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1.

INTRODUCTION
In this project, we use OPNET to design a Multimedia Wireless Network
where a number of voice, data and video users transmit information that is
received by a wireless receiver. The assumed area is around 1 km X 1 km in a
campus where the users are randomly distributed. Another important feature
of this project is that instead of assuming usual Poission distributed traffic
patterns, we use realistic traffic models. Further, we plan to devise an efficient
connection admission control algorithm to control and prioritize the traffic.

2. TRAFFIC MODELS
The following models for voice, data and video are used in our simulations:

2.1 Voice Traffic Generator


Voice is modeled as a two-state Markov chain and is intermittent with a
certain duty factor δ, in which conversational speech is characterized by
periods of activity (called talkspurts) and periods of silence (listening to peer).
The talkspurt and silence periods are independent and exponentially
distributed with means of 1 / δ = 1.0 s and 1 / γ = 1.35 s for a voice activity factor
of δ = 1 /(1 + 1.35) = 0.425 or 42.5% [1]. When a voice user is silent, its terminal
transmits a reduced-power signal in order to maintain synchronization. The
OPNET realization of Voice Traffic Generator is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Voice Traffic Generator

2.2 Data Traffic Generator


Based on the study conducted in Reference [2], we assume an ON/OFF
behavior for the data traffic source in which the arrival of new users is a
Poisson process, each file transmission time is Pareto distributed with mean 1
kilobyte, and the thinking time between file transmissions is Lognormal. The
number of files transferred per session follows an empirical distribution
(tcplib), details of which can be found in Reference [9]. OPNET realization of
this traffic generator is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Data Traffic Generator

2.3 Video Traffic Generator


To generate video traffic we used a VBR video sequence obtained from a
video conference encoded in H.263. These traces correspond to traffic
generated at the application level. Our traffic generator reads the frames and
breaks them into various packets before transmission.

Figure 3: Video Traffic Generator


3 SIMULATIONS
Next we present a preliminary simulation scenario that we are developing in
OPNET. Some of the initial results obtained are also presented in this section.
However, since the project is at an early stage, we have not been able to come
up with concrete and meaningful results yet.

We began with three transmitters (one voice, one data and one video) and one
receiver as shown in the following figure.

Figure 4: First scenario

Simulations were performed and we gathered various parameters of the


network. Some of the graphs obtained are:

505
Throughput (packets/sec)

500
495
490
485
480
475
470
465
0
1.8
3.6
5.4
7.2
9
10.8
12.6
14.4
16.2
18
19.8
21.6
23.4
25.2
27
28.8

Time (seconds)
30

Queueing Delay 25

20

15

10

0
0
1.8
3.6
5.4
7.2
9
10.8
12.6
14.4
16.2
18
19.8
21.6
23.4
25.2
27
28.8
Time (seconds)

16000
Queue Size (incoming packets)

14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
0
1.8
3.6
5.4
7.2
9
10.8
12.6
14.4
16.2
18
19.8
21.6
23.4
25.2
27
28.8

Time (seconds)

In the second scenario, we doubled the number of users as shown in the


following figure.
Figure 5: Second scenario

The simulations were performed again and the results are as follows:

1010
Throughput (packets/sec)

1000
990
980
970
960
950
940
930
0
1.8
3.6
5.4
7.2
9
10.8
12.6
14.4
16.2
18
19.8
21.6
23.4
25.2
27
28.8

Time (seconds)
35

30

Queueing Delay 25

20

15

10

0
0
1.8
3.6
5.4
7.2
9
10.8
12.6
14.4
16.2
18
19.8
21.6
23.4
25.2
27
28.8
Time (seconds)

35000

30000

25000
Queue Size

20000

15000

10000

5000

0
0
1.8
3.6
5.4
7.2
9
10.8
12.6
14.4
16.2
18
19.8
21.6
23.4
25.2
27
28.8
Time (seconds)

REFERENCES

[1] Kaushik Das and Salvatore D. Morgera. Interference and SIR in integrated
voice/data wireless DS-CDMA networks – a simulation study. IEEE J. Select. Areas
Commun., 15(8):1527–1537, 1997.

[2] Ver Paxson and Sally Floyd. Wide area traffic: the failure of Poisson modeling.
IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, 3(3):226–244, 1995.

[3] P. Danzig and S. Jamin. Tcplib: A library of TCP internework traffic


characteristics. Comput. Sci. Dep., Univ. Southern California, Rep. CS-SYS-91-01.
Available via FTP to catarina.usc.edu as pub/jamin/tcplib/tcplib.tar.Z, 1991.