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The Principles
of Brazing

Brazing is BrazeTec
Table of Contents
What is there to learn What is brazing? 4

about brazing? What’s the difference between soldering

and brazing?
What materials can be brazed? 5
This brochure will provide you with the basic knowledge
needed to develop your brazing skills through practical
What do melting point, melting range
and working temperature mean? 6

What’s the difference between

V-joint brazing and gap brazing? 8
And we’re here by your side every step of the way –
V-joint brazing 9
Fred Flame, Chris Melt, Dr. Bob Braze (from left to right).

Gap brazing 10

What do you need for professional brazing? 12

What’s the process for professional brazing? 16

How strong is a brazed joint? 20

What are the recommended brazing techniques? 22

BrazeTec brazing alloys 24

2 Brazing Content 3
What is the difference between
What is brazing? soldering and brazing?
Brazing is a thermal, material binding, joining In soldering, the melting temperature of the solder
process for metallic materials. Professional is below 450°C. In brazing, it is above.
soldering and brazing has made it possible for
every fitter to achieve a secure and guaran-
teed joint.
above 450°C
Brazing permanently joins two or more workpieces

Melting Temperature
together by coalescence using heat with a brazing alloy
and flux. Correct application of the process ensures the
base metal is adequately wetted by the brazing alloy.
This in turn allows the brazing alloy, which is liquefied
by the heat source, to spread evenly and effectively Soldering
to firmly join the workpieces. below 450°C

Which materials can be brazed?

All technical metal commodities such as copper and
Fred Flame says: copper alloys, nickel and nickel alloys, steels and ferrous
products, heavy and light metals can be brazed.
➔ Brazed joints are secure, durable and have been
well tried for generations.

4 Brazing Soft Solder and Brazing Alloy 5

What do melting point,
melting range and working
temperature mean?
A strong, safe and durable brazed joint
requires that the joining area and the brazing
material be heated to the recommended
working temperature.
Melting point
Only pure metals and eutectic alloys have a definite
melting point. Above this melting point, the material
becomes liquid – and remains solid below it.

Melting range
Brazing alloys usually have a melting range (also referred
to as melting interval). This melting range is limited at
Liquidus temperature Liquid brazing alloy
the bottom by the lower melting point – the solidus
temperature – and at the top by the upper melting point
– the liquidus temperature.
After reaching the solidus temperature, the brazing
alloy changes from a solid to a liquid state within the
melting range and is completely liquid when it reaches
Solidus temperature Solid brazing alloy
the liquidus temperature.

Working temperature
The working temperature is the lowest surface tempera-
ture on the parent metals to be joined at which the braz-
ing alloy moistens. This means that the brazing alloy as
well as both of the materials to be joined in the brazing
process must at least reach this temperature. The working
temperature is always higher than the solidus tempera-
ture. It can lie below or above the liquidus temperature
or fall with it.

6 Temperature Temperature 7
What is the difference
between V-joint and
gap brazing? V-joint brazing
If the surfaces of the parts to be joined have a V-joint brazing refers to brazing with a
clearance of less than 0.5 mm, we are dealing wide clearance between the workpieces.
with gap brazing. If the clearance is greater or
This method is mainly applied for design reasons or as
if the brazing joint is V or X-shaped, we call it
a result of cost and technical process considerations –
V-joint brazing. e.g. higher preparation costs – to produce a brazing joint
that fits exactly.

The technique used for V-joint brazing is similar to gas

welding or left hand welding. The joint is filled with
V-joint brazing solder in drops. Galvanised steel pipes are brazed using
the V-joint brazing procedure, to prevent damage of
the zinc layer.

Gap brazing

Fred Flame says:

Gap brazing
➔ The clearance makes it a clear choice!

V-joint brazing 9
Gap brazing
The majority of all brazed joints are based Overlap joint
on the capillary joint process. The optimum The overlap joint is recommended if the workpiece brazing
clearance for a capillary joint lies between points are thin-walled. The overlapping length should
generally be 3 to 6 times the wall thickness of the thinner
0.05 mm (0.002”) and 0.2 mm (0.008”).
workpiece, depending on the base metal.

The joint clearance should be as narrow as possible and

the parts to be brazed parallel with each other, so that
the braze can spread evenly and effectively through
capillary action. Ensuring a narrow brazing gap must be
taken into account when designing components destined
for brazing.
➔ Overlap joint

Diagonal joint/Stepped joint

The diagonal and stepped joint variants are more costly
than butt and overlap joints. These gap forms should
only be used if the workpiece design makes it absolutely
➔ Capillary brazing

➔ T-joint ➔ Butt joint ➔ Diagonal joint ➔ Stepped joint

10 Gap brazing Gap brazing 11

What do you need
for professional brazing?
Professional brazing joints –
strong, durable and safe

1. A suitable working space

For instance a brazing table with a fire-resistant base
in a well-ventilated workroom.
Source of heat
Though a flame is a commonly used heat source for the
brazing process, there are other options, e.g.

Clamping devices ➔ Flame-heated automatic brazing

Clamping devices are required to lock in place and hold ➔ Induction brazing
the workpieces. There are many ways of immobilizing the ➔ Electric or gas furnace brazing
workpiece yourself, aside from using jigs as shown in our ➔ Resistance brazing
example. The latter are fairly common in series and mass
production where brazing machines and automatic brazing The diagram below shows correct brazing with a flame
machines are used. Fixing the workpiece in place yourself using the example of brazing with a burner as a repre-
saves the considerable expense of clamping jigs. sentative method for all types of heating. It is advisable
to select a burner and fuel type that will ensure the
workpiece quickly heats up to working temperature
(max. 3 minutes). The individual parts to be joined can
then be brought up to working temperature evenly
along the whole gap length. Gentle heating is achieved
by setting a soft, reducing flame.

12 Tools Tools 13
4. Flux
Flux is a solvent for metal oxides. It removes oxide films
from the brazing surfaces and keeps them free of oxides
throughout the brazing process. Solders moisten, spread
5. Brazing Alloy
The following points must be taken into consideration
when selecting the correct brazing alloy for a particular
brazing task:
and bind only on clean metallic surfaces. Flux is selected
according to base metal and working temperature. Each ➔ The properties of the materials to braze
flux type has an effective temperature range. The work- (e.g. temperature sensitivity)
ing temperature of the solder to be used must lie in the ➔ The requirements for the part to be brazed
effective temperature range of the flux. when in use
(e.g. working temperature and operating pressure)
➔ The brazing procedure that is to be used
(e.g. manual brazing, machine brazing)

14 Tools Tools 15
What’s the process for
professional brazing?
Professional brazing

in 7 easy steps

Fixing the workpieces
The pieces to be joined must be fixed in the correct posi-
tion until the brazing alloy sets. A narrow brazing gap
of between 0.05 mm (0.002”) and 0.2 mm (0.008”) is to
Cleaning be set if possible.
Oxide layers and foreign matter such as rust and scales
must be removed from the brazing joint either mechani-
cally or chemically before brazing. Thick layers of grease
or oil can be wiped off or removed with solvents (e.g.
acetone) in the case of sensitive workpieces. Polished
workshop pieces do not require any cleaning. Any oxide
remaining on the workpiece after precleaning will be

dissolved by the flux.

Heating the brazing joint evenly

The brazing gap must be heated evenly to working tem-

perature so that the brazing alloy can fill the gap. The
brazing alloy selected should reach working temperature
within 3 minutes at most. Overheating will damage the
braze and the workpiece.
Applying flux
The flux paste is applied to the cold workpiece using a
brush. Most fluxes are slightly corrosive and skin contact,
particularly with wounds, should be avoided.

16 Work process Work process 17

5. Placing the brazing alloy on the brazing gap
The brazing alloy can be placed on the brazing gap when
the flux has melted to an even glass flow and the work-
ing temperature has been reached. The brazing alloy fills
7. Removing flux residue
Residual flux must be removed after brazing to prevent
corrosion. Where possible, use water or a brush to
remove any flux residue.
the narrow brazing gap and rises upwards against gravi-
tational force.

When the brazing alloy has filled the brazing gap, the
workpiece must be left to cool until the brazing alloy
returns to its solid state. The workpiece can then be Fred Flame says:
removed from the clamp and then – insofar as the mate-
rial permits – rinsed in water. ➔ A professional brazing job looks smooth and clean
and doesn’t require any touching up.

18 Work process Work process 19

How strong is a brazed joint?
Brazed joints can take more stress than you
might think. The following tests illustrate

the point:

Tensile Test
Take a S235 steel joint brazed with BrazeTec 4404 in a

butt joint, for instance. When tested for load carrying
ability with a pulling device, the base material tears after
the test piece is loaded with 410 MPa. The three brazing
areas, however, remain untouched.
Burst pressure test
On a copper pipe fitting with five brazing joints, each
individual brazing joint is actually stronger than the base
metal. When connecting the pipe section to a high-
pressure pump, the pipe’s wall bursts at a pressure of 280
bar (4,061 psi). The brazing joints themselves withstand
the pressure and remain tight.

Twisting test
The stability under load and distortion of a steel joint
made from S235 and brazed with BrazeTec 4404
becomes clear by turning the test piece around its own
Dr. Bob Braze says axis. A torque of 90 Nm is achieved by turning it twice.
The brazed joint withstands this load und distortion.
➔ Brazed joints are strong, durable and stay tight.

20 Stability Stability 21
What are the most commonly The details of our products and machines as well as plants and processes are based on
extensive research and experience in technical applications. We publish these results

What are the recommended used low melting brazing alloys

for which we take no liability beyond the respective individual contract, verbally and in
writing, according to the best of our knowledge. However, we reserve the right to make
technical alterations during product development. In addition, our application technology
brazing techniques? and what are their applications? service is available on request for further advice as well as for working together with
you to solve any manufacturing and/or technical application issues. This does however
not release the user from validating our details and recommendations before making
use of them. This applies – to export deliveries in particular – also with respect to
A broad spectrum of brazing techniques – Brazing alloys from BrazeTec, naturally. safeguarding the intellectual property rights of third parties in terms of applications and
procedures that have not explicitly been described in these pages. In case of damage
adapted to specific purposes our liability is limited to replacement as provided for in our General Terms and Condi-
The following table provides an overview of brazing alloys tions of Sales and Delivery.
for universal use – which also makes them the preferred
Which brazing technique is best suited for a specific pur- choice for a wide range of applications. This is a small
pose depends on a variety of factors – cost considerations, excerpt from our product range. Our field sales repre-
component heat sensitivity, mechanical loads on the sentatives or their colleagues at the Brazing Center will
brazed joint, the operating temperature of the work- gladly answer any questions you may have with respect
pieces as well as the proximity to other media such as to special orders and forms of delivery.
gas, water, lubricants etc. – and for each particular case
there is the right brazing solution. BrazeTec Brazing alloy BrazeTec Working BrazeTec Tensile strength of
for brazing of brazing alloy temperature in °C Flux brazed joint (MPa) S235

Any steels BrazeTec 5600 650 BrazeTec h 350

Copper / BrazeTec 4576 670 350
Copper alloys BrazeTec 4076 690 350
Nickel / BrazeTec 3476 710 360
Nickel alloys BrazeTec 4404 730 400
BrazeTec 3076 740 360

Stainless steels BrazeTec 6009 720 BrazeTec Special h 400

Copper to Copper BrazeTec Silfos 15 700 n/a 250

BrazeTec Silfos 5 710
BrazeTec Silfos 2 740

BrazeTec Silfos 94 760

BrazeTec brazing alloy BrazeTec Working BrazeTec Shear strength of the
for brazing of brazing alloy temperature in °C Flux brazed joint (MPa)
Fred Flame says:
Tungsten carbide to steel BrazeTec 4900 690 BrazeTec spezial h 250 – 300
BrazeTec 49/Cu 690 BrazeTec spezial h 150 – 300
➔ If you have any questions, just ask BrazeTec. BrazeTec 49/Cuplus 690 BrazeTec spezial h 200 – 300

22 Brazing techniques Brazing alloys 23 Brazing alloys 24

Brazing is the optimum
joining technique, proven
for decades.
If you have any questions,
please pay us a visit:


➔ We will gladly help resolve your brazing issues.

Umicore AG & Co. KG

Postfach 1301

D-63403 Hanau
Rodenbacher Chaussee 4 Tel +49 (61 81) 59 03 www.BrazeTec.com
25 www.BrazeTec.com D-63457 Hanau-Wolfgang Fax +49 (61 81) 59 31 07 info@BrazeTec.com