 9 − = 0.0147
ω2 386 8 3.211
Since σr is of the same sign, we use M2M failure criteria in the first quadrant. From Table
A-24, Sut = 31 kpsi, thus,
 
31 000 1/2
0.0147
rpm = 60ω/(2π) = 60(1452)/(2π)
= 13 866 rev/min
Using the grade number of 30 for Sut = 30 000 kpsi gives a bursting speed of 13640 rev/min.

6-21 TC = (360 − 27)(3) = 1000 lbf · in , TB = (300 − 50)(4) = 1000 lbf · in

y
223 lbf 127 lbf
B C
A D
8" 8" 6"
350 lbf
xy plane
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166 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

In x y plane, M B = 223(8) = 1784 lbf · in and MC = 127(6) = 762 lbf · in.

387 lbf
8" 8" 6"
A D
B C
106 lbf 281 lbf
xz plane

In the x z plane, M B = 848 lbf · in and MC = 1686 lbf · in. The resultants are
M B = [(1784) 2 + (848) 2 ]1/2 = 1975 lbf · in
MC = [(1686) 2 + (762) 2 ]1/2 = 1850 lbf · in
So point B governs and the stresses are
16T 16(1000) 5093
τx y = = = 3 psi
πd 3 πd 3 d
32M B 32(1975) 20 120
σx = = = psi
πd 3 πd 3 d3
Then  2 1/2
σx σx
σ A, σB = ± + τx2y
2 2
  1/2 
 2 
1 20.12 20.12
σ A, σB = 3 ± + (5.09) 2
d  2 2 

(10.06 ± 11.27)
= kpsi · in3
d3
Then
10.06 + 11.27 21.33
σA = = kpsi
d3 d3
and
10.06 − 11.27 1.21
σB = 3
= − 3 kpsi
d d
For this state of stress, use the Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr theory for illustration. Here we use
Sut (min) = 25 kpsi, Suc (min) = 97 kpsi, and Eq. (6-31b) to arrive at
21.33 −1.21 1
− =
25d 3 97d 3 2.8
Solving gives d = 1.34 in. So use d = 1 3/8 in Ans.
Note that this has been solved as a statics problem. Fatigue will be considered in the next
chapter.

6-22 As in Prob. 6-21, we will assume this to be statics problem. Since the proportions are un-
changed, the bearing reactions will be the same as in Prob. 6-21. Thus
x y plane: M B = 223(4) = 892 lbf · in
x z plane: M B = 106(4) = 424 lbf · in
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Chapter 6 167

So
Mmax = [(892) 2 + (424) 2 ]1/2 = 988 lbf · in
32M B 32(988) 10 060
σx = = = psi
πd 3 πd 3 d3
Since the torsional stress is unchanged,
τx z = 5.09/d 3 kpsi

1/2 
    2 
1 10.06 10.06
σ A, σB = 3 ± + (5.09) 2
d  2 2 

σ A = 12.19/d 3 and σ B = −2.13/d 3

Using the Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr, as was used in Prob. 6-21, gives
12.19 −2.13 1
3
− 3
=
25d 97d 2.8
Solving gives d = 1 1/8 in. Now compare to Modified II-Mohr theory Ans.

6-23 ( FA ) t = 300 cos 20 = 281.9 lbf, ( FA )r = 300 sin 20 = 102.6 lbf

3383
T = 281.9(12) = 3383 lbf · in, ( FC ) t = = 676.6 lbf
5
( FC )r = 676.6 tan 20 = 246.3 lbf

ROy = 193.7 lbf 246.3 lbf ROz = 233.5 lbf 676.6 lbf
A B C A B C
O x O x
20" 16" 10" 20" 16" 10"
RBy = 158.1 lbf z RBz = 807.5 lbf
281.9 lbf 102.6 lbf
xy plane xz plane


M A = 20 193.72 + 233.52 = 6068 lbf · in

M B = 10 246.32 + 676.62 = 7200 lbf · in (maximum)
32(7200) 73 340
σx = =
πd 3 d3
16(3383) 17 230
τx y = =
πd 3 d3
 1/2 Sy
σ  = σx2 + 3τx2y =
n
 2  
1/2
73 340 17 230 2 79 180 60 000
3
+3 3
= 3
=
d d d 3.5

d = 1.665 in so use a standard diameter size of 1.75 in Ans.

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168 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

6-24 From Prob. 6-23,

 2
1/2
σx Sy
τmax = + τx y2
=
2 2n
 2  2
1/2
73 340 17 230 40 516 60 000
+ = =
2d 3 d3 d3 2(3.5)

6-25 T = (270 − 50)(0.150) = 33 N · m , S y = 370 MPa

(T1 − 0.15T1 )(0.125) = 33 ⇒ T1 = 310.6 N, T2 = 0.15(310.6) = 46.6 N
(T1 + T2 ) cos 45 = 252.6 N

y 107.0 N 252.6 N

300 A 400 150

O z
B C 320 N 174.4 N
xy plane xz plane


M A = 0.3 163.42 + 1072 = 58.59 N · m (maximum)

M B = 0.15 89.22 + 174.42 = 29.38 N · m
32(58.59) 596.8
σx = =
πd 3 d3
16(33) 168.1
τx y = =
πd 3 d3
 2  2
1/2

 
2 1/2 596.8 168.1 664.0 370(106 )
σ = σx + 3τx y
2
= +3 = =
d3 d3 d3 3.0

6-26 From Prob. 6-25,

 2
1/2
σx Sy
τmax = + τx2y =
2 2n
 2  2
1/2
596.8 168.1 342.5 370(106 )
+ = =
2d 3 d3 d3 2(3.0)

d = 17.7(10−3 ) m = 17.7 mm, so use 18 mm Ans.

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Chapter 6 169

V
 
F a b 4.4
Mmax = + = (6 + 4.5)
2 2 4 2
M
= 23.1 N · m
y
For a stress element at A: B
C x
32M 32(23.1)(103 )
σx = = = 136.2 MPa A
πd 3 π(12) 3
The shear at C is
4( F/2) 4(4.4/2)(103 )
τx y = = = 25.94 MPa
3πd 2 /4 3π(12) 2 /4
 
1/2
136.2 2
τmax = = 68.1 MPa
2

Since S y = 220 MPa, Ssy = 220/2 = 110 MPa, and

Ssy 110
n= = = 1.62 Ans.
τmax 68.1

     2  
F a+b F 1 b F a b
Mmax = − = +
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4
This result is the same as that obtained for Figure (c). At point B, we also have a surface
compression of
−F −F −4.4(103 )
σy = = − = −20.4 MPa
A bd 18(12)
With σx = −136.2 MPa. From a Mohrs circle diagram, τmax = 136.2/2 = 68.1 MPa.
110
n= = 1.62 MPa Ans.
68.1

6-28 Based on Figure (c) and using Eq. (6-15)

 1/2
σ  = σx2
= (136.22 ) 1/2 = 136.2 MPa
Sy 220
n= = = 1.62 Ans.
σ 136.2
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170 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

Based on Figure (d) and using Eq. (6-15) and the solution of Prob. 6-27,
 1/2
σ  = σx2 − σx σ y + σ y2
= [(−136.2) 2 − (−136.2)(−20.4) + (−20.4) 2 ]1/2
= 127.2 MPa
Sy 220
n= 
= = 1.73 Ans.
σ 127.2

6-29
When the ring is set, the hoop tension in the ring is
w
equal to the screw tension.
dF  
ri2 pi ro2
σt = 2 1+ 2
r ro − ri2 r

We have the hoop tension at any radius. The differential hoop tension d F is
d F = wσt dr
 ro  ro  
wri2 pi ro2
F= wσt dr = 2 1 + 2 dr = wri pi (1)
ri ro − ri2 ri r

The screw equation is

T
Fi = (2)
0.2d
From Eqs. (1) and (2)
pi ri d␪ F T
pi = =
wri 0.2dwri
dFx d Fx = f pi ri dθ
 2π  2π
f Tw
Fx = f pi wri dθ = ri dθ
o 0.2dwri o
2π f T
= Ans.
0.2d

6-30
(a) From Prob. 6-29, T = 0.2Fi d
T 190
Fi = = = 3800 lbf Ans.
0.2d 0.2(0.25)
(b) From Prob. 6-29, F = wri pi
F Fi 3800
pi = = = = 15 200 psi Ans.
wri wri 0.5(0.5)
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Chapter 6 171

   
ri2 pi ro2 pi ri2 + ro2
(c) σt = 2 1+ =
ro − ri2 r r=ri ro2 − ri2
15 200(0.52 + 12 )
= = 25 333 psi Ans.
12 − 0.52
σr = − pi = −15 200 psi
σ1 − σ3 σt − σr
(d) τmax = =
2 2
25 333 − (−15 200)
= = 20 267 psi Ans.
2
 1/2
σ  = σ A2 + σ B2 − σ A σ B
= [25 3332 + (−15 200) 2 − 25 333(−15 200)]1/2
= 35 466 psi Ans.
(e) Maximum Shear hypothesis
Ssy 0.5S y 0.5(63)
n= = = = 1.55 Ans.
τmax τmax 20.267
Distortion Energy theory
Sy 63
n= 
= = 1.78 Ans.
σ 35 466

6-31
1"R
re The moment about the center caused by force F
1" is Fre where re is the effective radius. This is
R
2 balanced by the moment about the center
caused by the tangential (hoop) stress.
 ro
Fre = rσt w dr
␴t ri
  
wpi r 2 ro ro2
r
= 2 i2 r+ dr
r o − ri ri r
 
wpi ri2 ro2 − ri2 ro
re =  2  + ro ln
2
F ro − ri2 2 ri

 
ri ro2 − ri2 r o
re = 2 + ro2 ln
ro − ri2 2 ri

For the conditions of Prob. 6-29, ri = 0.5 and ro = 1 in

 2 
0.5 1 − 0.52 1
re = 2 + 1 ln
2
= 0.712 in
1 − 0.52 2 0.5
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6-32 δnom = 0.0005 in

(a) From Eq. (4-60)
 
30(106 )(0.0005) (1.52 − 12 )(12 − 0.52 )
p= = 3516 psi Ans.
1 2(12 )(1.52 − 0.52 )
Inner member:
 2 
R 2 + ri2 1 + 0.52
Eq. (4-57) (σt ) i = − p 2 = −3516 2 = −5860 psi
R − ri2 1 − 0.52
(σr ) i = − p = −3516 psi
 1/2
Eq. (6-13) σi = σ A2 − σ A σ B + σ B2
= [(−5860) 2 − (−5860)(−3516) + (−3516) 2 ]1/2
= 5110 psi Ans.
Outer member:
 
1.52 + 12
Eq. (4-58) (σt ) o = 3516 = 9142 psi
1.52 − 12
(σr ) o = − p = −3516 psi

Eq. (6-13) σo = [91422 − 9142(−3516) + (−3516) 2 ]1/2

= 11 320 psi Ans.

(b) For a solid inner tube,

 
30(106 )(0.0005) (1.52 − 12 )(12 )
p= = 4167 psi Ans.
1 2(12 )(1.52 )
(σt ) i = − p = −4167 psi, (σr ) i = −4167 psi
σi = [(−4167) 2 − (−4167)(−4167) + (−4167) 2 ]1/2 = 4167 psi Ans.
 2 
1.5 + 12
(σt ) o = 4167 = 10 830 psi, (σr ) o = −4167 psi
1.52 − 12
σo = [10 8302 − 10 830(−4167) + (−4167) 2 ]1/2 = 13 410 psi Ans.

6-33 Using Eq. (4-60) with diametral values,

 
207(103 )(0.02) (752 − 502 )(502 − 252 )
p= = 19.41 MPa Ans.
50 2(502 )(752 − 252 )
 2 
50 + 252
Eq. (4-57) (σt ) i = −19.41 = −32.35 MPa
502 − 252
(σr ) i = −19.41 MPa

Eq. (6-13) σi = [(−32.35) 2 − (−32.35)(−19.41) + (−19.41) 2 ]1/2

= 28.20 MPa Ans.
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Chapter 6 173

 
752 + 502
Eq. (4-58) (σt ) o = 19.41 = 50.47 MPa,
752 − 502
(σr ) o = −19.41 MPa
σo = [50.472 − 50.47(−19.41) + (−19.41) 2 ]1/2 = 62.48 MPa Ans.

6-34
1.9998 1.999
δ= − = 0.0004 in
2 2
Eq. (4-59)
 2   2 
p(1) 2 + 12 p(1) 1 +0
0.0004 = + 0.211 + − 0.292
14.5(106 ) 22 − 12 30(106 ) 12 − 0
p = 2613 psi
Applying Eq. (4-58) at R,
 
22 + 12
(σt ) o = 2613 2 = 4355 psi
2 − 12
(σr ) o = −2613 psi, Sut = 20 kpsi, Suc = 83 kpsi
 
n(4355) −2613n + 20 000 2
Eq. (6-33b) + =1
20 000 20 000 − 83 000
n = 4.52 Ans.

6-35 E = 30(106 ) psi, ν = 0.292, I = (π/64)(24 − 1.54 ) = 0.5369 in4

Eq. (4-60) can be written in terms of diameters,
  
 2 
Eδd do2 − D 2 D 2 − di2 30(106 ) (2 − 1.752 )(1.752 − 1.52 )
p=   = (0.002 46)
D 2D 2 do2 − di2 1.75 2(1.752 )(22 − 1.52 )

= 2997 psi = 2.997 kpsi

Outer member:
1.752 (2.997)
Outer radius: (σt ) o = (2) = 19.58 kpsi, (σr ) o = 0
22 − 1.752
 
1.752 (2.997) 22
Inner radius: (σt ) i = 2 1+ = 22.58 kpsi, (σr ) i = −2.997 kpsi
2 − 1.752 1.752
Bending:
6.000(2/2)
ro : (σx ) o = = 11.18 kpsi
0.5369
6.000(1.75/2)
ri : (σx ) i = = 9.78 kpsi
0.5369
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174 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

Torsion: J = 2I = 1.0738 in4

8.000(2/2)
ro : (τx y ) o = = 7.45 kpsi
1.0738
8.000(1.75/2)
ri : (τx y ) i = = 6.52 kpsi
1.0738
σx = 11.18 kpsi, σ y = 19.58 kpsi, τx y = 7.45 kpsi
Sy 60
Eq. (6-15) σ  = [11.182 − (11.18)(19.58) + 19.582 + 3(7.452 )]1/2 = =
no no
60
21.35 = ⇒ n o = 2.81 Ans.
no

–2.997 kpsi

9.78 kpsi

22.58 kpsi
x y
6.52 kpsi

From Eq. (6-14) with τ yz = τzx = 0

1 60
σ  = √ [(9.78 − 22.58) 2 + (22.58 + 2.997) 2 + (−2.997 − 9.78) 2 + 6(6.52) 2 ]1/2 =
2 ni
60
24.86 = ⇒ n i = 2.41 Ans.
ni

6-36 From Prob. 6-35: p = 2.997 kpsi, I = 0.5369 in4 , J = 1.0738 in4

Inner member:
 
(0.8752 + 0.752 )
Outer radius: (σt ) o = −2.997 = −19.60 kpsi
(0.8752 − 0.752 )
(σr ) o = −2.997 kpsi
2(2.997)(0.8752 )
Inner radius: (σt ) i = − = −22.59 kpsi
0.8752 − 0.752
(σr ) i = 0
Bending:
6(0.875)
ro : (σx ) o = = 9.78 kpsi
0.5369
6(0.75)
ri : (σx ) i = = 8.38 kpsi
0.5369
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Chapter 6 175

Torsion:
8(0.875)
ro : (τx y ) o = = 6.52 kpsi
1.0738
8(0.75)
ri : (τx y ) i = = 5.59 kpsi
1.0738
The inner radius is in plane stress: σx = 8.38 kpsi, σ y = −22.59 kpsi, τx y = 5.59 kpsi
σi = [8.382 − (8.38)(−22.59) + (−22.59) 2 + 3(5.592 )]1/2 = 29.4 kpsi
Sy 60
ni =  = = 2.04 Ans.
σi 29.4
1  1/2
σo = √ (−19.60 + 2.997) 2 + (−2.997 − 9.78) 2 + (9.78 + 19.60) 2 + 6(6.52) 2
2
= 27.9 kpsi
60
no = = 2.15 Ans.
27.9

6-37
   
1 KI θ KI θ θ 3θ 2
σp = 2√ cos ± √ sin cos sin
2 2πr 2 2πr 2 2 2
 
1/2
KI θ θ 3θ 2
+ √ sin cos cos
2πr 2 2 2
 1/2

KI θ 2 θ 2 θ 2 3θ 2 θ 2 θ 2 3θ
=√ cos ± sin cos sin + sin cos cos
2πr 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
   
KI θ θ θ KI θ θ
=√ cos ± cos sin =√ cos 1 ± sin
2πr 2 2 2 2πr 2 2
Plane stress: The third principal stress is zero and
   
KI θ θ KI θ θ
σ1 = √ cos 1 + sin , σ2 = √ cos 1 − sin , σ3 = 0 Ans.
2πr 2 2 2πr 2 2
Plane strain: σ1 and σ2 equations still valid however,
KI θ
σ3 = ν(σx + σ y ) = 2ν √ cos Ans.
2πr 2

6-38 For θ = 0 and plane strain, the principal stress equations of Prob. 6-37 give
KI KI
σ1 = σ2 = √ , σ3 = 2ν √ = 2νσ1
2πr 2πr
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176 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

1
(a) DE: √ [(σ1 − σ1 ) 2 + (σ1 − 2νσ1 ) 2 + (2νσ1 − σ1 ) 2 ]1/2 = S y
2
σ1 − 2νσ1 = S y
  
1 1
For ν = , 1−2 σ1 = S y ⇒ σ1 = 3S y Ans.
3 3
(b) MSS: σ1 − σ3 = S y ⇒ σ1 − 2νσ1 = S y
1
ν= ⇒ σ1 = 3S y Ans.
3
2
σ3 = σ1
3

␴1, ␴2
␴  
σ1
2␴
3 1 1 2
R= σ1 − σ1 =
2 3 6

6-39 (a) Ignoring stress concentration

F = S y A = 160(4)(0.5) = 320 kips Ans.

(b) From Fig. 6-36: h/b = 1, a/b = 0.625/4 = 0.1563, β = 1.3

F 
Eq. (6-51) 70 = 1.3 π(0.625)
4(0.5)
F = 76.9 kips Ans.

6-40 Given: a = 12.5 mm, K I c = 80 MPa · m, S y = 1200 MPa, Sut = 1350 MPa

350 350 − 50
ro = = 175 mm, ri = = 150 mm
2 2
12.5
a/(ro − ri ) = = 0.5
175 − 150

150
ri /ro = = 0.857
175
.
Fig. 6-40: β = 2.5

Eq. (6-51): K I c = βσ πa

80 = 2.5σ π(0.0125)
σ = 161.5 MPa
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Chapter 6 177

Eq. (4-51) at r = ro :
ri2 pi
σ = 2 (2)
ro − ri2
1502 pi (2)
161.5 =
1752 − 1502
pi = 29.2 MPa Ans.

6-41
(a) First convert the data to radial dimensions to agree with the formulations of Fig. 4-25.
Thus
ro = 0.5625 ± 0.001in
ri = 0.1875 ± 0.001 in
Ro = 0.375 ± 0.0002 in
Ri = 0.376 ± 0.0002 in
The stochastic nature of the dimensions affects the δ = |Ri | − |Ro | relation in
Eq. (4-60) but not the others. Set R = (1/2)( Ri + Ro ) = 0.3755. From Eq. (4-60)
  

Eδ ro2 − R 2 R 2 − ri2
p=  
R 2R 2 ro2 − ri2

Substituting and solving with E = 30 Mpsi gives

p = 18.70(106 ) δ
Since δ = Ri − Ro
δ̄ = R̄i − R̄o = 0.376 − 0.375 = 0.001 in
and
 2  2
1/2
0.0002 0.0002
σ̂δ = +
4 4

= 0.000 070 7 in
Then
σ̂δ 0.000 070 7
Cδ = = = 0.0707
δ̄ 0.001
The tangential inner-cylinder stress at the shrink-fit surface is given by
R̄ 2 + r̄i2
σit = −p
R̄ 2 − r̄i2
 
0.37552 + 0.18752
= −18.70(10 ) δ 6
0.37552 − 0.18752
= −31.1(106 ) δ
σ̄it = −31.1(106 ) δ̄ = −31.1(106 )(0.001)
= −31.1(103 ) psi
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178 Solutions Manual • Instructor’s Solution Manual to Accompany Mechanical Engineering Design

Also
σ̂σit = |Cδ σ̄it | = 0.0707(−31.1)103
= 2899 psi
σit = N(−31 100, 2899) psi Ans.
(b) The tangential stress for the outer cylinder at the shrink-fit surface is given by
 2 
r̄o + R̄ 2
σot = p 2
r̄o − R̄ 2
 
0.56252 + 0.37552
= 18.70(10 ) δ
6
0.56252 − 0.37552
= 48.76(106 ) δ psi
σ̄ot = 48.76(106 )(0.001) = 48.76(103 ) psi
σ̂σot = Cδ σ̄ot = 0.0707(48.76)(103 ) = 34.45 psi

 σot = N(48 760, 3445) psi Ans.

6-42 From Prob. 6-41, at the fit surface σot = N(48.8, 3.45) kpsi. The radial stress is the fit
pressure which was found to be
p = 18.70(106 ) δ
p̄ = 18.70(106 )(0.001) = 18.7(103 ) psi
σ̂ p = Cδ p̄ = 0.0707(18.70)(103 )
= 1322 psi
and so
p = N(18.7, 1.32) kpsi
and
σor = −N(18.7, 1.32) kpsi
These represent the principal stresses. The von Mises stress is next assessed.
σ̄ A = 48.8 kpsi, σ̄ B = −18.7 kpsi
k = σ̄ B /σ̄ A = −18.7/48.8 = −0.383
σ̄  = σ̄ A (1 − k + k 2 ) 1/2
= 48.8[1 − (−0.383) + (−0.383) 2 ]1/2
= 60.4 kpsi
σ̂σ  = C p σ̄  = 0.0707(60.4) = 4.27 kpsi
shi20396_ch06.qxd 8/18/03 12:22 PM Page 179

Chapter 6 179

Using the interference equation

S̄ − σ̄ 
z = − 1/2
σ̂ S2 + σ̂σ2
95.5 − 60.4
=− = −4.5
[(6.59) 2 + (4.27) 2 ]1/2
p f = α = 0.000 003 40,
or about 3 chances in a million. Ans.

6-43
pd 6000N(1, 0.083 33)(0.75)
σt = =
2t 2(0.125)
= 18N(1, 0.083 33) kpsi

pd 6000N(1, 0.083 33)(0.75)

σl = =
4t 4(0.125)
= 9N(1, 0.083 33) kpsi
σr = −p = −6000N(1, 0.083 33) kpsi
These three stresses are principal stresses whose variability is due to the loading. From
Eq. (6-12), we find the von Mises stress to be
 1/2
 (18 − 9) 2 + [9 − (−6)]2 + (−6 − 18) 2
σ =
2
= 21.0 kpsi
σ̂σ  = C p σ̄  = 0.083 33(21.0) = 1.75 kpsi
S̄ − σ̄ 
z = − 1/2
σ̂ S2 + σ̂σ2
50 − 21.0
= = −6.5
(4.12 + 1.752 ) 1/2
The reliability is very high
.
R = 1 − (6.5) = 1 − 4.02(10−11 ) = 1 Ans.

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