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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

Secure Communication with Flipping Substitute


Permutation Algorithm for Electronic Copy right
Management System
1 2 3
C. PARTHASARATHY G.RAMESH KUMAR Dr.S.K.SRIVATSA
Assistant professor in IT Dept Assistant Professor Senior professor
1
Sri Chandrashekhendra Saraswathi Viswa Mahavidyalaya University,
Enathur, Kanchipuram – 631 561, sarathy286089@rediffmail.com,
2
Department of Computer Science & Applications,Adhiparasakthi College of Arts & Science
G.B.Nagar, Kalavai - 632 506,Vellore District. Tamil Nadu, grk92804@rediffmail.com
3
St. Joseph’s College of Engg, Jeppiaar Nagar, Chennai-600 064 profsks@rediffmail.com

Abstract-The main objective of this paper is to detect Digital images are most common sources for hiding
the existence of secret information hidden within an message. The process of hiding information is called
image. Cryptography is one of the most interested and an embedding.
important area in the computer industry that deals with
secures transmission of information. Encryption, the Still and multi-media images are subject to
process which helps for such secure transmission
transformations for compression, steganographic
prevents hackers to access the information. And
decryption helps to retrieve the original information. embedding and digital watermarking. We propose
Cryptography provides many methods and techniques new measures and techniques for detection and
for secure communication. Currently there are many analysis of steganographic embedded content. We
industry standard encryption/decryption algorithms show that both statistical and pattern classification
including RSA, Rijndael, Blowfish and so forth. techniques using our proposed measures provide
However, they are fairly complex and require that one reasonable discrimination schemes for detecting
spend a lot of time to comprehend and implement them.
embeddings of different levels.
This paper introduces simple Encryption/decryption
algorithm that is fast and fairly secure. The algorithm
manipulates a 128-bit input using flipping, Substitution, Many algorithms are developed for encryption and
and Permutation to achieve its encryption/decryption. decryption which provides high security. All these
algorithms are kept open to the public and the secrecy
Keywords - Cryptography, Hacker, Security, attack of the algorithm lies entirely in the key. This paper
Steganography, Watermarking, compression, stands different that the development of algorithm
authentication. addresses the user needs in specific, thereby offering
more flexibility. With the help of socket program,
I. INTRODUCTION establish a connection between client and server
.Different segments of secrete picture were passed as
Steganography is a Greek word meaning covered or file objects to the server from client.
hidden writing. It is the art and science of secret
co+mmunication, aiming to conceal the existence of II. PROBLEM DEFINITION - PROPOSED
the communication. This is a different from ALGORITHM
Cryptography, where the existence of the
communication is not disguised but the message is Secure communication with the help of FSP
obscured by scrambling it. Use of cryptography algorithm as follows:
would not stop a third party knowing that some secret
communication is going on. In steganography, the Step 1: Set the flipping bit.
message to be sent is concealed in such a way that an Step 2: Change the characters according to the
intruder would not know whether any secret flipping bit.
communication is going on or not. Hiding Step 3: Check the ASCII table and find keys.
information inside digital carriers is becoming Step 4: With the help of the keys, make a square
popular. A rapid growth in demand and consumption matrix, using inverse table.
of multimedia has resulted in data hiding techniques Step 5: Do flipping operation.
for files like audio (.wav), images (.bmp, .pnm, .jpg). Step 6: Repeat the steps 2 to 5.

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In Fig 1, PT is the Plain text and CT is the Cipher K= 15 7 14 6 13 5 12 4 8


text. 1 9 2 10 3 11
[Numbers 1 to 15 occurring in the key corresponding
to the above table]

Using the above key, Flipping key is determined. So


the length of the Flipping key is 128bit (ie, 16 x 8 =
128).

And Using this key the substitution table and Inverse


Figure 1. Encryption with 8 levels
substitution table is also constructed.
A. Flipping Operation
Table 1 – ASCII Table
One piece of the secret information is the
flipping key and its length is 128 bits, and it is used
to obscure the plaintext or cipher text further. Given a
128-bit input PT (Plain Text) and a flipping key F,
We denote the flipping operation on PT as below:

Output=Flip (F, PT)

In the flipping operation, its 128- bit input is


disguised as follows: For each bit of the input, if the
corresponding bit of the flipping key is 0, the
corresponding bit of the flipping key is 1, the Again this table is divided into subsets.
corresponding output bit will be the complement of
the input bit. That is, if the flipping key bit is 0 and Table 2 – Subset Table
the input bit is 0/1, the output of the flipping
operation is 0/1. On the other hand, if the flipping
key bit is 1 and the input bit is 0/1 the output of the
flipping operation is 1/0. In reconstructing the
original input, the output of the flipping operation is
flipped against the same flipping key.

B. Substitution Operation

This algorithm uses substitution and Inverse


Substitution table for encryption and decryption
.These tables are generated based upon the ASCII
code and the key. Let PT be the plain text, CT be the
Cipher text and Key be the Flipping key. In this,
plain text as a text file. This file will have all the
ASCII characters. The ASCII characters are given in
Table 3 – Block Table
the Table 3. In this, the rows indicate the left digit
and the column indicates the right digit. Again this
table is subdivided into subsets. For dividing the
subset into blocks, we have to follow the following
procedure. If the no of characters is less than or
equal to 10, we have to divide this into two halves. If
the number of characters is even number, we divide it
into equal halves. Suppose, the number of characters
is odd number, we have to divide this into 2 subsets
but the size of the first subset is greater than the
second subset by 1. To construct the substitution
table 2, it uses key and it will be informed to the
receiver in a secure manner.

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Table 4 – Substitution Table


PLAIN TEXT CIPHER TEXT
A B C D E U V W X Y
F G H I J P Q R S T
K L M N O K L M N O
P Q R S T F G H I J
U V W X Y A B C D E

Figure 3.Horizontal Folding Technique

Table 5 – Inverse Substitution Table


PLAIN TEXT CIPHER TEXT
A B C D E A F K P U
F G H I J B G L Q Y
K L M N O C H M R W
P Q R S T D I N S X
U V W X Y E J O T Y
Figure 4.Diagonal Vertical Folding Technique

In the case of vertical folding method


columns are exchanged dynamically. It is same as
horizontal folding using column processing instead of
row processing.
C. Permutation Operation Proposed Folding
Technique The diagonal folding method must be
implemented in square matrix arguments. If not
The origin of folding is from paper folding nature. proper padding must be added to get the appropriate
This folding is broadly divided into 3 angles of solution. On the side of decryption padding must be
processing: eliminated after processing.
1. Vertical Folding
2. Horizontal Folding for(int i=0;i<5;i++)
3. Diagonal Folding for(int j=0;j<5;j++)
Consider there are 5 rows present in the plain text {
document. Cipher text created with respect to int p=(i*10)+j;
1↔5 for(int k=0;k<5;k++)
2↔4 for(int q=0;q<5;q++)
3 ↔'3 {
if(p==a[k][q])
Note : Exchange occurs b[i][j]=((k+1)*10)+q+1;
}
the horizontal folding method finds the mid-row of
whole text. With respect to that mid row subsequent
rows are exchanged. Program 1.Substitution - forming inverse table

PLAIN TEXT CIPHER TEXT


A B C D E E D C B A D. Encryption Level
F G H I J J I H G F The last piece of the secret information is
K L M N O O N M L K the encryption level. It is a positive integer. The
P Q R S T T S R Q P higher the encryption level is, the more secure the
U V W X Y Y X W V U algorithm is. However, we should be cautious with
large values of the encryption level since the
Figure 2.Vertical Folding Technique increasing of the encryption level is proportional to
the decreasing of the Encryption / decryption speed.
E. Traffic padding

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IV. LAN CONNECTION


Effective countermeasure to traffic analysis
is traffic padding. Traffic padding is one of the The program or process initiating the
functions of link encryption approach. It produces communication is called a client process, and the
cipher text output continuously in the picture; even in program waiting for the communication to be
the absence plaintext a continuous random data initiated is the server process. The client and server
stream is generated. When plaintext is available, it is processes together form a distributed system.
encrypted and transmitted. When input plaintext is
not present, random data are encrypted and Step 1: Start.
transmitted. It shown in figure 5,
Step 2: Select the image file.
Advantage of traffic padding: Step 3: Encode the information into the image file.
Step 4: Pass the image, to image splitter application,
• It is impossible for an attacker to distinguish
between true dataflow and padding data flow. enter the number of segments as input. Multiple
• It is impossible to deduce amount of traffic. image files will be created.
Step 5: Using socket programming, establish a
connection between client and server.
Step 7: Different segments were passed as file objects
to the server after connecting to the server.
Step 8: Stop.
public static void main(String[]
args) {
Figure 5. Traffic padding // TODO Auto-generated method stub
try
III. BRUTE FORCE ATTACK {
File file = new File"C:/test.jpg");
To hack into the FSP encryption/decryption InputStream fis = new
algorithms using the brute force approach, one needs FileInputStream(file);
to guess the flipping key, the Substitution function, long fileLength = file.length();
the permutation function and the encryption level. long numberOfSplits = 5;
A force attack or exhaustive key search is a strategy long splitFileSize =
that can in theory be used against any encrypted data fileLength/numberOfSplits;
by an attacker who is unable to take advantage of any byte[] byteArray =
new byte[(int)splitFileSize];
weakness in an encryption system that would
System.out.println("length of the
otherwise make them task easier. It involves
file::"+fileLength);
systematically checking all possible keys until the
System.out.println("split file
correct key is found. In the worst case, this would
size::"+splitFileSize);
involve traversing the entire search space
fis.read(byteArray, 0,
(int)splitFileSize);
A. The Number of the Flipping Keys
File file2 = new
File("C:/test1.jpg");
The resources required for a brute force attack OutputStream fos = new
scale exponentially with increasing key size, not FileOutputStream(file2);
linearly. As a result, doubling the key size for an fos.write(byteArray);
algorithm does not simply double the required System.out.println("length of file
number of operations, but rather squares them. 2::"+file2.length());
There are 128 bits in a key. Each bit can be fis.close();
either 1 or 0. Therefore, there are 2128 flipping keys. fos.close();

Program 2. Split the image

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V. Description Diagram for Watermarking In collection Society module, Buyer PIN is


embedded into the image using CS private key in
Asymmetric encryption. It also computes Hash value
of the image which should be sent to buyer. It is used
for authentication purpose. This hash value is also
appended into the image and the encrypted image is
transferred to the buyer using LAN or Email
networks.

Receiver
Sender Uk

|| F
M
M
Compare
F FK(M)

Pk

M - Input Message
F - MAC function
Figure 6.Water marking in Protected Image
Pk- Secret key
Uk - Public key
The media distributor inserts the third watermark,
which contains the document Creation Unique Figure 8.Massage authentication
Number (CUN) and the buyer’s PIN encrypted with In Buyer module, Buyer decrypts the encrypted
the collecting society’s private key. digest using CS public key and the digest value is
computed. Hash value is recomputed from the
VI. IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS decrypted digest and the hash value is compared. If
these values are same then it ensures no transmission
This paper consists of implementing the Electronic loss. From third encrypted watermark buyer decrypt
Copyright Management System (ECMS). In ECMS the Buyer PIN from it and ensures it legal ownership.
there are four modules. Control Authority is used for Illegal usage detection
phase. It compares CUN with buyer watermark and
distributor watermark and detects the legal or illegal
ownership.

A. Algorithm - Server Side:


Sockets are interfaces that can "plug into" each
other over a network. Once so "plugged in", the
programs so connected communicate. A "client"
program can then connect its own socket to the
server's socket, at which time the client program's
writes to the socket are read as stranded input to the
server program, and stranded output from the server
Figure 7. Four modules of ECMS program are read from the client's socket reads.

In Author Module Creation Unique Number is Step 1: Different segments were received as file
embedded into the Image using author private key. In objects.
the embedding of CUN it uses asymmetric
Step 2: Using Image Merger application, the
watermarking algorithm. Distributor PIN is also
segments are merged back to a single file.
embedded into the image using private key
Asymmetric encryption algorithm. Step 3: Apply the FSP algorithm Decode the
information.
Collection Society is the trusted third party that will
ensure that the protected document traded correctly. Step 4: Both the server and client socket connection
It involves transaction between buyer & media is closed.
distributor. Step 5: Stop.

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B. Author Module
String with encrypted third watermark is decrypted
In this module CUN and Distributor PIN is using CS public key and the obtained CUN and
encrypted using author private key and the encrypted Buyer PIN is compared
info is embedded into the image using transaction
watermark embedded. In this module all the info • BUYER passes his PIN to Distributor.
embedded into the watermarked image is decrypt and • Distributor passes buyer’s PIN, the CUN,
decoded using transaction watermark decoder. and a string with the second watermark’s
content (that is, Distributor’s PIN and the
In our approach, the document is self-contained. At
CUN encrypted with author’s private key) to
any given instant it contains all the information
the CS.
needed to verify whether the current holder is using
the data legally. No attempt is made to trace the • The CS passes revenue to Author.
document history, however, either by watermarking • After encrypting the string with buyer’s PIN
the document each time the owner changes, or by and the CUN with its private key, the CS
recording transaction details in a register. We take embeds the second and the third watermarks
particular care to allow each actor to check that the into its copy of the document.
data exchange was carried out correctly. The basic • The CS computes a digest of the
principle underlying our ECMS strategy is that the watermarked document using a proper hash
data holder’s name must be watermarked into the function, signs the digest with its private
data to prove legal ownership. To ensure that a key, and sends the signed digest and the
document is being used legally, any authorized third, encrypted, watermark to distributor.
person can check the watermark field the holder’s • Distributor embeds the third watermark into
name is written in. We also envision a protocol-level the document and gives it, the encrypted
mechanism that addresses the reversibility problem third watermark, and the signed digest to
by preventing data holders or counterfeiters from buyer.
benefiting from watermark removal: at no step of the
transaction can a counterfeiter insert a fake Verification Process: To verify that Distributor has
watermark, so a counterfeiter cannot prove document embedded his PIN within the data, Buyer need only
ownership. To keep misappropriating persons from decrypt the third watermark using the CS public key.
writing their names into the data, the ECMS assumes To check whether the CUN embedded in the third
that the seller (or the author when a media distributor watermark corresponds to that in the first, Buyer can
sells the document) embeds the watermark. compute the digest of the watermarked document and
confirm that it corresponds to the digest computed by
B. Collection Society Module the CS. Such a digest also allows buyer to verify the
integrity of the watermarked document that is he can
In this module Buyer PIN and total document is confirm that Distributor has not modified the original
encrypted using CS private key. If author wants to document.
sell copies of her document through a media
distributor, she embeds a second watermark into the D. Control Authority Module
document. This watermark contains a personal
identification number (PIN) identifying the media This phase is used to verify the illegal usage.
distributor, and the document’s CUN. Author Protecting Data from Illegal Use Control authority
encrypts the watermark string with her private key asks buyer to prove his right to a digital document in
and a copy of the encrypted string, which distributor its possession. Buyer can simply give the
can use to verify that author really inserted his name watermarked document and the file with the
into the document. Distributor can use Author’s encrypted third watermark to the control authority.
public key to read the encrypted string, and The CA first checks the encrypted.
watermark detection software to verify it. (Unlike
with the first watermark, only an asymmetric Third watermark for buyer PIN, then, by applying a
cryptography scheme can be used here.) watermark detection engine to the protected
document, it verifies that the watermark with buyer’s
C. Buyer Module PIN is actually embedded in the data. Finally, the
CA, which knows both the true CUN and author’s
In this module, buyer verification is achieved by secret key, can control whether the CUN contained in
checking the watermarked string with the original the third watermark matches the document identity.
watermark using watermark decoder.

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Indeed, the CA would not really need the user’s enhanced and to be used in Copyright protection. In
file with the encrypted third watermark if it could get addition to that all the image formats should be
this information directly from the CS. Rather than supported by the software and the e-commerce used
storing all watermarking codes or digests, the CS can in e-transaction will be added in future. This
simply compute them whenever it needs to, provided software needs facility of Monitoring and analyzing
the CA gives it the required information. In intruders and raising alarm with new technique. The
particular, the CS can generate the second and third FSP encryption / decryption algorithm is a simple
watermark and the digest if it knows the media algorithm based on the flipping, substitution and
distributor’s PIN, the buyer’s PIN, the CUN, and the permutation operations. It is fast and fairly secure.
author’s identity. However, it is only suitable for applications that do
not expose the inputs and the encrypted form of the
VII. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION inputs to the public. If there is a need for the
applications to expose its inputs and its encrypted
Here the new variant FSP Algorithm developed forms of the inputs, then it should use the FSP
has been adopted successfully to implement encryption / decryption algorithm instead.
watermarking technique used for invisible
information retrieval hidden in a picture message in
ECMS. The secret information sending / retrieval
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91 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011

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Labs, Taoyuan, Taiwan, 7810434,
1
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl C.PARTHASARATHY has been working as a
/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=1202744. Assistant professor in the Department of Information
Technology in Sri Chandrashekhendra Saraswathi
[11] Wei Li, Xiangyung Xue, and Peizhong Lu, Dept Viswa Maha Vidyalaya University, Enathur,
of CSE, University of Fudan, Shangai, China, Kanchipuram –631 561 since 2006. He has
2003, “A Novel Feature-based Robust Audio completed his M.C.A from in Madras University, and
Watermarking for Copyright Protection”, IEEE M.Tech in Sathyabama University and M.Phil in
Computers and Communication 2003, ISBN: 0- Computer Science from Annaamalai University.
7695-1916-4,554-560,Washington,DC,USA. Since January 1st 2001 C.Parthasarathy has been a
Lecturer in various colleges. He has been research in
[12] William Stallings, 2008,“Cryptography and Network Security. He has been a Ph.D student in
Network Security”, Pearson Edn. Pvt. Ltd, 2008, network security at the S.C.S.V.M.V University of
4th edtion, ISBN 13:9780132023221,pp. 26-29, Kanchipuram. He is currently focusing on the
Akhil books Pvt Ltd,India. creating a new algorithm in Steganography. He has
attended international and National seminars,
[13] Anderson and Petitcolas 2001 Anderson.R, Conferences, Workshops and also presented papers.
Petitcolas.F, “On the limits of the
2
steganography", IEEE Journal Selected Areas in G.RAMESH KUMAR started his career as
Communications, 16, 4,474{481. Lecturer in 1994 and having more than 16 years of
teaching experience. He completed his M.Phil degree
[14] Bassia et al. 2001 Bassia, P., Pitas, I., Nikolaidis, from Manonmaniam Sundararanar University,
N.: “Robust audio watermarking in the time Tirunelveli in 2003. He served as a member of the
domain”, IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 3, inspection committee for Computer Science courses
2, 232{241. at Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore. He has been
appointed as member in Board of studies in
[15] Cedric et al. 2000 Cedric, T., Adi, Computer Science and Computer Application(PG)
R.,Mcloughlin, I.: “Data concealment in audio for a period of three years from 16.04.2010 to
using a nonlinear frequency distribution of PRBS 15.04.2013. He has written three Text books for
coded data and frequency-domain LSB Computer Science UG & PG Courses. Presently he is
insertion”, Proc. IEEE Region 10 International working as Assistant Professor of Computer Science,
Conference on Electrical and Electronic Adhiparasakthi College of Arts & Science, Kalavai –
Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 275-278. 632 506. Vellore District. Tamil Nadu.

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3
Dr.S.K.SRIVATSA was born at Bangalore on 21st
July 1945. He received his Bachelor of Electronics
and Communication Engineering Degree (Honors)
from Javadpur University (Securing First Rank and
Two Medals). Master Degree in Electrical
Communication Engineering (With Distinction) from
Indian Institute of Science and Ph.D also from Indian
Institute of Science, Bangalore. In July 2005, he
retired as professor of Electronics Engineering from
Anna University. He has taught twenty-two different
courses at the U.G. Level and 40 different courses at
P.G. Level during the last 32 years. He has
functioned as a Member of the Board of Studies in
some Educational Institutions. His name is included
in the Computer Society of India database of
Resource Professionals. He has received about a
dozen awards. He has produced 23 PhDs. He is the
author of well over 350 publications.

Pseudo
Random Gen

Spatial Watermarked
Secret Encryption
Domain
Info Process Image
Tech

Encryption Protected
Key Image

Figure 9. Encoding with Watermarking technique.

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Pseudo
Random Gen

Watermark
Watermarked Watermarked
Decoding
Image content
Processs

Decoding Key

Figure 10. Decoding with asymmetric watermarking technique

Figure 11. Copyright watermark embedding

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