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## The number of 1s in the default mask is 24 (class C).

What is the default mask for class A,B and class C
Networks? The company needs six subnets. This number 6 is not a
power of 2. The next number that is a power of 2 is 8 (23 ).
Class A - 255.0.0.0 - We need 3 more 1s in the subnet mask. The total number of
11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 1s in the subnet mask is 27 (24 + 3). The total number of
0s is 5 (32 - 27). The mask is
Class B - 255.255.0.0 -
11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 11111111 11111111 11111111 11100000

or
Class C - 255.255.255.0 -
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 255.255.255.224

## The number of addresses in each subnet is 25 (5 is the number

of 0s) or 32.
Given the network address 133.22.0.0, find the class,
the network id, and the range of the addresses QUESTION 5
The 1st byte is between 128 and 191. Hence, Class B The
block has a netid of 132.22. The addresses range from You currently use the default mask for your IP net-
133.22.0.0 to 133.23.255.255. work 192.168.1.0. You need to subnet your network
so that you have 30 additional networks, and 4 hosts
QUESTION 3 per network. Is this possible, and what subnet mask
should you use?
What is the subnetwork address if the destina- Yes it is possible
is 255.255.240.0? we need to 8 = bb (bits borrowed) + bl (bits left)

## model Answer 4 ≤ 2bl − 2 hence bl = 3

11001000 00101101 00100010 00111000 and 11111111
11111111 11110000 00000000 30 ≤ 2bb − 2 hence bb = 5 so the subnet mask is:
11001000 00101101 00100000 00000000 11111111.11111111.11111111.1111000 =
255.255.255.248.

## QUESTION 4 We need to make a supernetwork out of 16 class C

blocks. What is the supernet mask?
(class C). The company needs six subnets. Design We need 16 blocks. For 16 blocks we need to change four 1s
the subnets. Find the number of addresses of each
subnet. 11111111 11111111 11110000 00000000

1
or version starts with 0); three octets before colon iden-
tify host machine; final number identifies port number
255.255.240.0 of email SMTP.

## model Answer • 220.3.6.23:80 First three octets (decimal 220.3.6) iden-

tify network as class C (in range 192.n.n.n - 223.n.n.n or
binary version starts with 110); octet before colon iden-
tifies host machine; final number identifies port number
QUESTION 7 of WWW application (HTTP). (subject guide pp. 14,
22-3).

## A small organization is given a block with the begin-

ning address and the prefix length 205.16.37.24/29 QUESTION 9
(in slash notation). What is the range of the block?
The beginning address is 205.16.37.24. (a) Explain the concept of Classless Inter-Domain
Routing (CIDR).
To find the last address we keep the first 29 bits and change
the last 3 bits to 1s. (b) Given the following IP in CIDR format
Beginning: 11001111 00010000 00100101 00011000 192.168.12.0/23.Find the network, the host ad-
dresses, and the range of addresses.
Ending : 11001111 00010000 00100101 00011111

## There are only 8 addresses in this block. [ 10 Marks ]

We can find the range of addresses in Example 17 by another
method. We can argue that the length of the suffix is 32 - Model answer:
29 or 3. So there are 23 = 8 addresses in this block. If the
(24 + 7 = 31).
(a) CIDR is a classless addressing mode. it allows the net-
work prefix boundary to fall anywhere within the ad-
QUESTION 8 dress. the number bits identifying the network is ap-
pended to the IP. the remaining bits of the IP address
with constitute the host.
In the TCP/IP model, which layer is responsible (b) 192.168.12.0/23.
for logical addressing of host computers and rout- mask 11111111 11111111 11111110 00000000
ing messages? Say as much as you can about how IP 11000001 10100111 0000100 00000000
the following sequences identify a particular net- network address 193.167.12.0
work, host computer and application, assuming the the range of of host addresses is between 0.0.0.0 to

• 129.8.45.13:25
• 124.42.5.45:23
• 220.3.6.23:80

## Logical addressing and routing: Internet or Network (not

Network Access) layer.

## • 129.8.45.13:25 First two octets (decimal 129.8) identify

network as class B (in range 128.n.n.n - 191.n.n.n or
binary version starts with 10); two octets before colon
identify host machine; final number identifies port num-
ber of email application (SMTP)).
• 124.42.5.45:25 First octet (decimal 124) identifies net-
work as class A (in range 1.n.n.n - 126.n.n.n or binary