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A Report on

Plant Orientation cum Induction Program


at
Steel Plant – Jejuri, Tube Plant B – Baramati, Tube Plant A, CRRT & AVB –
Ahamadnagar,

Steel Plant – Jejuri (11.09.2008 to 13.09.2008)

This plant is developed as backward integration for ISMT Steel Plants to cater with
the quality & cost effective Steel with the desired grades. This plant serves with
60% of its capacity to ISMT Ltd. & with another 40% to outside customers.

Process Flow :-
Scrap/ Metallics

Primary Melting

Secondary Refining
& Ferro alloy
addition

Vacuum Degassing

Continuous Casting
of 160/200/225mm
rounds for Carbon &
alloy steels

Inspection of blooms

As cast products
Rolling

Finishing operations
& inspection

Meta llurgical Testing

Heat Treatment

Despatch
Raw Material
Metal Scrap is used as input material for EAF (Electric Arc Furnace), which is
primary melting.
Types of scraps:
1) Heavy Melting scrap (includes Mill returns) C : 0.15-0.40%
2) Pig Iron C: 4-4.5%
3) Pig Iron Skull (cheapest)
4) DRI (Direct Reduced Iron) C: 1.25-1.75%
5) Shredded Iron (high volume low mass contents)

FLUXES USED :

LIME , Cao : 90 -92%, Sio2 : >2%, De phosphorous, Coke : 60-80%

EAF (Electric Arc Furnace): Primary melting is carried out in the EAF which
is of eccentric tapping type.

Capacity: 55 MT Per Heat


Cycle Time: 70 – 80 min

4-5 MT is retained in the ladle to enable easy melting of the new charge.
EAF charging is done in two steps,

28-32MT O2 + LPG Burners + Electrode (500mm Graphite)

22-26MT O2 + coke + Cake/SiO2(Basicity = 3.2) to form basic slag

Liquid metal
(Scrap/Liquid metal Yield is approximately 90 %)

Eccentric Tapping to Laddle Refining Furnace LRF

Process Parameters

Temperature maintained in ladle = 16500 C


Liquidous temperature of Pure steel = 1536.40C
Total Cycle time = 70- 80 mins
First charge partial melting time = 20-25mins
Complete melting of total charge = 55mins
Oxygen consumption = 50,000 m3/Day
Life of Refractory lining = 800-900 heats

Cost of steel produced = Rs 50-52,000/ton


No. of heats per day = 15-20
Refractory repairs shut down = 4-6shifts in 1.5-2 months
Secondary Melting in LRF:

While 90 % of refining takes place in the Primary melting phase, the fine tuning of
steel chemistry takes place in the secondary melting phase in the LRF. Samples
are taken 4-5 times during ferro-alloy addition. Cycle time for secondary
refining = 50 mins. Argon purging is continuously done to maintain temperature
and homogeneity.

Vacuum Degassing:

It is done to remove gases from steel. This is done by applying a pressure of 1


millibar in the laddle for 25-30 mins Deoxidising agents like Al, Mn, Si are also
wire feed to reduce oxygen levels.

Continuous Casting Machine (CCM):


Casting is done as follows:

Laddle

Tundish (7MT capacity).

Oscillator (Powdered Casting Lubricant is added. Oscillating action helps layer


by layer solidification)

Mould (900mm long copper moulds are used.


Parabolic Taper moulds for Non bearing steel
Double Parabolic Taper moulds for Bearing steel)

Straightener (Three no. of Rolls apply a pressure of 20bars (each) to pull the
Bloom and straighten it)

Auto Gas Cutter (To cut the required length Billets. Front end discard = 1m, Rear
end discard = 1.5m)

Final chemistry check

Hot stamping (Heat No. stamping is the first step used for tracking of material)

Cooling Bed (Air cooling or controlled air cooling is carried out.)

Casting Parameters:

Casting Size mm
160
180 (As specific requirement of customer)
200
225
Walking Hearth Furnace, WHF : (WHF has a capacity of 25T/hr for cold charge
and 40 T/hr for hot charge)
It consists of three heating zones & two soaking zone with 10 no's burners. Two
burners in each Zone
1) Heating Zone I : temp upto 1150 `C
2) Heating Zone II : temp upto 1200`C
3) Heating Zone III : temp upto 1220`C
4) Soaking Zone IV : temp upto 1220`C
5) Soaking Zone V : temp upto 1220`C

De scaler ; 180Kg/cm2 water jet is used to de scale or peel the outer surface of
the bloom. The purpose of the same is to remove the bad conductors that adhere to
the OD.
Rolling Mill:
Spheriodised Graphite Iron Rolls are employed in USRM and DSRM.

Up Stream Rolling Mill, USRM (Max of 27% reduction can be done)


In USRM min dia is 100mm & max is 180mm
The ranges of billet diameter rolled in the process are from 125mm to 180mm.
Typical sizes rolled from 200mm input billet. Other o/p are 125, 137mm.
Length range is from 3.0m to 36.0 max

Down Stream Rolling Mill, DSRM (Maximum of 20% reduction can be done)
Typical sizes rolled here are as follows:

Roll sets Rounds, mm Round Cornered Squares, RCS mm


1- 4 115 max min up to 45
1–6 52 – 105 45 - 50
1–8 38 – 50,
1 – 10 28 – 36

Dividing shear (hot metal detector facility)

Cooling rack (36m length)

Crack Inspection (Eddy current testing, Magnetic particle inspection)

Heat Treatment (Annealing, Normalising, Spherodising is done in Boggie


furnace)

Despatch (12-15,00Mt/month)
Quality Assurance:
Finish shop Quality Inspection consists of four types for crack detection

1) Eddy current testing ( ECT)


2) Pickling :
3) Grinding
4) Visual inspection
5) Magnetic Particle inspection

The following facilities are used for quality testing:

Vacuum Emission Spectrometer


Carbon Sulphur Determinator
H2, N2, S2 Gas Determinator
Tensile Testing Machine
Brinell, Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines
Impact Testing Machine
Ultrasonic Testing Machine
Magnetic Crack Detector
Mobile Spectrometer
Metascope
Metallurgical Microscope

Bundling and Packaging:


Non-ISMT avg. bundle 2.5 – 3.0MT. ISMT avg. bundle 3.5 – 4.0MT. Bundles are
tied at 3 – 5 places. Bundling standards are followed for bundling number of bars
in each bundle according to the diameter range. Customer specific bundling is also
done.

Tube Plant B-Baramati (05.09.2008 to 07.09.2008)

The erstwhile Kalyani Seamless Tubes Ltd., 1995 was taken over by ISMT in April
2000 and is referred to as the ISMT Tube Plant B.
Installed Capacity = 150,000 MT/annum
Permanent Employees = 670
Contract Employees = 100 ( 350 additional manpower for PQF Mill)

Strategic Customers : EVERGREEN, Continential Alloys, Reliance, Thermax


SS Engg, VSP, TAL etc

Tube size range : OD THK

1) HFS : 38.1mm - 254mm 5mm – 40mm

2) CDS : 18mm – 140mm 1.5mm -15mm


Capacity Expansion:
Currently commissioning of new rolling mill called PQF (Premium Quality Finish) is
being done and expected production may start by last week of Sept – 2008.
Advantages of PQF:
1) Capacity enhancement from 150,000 MT/annum to 450,000 MT/annum
2) PQF mill is a single input 200mm and multiple output ranging from
38mm to 168.3mm in hot and cold finish.
3) End cropping can be reduced from 15% to 5% thereby reducing
wastage.
4) PQF is ideal for producing large volumes of very accurately sizes. Hence
suitable for producing boiler & pressure tubes, OCTG tubes.

Despatch = 10,000MT/month
Input to Structo is to the tune of 4000MT/month from this plant.

Manufacturing Process:

Raw Material

Billet
inspection &
Cutting

RHF

Piercing Mill

Assel Mill

Sizing Mill

CD CP

EFS
Billet Cutting:

Billets are gas cut into the required lengths for furnace.
Size :- OD: 137mm – 225mm & Length : 1.8m to 3.6m.

Rotary Hearth Furnace (RHF):

The existing RHF has the installed capacity of 35MT. In addition to this,
installation of new RHF of 75 MT capacity is going on which will cater the PQF
requirement. The billets are heated upto 12000C. Soaking time depends on Billet
Diameter. Fuel used is Furnace oil & LDO.

Piercing Mill:

Piercing is a hot forming process of billets to hollows. The Billets are fed/pushed in
a linear as well as rotary motion (spiral motion) with the help of feeding rollers
placed at 150 inclination. Centering is not required due to the large diameter of the
Billet. Piercing is effected as the hot steel envelopes over the piercing point.
By introducing a piercing mandrel arranged in the roller gap, solid round material
could be pierced to produce a hollow shell in the rolling heat by the cross rollers.

Assel Mill:
Wall thickness control is achieved in this Mill. A mandrel bar is in contact with the
hot tube where the inclined rolls of the mill pull the tube. Concentricity is achieved.
The assel mill is ideal for producing low volume customized tubes with high
dimensional accuracy & excellent concentricity. As a result, these tubes are ideal
for manufacturing the items like a bearing rings, cages for velocity joints &
automobile patrs etc.
The assel features a three tapered roller arranged symmetrically at an offset of
120 degrees each.

Hot Sizing Mill:

OD control & finishing is done with the help of multiple tool cassettes mounted in
this mill.
This serves excellent operation for concentricity.

Cold Drawing & Cold Pilger Process Flow:

HFS

STP

COLD DRAWING COLD PILGERING


(Pointing,Drawing,HT,Straightening, ECT) (Pilgering, Straightening, Spiral
testing,UST, Final length cutting)

Notes:

STP :- Its 7 tank process which includes pickling, neutralizing, phosphating,


Soaping.
100% drying is necessary for drawing wheras its not necessary for pilgering.
CD :- pointing is done from 18mm to 88.9mm & is referred as nozzle or tapping.
In cold drawing hot finished tubes are surface treated & then drawn through the
reducing die & central plug or a mandrel thereby reducing both ID &OD and
polishing the surfaces as well to achieve the close & final tolerances.
Size reduction is achieved up to 25% in single pass & 45% in double pass.

Quality Management:
Following tests are carried out in QA -
YS test, UTS, Impact test, Bend test, Hardness testing & NDT.

End Finishing shop:


Operations carried out are as follows:
Cutting to required length, Chamfering/Bevelling, Threading, inspection.
End heating, Bulging, End Upsetting operations.
Inspection covers Hydro testing, Non Destructive Testing like Eddy Current
Testing(ECT) and Ultrasonic Testing(UST).

ECT : For Non-Bearing steel to identify OD cracks only for sizes from 19mm to
140mm. Standard specimens are prepared with 0.2x50mm sized notch. Tubes are
tested by comparing with the standard specimen. Longitudinal cracks/defects upto
0.3mm can be detected.
Testing Parameters:
a/c input of frequency 60KHz is applied. There are 4 probes which revolve at a
speed of 1440rpm around the tube. A crack is detected by change in magnetic field
since there is change in impedence.
Spiral Testing:
Combination of ECT and UST is done by passing the tubes spirally under the
testing probes. ID & OD i.e. Cross section defects are detected.

Tube Plant A-Ahmednagar (08.09.2008 to 10.09.2008)

Tube Plant A – Ahmednagar is the mother plant of ISMT Ltd.


First Assel mill (now called as Mill I) was installed and commenced production in
1980 and the second mill (now called as Mill II) was installed in 1992.
Permanent Employees = 808
Contract Employees = 100

Strategic Customers : FAG, SKF, Denison, NRB,

Tube size range : OD THK

3) HFS : 55mm - 200mm 5mm – 50mm

4) CDS : 6.35mm – 140mm 1mm -15mm

Ahmednagar plant has three divisions in totality as mentioned below:

1) Tube Plant
2) PTD (Precision Tube Division)
3) CRR & T (Cold Ring Rolling & Tooling)

Installed Capacity = 6000 MT/Month


Tube Plant:
Tube plant has two mills.

Tube Size range: Mill I = 62mm - 200mm,


Mill II = 50mm – 95mm

Billet length : Mill I MillII


Input 1.2m to 2.65m 1.3m to 3.0m

D/T Ratio : 3.5 to 12.5 for HFS


D/T Ratio : 2.2 to 30 for CD

Capacity of Mill I : 3400 MT to 3500 MT per month


Mill II : 2400 MT to 2500 MT per month
Process flow for Mill finish section

Billet Cutting Billet cutting


area area

Billet charging Billet charging

Mill I Mill II

Rotary hearth Pre heating


furnace furnace

Centering Induction
Machine Heating Coils

Piercing Mill

Assel mill

Stripper Chain

Hot Finishing
Stand

Cooling Chain
HFS : PROCESS ROUTE

Rolling Mill 1 And 2

Hot Sizing Heat Treatment

Straightening GKW

Surface Iinspn Pickling Brushing

Dimn Inspn For Cutting for RL,EL,ML UST


U/L orders

Unit Length Cutting Final Inspection

Tally Sheet

Surface coating Screen Printing Color Coding

Finishing / Bundling Wrapping Hex. Packing for UL

Ready For Despatch

Tube Plant:
Tube plant has two mills.

Mill I:

• Billet Cutting Table


Billets are gas cut according to the requirement and fed to the RHF.
• Rotary Hearth Furnace:
RHF is used to heat the billets up to 1200° C
Mill II :-

Billet Cutting Table

PHF is designed for 90 mm billet dia. (max.)

Furnaces
A Walking Hearth Furnace is used as the preheating furnace. Here the
temperature up to 800° C – 900° C is achieved and further send to induction
heating coils to achieve the required temperature
• Centering Machine
As Billet diameters are small it requires proper piercing point for accurate
piercing. So centering is done.

• Piercing Mill

By introducing a piercing mandrel arranged in the roller gap, solid round


material could be pierced to produce a hollow shell in the rolling heat by the
cross rollers.
• Assel Mill

The assel mill features three tapered rolls arranged symmetrically at an offset
of 120 degrees. This method is characterized by excellent concentricity &
employed in the production of turned components ( shaft,axles) & also medium
alloy steel roller bearing. The main features of the roller pass is the so-called
shoulder or hump, the height of which determines the degree of wall thickness
reduction.

OD tolerance ( Ex Assel mill )

SR No OD Tolerances
1) 55 mm to 80 mm +/- 0.79 mm
2) 80.1 mm to 120 mm +/- 1.0 mm
3) 120.1mm to 160 mm +/- 1.2 mm

• Stripper chain
• Hot Inspection Table
To avoid the last stage wastage, inspection is done at hot stage only. Here wall
thickness and tube diameter are measured.

• Hot Sizing Mill :

ID tolerances for HFS Sizes = +/- 0.2 mm (D/T 4.5 to 9.5 )


= +/- 0.3 mm ( D/T 4.5 to 9.5)
OD tolerances with hot sizing process

SR No OD Tolerances
1) 54 mm to 80 mm +/- 0.60 mm
2) 80.1mm to 120mm +/- 0.79mm
3) 120.1mm to 160mm +/- 1.0mm

The sizing mill


Cooling Chain:

Straightening Machine:

Range min 38.0mm to 160mm

1st Installation:

Roll Dia. - 480 to 560 mm

O/p of 45 mm thickness for OD 150 to 190 mm

D/T 3.5 to 13 is possible in the roll set with outlet angle of 7°


D/T 10 to 20 is possible in the roll set with outlet angle of 4°
D/T 20 to 26 is possible in the roll set with outlet angle of 2.5°

2nd Installation:

Roll Dia. 345 to 380 mm

D/T 3.5 to 13 is possible in the roll set with outlet angle of 7°


D/T 10 to 18 is possible in the roll set with outlet angle of 5.5°

Cold Pilgering:- The hollow shell is pushed over a lubricated cylindrical mandrel,
the diameter of which roughly corresponds to the desired inside diameter of the
finished tube. The shell -and-mandrel assembly is then fed into the pilger rolls by a
feeder. As hallow shell is “bitten” by the tapered inlet of the work pass, a small
wave of material is pressed away from its external surface & then forged to the
desired wall thickness by the smoothing portion of the work pass acting on the
mandrel.
The tube elongation is achieved by reduction of the outer diameter as well as the
wall thickness of the ingoing tubes. The cold pilger is characterized by very small
dimensional variations i.e close tolerances can be achieved, the surface finish is
good & because of cold working the hardness level & machineabilites are
excellent.
60-65% OD reduction is possible & Hardness is increased from 180-200 BHN to
225-270 BHN.

SMT M/Cs Ranges : min to max


1) XPT-32 : 42mm to 56mm
2) XPT-55 : 48 to
3) XPT- 90 : 68mm to 102mm

HFS- Mill1 &2

Sphereodizing

Cold sizing

Hot Bearing Cutting Cold Bearing

Pic kling, Phosphating,


Inspec tion
Soaping

Pac king & Despatc h Pilgering

Straightening

End Finishing ,
Inspec tion, Pac king &
Despatc h

PTD Division:

Size Range – 6 mm to 50 mm (Outer Diameter)

Draw Bench:
There are three draw benches of following drawing capacities

DB 1 = 40 MT
DB 2 = 15 MT
DB 3 = 5 MT

The reduction in tube size (diameter) takes place as --

Size = Diameter X Wall Thickness


1) 50 X 8.5
2) 40 X 7.5
3) 33.4 X 6.2
4) 26.7 X 5.65
5) 20.5 X 5.2
6) 16.4 X 5.2
Hollows from Mill
2

STP

Push Pointing

Cold Drawing

Heat Treatment
Process

Straightening

Cutting

ECT

Final Inspection
& Despatch

Cold Ring Rolling & Tooling Division (CRR & T):

This division includes: 1) Added value business (AVB)


2) Tool room
3) Ring rolling

End of report--------------