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KTH – Internal Combustion Engines Fk ht -09 1/5

Diesel Engine Combustion, Analysis of Cylinder Pressure


This laboratory exercise is performed in conjuction with the Diesel Injection lab. To pass both
labs you are asked to write a combined report for the two exercises.

Figure 1. Typical DI engine heat-release-rate diagram.

Introduction

In this laboratory exercise the combustion of a heavy-duty Scania diesel engine will be studied.
The base for the engine is an in-line 6-cylinder engine model R480 in Euro V configuration,
but with different injectors to be rated 360 HP in order to suit the brakes in cell3 at KTH. The
engine is equipped with a XPI-system (Xtreme High Pressure Injection), short route EGR
(Exhaust Gas Recirculation from upstream the turbine to downstream of the compressor and
intercooler) together with two-stage EGR cooling and a VGT (Variable Geometry Turbine)
with a charge air cooler.

Instrumentation for Combustion Analysis


The measurement of cylinder pressure is made using a water-cooled piezoelectric pressure
sensor which is mounted in the cylinder head of cylinder 1. Common rail pressure is measured
with a piezoresistive strain gage transducer in the rail. Start of injection and injection duration
is measured indirectly with the current to the injector. Actual relation between the current to
the injector and opening of the injector needle will be measured in the spray lab.

An encoder that provides a pulse every 0.1° and a reference pulse once per revolution is
mounted on the crankshaft. The measurement system is trigged each 0.1°-pulse, which leads to
the cylinder pressure being measured 3600 times per revolution. The measurements are
triggered at the reference pulse, the position determined in relation to the piston movement
with accuracy better than 0.01° crank-angles. At runtime the measured values will be stored in
a data-file. If 10 cycles are measured, which corresponds to 20 engine revolutions, 72.000 data
points per channel are obtained. The values are stored in packed binary format to reduce the

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size of the file, (.WBN file). The program MkPad (MkPad = Make Pressure from AD readings)
is used to read these binary files.

Reading in Heywood
1. Read Chapter 2.4, 2.5 and 2.7. In Figure 2-4 (c), what is causing the cylinder pressure to
be significantly lower during the intake compared to the exhaust stroke? Is a similar
curve to be expected for the diesel engine? What is the difference between "break mean
effective pressure" and "mean indicated pressure"? Note that here (at KTH) the Pmi (Pi)
is always based on the entire cycle (720°). Try to understand the meaning of pump
mean pressure, Pmp and friction mean pressure Pmf.
2. Carefully read Chapter 10.3.2 and 10.4.2, do not get stuck on the equations. Why does
the heat release dip when the injection begins in Figure 10-7? Why is the first "top" in
the "heat release curve" in Figure 10-9 so sharp and what does its intensity depend on?
What is it that controls the combustion intensity in "top" number two? Why has the
final combustion such a lengthy process? Explain the concepts of "Net heat release rate"
and "Gross heat release rate".
3. Look at section 10.6.3 of Auto ignition Fundamentals. Study Figure 10-35a and
equation (10.35). Describe how the time for ignition delay varies with temperature and
pressure.
Nomenclature
Is also described on http://www.md.kth.se/ ~ angstrom/download/Akht09/Thermodynamic.pdf
Zero crank-angle degrees is set at the top dead center after the compression stroke.

Indicated mean effective pressure (net) [Pa]


Abbreviations: Pi, Pmi, IMEP

W 720°
Pi = , W= ∫ PdV Indicated work of the entire cycle
Vs 0

Pumping mean effective pressure [Pa]


Abbreviations: Pmp, PMEP
Wp 540°
Pmp = , Wp= ∫ PdV Pump work for the gas exchange process
Vs 180°

Break Mean Efficective Pressure [Pa]


Abbreviations: Pe, Pme, BMEP
4 ⋅π ⋅ M
Pe = For a four-stroke engine
Vs

Friction Mean Effective Pressure [Pa]


Abbreviations: Pf, Pmf, FMEP
Pf = Pi − Pe

Pe
ηm = Mechanical efficiency
Pi

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Combustion Analysis (Heat Release Analysis)


Heat release analysis is an established way to study and analyze the combustion. The easiest
way is to study the "net"-heat release, ignoring the heat transfer, etc. However, this is a rather
crude way where a large contribution is obtained from the heat transfer. This can be
compensated by using Woschnis correlation. (See Heywood 12.4)

Other influencing factors on the analysis are more difficult to get by. Examples of such factors
are:
• 0-value of cylinder pressure. We now set the cylinder pressure to the measured intake
pressure at a given interval for the crank-angle (480-511 °)
• Start temperature. Here we set the cylinder temperature to the measured intake
temperature, + 46°C at a crank-angle of -130°. This figure was determined through
simulations and measurements for another engine at a certain engine speed. Similar
analysis is missing for this engine.
• Amount of residual gases in the cylinder. Affects the cv –value, which we therefore have
to approximate.
• Thermal Shock. The pressure transducer is exposed to thermal shock due to the
combustion. This gives an error that will gradually reduce after the combustion.

Overall, it can be said that the Heat release curves must be read with discernment. You should
not draw any combustion technical conclusions if the heat release shows a positive or negative
value before the injection. After the injection the Heat Release will change significantly. It is in
this part of the heat release curve you should focus, but be aware of the weaknesses of the
method.

For the injection analysis knowledge of the start of injection is needed. However, the needle lift
to know when injection occurs cannot be measured on an XPI injector. Therefore to obtain the
start of injection for the exercise we will reproduce the operational points on the engine in the
spray lab and correlate measured current traces to the injectors. The start of injection or rather
the delay from when the current starts to rise to when the needle opens will be measured via an
impulse trace.

During the exercise you will be assigned two personal load points to be studied in detail. In
some of the tasks you will also study other load points.

The Following should be in the Report:


1. Draw a P-θ (crank-angle) diagram for your load points. Discuss the pressure level before
the combustion occurs. For what reason is there a difference between the studied cases?
2. Enlarge one of the curves from task 1 to only show the part with the gas exchange process
(after 180° and with the pressure scale so the entire graph is used). Be sure to make marks
at 360 degrees and even markings in parts of 90°. Discuss the pressure levels. Comment on
the appearance at overlap (crank-angle of 360 °).
3. Draw a PV-diagram for one of your load points using linear scales, and one with
logarithmic scales. Discuss these curves.
4. In Excel, create a column next to the pressure with dV by taking the volume difference
between two successive rows. Then create a column of PdV, which is equivalent to dA and
scale to the unit J. Sum column to the total work and calculate the Pmi and Pmp in [bar].
Then compare with MkPads analysis. (We will go through this in the exercise).

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5. Derive Pmf for the idling cases and draw the curve as a function of engine speed. Also draw
the Pmf from your cases and comment on Pmf with respect to speed and load changes.
6. In Excel, create a column next to the PdV-column for M, indicated torque from the 1st
cylinder. M ⋅ d ϕ = dA, everything is in SI units if dϕ is in radians. Draw M as a function
of the crank-angle.
7. Draw Heat release and start of injection from correlations with the impulse trace from the
spray lab for both your load points. All 4 curves are to be put in the same graph. Be
creative so that the chart is readable. NOTE! Only use significant angular range, for
example -10° to 90°. Discuss the peak of the premixed combustion. Is it in any relation to
the combustion delay size? Comment the combustion duration in crank-angles for 10-50%
and 10-90% burnt for the two cases.
8. For one of your load points draw a graph with Heat release and the start of injection and
zoom in the area at the start of injection together with the start of heat release. At the
injection start is there a "negative heat release"? If so, why is this?
9. For one of your load points draw a chart with Heat release, correlated impulse trace,
cylinder pressure, gas temperature and the cumulative combusted amount calculated with
Mkpad. Gas temperature is the average temperature in the cylinder according to the single
zone model implemented in Mkpad. Comment on the maximum cylinder pressure and how
high it is compared to the compression pressure. Comment on the position of maximum
temperature. The later this occurs, the greater the volume and the lower the temperature.
The disadvantage of late mode may be loss of efficiency.

For Bonus Points on the Exam:


Submit the report within two weeks after the laboratory exercise, i.e the 30th of March.

Demands of the Report


The first page must clearly state:
• Your name and email address
• Time of the exercise and the number of the group
• If this is the first version or a complementary addition. If it is a complementary addition
the previous version should also be included

Graphs and charts:


• Use appropriate magnification to show significant information
• Graphs and charts should be equipped with neat axes and scales
• Units must be marked out on all axes
• If there are multiple curves in the graph they should be separated in some way: Colors (for
color printers), grayscale, line types, breakpoints or arrows.
• Use a prefix if you are to present very small or large numbers. Write therefore 100 kPa
instead of 100,000 Pa or 1E5 Pa

Miscellaneous:
• Submit a personal report on paper to the teacher in charge within two weeks after you have
done the exercise in order to receive bonus points on the exam.
• Gladly collaborate when writing the report. You will then clarify your questions and the
risk of misunderstandings, which can lead to supplementing, reduces. If you have made a

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common similar report it must contain a page with a personal remark which may not be
identical for the various group members.
• Run a spell check before printing the report.

Questions?
Niklas Winkler via e-mail: winkler@md.kth.se, telephone 08 790 7196.

Niklas Winkler email: winkler@md.kth.se


KTH – Internal Combustion Engines, 10-02-01