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# Quiz #2 Topics

## Frequency Content and Filtering

Fourier Series Write fourier series for a periodic function
Identify even and odd functions
Know meaning of fundamental and harmonics frequencies

Fourier Transforms Know what they do and what the results mean (conceptual questions)
DFT Given a function and a sample period, or a set of discrete points, be
able to compute F(k Δω).
Understand the relations between number of points, N, and total
sample period, T, in the time domain to incremental frequency, Δf, and
alias frequency in the frequency domain.

DFT/FFT Interpret a FFT graph and provide correct frequency scaling given
sampling specifications
Aliasing Shannon (Nyquist) Sampling Frequency
Understand frequency aliasing
Calculate the aliased frequencies given a frequency and sample rate
Bode Plots Understand frequency response
Interpret a bode plot
db = 20log10(gain)
Use bode plot to filter a time domain or frequency domain signal
Digital Filters Interpret a discrete bode plot – especially significance of nyquist
frequency
Understand how to use filter equation

Know the relations ships between filter frequency and sampling rate
Be able to scale a filter’s bode plot based on sampling rate
Understand the difference between FIR and IIR filters
Butterworth Filters Know how to choose filter coefficients given cutoff and sample rate
Understand effects of filter order

## Examples related to frequency content, response and filtering.

1) Sketch the frequency spectrum for signal resulting from sampling 10sin(2πt)+15cos(32πt) at 7
samples per second. Label all the axes.

ANSWER Hint: spectrum (frequency content) has spike at 2π r/sec amplitude of 10 and spike at
32π r/sec amplitude of 15

2) What is the magnitude of the third harmonic of the signal shown below (see your text).

-1
5s

## ANSWER Hint: Do fourier series and pull out third term

4) Given the frequency spectrum shown below, sketch the approximate time domain signal. Label
all axes.

0
6 r/s 12 r/s

## ANSWER Hint: y(t)= 3sin(6t) + sin(16t)

5) An FFT is performed on a signal which was sampled at 100 sample/sec for 10 seconds. What is
the slowest frequency, greater than zero, which can be determined from the discrete frequency
spectrum.

6) Perform the DFT on the signal shown below. Use a sampling time of 2 seconds and 3 samples,
starting at t=0. What is the magnitude of the frequency spectrum at 1/6 Hz. Show your work. (Apply
formula 5.11 in the text – remember ebi = cos(b)+i sin(b))

-1
1 2 3 4 sec

ANSWER Hint: t = 0,2,4 therefore y0=0, y1=1, y2=0, Δf = 1/T=1/6, need F(1/6) so F(kΔf) -> k=1
Use formula 5.11 with k=1, Δf=1/6, N=3, Δt=2

7) How is the Fourier series similar to, and different from the Fourier transform.

8) The signal, sin(2t) + 10cos(50t) is filtered using the filter shown in the bode plot. Write an
equation representing the time-domain output from the filter.

Bode Diagram
0

-20
Magnitude (dB)

-40

-60

-80
0

-45
Phase (deg)

-90

-135

-180
0 1 2 3
10 10 10 10

ANSWER Hint: output will be 1*G2*sin(2t+φ2) + 10*G50*sin(2t+φ50) where G2 and G50 are gains at 2r/w
and 50r/s respectively from the bode plot, and φ2 and φ50 are phase shift at 2r/w and 50r/s respectively
from the bode plot

9) Highpass digital filter with a cutoff a 12 Hz is designed around a 100Hz sampling rate. What is
the cut-off frequency if a signal, sampled at 225Hz, is passed through the digital filter.

ANSWER Hint: ratio of freq and sample rate is constant for a digital filter bode plot therefore
10) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a FIR filter over an IIR filter

## ANSWER Hint: don’t hold a grudge

11) The frequency spectrum for a given signal is shown below. Design a first order low pass
Butterworth filter which will remove the high frequency component of the signal. Specify the sample
rate and write the filter equation. Use the provided table shown below. Show your work.

## 1st Order Low Pass Butterworth Filter Coefficients

cutoff
 sample a0 a1 b0 b1
2

## 0.02 1.0000 -0.9391 0.0305 0.0305

0.04 1.0000 -0.8816 0.0592 0.0592
0.06 1.0000 -0.8273 0.0864 0.0864
0.10 1.0000 -0.7265 0.1367 0.1367
8 60 Hz 0.14 1.0000 -0.6346 0.1827 0.1827

ANSWER Hint: need cutoff between 8 and 60 hz. Pick a sample rate above 2x 60 hz (to satisfy sampling
criteria) For example: ωsample = 200Hz ωcutoff = 20Hz use those coefficients

12) Write the first two terms of the Fourier series for the following periodic signal. Show your work.

1.5

sec
-1.0
1.5 3

## ANSWER Hint: formulas on page 102 of text

13) An FFT is performed on 256 points collected every 5ms. What is the maximum, nyquist (Shannon
sampling), and incremental frequency on the FFT frequency scale (in Hz)?

ANSWER Hint: T=256*0.005=1.28 sec; Δf = 1/1.28, sampling freq = 1/.005 = 200Hz so Nyquist = 100 hz

14) A 60Hz signal is sampled at 34Hz. The resulting signal is analyzed using an FFT. What does the
FFT show the frequency content of the sampled signal to be?

## ANSWER Hint: signal is aliased. Mirror 34 Hz about the 30 Hz nyquist. Alias is at 26 Hz

15) Low-pass digital filter with a cutoff of 10 Hz is designed around a 500Hz sampling rate. What is
the cut-off frequency if a signal, sampled at 400Hz, is passed through the same digital filter.

## ANSWER Hint: Digital filter have constant freq/nyquist ratio.

16) Write the equation for a FIR filter in which the output is the average of the current and past
three inputs

17) The signal sin(2t) is sampled at 10Hz and passed into the following filter:

## yk = 2uk + uk-1 – yk-1

complete the table below for the first few points of the filter output. Assume all initial conditions are
zero

0 0 0 0

## ANSWER Hint: t = 0, .1, .2; u = sin(2*0), sin(2*.1), sin(2*.2) calculate y

Quiz #2 Equation Sheet

Fourier Series:

DFT:
Δ Hz

Digital Filter: