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* ( ( " ( H < am >( & m
am ∈ H
H < am > ! & n m( # n
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-
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am ∈ H( ar amq − ∈ H ! m
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" ) m∧n 7 ( m∧n ( ∃u, v ∈ Z um vn " ) um
n Z/nZ < m > / x ∈ Z/nZ x xu.m ∈ < m > .
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6

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.

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## ∀h ∈ H, ∀k ∈ K, hkh− k − hkh− k − ∈ K K⊳G hkh− ∈ K

− − − −
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G
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f f , ! ( h, k ∈ f " )

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|G| .
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∀s ∈ Z

n n n n d n
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f d dm f dm
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n d
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s Z −→ Z/nZ.
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, s Z −→ Z/ Z.
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## \$: ' Z/nZ mZ/nZ m/n

\$\$ s mZ mZ nZ/nZ dZ/nZ ) d n ∧ m ! ( m/n( s mZ
mZ/nZ.
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G
? 3 " # Int G @ '
Aut G .
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Int G

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a −→ τ a . ? 3 f ∀x ∈ G, τ ab x
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f a ◦f b . Int G f G f ( Int G
' Aut G .
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G " ( # ( G/ f ≃
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( G #

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n n n
Z xZ G aZ G a Z G( (x a z & z ∈Z G yZ G aZ G m
m m n m m n
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d
f G −→ G, x −→ x
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G 3 f G −→ G G G( B & 3
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f , ( ( ∀g ∈ G( ∃x ∈ G f x x g

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σ
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,...,σ n − n − ,σ n− n, σ n − ,σ n . oσ ε σ .

n∨m
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b −k
ak −k
b ∈ < a > ∩ < b >(
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n
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n
oc oc .
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n n
\$\$ ε σ εcc εc εc − − − − . c *
k−
k( εc − .
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, ( cc cc < c > ∩ < c > {e} oσ oc ∨o c
n n− n
∨ n− oc n
,o c n−
( n− n
n n−
− −
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I J {a ∈ A aJ ⊂ I}.
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X " Qi Y "
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/ X −
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C X, Y / Y − X ≃ C X C X, Y / Y − X

+ 9 * G &
,6

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X Y Z − XY Z Z X, Y, Z .

Q ∈ C X, Y, Z Q Q/P X Y Z − XY − XZ − Y Z
+ ∃S ∈ C X, Y, Z P QS P C ( Q S
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> 1

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# KMJN( ) K F r A ( A "

+ % P X − X X ∈QX .
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, s Q X −→ Q X / P y sX
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8 p "!
4#

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y sX X y & # QX/ P .
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# yU X y X − X

+ ! % K / P X, Y, Z
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n
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k
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n n
k
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k k
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m
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+ % P X Y X Z Y X Y Z Z X Z Y ∈ C X, Y, Z .
? 3 P * G *
! P X, Y, Z Q σ , σ , σ ( ) Q X, Y, Z ∈ C X, Y, Z σ ,σ ,σ
* G *
+ % α, β γ C " x x− 1
P α, β, γ .

P Y, X, Z P Z, Y, X P X, Y, Z P *
P X, Y, Z XY X Y Z XZ X Y Z Y Z X Y Z − XY Z
XY XZ Y Z X Y Z − XY Z σ .σ − σ Q σ , σ , σ ( ) Q X, Y, Z XY − Z.
+ X X− X−α X−β X−γ X − σ α, β, γ X
σ α, β, γ X − σ α, β, γ + ( σ α, β, γ , σ α, β, γ σ α, β, γ . "
( P α, β, γ σ α, β, γ .σ α, β, γ − σ α, β, γ " ) P α, β, γ . − . − .
(

) *

(+ ' 4 . --(5 -- 2
(+ G * " H G * (
G G/H *
% G <a> * " n H ' G
H G
# - H *
- G/H *
1
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S * ( H < c >( ) c .' * S
. % G * ( H G * (
G G/H * % K ' G
- H ∩K ' * K
# - K/H ∩ K * /0 " '
#
1
√ √
(+ A " A Zi {a ib /a, b ∈ Z}.
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- √( i √ −i # A
. ! i −i ( A "

(+
% A B (f A −→ B
" , ; f−
A
% I A
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" ,
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% B J f .

4"
4, !

J A
# - f ⊂J f J .
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" ZX * G 6 6 B Z.

U ZX U Z/ Z X .
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Z/ Z X .
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QX
: * G P X ' # ZX D
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n n
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i i
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Q ϕP ϕ ,
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G * (G # H ⊳ G.
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ar a s−qm s m −q
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m s m q
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|G|
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H⊳G kxk − x ∈ K( k ∈ K K ' G " )

kxk ∈ H ∩ K.
" # \$\$ % \$\$&' 44

7 H ⊳G K ' G(
eme
( " " ( H ∩ K ⊳ K.
" ( H∩K ' H H * ( ( "
# ( H∩K *
eme
# ( " " ( K/H ∩ K ≃ HK/H 1 HK/H
' G/H G/H * , ( " # ( HK/H *
K/H ∩ K *
K * ' " * *
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A xy |xy| |x| |y| a b c d a b c d ∈ N(
a b ∈ { , , }. ( ∀a, b ∈ Z, a √ b " )a b ∈{ , }
% a b √ ( x a ib ± ∈U A a b ( c d
" ) y c √ id ± ∈U A + # √A √
\$ √± i √ & # % x a ib ∈ A x/ ± i " ) ∃y
c id ∈ A ±i xy |xy| |x| |y| a b c d a b
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c d ( √ # c, d ∈ Z. " ) a b ∈ { , }
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.2 #
#
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f a f b.
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f a b f a f b f a f b f a f b 4 ( f a.b f a .f b
f A f A B.
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+ (d f c f c & c ∈ A/I.
% a∈ f " )f a f a f I f a ∈f I ( ( ∃x ∈ I f a
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kerf { } f ,
4\$ !

f " ;( f −
+
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f J f , &
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( A/f f− A

Z (U ZX U Z U ZX {− , }
+ ( Z/ Z ( U Z/ Z X Z/ Z ∗ { }
# QX X X ∈ Z/ Z X . Z/ Z ( B
& 3 QX " Z/ Z Q\$ (Q\$ QX
# Z/ Z X
P X X X X S X & S X X X X ∈QX
1 % QX( B & 3 S X #
QX ! (S X ∈ZX Z ! p (
p Z( p ∤ p S X X X
QX ∈ Z/ Z X + ( QX # Z/ Z X ( S X
# ZX
! Z ( Q Fr Z S X #
ZX ( S X # QX
P X " ,P X " # ZX

.Z X ⊂ ϕ( B & 3 ϕ ⊂ .Z X % U X
n n
ai X i ∈ ϕ( " ) ϕ U X ai X i ( ai ∀i( " ) ai bi ( & bi ∈ Z
i i
n n
i
+ U X ai X . bi X i ∈ .Z X
i i
# :" Z/ Z X Z/ Z Q #
Z/ Z X ( " QX .
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ϕ .U X P.V X Q X .ϕ V X ∈ Q X .U X P.V X ∈
ϕ− " ( U X ∈ ϕ− ( " ) ϕU X ∈ QX ( (
′ ′
ϕU X Q X .V X ( ) V X ∈ Z/ Z X 1 V X ϕV X ( ) V X ∈
ZX, ϕ , ϕP X QX ( ϕU X ϕ P X .ϕ V ′ X
ϕ P X .V ′ X " ) ϕ U X −P X .V X ( ( U X −P X .V X ∈ ϕ .Z X
+ U X .Z X P.Z X
ϕ " ,
Z/ Z X ( ( " 0 ( .Z X P.Z X ϕ−
ZX

(+ 0 . --(5 -- 2
(+! % p∈N # a∈Z p & a
- Z/pZ { , a, a..., p − a}. /0 & 3 i, j ∈ { , , ..., p − }
i j( ia ja
# \$\$ % \$\$&' 45

! p − ap− ≡ p − p.
. - ap− ≡ p.
2 + - a ≥ , a −a & # . . .
/0 . a −a a a − ... .

## (+ % G 3 " n > " e

N {t ∈ N∗ ∀x ∈ G, xt e}
- N " &
m %&' N
- G Z/ Z × Z/ Z m<n m S
. - t ∈ N( m & t " m & n
2 - m ppcm o x /x ∈ G .
> G ( m rs & r > ( s > r∧s
r s
H {x ∈ G x e}, K {x ∈ G x e}.
- H K ' G
# - H ∩ K {e}( HK G " G 6 H ×K
- H {e}( K {e}
√ √
(+( " A Zi p {a ib p/a, b ∈ Z}( ) p ∈ N
√ √
# ( " f A Z i p → Z/ p Z( a ib p −→ a pb
- f " ,
√ √ √
- p ∈ i p( ) i p " A i p

# ! f i p
. √ √
p :" i A ' D i '
D
√ √
# p :" i p A ' D i p ' D

(+
% A B ' A - I
A I ∩B B I ∩B B
" ZX * G 6 6 B Z
" QX * G 6 6 B Q

- * G P X X X X ∈ZX #
ZX
# ! * G QX X X X ∈QX #
QX
. % I P X .Q X " QX P X I P X .Q X
QX
2 % J I ∩ZX - J Z X /0

## % i, j ∈ { , , ..., p − } ia ja( p/a i − j p∧a (

p/i − j ≤ |i − j| ≤ p − ( i−j ( (i j + card{ , a, a..., p − a} p.
4/ !

## { , a, a..., p − a} ⊂ Z/pZ card Z/pZ { , a, a..., p − a} p(

Z/pZ { , a, a..., p − a}.
" ( Z/pZ ∗ { , ..., p − } {a, a..., p − a} " ) .....p −
p−
a. a..., . p − a( ( p− ≡ p− a p.
p−
. " ( p/ p − a − p ∤ p− ( p/ ap− − ( ( ap− ≡
p.
2 ! p ( ( " . ( /a − /a − a a a − . 4 (
/a − a a − a/a − a a − a a −a a a ( /a − a + ( /a − a
a − a/a − a a − a a −a a a a a a ( /a − a +
. . /a − a

N " & n ∈ N.
m≤n n∈N m %&' N
\$ G Z/ Z × Z/ Z( n " ( G {e} ∀ x, y ∈
G, . x, y , (m
\$ S( n . " ( σ∈S ( σm e + ( σ τ( )
τ S( # /m ◦τ . 4 ( σ c( ) c
.' * S( # /m ◦c + ( /m m≤n (m
. ! & ( # q, r ∈ N t mq r &
r < m. + ( ∀x ∈ G, e xt xm q .xr xm e( xr e ∀x ∈ G ?
m %&' N r < m( r n ∈ N( m/n.
2 l ppcm o x /x ∈ G + ∀x ∈ G, o x /l " ) xl e l ∈N
m
( " . ( m/l " ( ∀x ∈ G, x e " ) ∀x ∈ G, o x /m l/m
>
- H ' G H ⊂ G, H ∅ e ∈ H( ∀x, y ∈ H,
− r r −r − r
xy xy @ # xy e.e e " ) xy − ∈ H 4 (
& 3 K ' G
# % x ∈ H ∩ K( xr e xs e " ) ◦ x /r ◦ x /s ◦x
r∧s .
HK G ! ( HK ⊂ G( B & 3 G ⊂ HK
( r∧s ( ∃u, v ∈ Z ur vs + ( ∀g ∈ G, g g vs ur g vs g ur (
vs r mv ur s mu vs ur
g g e g g e( (g ∈H g ∈ K.
+ ( f H × K −→ G, h, k −→ hk( & 3 f

## H {e} + G K ∀x ∈ G, xs e " ) m/s

s/m( s m( r> 4 ( K {e}
√ √ √
% a ib p, y
x c id p ∈ Z i p ( f x y f a c ib

d p a pb dc a pb c pd f x f y .+ ( f x.y f ac − bdp

i ad bc p ac − bdp p ad bc ac bdp p ad bc p ≡ −p p
f x.y a bp c pd f x .f y . f f
& , & .
√ √ √
p i p −i p " ) p ∈ i p.
√ √ √
# 0 & i p ⊂ f - f⊂ i p % x a ib p ∈
" # \$\$&% \$\$(' 4-

f( f x a bp " ) a bp k p ( ) k ∈ Z. x a ib p
√ √ √
k p − bp − b b ib p k p −b p b i p k −b p b i p ∈
√ √
i p p ∈ i p
.
er √
! " p √( # Zi p/
√ √
i ≃ Z/ Z( √" ) i i
" i
er √ √
# ! " ( # Zi p/ i p ≃ Z/ p Z.
1 p p (p " p p " )
√ √ √
Zi p/ i p " " i p "

" i p "
!
" ( I∩B ; - I∩B %
a, b ∈ B ab ∈ I ∩ B( ab ∈ I I (a∈I b∈I a ∈ I ∩B
b ∈ I ∩ B. 1 I ∩ B B( I ∩B B

0 B " "! p
# P X # ZX ( P X # QX
QX X X X .P X # QX Q∼P
QX
. P X # ZX ( P X # QX
QX ( " I P X P X .Q X QX
I
2 B ZX ' " A QX.& 0
A QX / . ( ( " ( I ∩B J I ∩ZX
B ZX.

(+ ' 4 . -- 5 --,2
(+,
% A ( a, b ∈ A − { } * m -
m a ∩ b √ √
A Zi {a ib / a, b ∈ Z}√
- √ i A
# - A i
A ' D
√ √
(+\$ " A Zi {a ib / a, b ∈ Z}
√ √
? 3 F r√A Qi {a ib / a, b ∈ Q}
% x a ib ∈A N x a b
A
# - N x√ Z( x # A
! i A
. % P X X X ∈AX
- P X # AX √
# ! P X # Qi X.
4. !

(+ -
% n ≥ , m , ..., mn ∈ N∗ ( m ppcm m , ..., mn
m pα ...pαr r ( α ≥ , ..., αr ≥ "# (
m # - i(
αi
mj pi /mj / ppcm m , ..., mn ppcm ppcm m , , ..., mn− , mn (
n
% G # 3 " n≥ " e
m
% a∈G " m - d/m( ◦ ad d.
# % a, b ∈ G " & m m - m ∧m (
< a > ∩ < b > {e} " ◦ ab mm
m ppcm ◦ x , x ∈ G m pα ...pαr l ( α ≥ , ..., αr ≥ (
"# m
- i ∈ { , ..., r}( ai ∈ G pαi i / ◦ ai /
0
# ! i ∈ { , ..., r}( bi ∈ G ◦ bi pαi i . /
00
bb . . . br . - ◦b pα ...pαr l m/
r 00 # " m/n
. + % K / 3 * q ( & q≥
b K∗ ◦b m ppcm ◦ x /x ∈ K ∗
m≤q− .
# - a ∈ K ∗, a * G Xm − ∈ K X
! m q− K∗ *

\$
a/m b/m( m ∈ a ∩ b m ⊂ a ∩ b " (
x∈ a ∩ b ( a/x b/x( " ) m/x x∈ m .
√ √ √
√ / √ / i " ( x a ib x/ x/ i ( " )
∃y c id ∈Zi xy( a b c d a b ∈ { , , }.
a b , ∀a, b ∈ Z +√ ( a b ( c d ( ( y ±
x ± 8 (± ∤ i + (a √ b ( (x ± √
# % A i ( ( ∈ i ( " ) a
√ √ √ a c− d
ib i c id ( a b c−d (
b d c
# a, b, c, d ∈ Z √ √
i A A i (
A "
% √ √
a ib√
% x ∈ Fr A ( x c id √
( & a, b, c, d ∈ Z c id i.e.( c, d
√ a ib c−id

ac bd
√ √
, + c − id x i cbc−ad α iβ ( &
c d c d √ d
α cac dbd ∈ Q β cbc−ad d
∈ Q. " ( x a ib ( & a, b ∈ Q " ) a dc
√ √
b rs ( ) c, r ∈ Z d, s ∈ Z∗ + x cs ds ird
∈ Fr A cs ird ∈ A ds ∈ A∗ .
" # \$\$&% \$\$(' 46

√ √
% x a ib ∈ A + ( ∃y c id ∈ A xy ( " )a b
x ± .1 ± ∈ A( A {− , }
# % x ∈ A N x # + x x ∈ / A % y ∈
A y/x( ∃z ∈ A x yz " ) N x N yz N y N z N yz yz.yz yyzz
N y N z N x # N y /N x N( N y
N y N x ( N y (y∈ A N y N x(N z ( " )z∈ A
(x y +√ ( x # A
x i N x # (x #
A 1 A (x A
. √
A P √ √ p i " (
p √ A p/ √ i − i ( p/ .
√ ( p ∤ + p ∤ (
p/ − i ( −i √ # N −i #
p " & # 6 −i
+ ( "! (P X # AX
# + √( P ( # AX( P #
Fr A X Qi X
&
β β
n m p ...pr r ( m pλ ...pλr r / ≤ β i , λi ∀j , ..., r( αj
αi
β j , λj % i ∈ { , ..., r}( αi β i , λi ( pi /m / αi β i pαi i /m
αi λi
% " & n−
n % i ∈ { , ..., r} ppcm m , ..., mn ppcm ppcm m , , ..., mn− , mn
" n ( pαi i /mn pαi i /m′ ppcm m , , ..., mn−
*
% pαi i /m′ ppcm m , , ..., mn− ( m′ ppcm m , , ..., mn− pi i .q υ ...qsυs '

m # ( & αi ≤ @i " " *
*
( ∃mj ∈ {m , , ..., mn− } pi i /mj ∃mj ∈ {m , , ..., mn− }
pαi i /mj αi ≤ @i

m m m ms
◦ ad s. a d d am e " ) s/d " ( ad s
a d e(
m/ ms
d
d/s
# % x ∈< a > ∩ < b >( ◦ x /m ◦ x /m ◦x m ∧m
m m m m m m
◦ ab t ab a .b G # " ) ab m m
e.e e t/m m " ( ab t e G # ( at b−t ∈< a >
∩ < b > {e}( m /t m /t m m /t m ∧m

## m ppcm ◦ x , x ∈ G > n ≥ . % m pα ...pαr r ( α ≥ , ..., αr ≥

"# ( m #
G 3 " n≥ ( " # {◦ x / x ∈ G} 3 ≥ + (
" 0( i ∈ { , ..., r}( ai ∈ G pαi i / ◦ ai
mi

pαi i
di
# ◦ ai m i ( di 1 di /mi ( ( " 00 ( ◦ bi ai
di pαi i
r ◦b pα ◦b pα 1 p p ( pα ∧ pα
" 00 # ( ◦ b .b p .pα
α
\$# !

## % " & r− " & r c b ...br−

α α
+ ( " " * (◦c p ...pr−r− ∀i , ..., r − ( pi pr (
r−
∀i , ..., r − , pαi i ∧ pαr r ( " ) pαi i ∧ pαr r ( ( ◦ c ∧ br ( "
i
r−
00 #(◦b o cbr o c .o br pαi i .pαr r m.
i
◦ b /|G|.
m/n
. + " 00 K ∗, . # 3 " q− ≥
∗ ∗
( b K ◦b m ppcm ◦ x /x ∈ K

◦b m/|K | q − ( " ) m ≤ q −
# % a ∈ K∗ + ◦ a /m ppcm ◦ x /x ∈ K ∗ am
: * G Xm − ∈ K X m K "
m
( " .#(X − q− ( q− ≤m m q− .
1 b K∗ " m q− |K ∗ |( K ∗ < b >

(+! 0 . -- 5 --,2
(+ % G # 3 " n( & ( a
G H ' G a ∈/ H. " #
∗ t
N {t ∈ N / a ∈ H}
- N m inf N
- s ∈ N( m/s
. - " a( G/H( 6m
2 " # K {x ∈ G/ ∃j ∈ Z, ∃h ∈ H x aj h} < a > .H
- K ' G( / "
H a
# ? 3 K/H < a > .
! |K| m|H|
> + G Z/ Z( H Z/ Z a ∈G

## H ' G & 3 |H| .

? 3 a∈/H m
# ! K Z/ Z.

(+ % P X X X− ∈QX QX X X− ∈ZX .
- QX # ZX " P X #
QX

! K QX/ P X
# α X∈K α & # K &

(+
% k ∈ Z, k N {s ∈ N∗ / s
& k}
- N u N.
u
! k t( ) t
# \$\$&% \$\$(' \$"

" # A { ab ∈ Q/ a ∈ Z( b ∈ N∗ b }.

? 3 A
# ? 3 A { ab ∈ A /a ∈ Z, b ∈ N∗ ( a b }. A ' D

- # A
u
# u> ( " # A
a
% x b
# A /a ∈ Z( b ∈ N∗ b
k ∈ Z∗ x . kb .
- x∼ A / k 0 00
#
a
. ϕ A −→ Z/ Z( b
−→ a
? 3 ϕ # 3 ϕ
" ,
# - A/ ≃ Z/ Z

N ∅( n ∈ N( N ⊂ N( N "
m inf N
& s m( ∃ q, r ∈ N s mq r( &
m q r s r s m
≤r<m " )a a .a a ∈H a ∈H a ∈H ? m
> am ∈ H ≤ r < m( r
. am ∈ H( " ) am e ◦ a /m. " ( a◦ a e( " ) a◦ a ∈ H
m/ ◦ a + ◦a m
2
0 & K ' G( a ∈ K( H ⊂ K. % K ′
' G a H ∀j ∈ Z, aj ∈ K ′ ( H ⊂ K ′ ( aj h ∈ K ′ ( ∀j ∈ Z,

∀h ∈ H( (K⊂K.
# % aj h ∈ K( aj h aj .h aj ∈< a > h∈H " ( aj ∈< a >(
aj aj .e ∈ K/H aj .e ∈ K.
K ' 3 G K/H ' G/H( " ) |K/H|
|K|
|H|
◦a m |K| m|H|.
> +

Z Z / ( Z ⊂ Z(
' Z/ Z
Z/ Z Z/ Z Z/ Z
1 Z/ Z / Z/ Z ≃ Z/ Z( |H| .
/ Z/ Z (
∈ k( / − k / − k / (

. ∈/ Z/ Z 1 ( . . ∈ H( m
# |K| m|H| . K ' Z/ Z( K
tZ/ Z( & t/ " ( " . " ( Z/ Z / tZ/ Z ≃
|G|
Z/tZ( |K|
t t ( (K Z/ Z.
\$, !

Z (QX (p
Z p ∤ ! p ( ϕ Q X X− ∈
Z/ Z X * G .( ϕ Q " Z/ Z ϕ Q
,ϕ Q ,ϕ Q ,ϕ Q ,ϕ Q ( " )ϕ Q #
Z/ZZ X QX # ZX
1 Z ( Q Fr Z QX * G ( #
ZX( QX # QX
" ( QX P X ( P X QX QX
P X # QX

1 Q P X # QX( P X
" QX K QX / P X
# α X K P X ∤ X QX α & # K
α− ( B P X X X− K

α X

|k|
N ⊂ N( N ∅ ∈ N( N , ∀s ∈ N, s ≤ N
u supN
u u
u ∈ N( k .t( ) t ∈ Z + ( t ( /k(
u supN

0 B 3 A & ' Q
a
# % ∈ A ( ) a ∈ Z, b ∈ N
b

b ( ∃ dc ∈ A ( ) c ∈ Z, d ∈ N∗
a c a
d .
b d
( " ) ac bd a " ( b
∈ A
a b a
, a ∈ Z, b ∈ N∗ a, b ( .
b |a|
± A { b ∈ A /a ∈ Z, b ∈ N∗ ( a
b }. A A −{ } / ∈
/ A (A "

a a

/ A % b
∈ A ( ) a ∈ Z, b ∈ N∗ ( b ( b
/ ∃ dc ∈ A (
(
a c
) c ∈ Z, d ∈ N∗ d .
b d
( " ) bd ac /a /c % /a(
c a
bd kc a k ( bd kc " ) c d
∈ A ( b

a
4 ( /c( a b
∈ A + ( # A
u u
# % u > ( " # A / " & #
u u−
6 ∈
/ A u− ≥

a
% x b
A ( ) a ∈ Z( b ∈ N∗ b
# ( a∈ Z
a x & # ( " ) ∃k ∈ Z∗ x . kb
u
" k ( ( " 0 ( k .t( ) u ≥ (
u t u t
t∈Z x .b x∼ b
∈ A ( " 00 #( u
k
" # ( + k x∼ b
∈ A .
a c ∗
. ϕ # 3 ! ( b d
∈ A ( ) a, c ∈ Z, b, d ∈ N b, d
ad bc( " ) a.d b.c Z/ Z( a c/ b d
a c
% , ∈ A /a, c ∈ Z, b, d ∈ N
b d

b, d ϕ ab dc ϕ adbdbc ad bc
a c b d , " ) ϕ ab dc ϕ ab ϕ dc ϕ ab . dc ϕ ab .ϕ dc ϕ (
# \$\$&% \$\$(' \$4

ϕ "
ϕ , ∀a ∈ Z/ Z, ∃x a ∈ A ϕ x a.
a
# - kerϕ . ∈ kerϕ( " ) ⊂ ϕ " ( b
ϕ(
a
& a ∈ Z, b ∈ N∗ b ( a ∈ Z( " ) ∃k ∈ Z b . kb ( a
b
∈ .
er
" " ( A/ ≃ Z/ Z.

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