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Aerial tramway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

12/06/2011 09:58

Aerial tramway
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An aerial tramway (U.S. English) or cable car (British English) or aerial tram is a type of aerial lift which uses one or two stationary ropes for support while a third moving rope provides propulsion. [1] The grip of an aerial tramway is fixed onto the propulsion rope and cannot be decoupled from it during operations. Because of the proliferation of such systems in the Alpine regions of Europe, the French and German language names of tlphrique and Seilbahn are often also used in an English language context. "Cable car" is the usual term in British English, as in British English the word "tramway" generally refers to a railed street tramway while in American English, "cable car" is most often associated with a type of cable-pulled street tramway with detachable vehicles, e.g. San Francisco's cable cars. As such, careful phrasing is necessary to prevent confusion. It is also sometimes called a ropeway or even incorrectly referred to as a gondola lift. A gondola lift has cabins suspended from a continuously circulating cable whereas aerial trams simply shuttle back and forth on cables.

Aerial tramway suspended on two track cables with an additional haulage rope.

Contents
1 Overview 2 History 2.1 In mining 2.2 Moving people 2.3 Urban Transport 2.4 Telpherage 2.5 Double deckers 3 Records 4 List of accidents 5 Gallery 6 Cableways in fiction 7 See also 8 References 9 External links
An aerial tramway in Italy

Overview
An aerial tramway consists of one or two fixed cables (called "track cables"), one loop of cable (called a "haulage rope"), and two passenger cabins. The fixed cables provide support for the cabins while the haulage rope, by means of a grip, is solidly connected to the truck (the wheel set that rolls on the track
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Aerial tramway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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cables). An electric motor drives the haulage rope which provides propulsion. Aerial tramways are constructed as reversible systems - vehicles shuttling back and forth between two end terminals and propelled by a cable loop which stops and reverses direction when the cabins arrive at the end stations. Aerial tramways differ from gondola lifts in that gondola lifts are considered continuous systems (cabins attached onto a circulating haul rope that moves continuously).[2] Two-car tramways use a jig-back system: A large electric motor is located at the bottom of the tramway so that it effectively pulls one cabin down, using that cabin's weight to help pull the other cabin up. A similar system of cables is used in a funicular railway. The two passenger cabins, which carry from 4 to over 150 people, are situated at opposite ends of the loops of cable. Thus, while one is coming up, the other is going down the mountain, and they pass each other midway on the cable span. Some aerial trams have only one cabin, which lends itself better for systems with small elevation changes along the cable run.

History
The first aerial tram was built in 1644 by Adam Wiebe[citation needed] . It was used to move soil to build defences. Other mining systems were developed in the 1860s by Hodgson, and Andrew Smith Hallidie. Hallidie went on to perfect a line of mining and people tramways after 1867 in California and Nevada. See Hallidie ropeway

In mining
See also: Ropeway conveyor Tramways are sometimes used in mountainous regions to carry ore from a mine located high on the mountain to an ore mill located at a lower elevation. Ore tramways were common in the early 20th century at the mines in North and South America. One can still be seen in the San Juan Mountains of the US state of Colorado. Over one thousand mining tramways were built around the worldSpitsbergen, Russia, Alaska, Argentina, New Zealand and Gabon. This experience Ore bucket on the aerial was replicated with the use of tramway leading from the tramways in the First World War Mayflower mine, near particularly on the Isonzo Front in Silverton, Colorado, USA Italy. The German firm of Bleichert built hundreds of freight and military tramways. Strangely, Bleichert even built the first tourist tramway at Bolzano/Bozen, in then Tyrolian Austria in 1913.

Cableway from abandoned coal mine just south of Longyearbyen, Svalbard

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Aerial tramway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Other firms entered the mining tramway business- Otto, Leschen, BRECO, Ceretti and Tanfani, and Riblet for instance. The perfection of the aerial tramway through mining lead to its application in other fields including logging, sugar fields, beet farming, tea plantations, coffee beans and guano mining. A resource on the history of aerial tramways in the mining industry is "Riding the High Wire, Aerial Tramways in the West", by Robert A. Trennert, University Press of Colorado, 2001.

Moving people
In the 1920s the rise of the middle class and the leisure industry allowed for investment in sight seeing machines. The cable car to the top of high peaks in the Alps of Austria, Germany and Switzerland resulted. They were much cheaper to build than the earlier rack railway. One of the first trams was at Chamonix, while others in Switzerland and Garmisch soon followed. From this, it was a natural transposition to build ski lifts and chairlifts. The first cable car in America was at Franconia, New Hampshire in 1938. After the Second World War installations proliferated in Europe, America, Japan, Canada and South Africa. Many hundreds of installations have emerged in mountainous and seascape areas. The aerial tram evolves again in latter decadesone tram in Costa Rica was built to move tourists above a rainforest, while one in Portland, Oregon, was built to move commuters. Presently, the mining role of tramways has lessened, though some still work, and moving people remains a starring role for the device. Many aerial tramways were built by Von Roll Ltd. of Switzerland, which has since been acquired by Austrian lift manufacturer Doppelmayr. Other German, Swiss and Austrian firms played an important role in the cable car business Pohlig, PHB, Garaventa, and Mueller. Now there are three groups dominating the world market: Doppelmayr Garaventa Group, Leitner Group and Poma, the latter two being owned by one person. An escape aerial tramway is a special form of the aerial tramway that allows a fast escape from a dangerous location. They are used on rocket launching sites to offer the launch staff or astronauts a fast retreat. The tramway consists of a rope which runs from the launch tower downward to a protection shelter. On the launch supply tower several small cabs can be occupied by the launch staff or the astronauts. After a barrier is loosened these roll downward to the protection shelter. An escape aerial tramway exists on launch pads 39A and 39B at Cape Canaveral. Some aerial tramways have their own propulsion, such as the Lasso Mule or the Josef Mountain Aerial Tramway near Meran, Italy.

Urban Transport
While typically used for ski resorts, aerial tramways have been ported over for usage in the urban environment in recent times. The Roosevelt Island Tramway in New York City and the Portland Aerial Tram are examples where this technology has been successfully adapted for public transport purposes. In comparison to gondola lifts, aerial tramways provide lower line capacities, higher wait times and are unable to turn corners. [3]

Telpherage
A new Roosevelt Island Tram car in
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Aerial tramway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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One interesting offshoot of the aerial tram was the telpher system. operation. This was an overhead railway, which was electrically powered. The carrier basket had a motor and two contacts on two rails. They were primarily used in English railway and postal stations. The original version was called telpherage. Smaller telpherage systems are sometimes used to transport objects such as tools or mail within a building or factory.

A new Roosevelt Island Tram car in

The telpherage concept was first publicised in 1883 and several experimental lines were constructed. It was not designed to compete with railways, but with horses and carts. [4] The first commercial telpherage line was in Glynde, which is in Sussex, England. It was built to connect a newly-opened clay pit to the local railway station and opened in 1885.[4]

Double deckers
There are aerial tramways with double deck cabins. The Vanoise Express cable car carries 200 people in each cabin at a height of 380 m (1,247 ft) over the Ponturin gorge in France. The Shinhotaka Ropeway carries 121 people in each cabin at Mount Hotaka in Japan.

Records
Longest (at time of building) and years operated:
Shinhotaka Ropeway

35 km (21.3 mi) 1906-1927 Chilecito - Mina La Mejicana (http://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Mina_La_Mejicana) , Argentina (34.3 km+0.86 km branch) 39 km (24 mi) 1925-1950 Drcal - Motril (http://www.adurcal.com/enlaces/cultura/zona/historia/cable/cabledurmotril.htm) , Spain (33.4 km+5.5 km branch) 75 km (46.5 mi) 1937-1941 Asmara - Massawa, Eritrea (71.8 km+3 km branch), technically a Funifor[5] 96 km (60 mi) 1943-1987 Kristineberg-Boliden, Sweden. 13.2 km still working as Norsj aerial ropeway [6] second longest: 76 km (47.2 miles) 1959-1986 Moanda - Mbinda, Gabon - Republic of Congo Over water: 1.0 km (0.6 miles) 1906-19?? Thio, New Caledonia. ship loading 2.4 km (1.5 mi) 1941-present (decommissioned in 1997, still operational) Forsby-Kping limestone cableway, Sweden. crossing of Hjlmaren strait. 42 km system [7] Longest currently operational 42 km (26.1 miles) (decommissioned in 1997, still operational) Forsby-Kping limestone cableway [8] 13.2 km (8.2 mi) Norsj aerial tramway Menstrsk-Bjurfors in Norsj, Sweden. The world's longest passenger tramway, a section of the former 96 km Kristineberg-Boliden industrial ropeway. 5.7 kilometres (3.5 mi) Wings of Tatev, Armenia world's longest
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Aerial tramway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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5.7 kilometres (3.5 mi) Wings of Tatev, Armenia world's longest reversible cable car line of one section. [9] 4.94km (3.1mi) Medeu-Shimbulak tramway near Almaty, Kazakhstan 4.35km (2.7mi) Sandia Peak Tramway, reversible tramway in Albuquerque, New Mexico

World's longest functioning aerial tramway: ForsbyKping

Highest lift: 3374 m (11,070 ft) from 1074m to 4448 m at Chilecito - Mina La Mejicana (http://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Mina_La_Mejicana) , Argentina (drops back to 4404 m at upper terminal) Highest station: past 5874 m (19,271 ft) 1935-19?? Aucanquilcha, Chile present 4765 m (15,633 ft) 1960-2008 Mrida cable car, Venezuela Lowest station: 257 m (843 ft) below sea level Masada cableway, Israel Tallest support tower: 113.6 m (372.7 ft) Gletscherbahn Kaprun, Austria As mass transit: The Roosevelt Island Tramway in New York City was the first aerial tramway in North America used by commuters as a mode of mass transit (See Transportation in New York City). Passengers pay with the same farecard used for the New York City Subway. The Portland Aerial Tram in Portland, Oregon was opened in January 2007 and became the second public transportation aerial tramway in North America. In Medellin, Colombia, both the Metro and the recent Metrocable aerial tramway addition can be used while paying a single fare. Palm Springs Aerial Tramway in Palm Springs, California has the world's largest rotating tramcars.

List of accidents
Aerial tramways are one of the world's safest forms of transport and while accidents can occur, they are extremely rare occurrences as many safety measures are in place (i.e. back-up power generators, extensive evacuation plans, evacuation vehicles etc.). August 29, 1961: A military plane splits the hauling cable of the Vallee Blanche Aerial Tramway on the Aiguille du Midi in the Mont Blanc massif: six people killed. March 9, 1976: In the Italian Dolomites at Cavalese, a cab falls after a rope break, killing 42. (See Cavalese cable car disaster (1976)) April 15, 1978: In a storm, two carrying ropes of the Squaw Valley Aerial Tramway in California fall from the aerial tramway support tower. One of the ropes partly destroys the cabin. four killed, 32 injured. February 3, 1998: U.S. military aircraft severs the cable of an aerial ropeway in Cavalese, Italy, killing 20 people. (See Cavalese cable car disaster (1998)) October 19, 2003: Four were killed and 11 injured when three cars slipped off the cable of the Darjeeling Ropeway. October 9, 2004: Crash of a cabin of the Grnberg aerial tramway in Gmunden, Austria. Many hurt. April 18, 2006: New York's Roosevelt Island Tramway experiences a power failure, leaving 69 passengers in two trams stranded over the East River for approximately seven hours, just eight months after a similar incident in which trams were stranded for 90 minutes. No injuries or fatalities occurred in either incident.

Gallery
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Cable cars pass mid-stream on the Sandia Peak Tramway in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

The rotating construction of the Titlis gondola provides passengers better view

The rotating Table Mountain Aerial Cableway is designed to give passengers a 360 view.

Ropeway conveyor for limestone transportation in Sweden

The lowest cable is used for pulling. The middle cable supports the weight of gondola.

Cableways in fiction
Where Eagles Dare On Her Majesty's Secret Service (film) Moonraker (film) "Ascension"

See also
Aerial lift pylon Blondin (quarry equipment) Cable car (disambiguation) Cable ferry Chairlift COMILOG Cableway in
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Funicular Hallidie ropeway List of aerial tramways List of aerial lift manufacturers List of spans

Roosevelt Island Tramway Ropeway Skiing and Skiing Topics Transport Transporter bridge Tuin primitive aerial
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Aerial tramway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Moanda Funitel

Riblet Tramway Company

tramway

References
1. ^ The Gondola Project (http://gondolaproject.com/2010/04/24/technologies-module-5-aerial-trams/) Aerial Technologies, Lesson 5: Aerial Trams - Retrieved on 2010-04-24 2. ^ Cable Propelled Systems in Urban Environments (http://adr.coalliance.org/cog/fez/eserv/cog:165/neumann.pdf) Edward S. Neumann 3. ^ The Gondola Project (http://gondolaproject.com/2009/11/13/basic-lesson-3-aerial-trams-funiculars/) Basic Lesson 3: Aerial Trams & Furniculars - Retrieved on 2009-11-13 4. ^ a b Lusted, A., 1985: The Electric Telpherage Railway. Glynde Archivist 2:16-28. 5. ^ La Teleferica Massaua-Asmara (http://www.trainweb.org/italeritrea/teleferica1.htm) (w/ English translation) 6. ^ [1] (http://www.pbase.com/jakobe/demolished_cableway) 7. ^ [2] (http://privat.bahnhof.se/wb124555/linbanor/koping.html) (Swedish) 8. ^ [3] (http://www.pbase.com/jakobe/limestone_cableway) 9. ^ http://www.physorg.com/news/2010-10-world-longest-cable-car-line.html

External links
The Gondola Project (http://www.gondolaproject.com) Aerial Technologies Aerial Tramways (worldwide) (http://www.seilbahntechnik.net/english.php) Lift-Database Information Center for Ropeway Studies (http://inside.mines.edu/Ropeway_Center) at Colorado School of Mines Telpherage system in the repair sheds of the New York City subway (http://www.nycsubway.org/irt/irtbook/ch11.html) Ropeways.net (http://www.ropeways.net) Table Mountain Aerial Cableway (http://www.tablemountain.net) World longest ropeway Forsby - Kping (http://www.bahnhof.se/wb124555/linbanor/koping.html) An Aerial tramway in Crimea, Ukraine. (http://ukrainian.su/transport-kryima/kanatnaya-dorogamiskhor-sosnovyiy-bor-ay-petri.html) Portland, Oregon Ariel Tram (http://www.portlandtram.org/) Official site en:Aerial tramway Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerial_tramway" Categories: Aerial lifts | Ski lifts | Aerial tramways | Vertical transport devices | Scottish inventions This page was last modified on 5 May 2011 at 15:36. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

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