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Cement Combinations for Durable Concrete

Proceedings of the International Conference held at the University of Dundee, Scotland, UK on 5-7 July 2005

Edited by

Ravindra K. Dhir
Director, Concrete Technology Unit University of Dundee

Thomas A. Harrison
BRMCA Technical Director, Quarry Products Association and

Moray D. Newlands
CPD/Consultancy Manager, Concrete Technology Unit University of Dundee


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Published by Thomas Telford Publishing, Thomas Telford Ltd, 1 Heron Quay, London E14 4JD. www.thomastelford.com

Distributors for Thomas Telford books are USA: ASCE Press, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, VA 20191-4400, USA Japan: Maruzen Co. Ltd, Book Department, 3-10 Nihonbashi 2-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103 Australia: DA Books and Journals, 648 Whitehorse Road, Mitcham 3132, Victoria

First published 2005 The full list of titles from the 2005 International Congress 'Global construction: ultimate concrete opportunities' and available from Thomas Telford is as follows Cement combinations for durable concrete. ISBN: 0 7277 3401 6 Concrete for transportation infrastructure. ISBN: 0 7277 3402 4 Application of codes, design and regulations. ISBN: 0 7277 3403 2 Achieving sustainability in construction. ISBN: 0 7277 3404 0 Repair and renovation of concrete structures. ISBN: 0 7277 3405 9 Use of foamed concrete in construction. ISBN: 0 7277 3406 7 Admixtures - enhancing concrete performance. ISBN: 0 7277 3407 5 Applications of nanotechnology in concrete design. ISBN: 0 7277 3408 3 Role of concrete in nuclear facilities. ISBN: 0 7277 3409 1 Young researchers' forum. ISBN: 0 7277 3410 5

For the complete set of 10 volumes, ISBN: 0 7277 3387 7

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 0 7277 3401 6 The authors, except where otherwise stated All rights, including translation, reserved. Except as permitted by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Publishing Director, Thomas Telford Publishing, Thomas Telford Ltd, 1 Heron Quay, London E14 4JD. This book is published on the understanding that the authors are solely responsible for the statements made and opinions expressed in it and that its publication does not necessarily imply that such statements and/or opinions are or reflect the views or opinions of the publishers. While every effort has been made to ensure that the statements made and the opinions expressed in this publication provide a safe and accurate guide, no liability or responsibility can be accepted in this respect by the authors or publishers. Printed and bound in Great Britain by MPG Books, Bodmin, Cornwall

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Concrete is at something of a crossroads: there are many opportunities and some threats. For these opportunities to transpose into beneficial practice, engineers, material scientists, architects, manufacturers and suppliers must focus on the changes that are required to champion concrete and maintain its dominance within the global construction industry. The Concrete Technology Unit (CTU) of the University of Dundee organised this Congress to address these changes, continuing its established series of events, namely, Challenges of Concrete Construction in 2002, Creating with Concrete in 1999, Concrete in the Service of Mankind in 1996, Economic and Durable Concrete Construction Through Excellence in 1993 and Protection of Concrete in 1990. The event was organised in collaboration with three of the world's most recognised institutions: the Institution of Civil Engineers, the American Concrete Institute and the Japan Society of Civil Engineers. Under the theme of Global Construction: Ultimate Concrete Opportunities, the Congress consisted of ten Events: (i) Cement Combinations for Durable Concrete, (ii) Concrete for Transportation Infrastructure, (Hi) Application of Codes, Design and Regulations, (iv) Achieving Sustainability in Construction, (v) Repair and Renovation of Concrete Structures, (vi) Use of Foamed Concrete in Construction, (vii) Admixtures - Enhancing Concrete Performance, (viii) Applications of Nanotechnology in Concrete Design, (ix) Role of Concrete in Nuclear Facilities, (x) Young Researchers Forum. In all, a total of 420 papers were presented from 68 countries. The Opening Addresses were given by Sir Alan Langlands, Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Dundee, Mr John Letford, Lord Provost, City of Dundee, Mr Colin Clinton, President of the Institution of Civil Engineers, and senior representatives of the Japan Society of Civil Engineers and the American Concrete Institute. The Congress was officially opened by Mr Peter Goring, President of the Concrete Society, UK. The ten Event Opening Papers were presented by Professor R K Dhir, University of Dundee, UK, Mr E S Larsen, COWI A/S, Denmark, Dr W G Corley, Construction Technologies Laboratory Group, USA, Dr M Glavind, Danish Technological Institute, Denmark, Professor P Robery, Halcrow Group Ltd, UK, Mr D Aldridge, Propump Engineering Ltd, UK, Dr M Corradi, Degussa Construction Chemicals Division, Italy, Professor S P Shah, Northwestern University, USA, Professor C Andrade, Institute of Construction Science, Spain and Professor P C Hewlett, British Board of Agrement, UK. The Closing Papers were given by Professor K Scrivener, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Switzerland, Mr N Hussain, Ove Arup & Partners, Hong Kong, Professor H Gulvanessian, Building Research Establishment, UK, Mrs G M T Janssen, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, Dr D R Morgan, AMEC Earth & Environmental, Canada, Dr E Kearsley, University of Pretoria, South Africa, Professor M Collepardi, ENCO-Engineering Concrete, Italy and Mr P Doyle, Jacobs Babtie Nuclear, UK. The support of 50 International Professional Institutions and 32 Sponsoring Organisations was a major contribution to the success of the Congress. An extensive Trade Fair formed an integral part of the event. The work of the Congress was an immense undertaking and all of those involved are gratefully acknowledged, in particular, the members of the Organising Committee for managing the event from start to finish; members of the Scientific and Technical Committees for advising on the selection and reviewing of papers; the Authors and the Chairmen of Technical Sessions for their invaluable contributions to the proceedings. All of the proceedings have been prepared directly from the camera-ready manuscripts submitted by the authors and editing has been restricted to minor changes, only where it was considered absolutely necessary. Dundee July 2005 Ravindra K Dhir Chairman, Congress Organising Committee


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As civilisation moves into the third millennium, the demands placed on infrastructure are increasing and concrete will be the only material to provide an economic solution. However, the demands on natural resources are placing pressures on concrete to evolve and become a sustainable material which can meet the societal and economic requirements of the planet. Developments in the technology in processing the raw materials that are required to make constituents for concrete has led to the inclusion of novel materials to aid grinding of cement clinker and provide greater chemical activation. The efficiency of cements is now greater than they have ever been, however, the increasing emphasis on sustainability has meant that non traditional materials such as co-combusted industrial by-products are now being used as a supplement to traditional cementitious materials. Further pressures on concrete to adapt to the demands of the environment have led to developments in blending cements and other additions to meet specific performance requirements. Modifications to heat of hydration, particle packing and rheology by material selection and mix design methodology has meant that concrete can now be tailor made to meet fresh and hardened requirements. The recent progress in non-Portland cement technology has also focussed on providing specific performance requirements through use of specialist cements such as calcium aluminate and alkali-activated cements. The infrastructure of the future will have increasing demands in terms of engineering performance and long term durability and these important aspects are now being considered at a materials level. Properties such as shrinkage, toughness and strength development are being manipulated through consideration of constituent materials in order to meet performance requirements. In terms of durability, modern concrete must perform in the harshest environments and appropriate use of cements is vital in ensuring concrete meets its working life requirements. Notwithstanding the above, the need for sustainability is always a consideration and the potential for value-added benefits of waste materials and by-products, reduction of energy demand and emissions and end-of-life issues must all be considered if concrete is to be the preferred option for future development. The Proceedings 'Cement Combinations for Durable Concrete' dealt with all these subject areas and the issues raised six clearly defined themes: (i) Processing, Materials and Characterisation, (ii) Blends for Specialist Concretes, (iii) Blends with non-Portland Cements, (iv) Engineering Performance, (v) Durability, (vi) Implications for Environmental Assessment. Each theme started with a Keynote Paper presented by the foremost exponents in their respective fields. There were a total of 92 papers presented during the International Conference which are compiled into these Proceedings. Dundee July 2005 Ravindra K Dhir Thomas A Harrison Moray D Newlands

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ORGANISING COMMITTEE Concrete Technology Unit

Professor R K Dhir OBE (Chairman) Dr M D Newlands (Secretary) Professor P C Hewlett British Board of Agrement Professor T A Harrison Quarry Products Association Professor P Chana British Cement Association Professor V K Rigopoulou National Technical University of Athens, Greece Dr S Y N Chan Hong Kong Polytechnic University Dr N Y Ho L & M Structural Systems, Singapore Dr M R Jones Dr M J McCarthy Dr T D Dyer Dr K A Paine Dr J E Halliday Dr L J Csetenyi Dr L Zheng Dr S Caliskan Dr A McCarthy Dr A Whyte Mr M C Tang Ms E Csetenyi Ms P I Hynes (Congress Assistant) Mr S R Scott (Unit Assistant)

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Professor P N Balaguru, Program Director National Science Foundation, USA Professor Francois de Larrard, Head of Division Laboratoire Central des Pont et Chaussees, France Mr Cyrus Dordi, Vice President (Technical Services) Gujarat Ambuja Cements Ltd, India Mr Per Fidjestol, Technical Director Elkem ASA Materials, Norway Dr Graham Grieve, Executive Director Cement and Concrete Institute, South Africa Professor Muhammad Nasureel Haque, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering Kuwait University, Kuwait Professor Roger J Kettle, Subject Group Convenor Aston University, UK Professor Wieslaw Kurdowski, Emeritus Professor University of Mining & Metallurgy, Poland Professor Jacques Marchand, Professor Laval University, Canada Dr W J McCarter, Postgraduate Director Heriot Watt University, UK Dr Sylva Modry, Principal Research Scientist CTU Klokner Institute, Czech Republic Professor Viet Hue Nguyen, Principal Research Scientist & Professor Vietnam Academy of Science & Technology, Vietnam Professor S Pavlenko, Head ofDept of Civil Engineering Siberian State University of Industry, Russia Professor V Penttala, Head of Department Helsinki University of Technology, Finland Mr William F Price, National Commercial Technical Manager Lafarge Cement, UK Professor Karen Scrivener, Director, Laboratory of Construction Materials Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Switzerland Dr Ian Sims, Director, Materials Consultancy STATS Ltd, UK Professor Ferenc D Tamas, Professor Emeritus University of Veszprem, Hungary Professor G Thielen, Professor Forschungsintitut der Zementindustrie, Germany Professor Asim Yeginobali, Director ofR & D Institute Turkish Cement Manufacturers' Association, Turkey

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Institution of Civil Engineers, UK American Concrete Institute Japan Society of Civil Engineers


Aalborg White, Denmark Aggregate Industries ARUP Bid Cities Fund British Board of Agrement British Cement Association Building Research Establishment Bureau Veritas Laboratories Ltd Castle Cement Limited CEMBUREAU Cementitious Slag Makers Association Danish Technological Institute Degussa - Construction Chemicals Dundee City Council Elkem Materials Ltd FaberMaunsell FEBELCEM Foam Concrete Ltd Halcrow Group Ltd Heidelberg Cement Jacobs Babtie Group John Doyle Construction Master Builders Technologies

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(continued) PANalytical Propump Engineering Ltd Putzmeister Ltd RMC Readymix Rugby Cement STATS Ltd Tarmac Group The Concrete Centre United Kingdom Quality Ash Association

Cambridge Ultrasonics Ltd Celsum Technologies Ltd CNS Farnell Ltd Concrete Repairs Ltd Germann Instruments A/S Glenammer Engineering Ltd John Wiley & Sons Ltd Metrohm UK Ltd Retsch UK Ltd Sonatest Ltd Wexham Developments Zwick Testing Machines Ltd


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Asociacion de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Spain Asociacion de Ingenieros del Uruguay, Uruguay Association of Slovak Scientific & Technological Societies, Slovakia Associazione Italiana Ingegneria dei Materiali, Italy Austrian Society of Engineers & Architects, Austria Bahrain Society of Engineers, Bahrain Belgian Concrete Society, Belgium Brazilian Concrete Institute, Brazil Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, Canada China Civil Engineering Society, China Chinese Institute of Engineers, Taiwan Colegio de Ingenieros y Agrimesores de Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico Concrete Institute of Australia, Australia Concrete Society of Southern Africa, South Africa Consiglio Nazionale degli Ingegneri, Italy Construction Institute, USA Czech Concrete Society, Czech Republic Danish Concrete Association, Denmark Deutscher Beton-und Bautechnik-Verein EV, Germany Engineers Australia, Australia Federation of Scientific & Technical Unions in Bulgaria, Bulgaria Feberation de l'lndustrie du Beton (FIB), France General Association of Engineers in Romania, Romania Hong Kong Institution of Engineers, Hong Kong

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Hungarian Cement Association, Hungary Indian Concrete Institute, India Institute of Concrete Technology, UK Institution of Engineers, India Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh Institution of Engineers, Malaysia Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka Institution of Engineers, Tanzania Institution of Structural Engineers, UK Instituto Mexicano del Cemento y del Concreto AC, Mexico Irish Concrete Society, Ireland Japan Concrete Institute, Japan Jordan Engineers' Association, Jordan Korea Concrete Institute, South Korea Netherlands Concrete Society, Netherlands New Zealand Concrete Society, New Zealand Nigerian Society of Engineers, Nigeria Norwegian Concrete Association, Norway Singapore Concrete Institute, Singapore Slovenian Chamber of Engineers, Slovenia The Concrete Society, UK Turkish Chamber of Civil Engineers, Turkey Yugoslav Society for Materials & Structures Testing, Serbia & Montenegro Zimbabwe Institution of Engineers, Zimbabwe

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Preface Introduction Organising Committee Scientific and Technical Committee Collaborating Institutions Sponsoring Organisations With Exhibition Exhibiting Organisations Supporting Institutions Opening Paper Cement: A Question ofResponsible Use R K Dhir, University of Dundee, UK THEME 1 PROCESSING, MATERIALS AND CHARACTERISATION Keynote Paper Analysis of Trace Elements in Clinker Based on Supervised Clustering and Fuzzy Decision Tree Induction F D Tamas, F P Pach, J Abonyi, University ofVeszprem, Hungary, A M Esteves, National Laboratory of Civil Engineering, Portugal Influence of Life Culture Treatments of Flax to Produce Flax Waste Aggregate Cement Composites B Dupre, A Goullieux, L Marmoret, M Queneudec Evaluation ofPhosphogypsum as an Alternative of Gypsum in the Fabrication ofCEMII/A-M32.5R Portland Cement M B Diop, A A Ndiaye, S Ndiaye, B Lo, O Sakho, P D Tall, A C Beye, W Soboyejo A New Methodfor Determining Soluble Silica in Hardened Concrete F Goma Durability Aspects of CEMII/B-M with Blastfurnace Slag and Limestone ELang The Effect of Hydraulically Classified Ultra Fine Ash on Mortar Properties R Rathbone, T Robl, M McCabe, K Tapp Characterisation ofLimestone and Fly Ash for a Rational Use in Concrete R Magarotto, F Moratti, N Zeminian Rheological Characterisation of Cement-Based Compositions for the Extrusion Technology G L Guerrini, R Alfani iii iv v vi vii vii viii ix




45 55 65 71 81


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Radio-analyses in Production of Cement G Alitto, V Nastro, P De Luca, A Nastro THEME 2 BLENDS FOR SPECIALIST CONCRETES Keynote Paper Durability of an Ultra-High Fibre Reinforced Cement Composite Under a Service State Loading and in an Aggressive Environment P Rossi, E Parant, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees, France Water-Cement Ratio Law and Silica Fume Concrete Mix Design S Bhanja, B Sengupta Enhancing Concrete Performance by Using Environment Friendly Finely Divided Materials S A Rizwan, M F Chaudhry, S E Benjamin SEM Investigation of Microstructure in High Strength Concrete with OPC Alone, Binary and Ternary Mixes P Kumar, S K Kaushik Ternary Concrete Mixtures Containing Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and Fly Ash N K Becknell, W M Hale Resistance of Different Cement Types to Sulfate Attack in the Light of Long-Term Investigations S Chladzynski, A Garbacik A Rational Approach to Determine the Best Packing of Particles to Enhance Concrete Quality G F Loedolff, G P A G van Zijl The Effect of Ground Granulated Blasfurnace Slag on the Strength Development and Adiabatic Temperature Rise of Concrete Mixes S J Barnett, M N Soutsos, J H Bungey, S Millard Early-Age Temperature Rises in GGBS Concrete: Part 1: Determination ofTl Values L Zheng, K A Paine, R K Dhir Early-Age Temperature Rises in GGBS Concrete Part 2: Tl Values for Low Heat and Very Low Heat Cements K A Paine, L Zheng, R K Dhir Development of Hand-Held Rheology Tool and Suitable Testing Criteria R Cullen, R P West














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Study of the Hydrous Behaviour of a Cement Mortar Formulated Using a Water-Reducing Proteinic Admixture A Chikhi, R M Dheilly, M Queneudec Rheological Study of Blended Cement Concrete V Corinaldesi, G Moriconi Rheological Design and Development of Highly Fluid Concrete: The Future for Designing Cementitious Products? R Fowler Using Mineral Additions to Improve Properties of High Calcium Fly Ash as Cement and Concrete Mixture P Turker, A Yeginobali, A Baskoca Enhancing the Mechanical Properties of Blended Cements by Utilising the Coarser Fraction of High-Calcium Fly Ash S Antiohos, V Vouros, S Tsimas Properties of Self Compacting Concrete with Different Fine Admixtures and Their Comparison with Properties of Usual Concrete V Bilek, P Schmid The Use of Waste Materials and By-Products in Lightweight Concrete H Szilagyi, A Mircea, Z Kiss








THEME 3 BLENDS WITH NON-PORTLAND CEMENTS Keynote Paper New Polymeric Matrix for Durable Concrete 0 Figovsky, Polymate Ltd, Israel Properties of Alkali-Activated Aluminosilicate Materials with Fire-Resistant Aggregate After High Temperature Loading P Rovnanikova, P Bayer, P Rovnanik, J Novak Geocement Composites Based on Basalt Fabric and Alkaline Aluminosilicate Binder M A Mokhort, Y L Tsybulya Effect of Chemical Activation Method and Curing Conditions on Strength Development of High PFA Content Mortars M R Jones, E Csetenyi, L J Csetenyi, R K Dhir Carbonation of Natural Hydraulic Lime (NHL) 3.5 A El-Turki, R J Ball, G C Allen 269






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Further Investigations Into Some Aspects of Flow Applied Floor Screeds N Beningfield, A Pickard, C Swan Development ofBelite Based Cements in China T Sui, Z Wen, J Wang, L Fan Some Properties of Hardened Concrete W Kurdowski, P Gemel




THEME 4 ENGINEERING PERFORMANCE Influence of Limestone Fillers on the Mechanical Performances of Cement Pastes Z Guemmadi, G Escadeillas, B Toumi, H Houari, P Clastres Some Notes on Size Effect and Influence of Aggregate Roughness M T Barbosa, E Sanchez Drying Shrinkage of Concrete Samples Exposed to Extreme Hot Weather A M Alshamsi, H D Imran, A Bushlaibi Chemical Evaluation of Crack Development in Cement-based Sandcrete Structure J O Odigure An Experimental Study of Porosity and Permeability Characteristics of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete M Beddar Influence of Fibrous Waste Addition on the Shrinkage of Mortars M Beddar, L Belagraa Microstructure Changes and Volume Changes of Concrete Components in a Setting Phase J Litos, J Hosek Influence of Different Kinds of Cement on Early Shrinkage of Concrete J Jasiczak, P Szymanski Plastic Cracking of Concrete - The Roles of Osmotic and Matric Suction V N T Dao, P H Morris, P F Dux Evolution of the Drying Shrinkage of High Performance Concrete A Brahma, L Bal A Mechanism of Autogenous Shrinkage of Cementitious Materials T Nawa, T Horita Self Preserving Concrete D Srinivasan 339

3 51












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Mechanical Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete at Different Temperatures S Caliskan, K Turk, S Yazicioglu An Optimisation Design Procedure for Prestressed Reactive Powder Concrete Bridge G Yan, Z Yan, Y Fang Durability of Hardened Mortar Under High-Vacuum Condition Y Sakoi, T Horiguchi, N Saeki Aligning Long Steel Fibres in Fresh Concrete R P West, S Zhang, J Mandl On Durability of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete S Cangiano, E Cadoni, G Frigeri, G A Plizzari, T Teruzzi Fracture Toughness and Impact Strength of High- Volume Class-F Fly Ash Concrete Reinforced with San Fibres R Siddique Investigation of Fibre Reinforcing the Cover of Concrete Columns M N S Hadi, D G Montgomery Effect of Axial Force and Fibre Type on the Shear Behaviour of High Strength Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams I G Shaaban Ductility and Toughness Characteristics of Steel Fibre High Strength Concrete T A M Rasheed, M I M Rjoub Static Modulus of Elasticity of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete V Kumar, A K Sinha, M M Prasad An Experimental Investigation on Shear Enhancement of Partially Cracked RC Beams with Bi-Directional Carbon Fabrics J Jayaprakash, A A A Samad, A A A Ali, A A Ashrabov Effect of Influence of Beam Width/Fibre Length Ratio on the Behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams R Ravi, C K Williams, G Balasivasankar Hygric and Thermal Properties of High Performance Concrete M Jirickova, E Mnahoncakova, Z Pavlik, R Cerny Compressive Strength Prediction of High Performance Concretes B Toumi, Z Guemmadi, H Houari Zero Energy Concrete: Rationalising Precast Concrete Production in Action I Torresan, R Khurana
















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THEME 5 DURABILITY Keynote Paper Deicer Salt Scaling Resistance OfSupplementary Cementing Material Concrete: Laboratory Results Against Field Performance J Marchand, M Jolin, Laval University, Y Machabee, FQRNT Canada Key Features in View of Modelling the Permeability of Concrete E A B Koenders, F H Cos, W J Bouwmeester-van den Bos Leaching of Cement Pastes Exposed to the Action ofManure Organic Acids: Comparison of the Relative Aggressiveness of the Different Acids A Bertron, J Duchesne, G Escadeillas Computational Analysis of the Parameters of Coupled Water and Chloride Transport in Cement Mortar Z Pavlik, M Jirickova, P Rovnanikova, R Cemy The Effect of Gas Path Length on the Measured Permeability of Concrete D R Gardner, R J Lark, B Barr Chloride Permeability of White Portland Cement Concrete Modified with Silica Fume and Metakaolin S S Marikunte, I L Moutairou Diffusion Coefficient of Chloride Ions Under Simulated Conditions A A Ramezanianpour, M Khademi, H R Ashrafi Alkali-Silica Reaction of Concrete Containing Glass Interaction with Reactive Aggregates R K Dhir, T D Dyer, M C Tang Materials Selection System in Mechanical Design of Waterproof Layer on Concrete Slab J Takahashi, A Miyamoto Self-Healing of Cracks in Concrete with Portland Limestone Cement SMANanayakkara, TElakneshwaran White Concrete for Buildings and Structures J S Damtoft, E P Neilsen Should You Be Using More PFA ? L K A Sear Strength As An Integral Characteristic of Concrete D I Gladkov, A P Nesterov, L A Suleimanova 579

591 601


621 631

639 651


675 685 693 701


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Use of Fly Ash and Dense Graded Aggregates to Construct Durable Concrete Pavements S Jerath, N Hanson Assessment of Chloride Penetration into Fibre Reinforced Concrete Under Loading Antoni, T Horiguchi, N Saeki Long-Term Monitoring ofFBEC Steel Bars Corrosion in Chloride-Contaminated Concrete 0 S B Al-Amoudi, M Maslehuddin, S H Al-Idi Corrosion ofRebars in Blended Cement Concretes A K Tiwari, R M Cursetji Thermodynamic Compatibility ofThaumasite with Hydrated Cement Phases M T Blanco-Varela, J Aguilera, S Martinez-Ramirez Influence of Cement Type in Thaumasite Formation M T Blanco-Varela, S Martinez-Ramirez, F Adeva, I Pajares The Reliability of Crack Predictions for Hardening Concrete Structures F Czerny, E A B Koenders, K van Breugel Prediction of Service Life in Cracked Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Chloride Attack and Carbonation H-W Song, H J Kim, S J Kwon, C H Lee, K J Byun, C K Park Computer Modelling of Concrete Service Life V G Papadakis, M P Efstathiou THEME 6 IMPLICATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Evaluation and Comparison of Mechanical Characteristics and Durability of Concrete with Different Cement Replacement Levels by Fly Ash N de Belie, G Baert, A-M Poppe Study of the Thermal Behaviour of Concrete Containing Thermoplastic Wastes as Aggregates V Kasselouri-Rigopoulou, S Kolias, S Gavela Effect of Weight Reduction on the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Cement-Rubber Composites Formulated with Shredding Operation Waste A Benazzouk, O Douzane, M Queneudec Reuse of Plastic Waste in Cementitious Concrete Composites 0 Yazoghli-Marzouk, R M Dheilly, M Queneudec


1X1 725

735 743 749 757 767







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Setting Time and Heat of Hydration of Wastepaper Sludge Ash-Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (WSA-GGBS) Blended Pastes A Chaipanich, J Bai, M O'Farrell, J M Kinuthia, B B Sabir, S Wild Closing Paper Role of Cement in Improving Concrete Durability K Scrivener, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland Late Papers Theme 4: Keynote Paper Practical Solutions with Durable Concrete P Goring, John Doyle Construction, UK Optimising Cement Combinations for Concrete Used in Carbonation and Chloride Exposure Conditions L Zheng, R K Dhir Index of Authors Subject Index



843 853

861 865


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