Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 47

!

"#"$ %
&
& $

'' '( ) * +

,##- ,##.
! "# $

% & '

( ) *
/" (0 1 2,##/ ,##-3 4"
/, % 2,##/ ,##-3 4$
/4 (0 1 2,##- ,##.3 4-
/$ % 2,##- ,##.3 $#
+ ∀n ∈ N∗ , ∃s, t ∈ N
s
n t .
n
m
! " # A {m ∈ N /n}, A
s
s n t

$ n ,n . .
$% & k<n
$ n &
'% n ( ∃t ∈ N n t " )n t
'% n ( ∃k ∈ N∗ n k k < n( " *
s′ ′ s′
k t & s ,t ∈ N + n t
m
A {m ∈ N /n} ⊂ N, A ∅ ∈ A A , ( ∀m ∈ A,
s
m ≤ n/ " ) A " s + ( n k
s s
∤ n( k ( ( ∃t ∈ N k t n t

+
- a∈N p # ( p/a p∧a
! p q ( p∧q
. - n≥ & /0 1 " #
D {d ∈ N/ d ≥ d/n}( D p p

2 ! " # # 3 /0 " '


# P # 3 ( ( P {p , . . . , pn }( & pi # (
" m p . . . pn .

% d p∧a d/p p (d d p + p∧a p/a


" ( p∧q p/q q p q(
p∧q .
. % n≥ D {d ∈ N d ≥ d/n} D ∅ n∈D D ⊂ N( " ) D
" p + p ( ( ∃d ∈
/ { , p} d/p
d/n( p D.

"
,

2 % P {p , . . . , pn } 3 m p . . . pn m≥ (
" )( " . ( ∃p p/m p pi ( p/p . . . pn p/ m−p . . . pn (
#
+ % a, b ∈ N.
- a∧b ( a∧ a b b∧ a b ab ∧ a b .
! a ∧ b d( a b ∧ a∨b d.

% d/a d/a b( d/ a b − a b d 4
& 3 b∧ a b .
ab ∧ a b ! ( ab ∧ a b ( ∃p
p/ab p/ a b ( p/a p/ a b p/b p/ a b a∧ a b
b∧ a b .
a da′ b db′ ( a ′ ∧ b′
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
a b ∧ a∨b da db ∧ da ∨db d a b ∧d a b d. a′ b′ ∧ a′ b′
a′ ∧ b′ ( ( " ( a′ b′ ∧ a′ b′ ( " ) a b ∧ a∨b d.
+!
% n ∈ N−{ , } - & #
n ,n ,...,n n

/n , /n , ... n/n n.
n nk n k & ≤k≤ . " (
55 nk
+ % p ∈ N−{ , }. - p− ≡− p( p #

% p " ( ∃d ∈ { , ..., p − } d/p. 1 d ∈


{ , ..., p − }( d/ p − ( ( p− ≡ d ( p− ≡− d d/p(

+( % n ∈ N−{ , } p # % p/n( p'&


n( vp n ( " p & n ( vp n
{α ∈ N∗ / pα /n}. % p ∤ n( & vp n
v (v v
- n, m ∈ N − { , }( vp nm vp n vp m .
. - v .

. ( " )v . 4
(v v .
α β
vp n α vp m β( p /nm α β ≤ vp nm
pα β
∤ nm( pα /n pβ /m( vp nm vp n vp m .
. . . . . . ..... . . . .k & ∤ k( ( (
v v + ( v v ( v v ,
v v ,v v ,v v ,v v (
v v v .
4

+ -
/
n n
/

≡− ( " ) ≡ . + ( ≡ (
. . ≡ ≡
n n n n n
. . ≡ ≡ .

+,
% a, b ∈ Z∗ " q, c ∈ Z b aq c -
a∧b a∧c
% k∈N - k ∧ k− & / k ∧ k− (
(k " 6 /0 +

. % a b 7 " ax by

d a ∧ b d′ a ∧ c d/aq d/b " ) d/b − aq d/c d/c


′ ′ ′
d/a( d/d 4 ( & 3 d /d d d.
$ k k− k b k ,a k− c k !
( k ∧ k− k− ∧ k k− k − (
k− ∧ k k ∧ k ∧ k− k ∧ & .
$ k ∧ ( (k ≡ ( ( " )
k ∧ k− ( (k ≡
. k ,a k− b k 8k ≡
" )( " ( a∧b
k ∧ " "! s, t ∈ Z
sk t 8k × ,q ,r × ,q ,r
× ,q ,r ( qq k −q − q − q q q k − . 8
s t −
u, v ∈ Z ub va sk t
( s b− a t k −a s b− a t b− a −a s t b − s− t a
( u s t − v − s− t ( " ) ub va (
x− v a y − u b /$ ( b/ x− v a b/ x− v ( a∧b + (
x v mb( ) m ∈ Z ! x v mb /$ ( # y u − ma
& 3 x v mb y u − ma "
S { v mb, u − ma /m ∈ Z} { mb, − − ma /m ∈ Z}.

+$
x ≡ x ≡
x ,x ∈ Z .
x ≡ x ≡
x≡
x∈Z .
x≡
$

∧ ( " ) . − . ! c u c v − (
c ≡
# x ≡c / . 4 (x ≡c
c ≡
/ . .
x≡
b b ( (x≡b c bc
x≡
/ . ( (x≡ . − . / .

+ -
p % #
- k < p, p|Cpk
# ! 9 p ( x
x≡ p( xp− ≡ p
% n ∈ N∗ n # ( ϕn( m
≤m≤n m∧n . (ϕn card{m ∈ N ≤ m≤n m∧n }
1 ϕ ,ϕ ,ϕ ϕp p
# - p q # (
ϕ pq p − q − ./0 # m ≤ m ≤ pq m ∧ pq .

k−
pCp− kCpk " ) p/kCpk p∧k /k < p p ( p/Cpk .
# 3 { , ..., p − } xp ≡ x
p : & x ( & x + (
p−
p
x xp Cpk xp−k ( k ≤ k ≤ p − ( p|Cpk ( " ) x p
≡ xp ≡x
k
p
+ ( x( p/xp − x x xp− − ( p∧x ( p/ xp− − ( (
p−
x ≡ p

ϕ ,ϕ ,ϕ ∀k ∈ { , ..., p − }, k ∧ p ,ϕp p−
# % m ≤ m ≤ pq. m ∧ pq ( ( p/m q/m. + (
m ≤ m ≤ pq m ∧ pq p q
{ , ..., pq}
: p { , ..., pq} p, p, ..., qp # q (
4 ( # q { , ..., pq} p. pq
p q { , ..., pq}( # m ≤ m ≤ pq m ∧ pq
p q− + ( # m ≤ m ≤ pq m ∧ pq
pq − p q − p− q− ϕ pq p− q− .

+ ./ & & 0 # 0# 1 $ 2
& * * 7%+( # p q
( n pq 0 e & <e<ϕ n e∧ϕ n
- " ( ( d <d<ϕ n ed ≡ modϕ n
/ " ; <
5

': , " / # 0
': , " /p( q d &
e d
- < x < n( x ≡ x n /0
p q "
. + p ,q ,e (n ϕn
= & d <d< ed ≡
# & & * x 6 + 1 y ≡ xe n /
x & # +
A * y 1 yd n( + &
x /+ y & &

" ; < ( ∃d , d ∈ Z ed ϕnd % d d


ϕ n ( " ) ≤d<ϕ n ed ≡ ϕn 0 & d∈/{ , } %
′ ′ ′ ′
" d <d <ϕ n ed ≡ modϕ n ( ϕ n /e d − d
′ ′ ′
ϕ n / d−d ( e∧ϕ n .1 |d − d | < ϕ n ( d d
′ ′
ed ≡ ϕ n ( ∃d ∈ Z ed ϕ n d 0 & d′ ∈ Z−
′ ′′ −
d −d ∈ Z &
p−
$ % x∧n ( x ≡ q ( q/x x∧n + (
p− q− q− p−
9 ( x ≡ q 4 ( x p( " )
q/xϕ n − p/xϕ n − p q ( n pq/xϕ n −
xϕ n ≡ n
1 ed − ϕ n d ( xe d x xϕ n d ≡ x n( xϕ n ≡ n
$ % x∧n ( x p x q. 7 " #
x 4 p q( ( n/x #
<x<n % p/x q∤x/ 4 q/x p ∤ x ( xp− ≡ q
p− q− e d ϕn d ϕn
" ) x ≡ q .+ ( x x x ≡x q ( x ≡ q
xe d ≡ x ≡ p ( xe d ≡ x n
.
e∧ϕ n .ϕn . (q ,r (e . (q ,r (
r . (q ,r (r . (q ,r ( r r −r q r −
r −r q q −r r qq −r e−r q qq e q q −r q qqq
e q q − ϕ n −eq q qqq e q qq qq qqqq ϕ n − −q −q q q
( d q qq qq qqqq .
# 1 mod 3 ( " #
( " ) . . ≡ . . ≡ .
1 yd n " .> # ( " )
d
y ≡ . . ≡ . . ≡ .
: + *( yd n # x( yd xe d ≡ x
n
/
+ % G (H K ' G H G K G
- H ∪ K G.

% H ⊂K / K ⊂H ( H ∪K K G/ H ∪K H G %
H K K H( ∃h ∈ H h ∈
/ K ∃k ∈ K k ∈/ H hk ∈ G(
hk ∈
/ H ∪K hk ∈ H( k h− hk ∈ H( 4 hk ∈ K.

+ . 3 2 % p ∈ N. - p # (

p− ≡− p /0 /Z/pZ
x x x−

" # x ∈ Z/pZ ∗ x x− x x− (
( x ( ( p/x − x− x ( (
p/x − p/x ( ( x x − p− . + ( k ∈ { , ..., p − }( ( k ∈

Z/pZ −{ , p − }( k− k −
k ∈ { , ..., p − } " ) k p−
≤k≤p−

.p − . k p− − p.
≤k≤p−

+ % G <a> * " n
- ' G *
% H {e} ' G m
n
am ∈ H - m/n |H| m
.
. - d∈N d/n( G ' " d.
+ ' Z/ Z "

% H ' G <a> % H {e} H {e}( H <e>


* ( ( " ( H < am >( & m
am ∈ H
H < am > ! & n m( # n
mq r & q, r ∈ N × N ≤ r < m.

-
.

G <a> " n( e an " ) e amq .ar ∈ H amq am q ∈ H


am ∈ H( ar amq − ∈ H ! m
m
a ∈H ≤ r < m( r m/n
n
|H| o am s ams am s e " ) n/ms m/n, m /s. "
n
m m n n n
( a a e " ) s/ m + s m
. % d ( H {e} " ' G "
n n
% d > % H < ad > d/n( d
n n n
a ∈ H8
d ( a ∈ H < a >( as
s d a d t " ) asd e n/sd
d/n, nd /s + ( " # ( |H| nn d.
d
(% K ' G/ " d K < am > & m
n
am ∈ K ( " #( d m
" )
n
m
K < a > < a > H. d

+ Z/ Z * / + ( " ( Z/ Z
' H " H < . > < > { , , , }.

+!
% m ∈ Z/nZ. - Z/nZ <m> ( ( m∧n .
! G * " n( ϕn #
G
. - d/n( ϕd # " Z/nZ " d /
6 " ' Z/nZ "
2 ! n ϕd
d/n

% Z/nZ < m >( ∃u ∈ Z um um( ( ∃v ∈ Z um vn


" ) m∧n 7 ( m∧n ( ∃u, v ∈ Z um vn " ) um
n Z/nZ < m > / x ∈ Z/nZ x xu.m ∈ < m > .
G * " n( G ≃ Z/nZ. + ( " (
# Z/nZ " # m ≤ m ≤ n m∧n
. % H " ' Z/nZ " d m ∈ Z/nZ om d (
(H <m> + # Z/nZ " d #
H
1 H * " d( H ≃ Z/dZ + ( " (
# H ϕd
2 % d∈N Ed {m ∈ Z/nZ / o m d} % d ∤ n( Ed ∅ o m /n, ∀m ∈
Z/nZ d/n( Ed {m ∈ Z/nZ / o m d} ∅ / . "

+ ( d d( Ed ∩ Ed′ ∅ ∀m ∈ Z/nZ, ∃ d m ∈ Ed + ( /Ed d/n
Z/nZ n |Z/nZ| card Ed ( " . ( card Ed ϕd
d/n

n ϕd
d/n

+ % G 3 (H K ' G. L H ∩K
K/L g {k L, . . . , kn L}( ) k L, ..., kn L K L 6
6

- k H, . . . , kn H KH.
|K|.|H|
! card KH |H∩K|
.

$ ∀i , ..., n ki H ∅ ki ki e ∈ ki H.
$% i j( ki H ∩ kj H ∅( ∃h, h′ ∈ H ki h kj h′ kj− ki h′ h− ∈ H ∩ K L
" ) kj L ki L( kj L ∩ ki L ∅
n
$ ki H ⊂ KH ? 3 " kh ∈ KH 1 K
i
n
ki L( ∃j k ∈ kj L " ) k kj l( & l ∈ L( kh kj lh ∈ kj H l∈L⊂H
i
h ∈ H.
n
k H, . . . , kn H KH( card KH card ki H !
i
∀i , ..., n( f H −→ ki H, h −→ ki h #, ( card ki H |H|
|K|
" ) card KH n|H| " : ( n K L |L|
" )
|K||H|
card KH |L|

+( % G ( H K ' G
H ∩K {e}.
- ∀h ∈ H, ∀k ∈ K, hk kh.
- HK ' G HK ≃ H × K.

∀h ∈ H, ∀k ∈ K, hkh− k − hkh− k − ∈ K K⊳G hkh− ∈ K


− − − −
4 ( hkh k h kh k ∈ H " ) hkh− k − H ∩ K {e} hk kh.
HK KH( HK ' G HK ⊳G ! (
− − −
g ∈ G, h ∈ H, k ∈ K( ghkg ghg gkg ∈ HK H K
G
- HK ≃ H × K. % f H × K −→ HK, h, k −→ hk f &
, & hk kh, ∀h ∈ H, ∀k ∈ K, & 3
f f , ! ( h, k ∈ f " )

hk e h k ∈ H ∩ K {e}( (h k e
+ % @
- |G| ( G " /1 " #

E {x ∈ G/x x } .
% G * " A a G "
- b ∈ G ob ab ba( b a. /0
' < a, b > .
# - @ " /0 b ∈ G − {a, b}. -
ob o ab
(
- ac ca G {e, a, c, c , ac, ac }.
! ca ac G ≃ S . /0 # '
G
"#

% E {x ∈ G/x x− } % E ∅( ∀x ∈ G x e

|G| > ( B x e. x ∈ E( x ∈E x x− " )
card E card G − E 1 e ∈ G − E ( ∃x ∈ G − E x e
ox .
G " / |G| /

% b a H {e, a, b, ab} ' G( |H| ∤


|G| .
# % b ∈ G − {e, a} G * b e( o b ∈ { , } %
ob o ab ∈ { , , , }. ( o ab b a( o ab ab ba
b a/ o ab G < ab > * + o ab .

% ac ca( o ac ! ( o ac ac e c a( o ac
ac ac c e o ac ac ac a e o ac " )
@ * (
oa ∤|<c>| ( a ∈<
/ c > " ) e, c, c , a G 6
& 3 e, c, c , a, ac, ac G 6
G {e, c, c , a, ac, ac }
ca e( c e( ca c( a e( ca c ( a c( ca a(
c e ( " # ( ca ac " ) ca ac .
G <c> ( " ( < c >⊳ G
aca− ∈< c > aca− e c e aca− c ac ca( aca− c
ca ac .
: # G
e a ac ac c c
e e a ac ac c c
a a e c c ac ac
ac ac c e c ac a / (
ac ac c c e a ac
c c ac a ac c e
c c ac ac a e c
#
:" f G −→ S 3 f a ,f c

+, % Gl C " & # 6 B
i j
C & I ,A B (
i j
π
)j ei .
G < A, B > ' Gl C A B.
BA

? 3 ABA B AB A− B.
h k
. - G {A B /h ∈ { , , , } k ∈ { , , }}.
""

j
oA A −I, A −A, A I oB B (B I
j
j
ABA− ABA −ABA B + ( AB A− ABA−
j
−ABA B B
. % M ∈ G( M Am B n ...Amr B nr & mi , ni ∈ Z r ∈ N∗ oA
oB M Al B s ...Alr B sr & li ∈ { , , , } si ∈ { , , }.
BA AB / ( B A B BA B AB BA B AB AB
l s u v
C BA / & l∈{ , } s∈{ , , } C A B ( C BA (
C BA A AB A A B A A AB AB (M "
M Ah B k & h ∈ { , , , } k ∈ { , , }.

+$ % G 3 & - '
Q, & G, . & ( f Q −→ G
n n n s
( ∀x ∈ Q, f x e. /0 m
∈ Q( f s. m f m
(
∀s ∈ Z

n n n n d n
% m
∈Q d " G + f m
f d dm f dm
f dm
∈G
n d
d " @( f dm
e.

+ -
' Z/nZ " mZ ,
s Z −→ Z/nZ.
+ ' Z/ Z Z Z
, s Z −→ Z/ Z.
- q/n( qZ/nZ Z/ nq Z

$: ' Z/nZ mZ/nZ m/n


$$ s mZ mZ nZ/nZ dZ/nZ ) d n ∧ m ! ( m/n( s mZ
mZ/nZ.
+ : ' Z/ Z mZ/ Z m/ + (
' Z/ Z Z/ Z, Z/ Z < > { , , , , , }, Z/ Z < >
{ , , , }, Z/ Z < > { , , }, Z/ Z < > { , } Z/ Z { }.
$$$ s Z ∧ Z/ Z Z/ Z s Z ∧ Z/ Z Z/ Z
Z/nZ < > * " n q/n( q
q. ∈ qZ/nZ qZ/nZ < q > ' Z/nZ
n
" q
/ . 1 qZ/nZ ' * Z/nZ(
n
qZ/nZ * " q
qZ/nZ ≃ Z/ nq Z.
+ qZ/nZ ≃ Z/ nq Z
" ! ( f Z −→ qZ/nZ( x −→ qx f & '
, % x ∈ Z( x ∈ f ( ( qx ( (
n/qx ( ( nq /x ( ( x ∈ nq Z( f n
q
Z
" ( # Z/ nq Z ≃ qZ/nZ.
",

+ % G (a∈G τ a G −→ G( x −→ axa−
G
? 3 " # Int G @ '
Aut G .
- Z G G ' G G/Z G ≃
Int G

" ( ∀a ∈ G, τ a ∈ Aut G . + ( " f G −→ Aut G ,


a −→ τ a . ? 3 f ∀x ∈ G, τ ab x
abxb− a− a bxb− a− τ a bxb− τ a ◦ τ b x " ) ∀a, b ∈ G, f ab τ ab τa ◦ τb
f a ◦f b . Int G f G f ( Int G
' Aut G .
+ & 3 Int G ' Aut G
' Int G ⊂ Aut G , Int G ∅ IdG τ e ∈ Int G
∀τ a , τ b ∈ G, τ a ◦ τ b − τ ab− τb − τ b− τ a ◦ τ c τ ac .
kerf Z G ! ( a ∈ G( a ∈ f ( ( τ a IdG (
( ∀x ∈ G, ax xa ( ( a∈Z G. + (Z G '
G " ( # ( G/ f ≃
! f( ( G/Z G ≃ Int G .
+ % G Z G G - G/Z G
( G #

G/Z G < aZ G > . % x, y ∈ G( G/Z G < aZ G >( ∃n, m ∈


n n n
Z xZ G aZ G a Z G( (x a z & z ∈Z G yZ G aZ G m
m m n m m n
a Z G( ( y a z & z ∈ Z G + ( xy a z a z a za z yx z ,z ∈
n m n m m n
Z G a a a a a .
+ % n, d ∈ N∗ ( G # " n &
d
f G −→ G, x −→ x
- f G
- n∧d ( f G.
. ! n ( G

∀x, y ∈ G, f x.y xy d xd y d G # + f x.y f xf y .


G 3 f G −→ G G G( B & 3
f , % x ∈ f( f x xd e " ) ◦ x /d " ( ◦ x /n
x ∈ G " ) ◦ x /n ∧ d ◦x x e " ) f {e}
. d ( n∧d " ) f G −→ G( x −→ x G
f , ( ( ∀g ∈ G( ∃x ∈ G f x x g

+ ! % σ ∈S .
σ * ,
εσ .
. 1 σ
"4

σ σ * , σ
σ
σ # (εσ .
. * , ( σ
σ (σ
e oσ .
1 . (σ σ .σ eσ σ .

+
A
% c ijk .' * S σ∈S 1 σcσ − .
. - A ' "

A {e, , , , , , , , , , , }
|A | |S | .
σ ijk σ − σ iσ j σ k . ! ( σ ijk σ − σ i σ ijk i σ j .
− −
4 ( σ ijk σ σ j σ k σ ijk σ σ k σ i. % l ∈ / {σ i , σ j , σ k }(
σ− l ∈ / {i, j, k} " ) ijk σ − l σ− l ( σ ijk σ − l σσ − l l +

σ ijk σ σ iσ j σ k .
. % A ' " A " C + C
A A H . " ( # A
.' * 2( C .' * " ijk + ikj ijk ∈ H.
% l ∈
/ {i, j, k} σ ijl . σ ijk σ − σ iσ j σ k jlk ∈ H
C A σ ∈ A ijk ∈ H jkl jlk ∈ H.

4 ( σ ilj , σ ijk σ σ iσ j σ k lik ∈ H
lki lik ∈ H
+ ( # .' * H e H(

+ (
% G ( a b G " 3 ab ba
< a > ∩ < b > {e} - o ab o a ∨o b

% n> σ ∈ Sn σ ,σ ,σ ,σ
,...,σ n − n − ,σ n− ,σ n − ,σ n . oσ εσ .
# % n> σ ∈ Sn σ ,σ ,σ ,σ
,...,σ n − n − ,σ n− n, σ n − ,σ n . oσ ε σ .

n∨m
oa n( o b m o ab k. ab an∨m bn∨m e.e e(
o ab /n ∨ m " ( ab k e( a k
b −k
ak −k
b ∈ < a > ∩ < b >(
ak b−k e " ) n/k m/k n ∨ m/k o ab .

$ σ cc & c ...n − c ...n * c c


n
, ( cc cc <c >∩<c > {e} oσ oc ∨o c
n
oc oc .
"$

n n
$$ ε σ εcc εc εc − − − − . c *
k−
k( εc − .
# $ σ cc & c ...n c ...n − * c c
, ( cc cc < c > ∩ < c > {e} oσ oc ∨o c
n n− n
∨ n− oc n
,o c n−
( n− n
n n−
− −
$$ ε σ εcc εc εc − − − .
7 8 9 8

+ % A ( I J A
I J {a ∈ A aJ ⊂ I}.
- I J A I
- I J J ⊂ I.
. - K A( I∩J K I K ∩ J K
I J K I J ∩ I K .

$ - /I J {a ∈ A aJ ⊂ I} A I J ⊂ A(
I J ∅ ∈ I J ∀x, y ∈ I J ( ∀j ∈ J( x−y j xj −yj xj, yj ∈ I
I +( x − y j ∈ I " ) x − y ∈ I J . ∀a ∈ A, ∀x ∈ I J (
axJ a xJ xJ ⊂ I I A( axJ ⊂ I I J
A.
$ I⊂ I J ! ( ∀i ∈ I, iJ ⊂ I I +.
1 I J J " + " # {xy/x ∈ I J y ∈ J}(
B & 3 {xy/x ∈ I J y ∈ J} ⊂ I % x ∈ I J y ∈ J( xy ∈ I.
. $ % x ∈ A. x ∈ I ∩ J K ( ( xK ⊂ I xK ⊂ J( (x∈ I
K ∩ J K .
$% x∈ I J K x J K ⊂ I " ) xJ xK ⊂ I xJ ⊂ xJ xK ⊂ I
/ xK ⊂ xJ xK ⊂ I ( x ∈ I J ∩ I K . " ( x∈ I J ∩ I
K ( xJ ⊂ I xK ⊂ I " ) xJ xK ⊂ I( x∈ I J K .

+ % A ( I , ..., In A
? 3 I . I .I I .I .I
3 " I ...In I .I .I I .I .I , ..., I ...In
I ...In− In . - I a , ..., In an ( I ...In a ...an . !
In an I a

0 B & 3 I . I .I I .I .I / " #
X {xyz/x ∈ I , y ∈ I , z ∈ I }. X ⊂ I . I .I % J X -
I . I .I ⊂ J. " ( I . I .I " # {uv u ∈ I
v ∈ I .I } + ( I . I .I ⊂ J( B & 3 {uv u ∈ I

"5
"/

n
v ∈ I .I } ⊂ J % uv u∈I v ∈ I .I ( v yi zi ( & n ∈ N∗ ,
i
n
yi ∈ I , zi ∈ I " ) uv u "i zi uyi zi ∈ X ⊂ J J ( uv ∈ J
i
4 ( I .I .I X I . I .I I .I .I .
" 3 I ...In ( I ...In " # 3 "
x ...xn ( & xi ∈ Ii . + a ...an ∈ I ...In a ...an ⊂ I ...In . "
( x ∈ I ...In ( x " 3 " x ...xn (
& xi ∈ Ii . 1 x ...xn β a ... β n an ( & β i ∈ A( x ...xn β ...β n a ...an ∈
a ...an " ) x ∈ a ...an
+ ( I a( I n I...I a...a an .

+ % A ( I, J +( A
A
- IJ ⊂ ( I⊂ J⊂ I ∩J I J.
! A " .

$ % I ( ∃x ∈ I x ∈
( / - J ⊂ P ∀y ∈ J(
xy ∈ IJ ⊂ x∈
/ (y∈
$ % I ∩J ( IJ ⊂ I ∩ J " )I⊂ J⊂ ⊂I ⊂J
I ∩J ( I J
⊂ - "
A % ⊂ , " ⊂
A ( .

+! % A(B f A −→ B "

" I A f I " B
# - f , ( f I A
- B( f− A
. " B f− "
A

i Z −→ Q, a −→ a( " ( Z
Z( i Z Z " Q
# I, ' A, f A,
& B, " )f I ' B, ∀b ∈ B, ∀y ∈ f I ( b f a ,
)a∈A f , y f x ( & x ∈ I. + ( by f a .f x f ax
ax ∈ I I A( by ∈ f I .
" ( f− A - f−
f− A( A ∈ f

B f A ∈ ( ( B. % a, b ∈ A
ab ∈ f − ( " ) f ab f af b ∈ f a ∈ f b ∈ a ∈ f−
b ∈ f− .
"-

. % i Z −→ Q, a −→ a Q( i− "
Z

+
% n ∈ N − { , }. U Z/nZ |U Z/nZ |.
% A, B - U A×B U A ×U B .
. - m, n ∈ N − { , } m ∧ n ( ϕ nm ϕ n .ϕ m . /
Z/nmZ ≃ Z/nZ × Z/mZ .
2 % n ∈ N − { , }. 1 ϕ n . /0 n pα . . . . .pαr
r ( & pi (
m
pi pj i j, αi ( ϕp p .

% m ∈ Z/nZ( m ∈ U Z/nZ ( ( ∃l ∈ Z/nZ m.l (


( ∃k ∈ Z kn ml ( ( m∧n . + ( |U Z/nZ | ϕ n .
% a, b ∈ A×B. a, b ∈ U A×B ( ( ∃ a′ , b′ ∈ A×B a, b . a′ , b′
aa′ , bb′ , ( ( a, b ∈ U A × U B .
. % m, n ∈ N − { , } m ∧ n " ( Z/nmZ ≃ Z/nZ × Z/mZ " )
U Z/nmZ ≃ U Z/nZ×Z/mZ / ( U Z/nmZ ≃ U Z/nZ ×U Z/mZ
ϕ nm |U Z/nmZ | |U Z/nZ |.|U Z/mZ | ϕ n .ϕ m .
2 % p # ( m ∈ N∗ l ∈ { , ..., pm }. + ( l ∧pm (
m m− m
( p/l p { , ..., p } p, p, ..., p p p # pm−
m m m−
" )ϕp p −p .
α αr
% n p . . . . .pr & pi ( pi pj i j, αi ( ( " .( ϕn
αi αj
ϕ pα ...ϕ pαr r pi ∧ pj i j( ϕn α
p −p α −
... pr − pαr r −
αr

n − p ... − pr .

+(
% K { /a ∈ R}. - K, "
a
( K ' ' / "
M R#
a
% A { /a, b ∈ Z}.
b a
- A ' M R.
# - I { /b ∈ Z} A I ' D
b

0 & K, , . : "

K ∈ K−{ } & # &
a a
.+ K, , . /
a
K " ' / M R M R


/ K.
".

& 3 A ∅, I ∈ A, ∀X, Y ∈ A, X − Y ∈ A XY ∈ A
a
# % f A −→ Z, −→ a 0 & f "
b a
, kerf I. + ( " " ( A/I ≃ Z
Z (I 1 (I " Z "

+
% A B & m n -
car A × B n ∨ m.
% A 3 p
- p .
# - A 4 " " & Z/pZ !
card A pn ( ) n ∈ N∗ .

7 " # n m ( ∀k ∈ N∗ , k , ,
car A × B .
% n m n∨m . , n∨m , n∨m
, n∨m n m " ) car A × B . s car A × B
+ ( " ( s ◦ , ,
A × B, .1 n∨m . , , , s/n ∨ m. " ( s , s ,s
, ( " ) n/s m/s n ∨ m/s.
A " (p p
1 A, 3 (◦ 3 car A p .
# Z/pZ / A, #
% Z/pZ × A −→ A, k, a −→ ka # 3 ! (
k ,a k , a k , k ∈ { , , ..., p − } " ) p/k − k k −k carA p
|k − k | < p( k − k k a k a.
& 3 A( " " ( Z/pZ'
&
A 3 (A & 3 % u , ..., un #
A + ( # A # #
αu ... α un & /α , ..., αn ∈ Z/pZ n cardA pn .
√ √
+, " Z {a b /a, b ∈ Z}.

√ √ √ √
Fr Z { ac b√
/a, b, c, d ∈ Z
d
c, d , }. % x a b√
c d
∈ F r Z ( x
a b

c−d
√ √ ac− bd bc−ad
√ √
c −√ d
c−d c, d , . " )x c − d c − d
∈Q
{α β /α, β ∈ Q}. √ √ √ √
a c
" ( ∀α β ∈Q √ (α β & a, c ∈ Z b, d ∈ Z∗
a c
√ ad bc
√ b d √ √
/α , β + ( α β ∈ F r Z + ( F r Z Q
√ b d bd
Q .
!
"#

!+ " Zi {a ib/ a, b ∈ Z}
U Zi Fr Z i .
" f Z i −→ Z/ Z( a ib −→ a b.
- f " ,
# - f i
! Zi/ i ≃ Z/ Z.
i ' Zi D

$ % x a ib ∈ U Z i ( ∃ y c id ∈ Z i xy " ) |xy| |x| |y|


( a b c d a b /a, b, c, d ∈ Z a ±
# b ± U Z i ⊂ {− , , i, −i} " ( {− , , i, −i} ⊂ U Z i
+ U Zi {− , , i, −i}
$ Fr Z i { xy / x ∈ Z i , y ∈ Z i ∗ } % x
y
∈ Fr Z i ( (
x a ib ac bd i bc−ad
x a ib( y c id c, d , ( y c id c d
( c − id (
ac bd bc−ad
" ) x c d
ic d ∈ Q i {α iβ/ α, β ∈ Q} Fr Z i ⊂ Q i
Q i ⊂ Fr Z i 8 ( z α iβ ∈ Q i α ab β dc ( & a, c ∈ Z, b, d ∈ Z∗
α, β ∈ Q ( z ab i dc ad ibc
bd
∈ Fr Z i + Fr Z i Qi

- f " x a ib, y c id ∈ Z i (
f x y f a c ib d a c b d a b c d f x f y
+ (f xy f a ib c id f ac − bd i ad bc ac − bd ad bc
ac bd ad bc a b c d f xf y − 8 f
f "
f , ! ( y ∈ ZE Z( ∃x y∈Z f x x y
# - f i i ⊂ f8 (f i ×
" ) i∈ f i ⊂ f. f⊂ i ! (
ere
% x a ib ∈ f f x a b " ) ∃ k ∈ Z
a b k x k− b ib k i− b i −i k i i− b
/ i −i i− i i− x i −ik i− b
i k− b i b−k ∈ i k− b i b−k ∈ Z i f⊂ i
eme
% x a ib ∈ f( f x a b " ) ∃ k ∈ Z
a b k " ) x k − b ib x i k− b i b−k ∈ i
f ⊂ i k− b i b−k (

"6
,#

" y c id ∈ Z i x k− b ib i y i c id
c−d k− b
" )c k− b d b−k y c id k− b i b−k 8
c d b
i y( # x
" " ( Zi/ f ≃! f ! f Z/ Z
f , f i ( Zi/ i ≃ Z/ Z
:" Z/ Z " 5 " ( Zi/ i "
" ) " i " " i "

!+
% A a, b ∈ A − { } * m - "
d∈A ab √ md √ #
% " Zi √{a ib /a, b ∈ Z}.
U Zi . √
# & √ i √
- pgcd i i "
1 √ √
√ - i " pgcd Zi
i ' ppcm D √
- " i "

a/ab b/ab( m/ab( ( ∃d ∈ A ab md d a ∧ b. ! (


a/m b/m " ) ∃α, β ∈ A m αa m βb + ( ab md αad / ab βbd
+ a / b ( b αd a βd ( d/b d/a "
( c ∈ A c/a c/b( a cu b cv. 1 a/cuv b/cuv( m/cuv(
∃t ∈ A cuv mt " ) cuv αat v αt cu a( a A
acv ab md αad( cv αd a A cv cαt αd " ) ct d
α A
√ √ √ √
% x iba ∈ U Zi ( ∃y c id ∈ Zi xy !
( # a b c d " ) a b√ /
a √b ∈N + (a ± b ( x ± " ( {− , } ⊂ U Z i (
U Zi {− , }.√ √ √ √
# % x a ib ∈Zi % x/ ( ∃y c id ∈Zi xy !
( # a b c d a b
a b (a b ∈ { , , }. % a b x ± + ( a b (
c d ( x ± a√ b ( a√ ± b a ±
b ± ( x √± x ±√ i x ± −i & 3
± ,± ,± ( ± i√ ± − i√ & F + ( & F
± ,± ,± ( ± i ± −i .√ √ √
√ 4 ( √ x/√ i ( x ∈ {± , ± , ± i √ , ± −i ,±√
i } ± − √ i ∤ i ! ( ( √( i √ ±x − i (
& x a ib , √a b √ " ) x ∈ {± , ± √i ,± − i } 1√ (
x ± , √ i √± − i ( x√ ± i ( ± − i
x ±√ − i ( i √ ± − −√i , ( &
i ± ,± ,± i ,± i ..
,"

√ √ √ √
/ / i % x √ a ib ∈ Zi x/ x/ i : √& .
± ± ± ∤√ i ( x ± / " ) pgcd i √
% √ i√ √ √ m( m/ m/ i /
/ ( i / √ / i ( i / i + ( √" # m ± √ ±
m
m ± i m ± /m( m ± i /m m ± i
/m √ √ √
i " √ Zi ( Zi "
% F√ i + √( " #(d ±√
d ± d ± i - (d ± /d( d ± i /d d ± i
/d. √ √
" F i " ( F i "
√ √ √
% √ , i ( √ ∈ Zi √
∃x , i x √ " )(
x/ √x/ i √ " ( x/ ± , i Zi + ( a ib
i c id ( " ) a c− d b d c + a b c−d (
a, b, c, d ∈ Z.

!+ " Zi {a ib/a, b ∈ Z} "


δ Z i − { } −→ N, x a ib −→ δ x a b.
- ∀ x, y ∈ Z i × Z i − { } ( ∃q, r ∈ Z i x yq r & r
δ r <δ y + ( Zi / " A A
" δ A − { } −→ N x, y
A× A−{ } q, r A x yq r & r δ r <δ y ,q
r .
- Zi

x ac bd
∀x a ib ∈ Z i , ∀y c id ∈ Z i − { } . y
i cbc−ad
c d
d
α iβ
& α, β ∈ Q. % / " α/ β ( |α − m| ≤
|β − n| ≤ . " ) x y α iβ y m u in v y m in y u iv /u α − m
v β −n q m in r y u iv + x yq r q m in ∈ Z i
r x−yq ∈ Z i r δ r δ y u iv δ y u v ≤δ y <δ y .
% I Zi % I { } I % I { }.
% X {δ x /x ∈ I − { }}. X ∅ I { } X ⊂N " )X
8 δ y I y . % x ∈ I, y ∈ I − { }(
∃q, r ∈ Z i x yq r( & r δ r < δ y 1 y, x ∈ I(
r x − bq ∈ I " ) r δ r ∈X δ r < δ y, δ y
X x yq ∈ y I y / y ⊂I y∈I
,,
% & '

+
% P X ∈QX * G - P′ & P (
( P a X − α n ( ) a, α ∈ Q.
% P X X − aX − aX ∈ QX . a −
P " ≥ .
X X n
. % P X ... Xn ∈ Q X - P "

P a a X ... an X n & an P′ a a X ... nan X n− . %


P ′ /P ( ∃Q ∈ Q X P P ′ Q( " ) Q Q
′ X−α ′
n
( Q n
X c " )( α −nc, nP X −α P ( ( P n
P
′ X−α X−α
P n−
P P n n−
P + ( & 3 k ∈ { , ..., n}
X−α k X−α n X−α n
P n... n− k−
P k P n... n− n−
P n n
an n an X − α n " )
′ ′ ′′ ′ ′′ ′′ ′′ ′′′
nP P X −α P n− P X −α P + ( n− P P X −α P
′′ ′′′ X−α n n n
n− P X −α P (P n
P a X −α . " ( P a X − α n(
P ′ na X − α n− /P.
− P " ≥ ( ( X /P (

(P − P − ( (a − .
. % α P( P α P′ α . ( P′
X X n− Xn ′ αn αn
... n−
P− n P α P α − n −n " )α 1 (
α " P

p
+ % P a a X ... an X n ∈ Z X . α q
∈Q
P & p, q ∈ Z × Z∗ p∧q .
- p/a , q/an an ( α ∈ Z.
- $
∀m ∈ Z( p − mq/P m p − q/P$ p q/P$ − .
. +
* G P X − X X− ∈ZX.
# % P ∈ZX. - P$ $
P ( P "
Z

,4
,$

n
a a pq ... an pqn " ) a qn a pq n− ... an− qpn− an pn
−p a q n− ... an− qpn− an pn− a qn p/a q n
p∧q ( p/a .
4 ( q/an
! ( an ( ( P ( q/ q ±
α pq ∈ Z.
n
P ak X k ∈ Z X ⊂ Q X . + ( " = * ( P
k
n
P k m P k m
k n
k
X −m ! ck k
∈ Q( P c c X −m ... cn X − m " )
k
cn an ∈ Z, cn− − cn .Cn .m an− cn− cn .Cn .m an− ∈ Z & 3
cn− , ..., c , c ∈ Z. P pq ( c q n −c p − mq q n− − ... − cn p − mq n
" ) p − mq /c qn p − mq /c P m p − mq ∧ q n p∧q .
! m m − ( p − q /P p q/P − .
p
+ q
( ∃Q ∈ Q X P X − pq Q " ) qP
l
bi
qX − p Q Q ci
X i( & bi , ci ∈ Z × Z∗ ( m ppcm c , ..., cl (
i
mQ Q ∈ Z X (Q dQ , ) d c Q ( Q ∈ZX 1 (
qmP qX − p dQ ( c mqP c qX − p dQ " ) mqc P dc qX − p c Q + (
mqc P d( c qX − p p∧q Q ( qmP qX − p mqc P Q
Z qm ( P qX − p c P Q qm − P /P m Z
( " ( m ( p/a .
.
p p
% α q
∈ Q P + ( " α q
∈ Z
P q p/a − " )
p ∈ {± , ± , ± , ± }. " ( p − q p − /P − " )p∈ / { ,− ,± ,± }
& # ' P − − P (P
α
# p/a P ( p − q/P P P (p p−q
q p− p−q " )q .

+ % A - AX '
( (A

( " ( A ( AX 7 '
( a ∈ A−{ } AX ( " a, X (
∃P ∈ A X a, X P " ) P/a P/X + (P b∈A P/a P b ∈ U A
P/X " ) a, X P A ∃Q, S ∈ A X aQ XS + aQ a
& #

+!
QX ( & &
XQ X X QX .
# XQ X ∩ X QX.
XQ X . X QX .
,5

* G P X Q X X Z/ Z X
Z/ Z X
)P Q ( & * G U V
UP VQ

QX ( P Q P ∧Q P ∩ Q P ∨Q
+ (
X X X∧ X QX.
# X ∩ X X∨ X X X
X .X X X / .
Z/ Z X P QQ R & Q X, R X X 8Q RQ R &
Q X ,R X8 R RQ R & Q X R + ( P ∧Q "
( R R −R Q P − QQ − Q − P − QQ Q Q P QQ
Q −Q − Q Q Q − Q ( ( X P X X Q .
Z/ Z X , P QQ R & Q X, R X X Q RQ R &
Q X ,R + ( P ∧Q R X X

+
% K / - K X / X ≃ K. :" X ' D
D
ZX ( " X ' D D ! ZX " '

. - RX/ X ≃ C. RX( " X ' D D

" K X −→ K, P −→ P .
f & 3
" , H I/J + (
" ( KX/X ≃K K ( X
/
4 ( Z X / X ≃ Z( " ) X Z (
X " Z " X
X " ( ZX " (

. " R X −→ C, P −→ P i f & f
" f ,X . ( X ⊂ f
X ∈ f. " ( " &
ere
- % P ∈ f( P i P ∈ R X ( P −i " )(
C ( X − i X i /P CX( ( P X Q & Q ∈ CX.
n n−
P ak X k & an / )P & ( Q bk X k
k k
n−
3 ( & 3 Q bk X k ∈ R X P ∈ X .
k
eme
- % P ∈ f ! & ( X
# P X Q R & Q, R ∈ R X degR < " )R aX b & a, b ∈ R.
" ( f P P i ai b " ) a b (R P ∈ X .
,/

! " ( RX/ X ≃C " ) X


C X ( X

+( % A P X ∈AX - S X P X c(
) c ∈ A( # AX ( P X # AX
+ % P X X X X X ∈ZX .- P #
QX

S X S X ∈ / U AX U A,P X P X ∈/ U AX U A.
% Q X ∈ A X Q X /P X ∃T X ∈ A X P X QX T X " )S X
P X c QX cT X c Q X c ∈U A T X c ∈U A
Q X ∈U A T X ∈U A
+ % S X P X ( S X X X X X ∈ZX
! p ( p/a ( p/a , p/a ( p/a ( p ∤ a p ∤
a 1 Z S ( ( " "! (S X
# ZX " (P X # ZX
+ ( " (P X # QX .

+
* G # (. 26 B Z/ Z.
* G & * G # Z/ Z X
X X .
# X X X .

$ * G # Z/ Z X P aX bX c ∈ Z/ Z X
" )a ( (P X bX c Z/ Z (
P # ( (P " Z/ Z( (c b c (
( c b * G # Z/ Z X
* G P X X .
$ * G # . Z/ Z X P aX bX cX d ∈
Z/ Z X . " )a ( (P X bX cX d P .
Z/ Z (P # ( (P " Z/ Z( (
d b c d ( (d b c * G #
. Z/ Z X * G P X X P X X
$ * G # 2 Z/ Z X P aX bX cX dX e ∈
Z/ Z X 2( a ( (P X bX cX dX e Z/ Z
P 2( P # ( ( ∃Q ∈ Z/ Z X
. Q/P (P Z/ Z P * G
# + (P # ( (e b c d
P X X X X / " ( * G #
Z/ Z X * G X X * G 2
# Z/ Z X X X (X X X X X X .
X X X X X X X X X
,-

+, - "!
* G & #
X − X X− ∈ZX.
X X X ∈QX
. X Y ∈ C X, Y
2 X Y Y XY X Y Y X ∈ Q X, Y .

p "!
P Q( ) Q X X ∈QX
X L
QX( B & 3 Q #QX
Q∈ZX Q ! I
L( # ϕ Q X X ∈ Z/ Z X
1 ϕQ X X " Z/ Z ( ϕ Q #
Z/ Z X Q # ZX + (Q # QX
# QX
. X Y Y X X Y * G
6 Y 6 B " A CX. p X
"! * G P Y X Y Y X
2 X Y Y XY X Y Y X Y X Y X
Y Y Y X Y Y XY X Y Y X P X
* G 6 X 6 B " A QY .
: * G P X ! ( D cP X D/ Y +
Y # +( & # D∼ Y %
D∼ Y ( Y /Y ( D
p Y p * G P X ( #
ϕP X X ∈AX / Y Q X, Y / Y ≃ Q X . ϕP #
QX X X " Q, P # AX Q X, Y .

+$
% K / ( a b K L
&
:" X −a KX.
# :" Y −b K X, Y
:" X − a, Y − b K X, Y .
: X X − " Q X, Y ' D D

" " f K X −→ K, P X −→ P a f
, f X −a + ( K X / X −a ≃ K " ) X −a

# A KX " " f A Y −→ A,
P Y −→ P b f , f Y −b + ( A/ Y − b ≃ A " ) Y − b
A Y −b " A "
" " f K X, Y −→ K, P X, Y −→ P a, b
f , - kerf X − a, Y − b X − a, Y − b ⊂ f(
,.

B & 3 f ⊂ X − a, Y − b P X, Y ∈ f ! A KX(
P X, Y Q Y ∈AY & QY Y −b( #
QY Y −b S Y R Y & S Y ,R Y ∈ A Y Y R Y < ( R Y ∈ A(
RY T X ∈A KX * G 6 X 6 B
K
+ ( P a, b T a " )R X −a U X ( & U X ∈ K X ( P X, Y
Y −b S Y X − a U X ∈ X − a, Y − b .
" " f Q X, Y −→ C Y , P X, Y −→ P i, Y
f X ! ( ( X ⊂ f, B & 3 f ⊂
X .
% P ∈ f( P X, Y QX * G 6
J 6 B A QY & P X (
# P X Q R & Q, R ∈ A X XR < " ) R aX b &
a, b ∈ A Q Y . " ( f P P i ai b " ) a b (R
P ∈ X .
n
+ ( ! f Qi Y ! ( P X, Y ajk X j Y k ∈ Q X, Y ( f P
j k
n n
j k j
ajk i Y ajk i ∈ Q i ( f P ∈ Q i Y 0 & ( P Y αk Y k ∈
j k k
n n n
Qi Y ( ( αk ak ibk ( ) ak , bk ∈ Q. " )P Y ak Y k ibk Y k f ak Y k
k k k
n
bk XY k ∈ ! f.
k
+ ( Q X, Y / X ≃ Qi Y " ) X Qi Y
X " Qi Y "
:" X − " X− X ∈ X − X− ∈
/ X −
X ∈
/ X −
X − " # Q X, Y ( X −
" Q X, Y .

+ - " " ϕ C X, Y −→ C X , P X, Y −→
P X, X .
- ϕ Y −X .
! " C X, Y / Y − X

Y −X ⊂ ϕ " ( P X, Y ∈ ϕ !
P X, Y Q Y ∈AY * G 6 Y 6 B A(
)A CX( & Q Y −X ( # P X, Y
QY Y −X S Y R Y ( & S Y ,R Y ∈ A Y Y R < ( R T X ∈ A.
1 ϕP (ϕR R P X, Y Y −X S Y
ϕ " , kerϕ Y −X (
C X, Y / Y − X ≃ C X C X, Y / Y − X

+ 9 * G &
,6

X Y Z − XY − XZ − Y Z C X, Y
X Y Z − XY Z Z X, Y, Z .

Q ∈ C X, Y, Z Q Q/P X Y Z − XY − XZ − Y Z
+ ∃S ∈ C X, Y, Z P QS P C ( Q S
1 degP degQ ( degS Q aX bY cZ
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
S a X b Y c Z( & a, b, c, a , b , c ∈ C. + ( P QS( aa , bb , cc′
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
, ab ba − , ac a c − , bc b c − % a a ,b b − b j
i π ′ ′
j e " )b j c c − jc j c − ( c j
c′ j. P X jY j Z X j Y jZ Q S
C (Q S #
X Y Z − XY Z X Y Z X Y Z − XY − XZ − Y Z
√ √
+ " A Zi {a ib / a, b ∈ Z}
U A
K " A.
. - * G X −X # AX .
2 * G X −X ' # KX #
> 1

U A {− , }. √
& 3 Fr A Qi .
. P X X −X P X P X ∈ / U AX U A {− , }.
% Q X ∈ AX Q X /P X ( ∃S X ∈ A X P X Q X .S X " )
degQ X degS X degQ X ∈ { , , }.
( QX ! ( degQ X ( (QX aX b( ) a ∈ A − { }, b ∈ A(
′ ′ ′ ′
S X a X b ( & a ∈ A − { }, b ∈ A a∈U A {− , } P X
QX S X P X (P X +(
% degQ X ( QX a∈A S X a′ X b′ X c′ aa′ ( (
Q X ∈U AX . ) degQ X ( S X a∈A Q X a X b′ X c′

aa′ ( (S X ∈U AX .
2 : * G X −X " # √
KX X√
−X
i −i
K / X −X −j −j −j, −j ∈ K .
> * G # +MJN ( "
# KMJN( ) K F r A ( A "

+ % P X − X X ∈QX .
- QX / P
, s Q X −→ Q X / P y sX
X y & # " & y QX / P .

: * G P # ZX ! ( P (
8 p "!
4#

Z ( Q Fr Z P * G #
ZX ( P # QX " P
QX QX + ( QX / P .
X ∈/ P X P Q( ) Q ∈ Q X ( I.O L( + (
y sX X y & # QX/ P .
P # LMJN X ( X '
" LMJN + ( ∃U X , V X ∈ Q X X U X
P X V X ! " "! ( & 3 U X X − X
V X −X ( X U X P X V X .! (

# yU X y X − X

+ ! % K / P X, Y, Z
*G K X, Y, Z & 3 P X, Y, Z −P −X, Y, Z
- " * G Q X, Y, Z K X, Y, Z P X, Y, Z
XQ X , Y, Z /0 P X, Y, Z * G X 6 B
" K Y, Z

n
P X, Y, Z S X ak Y, Z X k ( & ak Y, Z ∈ K Y, Z ,
k
* G 6 X 6 B A K Y, Z + S −X
n n
k
− ak Y, Z X k − ak Y, Z X k ( G
k k
k( # ak Y, Z −ak Y, Z ak Y, Z car K " ) S X
m
a Y, Z X a Y, Z X ... a m Y, Z X / m n m n−
+ ( P X, Y, Z S X X a Y, Z a Y, Z X ... a m Y, Z X m
XQ X , Y, Z , & Q X, Y, Z a Y, Z a Y, Z X ... a m Y, Z X m .

+ % P X Y X Z Y X Y Z Z X Z Y ∈ C X, Y, Z .
? 3 P * G *
! P X, Y, Z Q σ , σ , σ ( ) Q X, Y, Z ∈ C X, Y, Z σ ,σ ,σ
* G *
+ % α, β γ C " x x− 1
P α, β, γ .

P Y, X, Z P Z, Y, X P X, Y, Z P *
P X, Y, Z XY X Y Z XZ X Y Z Y Z X Y Z − XY Z
XY XZ Y Z X Y Z − XY Z σ .σ − σ Q σ , σ , σ ( ) Q X, Y, Z XY − Z.
+ X X− X−α X−β X−γ X − σ α, β, γ X
σ α, β, γ X − σ α, β, γ + ( σ α, β, γ , σ α, β, γ σ α, β, γ . "
( P α, β, γ σ α, β, γ .σ α, β, γ − σ α, β, γ " ) P α, β, γ . − . − .
(

) *

(+ ' 4 . --(5 -- 2
(+ G * " H G * (
G G/H *
% G <a> * " n H ' G
H G
# - H *
- G/H *
1
- S * S " * /0
S * ( H < c >( ) c .' * S
. % G * ( H G * (
G G/H * % K ' G
- H ∩K ' * K
# - K/H ∩ K * /0 " '
#
1
√ √
(+ A " A Zi {a ib /a, b ∈ Z}.
U A Fr A √ √
- √( i √ −i # A
. ! i −i ( A "

(+
% A B (f A −→ B
" , ; f−
A
% I A
- f I B
# % f A/I −→ B/f I ( a a I −→ f a f a f I
- f # 3 f
" ,
- f ⊂ I( f

% B J f .

4"
4, !

J A
# - f ⊂J f J .
- J f− A /0 #
" ZX * G 6 6 B Z.

U ZX U Z/ Z X .
# - QX X X ∈ Z/ Z X * G #
Z/ Z X .
- * G P X X X X #
QX
: * G P X ' # ZX D
" " , ϕ ZX −→ Z/ Z X ,
n n
ai X i −→ ai X i ( ) ai ai
i i
- ϕ .Z X
# " Q Q. Z/ Z X Z/ Z X
- ϕ− .Z X P.Z X / ϕ− ⊂ .Z X P.Z X (
Q ϕP ϕ ,
! .Z X P.Z X ZX /0 0

G * (G # H ⊳ G.
# % H {e}( H <e> * H '
G {e} " ) m am ∈ H
< am >⊂ H " ( x ∈ H( ∃s ∈ Z x as H⊂G <a> !
& s m( ∃ q, r ∈ Z s qm r & ≤r<m
ar a s−qm s m −q
a a ∈H r m
m s m q
a ∈H & x a a ∈< am > + ( H
3 ( H *
G/H < a > ! ( < a > ⊂ G/H( B & 3 G/H ⊂
< a > % x ∈ G/H( x ∈ G G < a >( ∃m ∈ Z x am " )
|G|
x am am ∈ < a > 1 G 3 (H 3 |G/H| |H| 3
= * *
% c .' * S H <c> ' * S c
H ⊳S S H 1 S /H " ( S /H
* + ( S * 1 ( S " # ( S
" *
.
H ∩K ' @ H ∩K ⊂ K " ) H ∩K '
K
? 3 H ∩ K ⊳ K ∀k ∈ K, ∀x ∈ H ∩ K( kxk − ∈ H x ∈ H( k ∈ K ⊂ G
H⊳G kxk − x ∈ K( k ∈ K K ' G " )

kxk ∈ H ∩ K.
" # $$ % $$&' 44

7 H ⊳G K ' G(
eme
( " " ( H ∩ K ⊳ K.
" ( H∩K ' H H * ( ( "
# ( H∩K *
eme
# ( " " ( K/H ∩ K ≃ HK/H 1 HK/H
' G/H G/H * , ( " # ( HK/H *
K/H ∩ K *
K * ' " * *
√ √ √
U A {− , } F r A {α iβ /α, β ∈ Q}√ Q i Qi . √
$ & # % x a ib ∈ A x/ " ) ∃y c id ∈
A xy |xy| |x| |y| a b c d a b c d ∈ N(
a b ∈ { , , }. ( ∀a, b ∈ Z, a √ b " )a b ∈{ , }
% a b √ ( x a ib ± ∈U A a b ( c d
" ) y c √ id ± ∈U A + # √A √
$ √± i √ & # % x a ib ∈ A x/ ± i " ) ∃y
c id ∈ A ±i xy |xy| |x| |y| a b c d a b
c d ∈ N( a b ∈ { , , , }. ( ∀a, b ∈ Z, a b a b (
c d ( √ # c, d ∈ Z. " ) a b ∈ { , }
% a b √( x a ib ± ∈√U A a b ( c d
" ) y c id ± ∈U √ A + √ ± i # A
. i −i
P #
√ √( . # 1 (
i −i ( " # + (A "
√ √
7 $ & 3 " 6 i 6 −i .
$ + ( √ √ # √ " √ √B
& 3 √ / i −i ∤ i ∤ −i / i
/ −i ( ∈U A (

.2 #
#
∀a a I ∈ A/I, f a ∈ B f a f a f I ∈ B/f I . %
a b( a−b ∈ I " ) f a−b f a −f b ∈ f I ( (f a f b B/f I
f a f b.
- f " ∀a, b ∈ A/I, f a b f a b
f a b f a f b f a f b f a f b 4 ( f a.b f a .f b
f A f A B.
f , ! ( ∀d ∈ B/f I ( d ∈ B " ) ∃c ∈ A f c d f , .
+ (d f c f c & c ∈ A/I.
% a∈ f " )f a f a f I f a ∈f I ( ( ∃x ∈ I f a
f x " ) f a−x f a −f x a−x ∈ f ⊂I a∈I a − x ∈ I(
x∈I I A + (a A/I f ⊂ { }. 1 { }⊂ f(
kerf { } f ,
4$ !

f " ;( f −
+
# % x∈ f f x ∈ x ∈ f− J. " ) f ⊂ J.
f J f , &
" # ( A/J ≃ B/f J ( A/f − ≃ B/ B/

( A/f f− A

Z (U ZX U Z U ZX {− , }
+ ( Z/ Z ( U Z/ Z X Z/ Z ∗ { }
# QX X X ∈ Z/ Z X . Z/ Z ( B
& 3 QX " Z/ Z Q$ (Q$ QX
# Z/ Z X
P X X X X S X & S X X X X ∈QX
1 % QX( B & 3 S X #
QX ! (S X ∈ZX Z ! p (
p Z( p ∤ p S X X X
QX ∈ Z/ Z X + ( QX # Z/ Z X ( S X
# ZX
! Z ( Q Fr Z S X #
ZX ( S X # QX
P X " ,P X " # ZX

.Z X ⊂ ϕ( B & 3 ϕ ⊂ .Z X % U X
n n
ai X i ∈ ϕ( " ) ϕ U X ai X i ( ai ∀i( " ) ai bi ( & bi ∈ Z
i i
n n
i
+ U X ai X . bi X i ∈ .Z X
i i
# :" Z/ Z X Z/ Z Q #
Z/ Z X ( " QX .
- .Z X P.Z X ⊂ ϕ− U X ,V X ∈ Z X + (
ϕ .U X P.V X Q X .ϕ V X ∈ Q X .U X P.V X ∈
ϕ− " ( U X ∈ ϕ− ( " ) ϕU X ∈ QX ( (
′ ′
ϕU X Q X .V X ( ) V X ∈ Z/ Z X 1 V X ϕV X ( ) V X ∈
ZX, ϕ , ϕP X QX ( ϕU X ϕ P X .ϕ V ′ X
ϕ P X .V ′ X " ) ϕ U X −P X .V X ( ( U X −P X .V X ∈ ϕ .Z X
+ U X .Z X P.Z X
ϕ " ,
Z/ Z X ( ( " 0 ( .Z X P.Z X ϕ−
ZX

(+ 0 . --(5 -- 2
(+! % p∈N # a∈Z p & a
- Z/pZ { , a, a..., p − a}. /0 & 3 i, j ∈ { , , ..., p − }
i j( ia ja
# $$ % $$&' 45

! p − ap− ≡ p − p.
. - ap− ≡ p.
2 + - a ≥ , a −a & # . . .
/0 . a −a a a − ... .

(+ % G 3 " n > " e


N {t ∈ N∗ ∀x ∈ G, xt e}
- N " &
m %&' N
- G Z/ Z × Z/ Z m<n m S
. - t ∈ N( m & t " m & n
2 - m ppcm o x /x ∈ G .
> G ( m rs & r > ( s > r∧s
r s
H {x ∈ G x e}, K {x ∈ G x e}.
- H K ' G
# - H ∩ K {e}( HK G " G 6 H ×K
- H {e}( K {e}
√ √
(+( " A Zi p {a ib p/a, b ∈ Z}( ) p ∈ N
√ √
# ( " f A Z i p → Z/ p Z( a ib p −→ a pb
- f " ,
√ √ √
- p ∈ i p( ) i p " A i p

# ! f i p
. √ √
p :" i A ' D i '
D
√ √
# p :" i p A ' D i p ' D

(+
% A B ' A - I
A I ∩B B I ∩B B
" ZX * G 6 6 B Z
" QX * G 6 6 B Q

- * G P X X X X ∈ZX #
ZX
# ! * G QX X X X ∈QX #
QX
. % I P X .Q X " QX P X I P X .Q X
QX
2 % J I ∩ZX - J Z X /0

% i, j ∈ { , , ..., p − } ia ja( p/a i − j p∧a (


p/i − j ≤ |i − j| ≤ p − ( i−j ( (i j + card{ , a, a..., p − a} p.
4/ !

{ , a, a..., p − a} ⊂ Z/pZ card Z/pZ { , a, a..., p − a} p(


Z/pZ { , a, a..., p − a}.
" ( Z/pZ ∗ { , ..., p − } {a, a..., p − a} " ) .....p −
p−
a. a..., . p − a( ( p− ≡ p− a p.
p−
. " ( p/ p − a − p ∤ p− ( p/ ap− − ( ( ap− ≡
p.
2 ! p ( ( " . ( /a − /a − a a a − . 4 (
/a − a a − a/a − a a − a a −a a a ( /a − a + ( /a − a
a − a/a − a a − a a −a a a a a a ( /a − a +
. . /a − a

N " & n ∈ N.
m≤n n∈N m %&' N
$ G Z/ Z × Z/ Z( n " ( G {e} ∀ x, y ∈
G, . x, y , (m
$ S( n . " ( σ∈S ( σm e + ( σ τ( )
τ S( # /m ◦τ . 4 ( σ c( ) c
.' * S( # /m ◦c + ( /m m≤n (m
. ! & ( # q, r ∈ N t mq r &
r < m. + ( ∀x ∈ G, e xt xm q .xr xm e( xr e ∀x ∈ G ?
m %&' N r < m( r n ∈ N( m/n.
2 l ppcm o x /x ∈ G + ∀x ∈ G, o x /l " ) xl e l ∈N
m
( " . ( m/l " ( ∀x ∈ G, x e " ) ∀x ∈ G, o x /m l/m
>
- H ' G H ⊂ G, H ∅ e ∈ H( ∀x, y ∈ H,
− r r −r − r
xy xy @ # xy e.e e " ) xy − ∈ H 4 (
& 3 K ' G
# % x ∈ H ∩ K( xr e xs e " ) ◦ x /r ◦ x /s ◦x
r∧s .
HK G ! ( HK ⊂ G( B & 3 G ⊂ HK
( r∧s ( ∃u, v ∈ Z ur vs + ( ∀g ∈ G, g g vs ur g vs g ur (
vs r mv ur s mu vs ur
g g e g g e( (g ∈H g ∈ K.
+ ( f H × K −→ G, h, k −→ hk( & 3 f

H {e} + G K ∀x ∈ G, xs e " ) m/s


s/m( s m( r> 4 ( K {e}
√ √ √
% a ib p, y
x c id p ∈ Z i p ( f x y f a c ib

d p a pb dc a pb c pd f x f y .+ ( f x.y f ac − bdp

i ad bc p ac − bdp p ad bc ac bdp p ad bc p ≡ −p p
f x.y a bp c pd f x .f y . f f
& , & .
√ √ √
p i p −i p " ) p ∈ i p.
√ √ √
# 0 & i p ⊂ f - f⊂ i p % x a ib p ∈
" # $$&% $$(' 4-


f( f x a bp " ) a bp k p ( ) k ∈ Z. x a ib p
√ √ √
k p − bp − b b ib p k p −b p b i p k −b p b i p ∈
√ √
i p p ∈ i p
.
er √
! " p √( # Zi p/
√ √
i ≃ Z/ Z( √" ) i i
" i
er √ √
# ! " ( # Zi p/ i p ≃ Z/ p Z.
1 p p (p " p p " )
√ √ √
Zi p/ i p " " i p "

" i p "
!
" ( I∩B ; - I∩B %
a, b ∈ B ab ∈ I ∩ B( ab ∈ I I (a∈I b∈I a ∈ I ∩B
b ∈ I ∩ B. 1 I ∩ B B( I ∩B B

0 B " "! p
# P X # ZX ( P X # QX
QX X X X .P X # QX Q∼P
QX
. P X # ZX ( P X # QX
QX ( " I P X P X .Q X QX
I
2 B ZX ' " A QX.& 0
A QX / . ( ( " ( I ∩B J I ∩ZX
B ZX.

(+ ' 4 . -- 5 --,2
(+,
% A ( a, b ∈ A − { } * m -
m a ∩ b √ √
A Zi {a ib / a, b ∈ Z}√
- √ i A
# - A i
A ' D
√ √
(+$ " A Zi {a ib / a, b ∈ Z}
√ √
? 3 F r√A Qi {a ib / a, b ∈ Q}
% x a ib ∈A N x a b
A
# - N x√ Z( x # A
! i A
. % P X X X ∈AX
- P X # AX √
# ! P X # Qi X.
4. !

(+ -
% n ≥ , m , ..., mn ∈ N∗ ( m ppcm m , ..., mn
m pα ...pαr r ( α ≥ , ..., αr ≥ "# (
m # - i(
αi
mj pi /mj / ppcm m , ..., mn ppcm ppcm m , , ..., mn− , mn (
n
% G # 3 " n≥ " e
m
% a∈G " m - d/m( ◦ ad d.
# % a, b ∈ G " & m m - m ∧m (
< a > ∩ < b > {e} " ◦ ab mm
m ppcm ◦ x , x ∈ G m pα ...pαr l ( α ≥ , ..., αr ≥ (
"# m
- i ∈ { , ..., r}( ai ∈ G pαi i / ◦ ai /
0
# ! i ∈ { , ..., r}( bi ∈ G ◦ bi pαi i . /
00
bb . . . br . - ◦b pα ...pαr l m/
r 00 # " m/n
. + % K / 3 * q ( & q≥
b K∗ ◦b m ppcm ◦ x /x ∈ K ∗
m≤q− .
# - a ∈ K ∗, a * G Xm − ∈ K X
! m q− K∗ *

$
a/m b/m( m ∈ a ∩ b m ⊂ a ∩ b " (
x∈ a ∩ b ( a/x b/x( " ) m/x x∈ m .
√ √ √
√ / √ / i " ( x a ib x/ x/ i ( " )
∃y c id ∈Zi xy( a b c d a b ∈ { , , }.
a b , ∀a, b ∈ Z +√ ( a b ( c d ( ( y ±
x ± 8 (± ∤ i + (a √ b ( (x ± √
# % A i ( ( ∈ i ( " ) a
√ √ √ a c− d
ib i c id ( a b c−d (
b d c
# a, b, c, d ∈ Z √ √
i A A i (
A "
% √ √
a ib√
% x ∈ Fr A ( x c id √
( & a, b, c, d ∈ Z c id i.e.( c, d
√ a ib c−id

ac bd
√ √
, + c − id x i cbc−ad α iβ ( &
c d c d √ d
α cac dbd ∈ Q β cbc−ad d
∈ Q. " ( x a ib ( & a, b ∈ Q " ) a dc
√ √
b rs ( ) c, r ∈ Z d, s ∈ Z∗ + x cs ds ird
∈ Fr A cs ird ∈ A ds ∈ A∗ .
" # $$&% $$(' 46

√ √
% x a ib ∈ A + ( ∃y c id ∈ A xy ( " )a b
x ± .1 ± ∈ A( A {− , }
# % x ∈ A N x # + x x ∈ / A % y ∈
A y/x( ∃z ∈ A x yz " ) N x N yz N y N z N yz yz.yz yyzz
N y N z N x # N y /N x N( N y
N y N x ( N y (y∈ A N y N x(N z ( " )z∈ A
(x y +√ ( x # A
x i N x # (x #
A 1 A (x A
. √
A P √ √ p i " (
p √ A p/ √ i − i ( p/ .
√ ( p ∤ + p ∤ (
p/ − i ( −i √ # N −i #
p " & # 6 −i
+ ( "! (P X # AX
# + √( P ( # AX( P #
Fr A X Qi X
&
β β
n m p ...pr r ( m pλ ...pλr r / ≤ β i , λi ∀j , ..., r( αj
αi
β j , λj % i ∈ { , ..., r}( αi β i , λi ( pi /m / αi β i pαi i /m
αi λi
% " & n−
n % i ∈ { , ..., r} ppcm m , ..., mn ppcm ppcm m , , ..., mn− , mn
" n ( pαi i /mn pαi i /m′ ppcm m , , ..., mn−
*
% pαi i /m′ ppcm m , , ..., mn− ( m′ ppcm m , , ..., mn− pi i .q υ ...qsυs '

m # ( & αi ≤ @i " " *
*
( ∃mj ∈ {m , , ..., mn− } pi i /mj ∃mj ∈ {m , , ..., mn− }
pαi i /mj αi ≤ @i

m m m ms
◦ ad s. a d d am e " ) s/d " ( ad s
a d e(
m/ ms
d
d/s
# % x ∈< a > ∩ < b >( ◦ x /m ◦ x /m ◦x m ∧m
m m m m m m
◦ ab t ab a .b G # " ) ab m m
e.e e t/m m " ( ab t e G # ( at b−t ∈< a >
∩ < b > {e}( m /t m /t m m /t m ∧m

m ppcm ◦ x , x ∈ G > n ≥ . % m pα ...pαr r ( α ≥ , ..., αr ≥


"# ( m #
G 3 " n≥ ( " # {◦ x / x ∈ G} 3 ≥ + (
" 0( i ∈ { , ..., r}( ai ∈ G pαi i / ◦ ai
mi

pαi i
di
# ◦ ai m i ( di 1 di /mi ( ( " 00 ( ◦ bi ai
di pαi i
r ◦b pα ◦b pα 1 p p ( pα ∧ pα
" 00 # ( ◦ b .b p .pα
α
$# !

% " & r− " & r c b ...br−


α α
+ ( " " * (◦c p ...pr−r− ∀i , ..., r − ( pi pr (
r−
∀i , ..., r − , pαi i ∧ pαr r ( " ) pαi i ∧ pαr r ( ( ◦ c ∧ br ( "
i
r−
00 #(◦b o cbr o c .o br pαi i .pαr r m.
i
◦ b /|G|.
m/n
. + " 00 K ∗, . # 3 " q− ≥
∗ ∗
( b K ◦b m ppcm ◦ x /x ∈ K

◦b m/|K | q − ( " ) m ≤ q −
# % a ∈ K∗ + ◦ a /m ppcm ◦ x /x ∈ K ∗ am
: * G Xm − ∈ K X m K "
m
( " .#(X − q− ( q− ≤m m q− .
1 b K∗ " m q− |K ∗ |( K ∗ < b >

(+! 0 . -- 5 --,2
(+ % G # 3 " n( & ( a
G H ' G a ∈/ H. " #
∗ t
N {t ∈ N / a ∈ H}
- N m inf N
- s ∈ N( m/s
. - " a( G/H( 6m
2 " # K {x ∈ G/ ∃j ∈ Z, ∃h ∈ H x aj h} < a > .H
- K ' G( / "
H a
# ? 3 K/H < a > .
! |K| m|H|
> + G Z/ Z( H Z/ Z a ∈G

H ' G & 3 |H| .


? 3 a∈/H m
# ! K Z/ Z.

(+ % P X X X− ∈QX QX X X− ∈ZX .
- QX # ZX " P X #
QX

! K QX/ P X
# α X∈K α & # K &

(+
% k ∈ Z, k N {s ∈ N∗ / s
& k}
- N u N.
u
! k t( ) t
# $$&% $$(' $"

" # A { ab ∈ Q/ a ∈ Z( b ∈ N∗ b }.

? 3 A
# ? 3 A { ab ∈ A /a ∈ Z, b ∈ N∗ ( a b }. A ' D

- # A
u
# u> ( " # A
a
% x b
# A /a ∈ Z( b ∈ N∗ b
k ∈ Z∗ x . kb .
- x∼ A / k 0 00
#
a
. ϕ A −→ Z/ Z( b
−→ a
? 3 ϕ # 3 ϕ
" ,
# - A/ ≃ Z/ Z

N ∅( n ∈ N( N ⊂ N( N "
m inf N
& s m( ∃ q, r ∈ N s mq r( &
m q r s r s m
≤r<m " )a a .a a ∈H a ∈H a ∈H ? m
> am ∈ H ≤ r < m( r
. am ∈ H( " ) am e ◦ a /m. " ( a◦ a e( " ) a◦ a ∈ H
m/ ◦ a + ◦a m
2
0 & K ' G( a ∈ K( H ⊂ K. % K ′
' G a H ∀j ∈ Z, aj ∈ K ′ ( H ⊂ K ′ ( aj h ∈ K ′ ( ∀j ∈ Z,

∀h ∈ H( (K⊂K.
# % aj h ∈ K( aj h aj .h aj ∈< a > h∈H " ( aj ∈< a >(
aj aj .e ∈ K/H aj .e ∈ K.
K ' 3 G K/H ' G/H( " ) |K/H|
|K|
|H|
◦a m |K| m|H|.
> +

Z Z / ( Z ⊂ Z(
' Z/ Z
Z/ Z Z/ Z Z/ Z
1 Z/ Z / Z/ Z ≃ Z/ Z( |H| .
/ Z/ Z (
∈ k( / − k / − k / (

. ∈/ Z/ Z 1 ( . . ∈ H( m
# |K| m|H| . K ' Z/ Z( K
tZ/ Z( & t/ " ( " . " ( Z/ Z / tZ/ Z ≃
|G|
Z/tZ( |K|
t t ( (K Z/ Z.
$, !

Z (QX (p
Z p ∤ ! p ( ϕ Q X X− ∈
Z/ Z X * G .( ϕ Q " Z/ Z ϕ Q
,ϕ Q ,ϕ Q ,ϕ Q ,ϕ Q ( " )ϕ Q #
Z/ZZ X QX # ZX
1 Z ( Q Fr Z QX * G ( #
ZX( QX # QX
" ( QX P X ( P X QX QX
P X # QX

1 Q P X # QX( P X
" QX K QX / P X
# α X K P X ∤ X QX α & # K
α− ( B P X X X− K

α X

|k|
N ⊂ N( N ∅ ∈ N( N , ∀s ∈ N, s ≤ N
u supN
u u
u ∈ N( k .t( ) t ∈ Z + ( t ( /k(
u supN

0 B 3 A & ' Q
a
# % ∈ A ( ) a ∈ Z, b ∈ N
b

b ( ∃ dc ∈ A ( ) c ∈ Z, d ∈ N∗
a c a
d .
b d
( " ) ac bd a " ( b
∈ A
a b a
, a ∈ Z, b ∈ N∗ a, b ( .
b |a|
± A { b ∈ A /a ∈ Z, b ∈ N∗ ( a
b }. A A −{ } / ∈
/ A (A "

a a

/ A % b
∈ A ( ) a ∈ Z, b ∈ N∗ ( b ( b
/ ∃ dc ∈ A (
(
a c
) c ∈ Z, d ∈ N∗ d .
b d
( " ) bd ac /a /c % /a(
c a
bd kc a k ( bd kc " ) c d
∈ A ( b

a
4 ( /c( a b
∈ A + ( # A
u u
# % u > ( " # A / " & #
u u−
6 ∈
/ A u− ≥

a
% x b
A ( ) a ∈ Z( b ∈ N∗ b
# ( a∈ Z
a x & # ( " ) ∃k ∈ Z∗ x . kb
u
" k ( ( " 0 ( k .t( ) u ≥ (
u t u t
t∈Z x .b x∼ b
∈ A ( " 00 #( u
k
" # ( + k x∼ b
∈ A .
a c ∗
. ϕ # 3 ! ( b d
∈ A ( ) a, c ∈ Z, b, d ∈ N b, d
ad bc( " ) a.d b.c Z/ Z( a c/ b d
a c
% , ∈ A /a, c ∈ Z, b, d ∈ N
b d

b, d ϕ ab dc ϕ adbdbc ad bc
a c b d , " ) ϕ ab dc ϕ ab ϕ dc ϕ ab . dc ϕ ab .ϕ dc ϕ (
# $$&% $$(' $4

ϕ "
ϕ , ∀a ∈ Z/ Z, ∃x a ∈ A ϕ x a.
a
# - kerϕ . ∈ kerϕ( " ) ⊂ ϕ " ( b
ϕ(
a
& a ∈ Z, b ∈ N∗ b ( a ∈ Z( " ) ∃k ∈ Z b . kb ( a
b
∈ .
er
" " ( A/ ≃ Z/ Z.