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COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad Department of Management Sciences (Instructions for Students)

Report Format
Consistency in Report Format The report should be in standard format i.e. A-4 size paper, with total number of words 7,000 10,000 ( From Chapter 01 to end of report before notes ) Two copies and a CD (soft copy) to be presented to CIIT before the deadline and the student must bring his copy (3rd one) for viva. A uniform writing strategy should be adopted throughout the report. Style of tables and data presentation should be uniform Each chapter will start from introduction and in the end there will be conclusion. Guidelines to be followed by students while finalizing their reports Report should be presented in a fairly formal manner Avoid brightly colored illustration and decorative formatting and all pages in plain white (no pages with colored background except where it is required) Present report in such a way that it meets the expectations of people in terms of appearance. All paragraphs must be justified, but not left/right/center aligned. Report should be numbered through using Arabic numerals starting on the first page of the first chapter ( 1,2,3 ) The preliminary pages such as contents, acknowledgement etc should be numbered using Roman numerals (I, II, III ) Page number must be added to the contents pages Page margin should be 1.5 inches for left (because of binding) 1.0 inches for right. For top and bottom it must be 1.0 inches. Page numbers must be in the center and at the bottom of page. (Please see the sample provided) 1

Font Size, Style and Line Space Font Size should be 12 Font style should be Times New Roman Line space should be one and half. Headings, Subheadings and Titles Title Page: Report title should be in large font size (18) but the name of the student should be smaller size than title (14) . (Please see the sample provided) Heading to pages such as the abstract or contents and chapter heading: These titles should be in 14 and should be in bold. Subheading through chapters: Subheading throughout report should be 12 and should be in bold. Numeral System to the subheading: Use proper numerical system for heading and subheading. For example, the first subheading of chapter 1 would be numbered 1.1, and the first second subheading would be numbered 1.1.1. In the second chapter, the numbering would be 2.1 and 2.1.1 respectively. Note All the text should be typed on one side of the paper. Each chapter should begin on a new page. Each chapter should be numbered in Arabic numerals, as Chapter 1, followed by the title of the chapter in next line. (Please see the sample provided) Do not underline heading or subheading; differentiate them by italic or bold style. Use of bullet points: Bullet points should be used in report wherever needed. For example, bullet points or enumeration in a conclusion, in the presenting of the aim of the (Please see the sample provided) 2

report, rather than discussing the aim in general way. The bullet size and distance should be similar throughout report. Tables and Figures numbering: Tables and figures are numbered separately through the report. They are numbered according to the number of the chapter and their sequence in the particular chapter. For example, the third table in chapter 7 would be designated Table 7.3: --------------------- with proper heading) Similarly, fifth figure in chapter 1 would be titled Figure 1.5: ------------------- with proper heading). Below each table or figure source should be mentioned. Table format should be very simple and formal. Same table format should be followed throughout the report. Layout of Quotations: left. Quotation up to three lines or less should be included within inverted coma. Referencing: Harvard system has been recommended for references according to which: All the references, which are cited in the main text of the report, should be listed at the end of the report, immediately prior to the appendices (Annexes) The works are listed by alphabetical order of the surname of the author (examples on pages ahead) The list should be captioned References, and normally such list is not subdivided into sections of any kind Websites references should be inserted at the end of the references list separately. (Please see the sample provided) 3 To support arguments, extracts or quotations from books, journal, articles or research paper are usually incorporated in report. The normal strategy for longer quotations (more than three lines) is to type the quotation in italic, to use a narrow line space (usually 1) and to indent the quotation from

How to write references in different situations: (SAMPLES) 1. One Writer (In Paragraph) It has been investigated the impact of teaching contemporary European philosophy alongside the teaching of a European language (Smith, 1990) (In reference list) Smith, J (1990); The theory of European Culture. Birmingham: Language Press. 2. More than One Writers: (In Paragraph) A number of writers have investigated the impact of teaching contemporary European philosophy alongside the teaching of a European language (Smith, 1990 and Dixes, 2001) (In Reference list) Smith, J (1990) & Dixes, W (2001); The theory of European Culture. Birmingham: Language Press. 1. One author with more than one publication in a single year (In Paragraph) The desire to possess more and more has been caused the downfall of many a nations (Iqbal, 1935a) Youth is the capital of Pakistan (Iqbal, 1935b) Muslims need a separate homeland (Iqbal, 1935a) (In Reference List) Iqbal, A.M (1935 a); A message for youth of Pakistan, Philosophy of Freedom, PP 55-56. Iqbal, A.M (1935 b); .. 4. In References Without dates Ali, K (undated);.. (Please see the sample provided) 4

5. A book is referenced in the following way: Smith, J (1990); The theory of European Culture. Birmingham: Language Press. 6. A chapter in an edited volume is referenced as Jones, S (2000); Contemporary existentialist thought , in M. Bradley (ed), A History of Modern Philosophy. London: Thames Publication. PP. 39-576 7. Academic Journal Jones, P (2002); Phenomenology in sociological theory, Journal of Interpretative Studies, 28(3): PP 202-30 8. Report Collin, J (2001); The origins of the German university system PhD report, university of Northtown, England. 9. Referencing websites Jennings, P. (2003); An annotated bibliography of contemporary psychology. [Online] Available: http://www.bup.ac.uk/humlit/ [accessed January 2, 2003] Notes and Footnotes It is sometimes necessary to include additional material in a report, which cannot be placed in the main text. Such material may be included 1. In footnotes at the bottom of the relevant page, or 2. In notes at the end of each chapter or 3. At the end of the report (before reference list under the caption of Notes) It has been recommended to follow option# 03, i.e. the notes should be placed at the end of the report before reference list instead of footnotes or chapter end.

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Appendices / Annexes Some material is important for a sound understanding of the report, can be properly included in the appendix. A blank questionnaire or interview schedule used for data collection may be put as an Annex. An official documents or letter can be used as an Annex. Inclusion of long official documents should be avoided.

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