Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 13

®

Dispercoll C ®

Disper coll C P oly chlor opr ene Latices


for Adhesiv e Applications:
P r oper ties and Compounding Guide

Helping make our customers’ vision a reality. Bayer MaterialScience, where VisionWorks
Dispercoll® C Polychloroprene Latices for
Adhesive Applications: Properties and
Compounding Guide
Introduction
Bayer has long history with polychloroprene rubber for adhesive applications. Polychloroprene latices have been sold
under the Dispercoll C trade name for adhesive applications for over 25 years. Dispercoll C latices provide a safe and envi-
ronmental friendly alternative to solvent based adhesives. Dispercoll C latices have been found to be an excellent alterna-
tive to solvent based adhesives that used non-flammable solvents. Dispercoll C latices can be used to formulate adhesives
which meet many of the VOC regulations and also greatly reduce fire hazards that have been associated with flammable
solvents. The advantages of using water borne systems have pushed their growth rate above solvent based polychloro-
prene adhesives.

Applications
Bayer Material Science offers three different grades of Dispercoll C polychloroprene latices. Dispercoll C-84 is a strong
crystallizing grade which has high tensile strength. Dispercoll C-74 is a medium crystallizing grade with high heat resist-
ance. Dispercoll C LS 2372H is a low crystallizing grade with high degree of tackiness and long contact bond life. Each
product's unique properties lend themselves to different applications. Dispercoll C-84 has become the product of choice
for applications such as bonding polyurethane foam which needs high wet bond strength. Dispercoll C-74 is being used in
bonding high pressure laminate to particle board which requires good heat resistance along with a contact bond life of
more than one hour. Dispercoll C LS 2372H has found its niche in formulations which are designed to have high tack and
also the ability to be repositioned. Other applications for Dispercoll C polychloroprene latices are footwear, mill work and
DIY. Dispercoll C polychloroprene latices have the same chemical structure as Baypren polycloroprenes; so they have the
same good weathering properties and chemical resistance.

Dispercoll C-74 C-84 C LS 2372H


Solids Content (%) 58 55 58
Viscosity (cps) 80 110 100
pH 13 13 13
Particle size (nm) 160 160 160
Crystallization tendency Medium Strong Low
Emulsifier Anionic Anionic Anionic

Properties
Dispercoll C-74, C-84 and LS 2372H polychloroprene latices are alkaline colloidal dispersions of 2-chlorobutadiene pro-
duced by emulsion polymerization. Dispercoll C-74 is a medium crystallizing polymer. One can see from the film data that
this gives relatively high elongation and long open time. Dispercoll C-84, on the other hand, is a strong crystallizing poly-
mer. This results in high tensile strength and a shorter open time. Dispercoll C LS 2372H is a low crystalline with very long
open time and lower tensile strength. The differences in the softening points between these three products reflect different
molecular weights.

Film Properties

Dispercoll C-74 C-84 C LS 2372H


Tensile Strength (psi) 500 2900 65
Elongation at break (%) 1000 760 1000
100% Modulus 120 580 60
Softening Point (°C) 82 61 50
Contact Bond Life
Pass 1 hour 30 72 hours
minutes 1
ADHESIVE FORMULATING
CONTACT CEMENTS
Dispercoll C Latices are normally compounded with other ingredients - such as resins, zinc oxide, antioxidants,
thickeners and stabilizers - to modify adhesion, rheological behavior, and improve wet stability and aging properties.
Bayer has also introduced four grades of Dispercoll S silica dioxide sols which enhance the performance of Dispercoll C
polychloroprene latices.

Resins
Resins improve the adhesion of Dispercoll C based adhesives to many substrates and affect their open times. In
Bayer's early screening studies it was observed that a tackifier level of 20 phr did not change the peel strength of the
formulation. Levels of 35 and 50 phr gave a good bond strength and contact bond life values. A resin level of 65 phr
decreased the peel strength because of a loss of adhesion between the two adhesive films. The tackifying resins most
widely used in water based formulating are dispersions of terpene phenolic resins, rosin esters, coumarone-indene
resins, or hydrocarbon resins. Terpene phenolic resins are known to give improved heat resistance, but usually shorten
open time. Rosin ester types are known for their good tack characteristics, but average heat resistance. The difference
in contact bond life can be seen in the following graph. Several resin manufacturers supply terpene phenolic and rosin
ester resins in dispersion form. Because each commercial resin dispersion has its own surface active ingredients that
may or may not be compatible with a particular grade of Dispercoll C latex, the emulsion stability and adhesive proper-
ties of each formulation should be evaluated.

Examples of Commercial Resin Dispersions which are compatible with Dispercoll C products.

Supplier Name Resin Type


Schenectady HRJ 11112 Terpene phenolic
DRT Dermulsene TR501 Terpene phenolic
Dermulsene TR602 Terpene phenolic
Eastman Tacolyn 5002 Aromatic modified hydrocarbon
Tacolyn 5003 Aromatic modified hydrocarbon
Tacolyn 3185 Rosin ester
Tacolyn 3400 Rosin ester
Arizona Aquatac 6085 Rosin ester
Aquatac E5375 Rosin ester

The following chart shows the effect of different types of resins on open time.

2
Acid Scavenger
Zinc oxide serves as a stabilizer by neutralizing the minute amounts of hydrogen chloride which are split off from the
polymer as it ages. Elevated temperatures also cause the evolution of hydrogen chloride and destabilization of the latex
emulsion. Typically 2 to 5 parts by weight of Zinkoxyd Aktiv, precipitated zinc oxide, on a hundred parts of polychloro-
prene polymer are added to the formulation as an aqueous dispersion.

Antioxidants
Antioxidants are primarily used in polychloroprene based adhesives to protect the tackifying resin that is used in com-
pounding. Those resins that are sensitive to oxidation, e.g. rosin esters and coumarone-indene, may become brittle due
to aging and cause bond failure. A hindered phenolic antioxidant, such as Vulkanox BKF, is recommended to help
prevent this oxidative attack.

Both zinc oxide and antioxidants are commercially available as dispersions. The following table details dispersions from
two different suppliers.

Manufacturer ZnO Dispersion Antioxidant Dispersion


AkroChem W-9804 W-9924
Akron Dispersions Bostex 422 Bostex 346

Surfactants
Surfactants can be used to improve the compatibility of the various compounding ingredients. Nonionic surfactants can
be used to reduce the tendency to coagulate at low pH values. Surfactants can also be used to improve the mechanical
stability during high shear conditions. Both anionic and nonionic surfactants have been to be useful with Dispercoll C
products. It should be noted that too much of an emulsifying agent can have a negative effect on the properties of the
adhesive by decreasing moisture resistance or interfering with the contact properties.

Examples of compatible surfactants.

Surfactant Type Supplier


Daxad 11KLS Anionic GEO Specialty Chemicals
Igepal CO 710 Nonionic Stepan Chemicals
Igepal CA 630 Nonionic Stepan Chemicals
Rhodaplex CO 433 Anionic Rhodia Surfactants
Triton X-100 Nonionic Dow Chemical
Emulvin W Nonionic Lanxess

Thickeners
Thickeners are used in water based systems for a variety of reasons. The most common is to increase the viscosity of
the finished adhesive to provide enough sag resistance to prevent the wet film from flowing off the substrates.
Thickeners can also aid in the suspension of pigments, fillers or metal oxides such as zinc oxide. Higher viscosity will
prevent additives, which are heavier than the latex, from readily settling out.

The types of thickeners which have commonly been used for water based adhesives are polyvinyl alcohols, polyacry-
lates, alginates and methylcellulose. Associative thickeners based on acrylates and urethanes are a class of thickeners
which are now widely used. Rohm & Haas manufactures Acrysol RM-8W associative thickener, which has been found
to work well with Dispercoll C-74 and C-84 based formulations. It provides stable viscosity and uniform texture.

3
Dispercoll S
Bayer has developed a series of Silica Sols, which are nano-particulate sized silica dioxide dispersed in an aqueous
medium. These silica sols are produced from a sodium silicate dispersion through a process that removes the sodium
to a minute level and then builds the molecular weight that is best for long term dispersion stability. These products
have been found to improve the adhesive properties of Dispercoll C polychloroprene latices. They can be used to
modify viscosity, contact bond life, softening point, act as an acid scavenger and provide wet bond strength.

Dispercoll S Solids % Density (g/cm3) Surface (m2/g) Diameter (nm)

S 5005 50 1.39 50 55
S 4510 45 1.34 100 30
S 4020 40 1.295 200 15
S 3030 30 1.208 300 9

Formulas with high levels of Dispercoll S 3030 silica sol have shown very good wet bond strength. However in bonding
high pressure laminate to particle board, experiments indicate that levels in the 5 to 15 phl range are better for adhesion
to the substrates. These levels still show improvements in contact bond life and heat resistance. Each grade of
Dispercoll S gives a different viscosity at a defined quantity. The smaller the particle size Dispercoll S grades show
higher viscosities.

FORMULATIONS
The following suggested starting formulations are design to address specific performance requirements. These
formulations are based on Dispercoll C/resin combinations known to be compatible. Each adhesive manufacture
should test this and adjust according to their needs.

HIGH INITIAL BOND STRENGTH


C-84/TR 85/S3030
FORMULATION Wet Solids
Weight Content

INGREDIENTS

Dispercoll C-84 Latex 100.0 55%

Desmulsene TR 602 Resin 15.0 55%

Dispercoll S 3030 SiO2 10.0 30%

ZnO2 Dispersion HCl scavenger 4.0 33%

Vulkanox Dispersion Antioxidant 2.0 50%

Open time 4 hours

Softening point 69°C

Viscosity 3640 cps

4
HIGH HEAT RESISTANCE
FORMULATION Wet Solids
Weight Content

INGREDIENTS

Dispercoll C-74 Latex 100.0 58%

Emulvin W Surfactant 2.0 20%

Schenectady HRJ 11112 Tackifier 30.0 43%

ZnO2 HCl scavenger 4.0 33%

Vulkanox Dispersion Antioxidant 2.0 50%

Optional Ingredients:

Dispercoll S, Defoamer, Thickener

LONG CONTACT BOND LIFE


FORMULATION Wet Solids
Weight Content

INGREDIENTS

Dispercoll C-84 Latex 100.0 55%

VTAC 9001 Resin 15.0 55%

Dispercoll S 3030 SiO2 10.0 30%

ZnO2 Dispersion HCl scavenger 4.0 33%

Vulkanox Dispersion Antioxidant 2.0 50%

Open time 7 hours

Softening point 66°C

Viscosity 5100 cps

5
WET BONDING (Textile)
FORMULATION Wet Solids
Weight Content

INGREDIENTS

Dispercoll C-84 Latex 100.0 55%

Dispercoll S 3030 SiO2 30.0 30%

ZnO2 Dispersion HCl scavenger 4.0 33%

Vulkanox Dispersion Antioxidant 2.0 50%

Optional Ingredients: Defoamer, Colorant

LOW ENERGY SURFACES


FORMULATION Wet Solids
Weight Content

INGREDIENTS

Dispercoll C LS 2372H Latex 100.0 58%

Emulvin W Surfactant 2.0 20%

Tacolyn 3185 Tackifier 30.0 55%

ZnO2 Dispersion HCl scavenger 4.0 33%

Vulkanox Dispersion Antioxidant 2.0 50%

Optional Ingredients: Defoamer, Thickener

6
FOAM TO FOAM BONDING
2-Component Adhesive
For the bonding of foams in the manufacture of upholstered furniture and mattresses, adhesives containing chlorinated
solvents have historically been used. With the introduction of regulations on the use of chlorinated solvents, it became
necessary to eliminate adhesives containing 1,1,1-trichloroethane. One of the technologies which has gained wide
acceptance is the use of 2 component polychloroprene latex based adhesives.

The basic principle of a 2 component polychloroprene adhesive is the destabilization of the latex emulsion by a salt or
weak acid. This principle has been used in the manufacture of latex gloves for many years. The utilization of this behav-
ior for adhesives was made possible by the development of spray guns that delivers both the adhesive and salt solution
simultaneously from separate delivery nozzles. The spray gun atomizes both the adhesive and the salt into the spray
zone. Coagulation of the latex occurs in the aerosol phase before it hits the substrate. Because the adhesive has been
coagulated it has the necessary green strength to immediately bond the foam substrates together. The water that is
present in the adhesive film is absorbed by the substrate and eventually evaporates over a period of time.

The effective utilization of this


technology is dependent on the
proper adjustment of the spray
equipment. Salts like calcium chloride
are dissolved into water at a 5% level.
The salt solution is placed in the
second of two storage pots that a
2-component spray gun system
contains. Each pressure pot has its
own pressure and delivery adjustments.
A typical fluid delivery ratio is 100 ml
of adhesive to 10 ml of salt solution.
Differences in the solution concentration
or utilized salt may vary the mix ratio.

A two component foam adhesive contains the same ingredients as the typical water based polychloroprene adhesive.
Resins are added to modify tack. The type of resin dispersion will influence the heat resistance properties. Because the
coagulation behavior of the polychloroprene is the key to the success of these adhesives the resin normally only added
at a level of 20 to 30 parts on 100 latex. Surfactants can be used to modify the mechanical stability of the adhesive.
Zinc oxide and antioxidants are added in disperse form to aid in the aging stability of the adhesive bond. Sometimes
wetting agents or defoamers are employed.

upper foam

Internal foam block

foam for construction of box

foam with adhesive

Bonding of seating using 2K spray mix


process with Dispercoll C

7
2K FORMULATION

FORMULATION Wet Solids


Weight Content

INGREDIENTS

Dispercoll C-84 Latex 100.0 55%

Emulvin W Surfactant 2.0 20%

Dermulsene TR 602 Tackifier 30.0 50%

ZnO2 Dispersion HCl scavenger 6.0 33%

Vulkanox Dispersion Antioxidant 2.0 50%

Coagulation Agent:

5% solution of salt (e.g. CaCl2 or Zn SO4)

Mix ratio 10:1

Optional Ingredients: Defoamer

The following figures show that the potassium counter ion associates with the soap used in the emulsion polymeriza-
tion. When the latex is co-sprayed with a salt solution the counter ion is pulled away from the emulsion boundary and
coagulation occurs.

Salt Destabilization

Normal CR Micelle
CI- CI-

CI- CI-

Polymer
Polymer CI- CI-

CI-
CI-
CI-

8
1-Component Adhesive
More recently, one component foam adhesives have become popular because it is not necessary to adjust mix ratios
between the latex/resin “Part A” and the salt solution. To make the adhesive coagulate (break) upon spraying it is nec-
essary to adjust the pH down to the point where the latex is barely stable. This can be done with glycine or dilute
hydrochloric acid. The challenge of a 1-component formulation is to avoid coagulating the adhesive before it is sprayed.
If the pH is adjusted too low the latex will coagulate in the container. If the pH is too high, spraying will not cause coag-
ulation. Each ingredient that is added to the formulation can affect the emulsion stability. Also these types of systems
tend to have shorter shelf lives because the natural downward pH drift of polychloroprenes will bring the adhesive clos-
er to its coagulation point. The following is a basic starting point formulation for a one component foam adhesive.

ONE COMPONENT FOAM ADHESIVE


FORMULATION Wet Solids
Weight Content

INGREDIENTS

Dispercoll C-84 Latex 100.0 55%

Dermulsene TR 602 Tackifier 30.0 50%

ZnO2Dispersion HCl scavenger 6.0 33%

Vulkanox Dispersion Antioxidant 2.0 50%

pH Adjusting Agent

18% Glycine solution (to pH of 9.0 to 9.5)

Discretional Ingredients:

Surfactant and/or defoamer

9
The following figure gives a representation of the emulsion state of Dispercoll C. On the left is represented a stable poly-
chloroprene emulsion at a typical pH. In the figure below, the right section shows that by lowering the pH to less than
9.5 the potassium counter-ion no longer closely associated with soap. This reduction of the counter charge on the soap
emulsion reduces the tendency for the emulsion particles to come in contact with each other and coagulate. During the
spraying process the latex is subjected to shear forces which cause it to coagulate into an adhesive film and be able to
bond in a wet state.

Low pH Destabilization

Dispercoll C Micelle

Polymer
Polymer

Storage conditions
The pH value of Dispercoll C polychloroprene latices tends to drop during prolonged storage, which can result in
reduced stability. Bayer states that the shelf life of the Dispercoll C latices is six months. It is recommended that
inventory be used on a first in first out basis to minimize the storage time of the latex. The recommended storage
temperature range is 5 to 25°C which will minimize the risk of pH change. Temperatures above 25°C can be tolerated
for short periods of time. For example a temperature of 30°C is likely to reduce the pH of Dispercoll C-84 from 12.5 to
12.0 in 4 weeks. A temperature of 50°C has been shown to reduce the pH 1.0 units in 7 days. To provide the best pH
stability a temperature around 23°C is best.

Mixing Procedure

Water-based systems are sensitive to being destabilized by different pH levels or emulsification systems. The stability
of the latices may be affected by the addition of compounding ingredients. During compounding, the addition of resin
dispersions normally will lower the pH of the finished adhesive. It is recommended that the pH value of the formulation
be readjusted to at least 10.5 (this is the pH at which there is no excess counter ion) to provide an acceptable shelf life.
A 5% potassium hydroxide solution is recommended to increase pH. If surfactants are used in the formula, they are
added to the latex prior to the other compounding ingredients.

The order and technique of addition can be critical to a formulation. The general rule for order of addition is to start with
the largest amount and work to the smallest amount of ingredient. The exceptions are materials that add stability and
compatibility during the mixing process, i.e. defoamers and surfactants. Thickening agents are normally added last. The
compounding ingredients should be added to mixture slowly with sufficient shear to help ensure a homogenous blend.

10
Health and Safety Information

Appropriate literature has been assembled which provides information concerning the health and
safety precautions that must be observed when handling Bayer products mentioned in this publica-
tion. For materials mentioned that are not Bayer products, appropriate industrial hygiene and other
safety precautions recommended by their manufacturers should be followed. Before working with
any product mentioned in this publication, you must read and become familiar with the available
information concerning its hazards, proper use, and handling. This cannot be overemphasized.
Information is available in several forms, e.g., material safety data sheets and product labels.
Consult your Bayer Representative acontact the Product Safety Manager within the Health,
Environment, Safety and Plant Management Department, Bayer Corporation, 100 Bayer Road,
Pittsburgh, PA, 15205-9741, (412) 777-2000.

11
Craig Jansen: 412-777-4893
craig.jansen@bayerbms.com

Bayer MaterialScience LLC


100 Bayer Road
Pittsburgh, PA 15205-9741
412-777-7700

www.bayermaterialscienceNAFTA.com

The manner in which you use and the purpose to which you put and utilize our products, technical assistance and information (whether
verbal, written or by way of production evaluations), including any suggested formulations and recommendations are beyond our con-
trol. Therefore, it is imperative that you test our products, technical assistance and information to determine to your own satisfaction
whether they are suitable for your intended uses and applications. This application-specific analysis must at least include testing to deter-
mine suitability from a technical as well as health, safety, and environmental standpoint. Such testing has not necessarily been done by
us. Unless we otherwise agree in writing, all products are sold strictly pursuant to the terms of our standard conditions of sale. All infor-
mation and technical assistance is given without warranty or guarantee and is subject to change without notice. It is expressly under-
stood and agreed that you assume and hereby expressly release us from all liability, in tort, contract or otherwise, incurred in connection
with the use of our products, technical assistance, and information. Any statement or recommendation not contained herein is unautho-
rized and shall not bind us. Nothing herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use any product in conflict with patents covering
any material or its use. No license is implied or in fact granted under the claims of any patent.

© Bayer MaterialScience LLC 06/05