Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 17

Selective Coordination

Introduction and Requirements


2005 NEC Code:
100 Definitions 240.12 517.17(B) Healthcare 517.26 Healthcare 620.62 Elevators 700.27 Emergency Systems 701.18 Legally Required Standby Systems Selective coordination can be a critical aspect for electrical systems. Quite often in the design or equipment selection phase, it is ignored or overlooked. And when it is evaluated many people misinterpret the information thinking that selective coordination has been achieved when in fact, it has not. The following sections explain how to evaluate systems as to whether the overcurrent protective devices provide selective coordination for the full range of overcurrents.

What Is Selective Coordination?


Today, more than ever, one of the most important parts of any installation whether it is an office building, an industrial plant, a theater, a high-rise apartment or a hospital - is the electrical distribution system. Nothing will stop all activity, paralyze production, inconvenience and disconcert people and possibly cause a panic more effectively than a major power failure. Isolation of a faulted circuit from the remainder of the installation is mandatory in todays modern electrical systems. Power blackouts cannot be tolerated. While it's very important, it is not enough to select protective devices based solely on their ability to carry the system load current and interrupt the maximum fault current at their respective levels. A properly engineered system will allow ONLY the protective device nearest the fault to open, leaving the remainder of the system undisturbed and preserving continuity of service. We may then define selective coordination as THE ACT OF ISOLATING A FAULTED CIRCUIT FROM THE REMAINDER OF THE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, THEREBY ELIMINATING UNNECESSARY POWER OUTAGES. THE FAULTED CIRCUIT IS ISOLATED BY THE SELECTIVE OPERATION OF ONLY THAT OVERCURRENT PROTECTIVE DEVICE CLOSEST TO THE OVERCURRENT CONDITION. In Article 100 of the 2005 NEC this definition had been added: Coordination (Selective). Localization of an overcurrent condition to restrict outages to the circuit or equipment affected, accomplished by the choice of overcurrent protective devices and their ratings or settings. The two one line diagrams in the figure below demonstrate the concept of selective coordination. The system represented by the one line diagram to the left is a system without selective coordination. A fault on the load side of one overcurrent protective device unnecessarily opens other upstream overcurrent protective device(s). The result is unnecessary power loss to loads that should not be affected by the fault. This is commonly known as a "cascading effect" or lack of coordination. The system represented by the one line diagram to the right is a system with selective coordination. For the full range of overload or fault currents possible, only the nearest upstream overcurrent protective device opens. All the other upstream overcurrent protective devices do not open. Therefore, only the circuit with the fault is removed and the remainder of the power system is unaffected. The other loads in the system continue uninterrupted.

2005 NEC Requirements


517.26 Application of Other Articles. The essential electrical system shall meet the requirements of Article 700, except as amended by Article 517. 700.27 Coordination. Emergency system(s) overcurrent devices shall be selectively coordinated with all supply side overcurrent protective devices. 701.18 Coordination. Legally required standby system(s) overcurrent devices shall be selectively coordinated with all supply side overcurrent protective devices.

Popular Methods of Performing A Selective Coordination Study


Currently three methods are most often used to perform a coordination study:
1. Overlays of time-current curves, which utilize a light table and manufacturers published data, then hand plot on log-log paper. 2. Computer programs that utilize a PC and allow the designer to select time-current curves published by manufacturers and transfer to a plotter or printer, following proper selections. Simply plotting the curves does NOT prove selective coordination. The curves must be analyzed in relation to the various available fault currents at various points in the system. Also, where the plot may appear to show coordination above 0.01 second, the characteristics of the overcurrent devices below 0.01 second may not be coordinated. 3. For fuse systems, 600V or less, merely use the published selectivity ratios on page 91 for Cooper Bussmann fuses. The ratios even apply for less than 0.01 second.

This text will apply to all three methods.

Overloads and Low Level Fault Currents


In the sections ahead, information is presented as an aid to understanding time-current characteristic curves of fuses and circuit breakers. There are simple methods that will be presented to analyze coordination for most systems 600V or less. It should be noted that the study of time-current curves indicates performance during overload and low level fault conditions. The performance of overcurrent devices that operate under medium to high level fault conditions are not reflected on standard curves. Other engineering methods may be necessary.

Coordination Analysis
The next several pages cover coordination from various perspectives. The major areas include: Fuse curves Fuse selective coordination analysis Circuit breaker curves Circuit breaker coordination analysis Elevator circuits Emergency circuits Ground fault protectioncoordination The section on ground fault protection is included because GFP systems can cause coordination issues. The ground fault protection section discusses GFP requirements and then discusses coordination considerations. 89

Selective Coordination: Avoids Blackouts


Without Selective Coordination With Selective Coordination

OPENS NOT AFFECTED UNNECESSARY POWER LOSS OPENS NOT AFFECTED

Fault

Fault

2005 Cooper Bussmann

Selective Coordination
Fuses
100A 400A

Fuse Curves
The figure to the right illustrates the time-current characteristic curves for two sizes of time-delay, dual-element fuses in series, as depicted in the one-line diagram. The horizontal axis of the graph represents the RMS symmetrical current in amps. The vertical axis represents the time, in seconds. For example: Assume an available fault current level of 1000A RMS symmetrical on the load side of the 100A fuse. To determine the time it would take this fault current to open the two fuses, first find 1000A on the horizontal axis (Point A), follow the dotted line vertically to the intersection of the total clear curve of the 100A time-delay dual-element fuse (Point B) and the minimum melt curve of the 400A time-delay dual-element fuse (Point C). Then, horizontally from both intersection points, follow the dotted lines to Points D and E. At 1.75 seconds, Point D represents the maximum time the 100A timedelay dual-element fuse will take to open the 1000A fault. At 90 seconds, Point E represents the minimum time at which the 400A time-delay dual-element fuse could open this available fault current. Thus, coordination operation is assured at this current level. The two fuse curves can be examined by the same procedure at various current levels along the horizontal axis (for example, see Points F and G at the 2000A fault level). It can be determined that the two fuses are coordinated, for the overcurrents corresponding to the fuse curves on the graph. The 100A time-delay dual-element fuse will open before the 400A timedelay dual-element fuse can melt. However, it is necessary to assess coordination for the full range of overloads and fault currents that are possible. For analyzing fuse selective coordination for higher level fault currents see the next page, Medium to High Level Fault CurrentsFuse Coordination. When using the published Fuse Selectivity Ratios, drawing time current curves is not necessary for any level of overcurrent.
600 400 300 200

400A
100 80 60 40 30 20

Point E

Point C

100A
Available Fault Current Level 1000A

TIME IN SECONDS

10 8 6 4 3 2

Point G

Figure 3a.

Point D
1 .8 .6 .4 .3 .2

Point B

Point F
.1 .08 .06 .04 .03 .02

Minimum Melt Total Clearing

8000 10,000

Point A 1000A

CURRENT IN AMPERES

90

2005 Cooper Bussmann

20,000

.01 100 200 300 400 600 800 1000 2000 3000 4000 6000

Selective Coordination
Fuses: Selectivity Ratio Guide
Medium to High Level Fault Currents Fuse Coordination
The illustrations on the next page shows the principles of selective coordination when fuses are properly applied. The available short-circuit current will reach a peak value of Ip during the first half cycle unless a protective device limits the peak fault current to a value less than Ip. A currentlimiting fuse will reduce the available peak current to less than Ip, namely I'p, and will clear the fault in approximately one-half cycle or less. Note that tc is the total clearing time of the fuse, tm the melting time and ta the arcing time of the fuse. Where high values of fault current are available, the sub-cycle region becomes the most critical region for selective operation of current-limiting fuses. The area under the current curves is indicative of the energy let-through. If no protective device were present, or if mechanical type overcurrent devices with opening times of one-half cycle or longer were present, the full available short circuit energy would be delivered to the system. The amount of energy delivered is directly proportionate to the square of the current. So we can see how important it is to have fuses which can limit the current being delivered to the system to a value less than the available current. The amount of energy being produced in the circuit while the fuse is clearing is called the total clearing energy and is equal to the melting energy plus the arcing energy. Selectivity between two fuses operating under short circuit conditions exists when the total clearing energy of the load side fuse is less than the melting energy of the line side fuse. An engineering tool has been developed to aid in the proper selection of Cooper Bussmann fuses for selective coordination. This Selectivity Ratio Guide (SRG) is shown below.

*Selectivity Ratio Guide for Blackout Prevention (Line-Side to Load-Side)

Circuit
Current Rating Type 601-6000A TimeDelay Low-Peak (L) KRP-C_SP

Load-Side Fuse
601-4000A 0-600A TimeDual-Element Delay Time-Delay Limitron Low-Peak Fusetron (L) (RK1) (J) (RK5) KLU LPN-RK_SP LPJ-SP FRN-R LPS-RK_SP TCF FRS-R 2.5:1 2:1 2:1 4:1 601-6000A FastActing Limitron (L) KTU 0-600A FastActing Limitron (RK1) KTN-R KTS-R 2:1 0-1200A FastActing T-Tron (T) JJN JJS 2:1 2:1 3:1 3:1 1.5:1 2:1 3:1 3:1 3:1 2:1 0-600A FastActing Limitron (J) JKS 2:1 2:1 3:1 3:1 1.5:1 2:1 3:1 3:1 3:1 2:1 0-60A TimeDelay SC (G) SC N/A N/A 4:1 4:1 1.5:1 N/A 4:1 4:1 4:1 2:1

Trade Name Class Cooper Bussmann Symbol 2:1 2:1 601 to Time- Low-Peak KRP-C_SP 6000A Delay (L) KLU 2:1 2:1 2:1 2:1 4:1 2:1 2:1 601 to Time- Limitron 4000A Delay (L) Low-Peak LPN-RK_SP 2:1 2:1 8:1 3:1 0 Dual- (RK1) LPS-RK_SP to Ele(J) LPJ-SP 2:1 2:1 8:1 3:1 600A ment Fusetron FRN-R 1.5:1 1.5:1 2:1 1.5:1 (RK5) FRS-R 601 to Limitron KTU 2:1 2.5:1 2:1 2:1 6:1 2:1 2:1 6000A (L) 0 to Fast- Limitron KTN-R 3:1 3:1 8:1 3:1 600A Acting (RK1) KTS-R 0 to T-Tron JJN 3:1 3:1 8:1 3:1 1200A (T) JJS 0 to Limitron JKS 2:1 2:1 8:1 3:1 600A (J) 0 to Time- SC SC 3:1 3:1 4:1 2:1 60A Delay (G) *Note: At some values of fault current, specified ratios may be lowered to permit closer fuse sizing. Plot fuse curves or consult with Cooper Bussmann. General Notes: Ratios given in this Table apply only to Cooper Bussmann fuses. When fuses are within the same case size, consult Cooper Bussmann. TCF (CUBEFuse) is 1 to 100A Class J performance; dimensions and construction are unique, finger-safe IP-20 design.

Line-Side Fuse

2005 Cooper Bussmann

91

Selective Coordination
Fuses
For the next example, the Selectivity Ratio Guide suggests that the minimum ratio between line side and load side fuse should be at least 2:1. The one-line shows Low-Peak fuses KRP-C-1000SP feeding a LPS-RK-200SP. The ratio of amp ratings is 5:1 (1000:200) which indicates coordination between these fuses. Continuing further into the system the LPS-RK-200SP feeds a LPJ-60SP. This ratio of amp ratings is 3.33:1 (200:60), which also indicates a selectively coordinated system.

Ip Available Short-Circuit Current

I1p
480/277V

KRP-C-1000SP Amp Fuse Let Through Energy

Line Side Load Side

Low-Peak Time-Delay Fuse KRP-C-1000SP

tm tc

ta

Low-Peak LPS-RK-200SP Dual-Element Fuse

LPS-RK-200SP Amp Fuse Let Through Energy

Line Side Load Side

tm tc

Low-Peak LPJ-60SP Dual-Element Fuse

Fault

LPJ-60SP Amp Fuse Let Through Energy*

tc Requirements for selectivityTotal clearing energy of load side fuse is less than melting energy of line side fuse. *Area under the curves is not actual energy but is indicative of let-through energy. Actual let-through energy is I2rt. 92
2005 Cooper Bussmann

Selective Coordination
Fuses
Example Fuse Selective Coordination
Review the one-line diagram of the fusible system. All the fuses are Low-Peak Fuses. The Selectivity Ratio Guide provides the minimum amp ratio that must be observed between a line-side fuse and a load-side fuse in order to achieve selective coordination between the two fuses. If the entire electrical system maintains at least these minimum fuse amp rating ratios throughout the system, the entire electrical system will be selectively coordinated for all levels of overcurrent. Notice, time current curves do not even need to be plotted.
One-Line For Fuse System Coordination Analysis
Low-Peak KRP-C-1200SP Fuse

Check the LPJ-400SP fuse coordination with the KRP-C-1200SP fuse. Use the same steps as in the previous paragraph. The amp rating ratio of the two fuses in the system is 1200:400, which yields an amp rating ratio of 3:1. The Selectivity Ratio Guide shows that the amp rating ratio must be maintained at 2:1 or more to achieve selective coordination. Since the fuses used have a 3:1 ratio, and all that is needed is to maintain a 2:1 ratio, these two fuses are selectively coordinated. See the following diagram.
Selective Coordination Only Faulted Circuit Cleared

Low-Peak KRP-C1200SP Fuses

Low-Peak LPJ-400SP Fuses

Low-Peak LPJ-400SP Fuses


se he en yT p nl es O O s Fu

Opens
Low-Peak LPJ-100SP Fuses

Low-Peak LPJ-100SP Fuses

Not Affected

Any Fault Level !

Any Fault Level!

Check the LPJ 100SP fuse coordination with the LPJ-400SP fuse. The amp rating ratio of these fuses is 400:100 which equals 4:1 ratio. Checking the Selectivity Ratio Guide, line-side LPJ (vertical left column) to load-side LPJ (horizontal), yields a ratio of 2:1. This indicates selective coordination for these two sets of fuses. This means for any overcurrent on the load-side of the LPJ-100SP fuse, only the LPJ-100SP fuses open. The LPJ-400SP fuses remain in operation as well as the remainder of the system.

Summary Fuse Coordination


Selective coordination is an important system criteria that is often overlooked or improperly analyzed. With modern current-limiting fuses, all that the design engineer, contractor, plan reviewer, electrical inspector or user needs to do is adhere to these ratios. It is not necessary to plot the time current curves. Just maintain at least the minimum amp rating ratios provided in the Cooper Bussmann Selectivity Ratio Guide and the system will be selectively coordinated. This simple method is easy and quick.

2005 Cooper Bussmann

93

Selective Coordination
Circuit Breakers
Circuit Breaker Curves
The following curve illustrates a typical thermal magnetic molded case circuit breaker curve with an overload region and an instantaneous trip region (two instantaneous trip settings are shown). Circuit breaker time-current characteristic curves are read similar to fuse curves. The horizontal axis represents the current, and the vertical axis represents the time at which the breaker interrupts the circuit. When using molded case circuit breakers of this type, there are four basic curve considerations that must be understood. These are:
1. Overload Region 2. Instantaneous Region 3. Unlatching Time 4. Interrupting Rating

1. Overload Region: The opening of a molded case circuit breaker in the overload region is generally accomplished by a thermal element, while a magnetic coil is generally used on power breakers. Electronic sensing breakers will utilize CTs. As can be seen, the overload region has a wide tolerance band, which means the breaker should open within that area for a particular overload current. 2. Instantaneous Region: The instantaneous trip (I.T.) setting indicates the multiple of the full load rating at which the circuit breaker will open as quickly as possible. The instantaneous region is represented in the following curve and is shown to be adjustable from 5x to 10x the breaker rating. When the breaker coil senses an overcurrent in the instantaneous region, it releases the latch which holds the contacts closed. The unlatching time is represented by the curve labeled average unlatching time for instantaneous tripping. After unlatching, the overcurrent is not halted until the breaker contacts are mechanically separated and the arc is extinguished. Consequently, the final overcurrent termination can vary over a wide range of time, as is indicated by the wide band between the unlatching time curve and the maximum interrupting time curve. The instantaneous trip setting for larger molded case and power breakers can usually be adjusted by an external dial. Two instantaneous trip settings for a 400A breaker are shown. The instantaneous trip region, drawn with the solid line, represents an I.T. = 5x, or five times 400A = 2000A. At this setting, the circuit breaker will trip instantaneously on currents of approximately 2000A or more. The 25% band represents the area in which it is uncertain whether the overload trip or the instantaneous trip will operate to clear the overcurrent. The dashed portion represents the same 400A breaker with an I.T. = 10x, or 10 times 400A = 4000A. At this setting the overload trip will operate up to approximately 4000 amps (10%). Overcurrents greater than 4000A (10%) would be cleared by the instantaneous trip. The I.T. of a circuit breaker is typically set at its lowest setting when shipped from the factory. 3. Unlatching Times: As explained above, the unlatching time indicates the point at which the breaker senses an overcurrent in the instantaneous region and releases the latch holding the contacts. However, the fault current continues to flow through the breaker and the circuit to the point of fault until the contacts can physically separate and extinguish the arc. Once the unlatching mechanism has sensed an overcurrent and unlatched, the circuit breaker will open. The final interruption of the current represented on the breaker curve in the instantaneous region occurs after unlatching, but within the maximum interruption time.

The relatively long time between unlatching and the actual interruption of the overcurrent in the instantaneous region is the primary reason that molded case breakers are very difficult to coordinate. This is an inherent problem since the breaking of current is accomplished by mechanical means. 4. Interrupting Rating: The interrupting rating of a circuit breaker is a critical factor concerning protection and safety. The interrupting rating of a circuit breaker is the maximum fault current the breaker has been tested to interrupt in accordance with testing laboratory standards. Fault currents in excess of the interrupting rating can result in destruction of the breaker and equipment and possible injury to personnel. In other words, when the fault level exceeds the circuit breaker interrupting rating, the circuit breaker is no longer a protective device. In the example graph below, the interrupting rating at 480 volts is 30,000 amps. The interrupting ratings on circuit breakers vary according to breaker type and voltage level. The marked interrupting on a circuit breaker is a three-pole rating and NOT a single-pole rating (refer to pages 29 to 34 for more information). When drawing circuit breaker time-current curves, determine the proper interrupting rating from the manufacturers literature and represent this interrupting rating on the drawing by a vertical line at the right end of the curve.
1000 800 600 400

400 Ampere Circuit Breaker

Average Unlatching Times Breaker Tripping Magnetically Current in RMS Amps 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 Time in Seconds 0.0045 0.0029 0.0024 0.0020 0.0017

Ove

300 200

rloa d Re

Minimum Unlatching Time


100 80 60 40 30 20

gion

Maximum Interrrupting Time

Interrupting Rating RMS S ym. 240V 480V 600V Amps 42,000 30,000 22,000

10 8 6 4 3

Adjustable Magnetic Instantaneous Trip Set at 10 Times I.T = 10X . ( 10% Band)

TIME IN SECONDS

1 .8 .6 .4 .3 .2

Adjustable Instantaneous Trip Set at 5 Times I.T. = 5X ( 25% Band)

.1 .08 .06 .04 .03 .02

Maximum Interrupting Time

Instantanous Region

.01 .008 .006 .004 .003 .002

Interrupting Rating at 480 Volt Average Unlatching Times for Instantaneous Tripping

10,000

20,000

30,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

CURRENT IN AMPERES

94

2005 Cooper Bussmann

100,000

100

200

300

400

600

800

1000

2000

3000

4000

6000

8000

.001

Selective Coordination
Circuit Breakers
Medium to High Level Fault CurrentsCircuit Breakers
The following curve illustrates a 400A circuit breaker ahead of a 90A breaker. Any fault above 1500A on the load side of the 90A breaker will open both breakers. The 90A breaker will generally unlatch before the 400A breaker. However, before the 90A breaker can separate its contacts and clear the fault current, the 400A breaker has unlatched and also will open. Assume a 4000A short circuit exists on the load side of the 90A circuit breaker. The sequence of events would be as follows:
1. The 90A breaker will unlatch (Point A) and free the breaker mechanism to start the actual opening process. 2. The 400A breaker will unlatch (Point B) and it, too, would begin the opening process. Once a breaker unlatches, it will open. At the unlatching point, the process is irreversible. 3. At Point C, the 90A breaker will have completely interrupted the fault current. 4. At Point D, the 400A breaker also will have completely opened the circuit.
1000 800 600 400 300 200 90A 100 80 60 40 30 20 90Amp Circuit Breaker 10 8 6 4 3 TIME IN SECONDS 2 400Amp Circuit Breaker I.T. = 5X 4000A 400A

Consequently, this is a non-selective system, causing a complete blackout to the other loads protected by the 400A breaker. As printed by one circuit breaker manufacturer, One should not overlook the fact that when a high fault current occurs on a circuit having several circuit breakers in series, the instantaneous trip on all breakers may operate. Therefore, in cases where several breakers are in series, the larger upstream breaker may start to unlatch before the smaller downstream breaker has cleared the fault. This means that for faults in this range, a main breaker may open when it would be desirable for only the feeder breaker to open. This is typically referred to in the industry as a "cascading effect." Typically circuit breaker manufacturers do not publish the unlatching times or unlatching curves for their products.

1 .8 .6 .4 .3 .2

.1 .08 .06 .04 .03 .02 .01 .008 .006 .004 .003 .002 A B D C

.001 8000 10,000 40,000 800 1000 2000 3000 6000 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 200 300 400 600 1,500A CURRENT IN AMPERES 80,000 100,000 20,000 30,000 60,000

4,000A

14,000A 30,000A I.R. I.R.

2005 Cooper Bussmann

95

Selective Coordination
Circuit Breakers
Simple Method To Check Circuit Breaker Coordination
The previous discussion and curve illustrated two molded case circuit breakers (90A and 400A) with the unlatching characteristics for both shown on one curve. This illustrated that two circuit breakers with instantaneous trips can not be selectively coordinated for fault currents above a certain level. That level is the fault current at which the upstream circuit breaker operates in its instantaneous trip region. When a fault above that level occurs, the lower circuit breaker (90A in this case) unlatches. However, before it clears the circuit, the upstream circuit breaker(s) (400A in this case) also unlatches. Once a circuit breaker unlatches, it will open, thereby disconnecting the circuit from the power source. In the case shown, the curves show the 400A circuit breaker needlessly opens for a fault on the load side of the 90A circuit breaker. For any fault current greater than where the two circuit breaker curves intersect (in this case 1500A) the upstream circuit breaker does not coordinate with the down stream circuit breaker. However, in most cases, manufacturers do not publish unlatching times or unlatching curves for their circuit breakers. Therefore, even the most detailed coordination study from a software program will NOT show whether or not a circuit breaker system is "selectively coordinated." So then, how can coordination of circuit breakers be assessed when all the circuit breakers used in a system have instantaneous trip settings? There is a very simple method that does not even require drawing the circuit breaker time current curves. This method can be used to analyze software program coordination plots in most cases. The following paragraphs present this method.
1. This simple method will be shown with the time current curves (but without the unlatching time curves included). 2. However, normally it is not even necessary to draw the time current curves in order to evaluate coordination of circuit breakers having instantaneous trip units. So another section provides this simplified method without needing a time current curve.

Circuit Breaker Coordination Simplified Method With Time Current Curve


With the simplified method, there is no need to have the unlatching times or draw the unlatching curves. The following curve illustrates the time current characteristics for the 1200A circuit breaker, the 400A circuit breaker and 100A circuit breaker. The instantaneous trip settings for each of these three molded case circuit breakers are provided on the one-line diagram. The 100A circuit breaker has a non-adjustable instantaneous trip setting and the curve is as depicted. The 400A circuit breaker has an instantaneous trip set at 10 times its amp rating (10X) which is 10 times 400A or 4000A. The 1200A circuit breaker has an instantaneous trip set at six times its amp rating (6X) which is six times 1200A rating or 7200A.. Remember from a previous section 2. Instantaneous Region that there is a tolerance associated with the instantaneous trip region for adjustable instantaneous trip settings; the curve shown for the 400A and 1200A circuit breakers are drawn with the tolerances included.

Below is the one line diagram that will be used for learning these simple methods. Review the one-line diagram below that has three molded case circuit breakers in series: from the main 1200A to the 100A branch circuit with the 400A feeder in between. The other circuit breakers on the one-line diagram supply other circuits and loads. The fault current path from the power source is depicted by the red arrows/lines superseded on the one-line diagram.
One-Line For Circuit Breaker System CoordinationAnalysis

1200A MCCB It @ 6 X = 7,200A

400A MCCB It @ 10 X = 4,000A

100A MCCB It Non-Adjustable

Fault > 7,200A

When the curves of two circuit breakers cross over in their instantaneous trip region, then the drawing indicates that the two circuit breakers do not coordinate for fault currents greater than this cross over point. For instance, interpreting the coordination curves for the 100A circuit breaker and the 400A circuit breaker: their curves intersect in the instantaneous region starting at approximately 3600A. That means for a fault current greater than 3600A on the load side of the 100A circuit breaker, the 400A circuit breaker will open as well as the 100A circuit breaker. This demonstrates a lack of coordination and results in a "cascading effect" that will cause a partial blackout. This curve also shows that for any fault greater than approximately 6500 amps on the load side of the 100A circuit breaker, the 400A and 1200A circuit breakers will open as well as the 100A circuit breaker. The reason: for a fault of greater than 6500A, all three of these circuit breakers are in their instantaneous trip region. Both the 400A and 1200A circuit breakers can
2005 Cooper Bussmann

96

Selective Coordination
Circuit Breakers
unlatch before the 100A circuit breaker clears the fault current. If this is not understood, re-read the previous section Circuit Breaker Coordination Medium to High Level Fault Currents. How does this affect the electrical system? Look at the one-line diagram below. For any fault current greater than approximately 6500A on the load side of the 100A circuit breaker, the 1200A and 400A circuit breakers open as well as the 100A circuit breaker. The yellow shading indicates that all three circuit breakers opened - 100A branch circuit, 400A feeder and the 1200A main. In addition, all the loads fed by the other circuit breakers, denoted by the hash shading, are blacked out unnecessarily. This is due to the lack of coordination between the 100A, 400A and 1200A circuit breakers. The coordination analysis of the circuit breakers merely requires knowing what the numbers mean:
1. Any fault on the loadside of the 100A circuit breaker greater than 4000A will open the 400A circuit breaker as well as the 100A circuit breaker. Reason: the 400A circuit breaker with an instantaneous trip set at 10 times opens instantaneously for any fault current greater than 4000A. 2. Any fault on the loadside of the 100A circuit breaker greater than 7200A will open the 1200A circuit breaker as well as the 100A and 400A circuit breakers. Reason: the 1200A circuit breaker with an instantaneous trip set at six times opens instantaneously for any fault current greater than 7200A. 3. Any fault on the loadside of the 400A circuit breaker greater than 7200A will open the 1200A circuit breaker as well as the 400A circuit breaker. Reason: the 1200A circuit breaker with an instantaneous trip set at six times opens instantaneously for any fault current greater than 7200A.

Circuit Breaker Coordination Simplified Method Without Time Current Curve


It is not even necessary to draw the curves to assess circuit breaker coordination. All that is necessary is to use some simple multiplication. Multiply the instantaneous trip setting times the circuit breaker amp rating (the instantaneous trip setting is usually adjustable but can vary depending upon frame size and circuit breaker type - some have adjustable settings of four to 10 times the amp rating - check specifications of specific circuit breaker). The product of these two is the approximate point at which a circuit breaker enters its instantaneous trip region. (As explained in a previous section 2. Instantaneous Region, there is a tolerance associated with where the instantaneous trip initially picks up. A vertical band depicts the instantaneous trip pickup tolerance. For this easy method, we will ignore the tolerance band; therefore the results differ somewhat from the time current curve example just given.) For instance, the 400A circuit breaker in this example has its instantaneous trip (IT) set at 10 times its amp rating (10X). Therefore for fault currents above 10 x 400A or 4000A, the 400A circuit breaker will unlatch in its instantaneous trip region, thereby opening. The same could be determined for the 1200A circuit breaker, which has its instantaneous trip set at 6X its amp rating. Therefore, for fault currents above 7200A, the 1200A circuit breaker unlatches in its instantaneous trip region, thereby opening.

So it becomes apparent, to evaluate coordination of circuit breakers with instantaneous trips, the time current curves do not have to be drawn. All that is necessary is to use simple multiplication of the instantaneous trip settings times the circuit breaker amp ratings,and evaluate this in conjunction with the available fault current. Note: Circuit breakers that provide the use of a short time delay do not always assure coordination. The reason is that molded case circuit breakers and insulated case circuit breakers that have a short-time delay will also have an instantaneous trip setting that overrides the short-time delay at some fault level. Molded case circuit breakers with short time delay settings will have an instantaneous trip that overrides the short time delay, typically at a maximum of 10 times the amp rating. These instantaneous overrides are necessary to protect the circuit breakers for higher faults. The same simple procedure for evaluating circuit breakers with instantaneous trips can be used for this type circuit breaker, also. Merely read the manufacturers literature to determine this instantaneous trip override setting. However, be certain to establish if the instantaneous trip pickup is given in symmetrical amps or asymmetrical amps. Some manufacturers specify the instantaneous override in asymmetrical amps which for practical evaluation purposes moves the instantaneous trip pickup setting to the left (picks up at lower symmetrical fault currents than perceived). See the next two pages for a brief discussion and curves of short-time delay settings and instantaneous overrides.

2005 Cooper Bussmann

97

Selective Coordination
Circuit Breakers
Short-Time-Delay and Instantaneous Override
Some circuit breakers are equipped with short-time delay settings for the sole purpose of improving system coordination. Review the three curves on this page and the next page. Circuit breaker short-time-delay (STD) mechanisms allow an intentional delay to be installed on low voltage power circuit breakers. Short-time-delays allow the fault current to flow for several cycles, which subjects the electrical equipment to unnecessarily high mechanical and thermal stress. Most equipment ratings, such as short circuit ratings for bus duct and switchboard bus, do not apply when short-time-delay settings are employed. The use of short-time-delay settings on circuit breakers requires the system equipment to be reinforced to withstand the available fault current for the duration of the short-time-delay. Ignoring equipment ratings in relation to the protective device opening time and let-through characteristics can be disastrous. Following is a time-current curve plot for two low voltage power circuit breaker with short-time delay and a 20A MCCB. The 100A CB has a STD set at 6 cycles and the 800A CB has a STD set at 24 cycles. This type of separation of the curves should allow for selective coordination, assuming that the breakers have been serviced and maintained per the manufacturer's requirements. This is an approach to achieve selective coordination that can diminish electrical safety and component protection. An insulated case circuit breaker (ICCB) may also be equipped with shorttime-delay. However, ICCBs will have a built-in override mechanism. This is called the instantaneous override function, and will override the STD for medium to high level faults. This override may kick in for faults as low as 12 times (12x) the breakers amp rating. (See curve in left column on next page.) This can result in non-selective tripping of the breaker and load side breakers where overlaps occur. This can be seen in the example. (See curve in right column on next page.) As the overlap suggests, for any fault condition greater than 21,000A, both devices will open, causing a blackout.

Zone-Selective Interlocking
Zone-Selective Interlocking (ZSI), or zone restraint, has been available since the early 1990s. ZSI is designed to limit thermal stress caused by shortcircuits on a distribution system. ZSI will enhance the coordination of the upstream and downstream molded case circuit breakers for all values of available short-circuit current up to the instantaneous override of the upstream circuit breaker.

Caution: Use of Circuit Breaker Short-Time Delay Settings May Negate Protection and Increase Arc-Flash Hazard
The longer an overcurrent is permitted to flow the greater the potential for component damage. The primary function of an overcurrent protective device is to provide protection to circuit components and equipment. A short-time delay (STD) setting on a circuit breaker can negate the function of protecting the circuit components. A low voltage power circuit breaker with a short-time delay and without instantaneous trip, permits a fault to flow for the length of time of the STD setting, which might be 6, 12, 18, 24 or 30 cycles. This typically is done to achieve fault coordination with downstream circuit breakers. However, there is an adverse consequence associated with using circuit breaker short-time delay settings. If a fault occurs on the circuit protected by a short time delay setting, a tremendous amount of damaging fault energy can be released while the system waits for the circuit breaker short-time delay to time out. In addition, circuit breakers with short-time delay settings can drastically increase the arc-flash hazard for a worker. The longer an overcurrent protective device takes to open, the greater the flash hazard due to arcing faults. Research has shown that the arc-flash hazard can increase with the magnitude of the current and the time duration the current is permitted to flow. System designers and users should understand that using circuit breakers with short-time delay settings will greatly increase the arc-flash energy if an arcing fault incident occurs. If an incident occurs when a worker is at or near the arc-flash, the worker may be subjected to considerably more arc-flash energy than if an instantaneous trip circuit breaker or better yet a currentlimiting circuit breaker or current-limiting fuses were protecting the circuit. The requirements for doing flash hazard analysis for worker safety are found in NFPA 70E Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces." As an example, compare the photos resulting from investigative testing of arcing faults. Further information is provided in Electrical Safety & Arc-Flash Protection in this bulletin. A couple of comparison photos are shown on the next page. These tests and others are detailed in Staged Tests Increase Awareness of Arc-Fault Hazards in Electrical Equipment, IEEE Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference Record, September, 1997, pp. 313-322. This paper can be found on the Cooper Bussmann web site at www.cooperbussmann.com/services/safetybasics. One finding of this IEEE paper is that current-limiting overcurrent protective devices reduce damage and arc-fault energy (provided the fault current is within the current-limiting range).

Low Voltage Power Circuit Breaker with Short-Time-Delay

98

2005 Cooper Bussmann

Selective Coordination
Circuit Breakers
Insulated Case Circuit BreakerInstantaneous Override
1000 800 600 400 300 200

Instantaneous Override Opens at 21,000 Amps


1000 800 600 400 300 200 2000A

100A

100 80 60 40 30 20

100 80

ICCB

60

2000A ICCB 100A CB

40 30 20

10 8 6 4 3

TIME IN SECONDS Instantaneous Override = 12X

10 8 6 4 3 2

TIME IN SECONDS

1 .8 .6 .4 .3 .2

1 .8 .6 .4 .3 .2

.1 .08 .06 .04 .03 .02

.1 .08 .06 .04 .03 .02

BLACKOUT!

10,000

20,000

30,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

CURRENT IN AMPERES

CURRENT IN AMPERES
21,000 AMPS

Test 4 shows sequential photos of a circuit protected by a circuit breaker with a short-time delay: interrupted at 6 cycles, so this incident lasted 110 of a second. The arcing fault was initiated on a three phase, 480V system with 22,600A short circuit available.

Test 3 Same test circuit as the prior photos, to the left, except the circuit is protected by KRP-C-601SP Cooper Bussmann Low-Peak Current-Limiting Fuses. In this case these fuses limited the current and the fuses cleared in less than a 12 cycle.

Current-limiting fuses or current-limiting circuit breakers can reduce the risks associated with arc-flash hazards by limiting the magnitude of the fault currents (provided the fault current is within the current-limiting range) and reducing the time duration of the fault. Test 3 photos, to the right, are from tests with the same test setup as shown in Test 4 above, except that KRP-C601SP Low-Peak current-limiting fuses protect the circuit and clear the arcing fault in less than 12 cycle. The arc-flash was greatly reduced because these fuses were in their current-limiting range. Also, the thermal and mechanical stresses on the circuit components that conducted the fault current were

greatly reduced. Recent arc-flash research has shown that arc-flash energy is linearly proportional to the time duration of the fault (given the fault currents are the same). Ignoring the fact that the KRP-C-601SP Low-Peak fuses in Test 3 limited the current let-through, the arc-flash energy released in Test 3 was approximately 112 that of Test 4 just due to the faster operation of the KRPC-601SP Low-Peak fuses (less than 12 cycle clearing in Test 3 vs. 6 cycles clearing in Test 4). The actual arc-flash energy was reduced even more in Test 3 because of the current-limiting effect of the KRP-C-601SP Low-Peak fuses.

100,000

1000

2000

3000

4000

6000

10,000

20,000

30,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

1000

2000

3000

4000

6000

8000

8000

100

200

300

400

600

100

200

300

400

600

800

800

.01

.01

2005 Cooper Bussmann

99

Selective Coordination
Essential Electrical Systems In Healthcare Facilities, Emergency Systems and Legally Required Standby Systems
In recent history, there has been an increasing demand for reliability of electrical power for buildings spanning the entire spectrum from single-family residences to places of assembly to industrial facilities. Many building systems have gone to the extent of installing emergency back-up or standby systems to ensure maximum possible reliability and continuity of their electrical system. There are some types of buildings that require an emergency system or legally required standby system such as hotels, theatres, sports arenas, healthcare facilities and many more similar institutions. These life safety electrical systems are used to ensure electrical power in the case of power loss due to an outside source (utility loss) or an inside source (overcurrent condition). Very important loads must remain energized as long as possible during times of normal power outage and emergencies that may be caused by equipment failures, nature or man. However, simply installing a back-up system is not the entire solution, the electrical system must be designed to maximize power to these important loads and minimize outages even under physical catastrophes. It is very important to analyze the characteristics of the overcurrent protective devices (OCPDs) of these life safety systems to ensure they will perform as desired. The NEC has special requirements for these life safety electrical systems. These include several requirements that are based upon providing a system with reliable operation, reducing the probability of faults, and minimizing the effects of an outage to the smallest portion of the system as possible. Below are a few of these sections: 700.4 maintenance and testing requirements 700.9(B) emergency circuits separated from normal supply circuits 700.9(C) wiring specifically located to minimize system hazards 700.16 failure of one component must not result in a condition where a means of egress will be in total darkness. The objective of these requirements is to ensure system uptime with the goal of safety of human life during emergencies or for essential health care functions. The 2005 NEC has adapted to this demand and has modified a few articles to address the issue of selective coordination and to ensure by design and installation that the intended life safety electrical systems will stay in service for the longest possible period of time. The installation of a back-up system could easily be negated by the use of overcurrent protective devices that are not selectively coordinated. Selective coordination helps ensure by design and installation that some life safety electrical systems will stay in service for the longest possible period of time. There has been a requirement for selective coordination in the NEC for many years. NEC 620.62 has had a selective coordination requirement for multiple elevators in a building. This requirement is crucial for a few specific reasons such as not stranding passengers for normal operation and for emergency egress as well as keeping elevators in use for emergency firefighting operations. The 2005 NEC selective coordination requirements have been expanded and a definition Coordination (Selective) has been added to Article 100:

New Article 100 Definition


Coordination (Selective). Localization of an overcurrent condition to restrict outages to the circuit or equipment affected, accomplished by the choice of overcurrent protective devices and their ratings or settings. NEC 700.27 (Emergency Systems) and 701.18 (Legally Required Standby Systems) have added selective coordination of overcurrent protective devices to help ensure life safety. Examples of circuits that require selective coordination would be emergency and egress lighting for the safe evacuation from a building and to assist in crowd and panic control. Also, in many cases, some elevators and ventilation equipment may be classified as an emergency or legally required standby system by the Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) or the locally adopted building code. Also, 527.26 requires the essential electrical systems of healthcare facilities have overcurrent protective devices that are selectively coordinated.

The New NEC Requirements


517.26 Application of Other Articles. The essential electrical system shall meet the requirements of Article 700, except as amended by Article 517. 700.27 Coordination. Emergency system(s) overcurrent devices shall be selectively coordinated with all supply side overcurrent protective devices. 701.18 Coordination. Legally required standby system(s) overcurrent devices shall be selectively coordinated with all supply side overcurrent protective devices.

System Requirement
As stated in the NEC requirements above, selective coordination is not just between the branch circuit and feeder. It is the entire circuit path from the main overcurrent protective device to the branch circuit device. See figure below.

100

2005 Cooper Bussmann

Selective Coordination
Essential Electrical Systems In Healthcare Facilities, Emergency Systems and Legally Required Standby Systems
A given emergency branch circuit load has a circuit path up through to the main on the normal source and another circuit path up through to the main on the emergency source. The requirement for selective coordination means that all the overcurrent protective devices must be selectively coordinated with each other, from each emergency branch circuit up through to the main of the normal power supply and up through to the main on the emergency power supply. See following example:
3. A coordination study should fully investigate, interpret, and present the level of coordination achieved for the full system and for the determined amount of available short-circuit currents. This requires a person qualified for this task. Too often, coordination studies are performed where the deliverable is just time current curve plots with no interpretation or discussion on the level of coordination achieved (or sacrificed). Also, the studies should be performed in the design phase so that if the study results prompt a change, the change can be without major ramifications.

Fusible Systems
Cooper Bussmann makes it easy to design fusible systems that are selectively coordinated. For the modern current-limiting fuses, selectivity ratios are published (see Fuse Selectivity Ratio Guide section). It is not necessary to plot time current curves or do a short-circuit current analysis; all that is necessary is to make sure the fuse types and ampere rating ratios for the mains, feeders and branch circuit meet or exceed the selectivity ratio. These selectivity ratios are for all levels of overcurrent up to the interrupting ratings of the respective fuses. The ratios are valid even for fuse opening times less than 0.01 seconds. This means with current-limiting fuses, it is not necessary to do any analysis for less than 0.01 seconds when the fuse types and ampere rating ratios adhere to the selectivity ratios. The industry standard for publishing fuse time current curves is to plot the times from 0.01 seconds and longer. The following example illustrates all that is necessary to achieve selective coordination with a fusible system.

How Can Selective Coordination Be Achieved?


Selective coordination of the overcurrent protective devices for these life safety systems for both the normal power source path and the alternate power source path can be achieved with either modern current-limiting fuse technology or modern circuit breaker technology. However, not all fuse types or circuit breaker types can be used in any and all situations to ensure selective coordination. The ability to achieve selective coordination depends on the specific circuit parameters (short-circuit currents available at various points in the system) and the fuse or circuit breaker opening characteristics and possible setting options. Proper overcurrent protective device choice and selective coordination analysis is absolutely necessary. However, if the proper choices and analysis are not made so that selective coordination is ensured, the system may be built with deficiencies that may negatively impact life safety.

Other Important Considerations


1. Either a system has overcurrent protective devices that are selectively coordinated or the system does not. There is no middle ground. When terms such as enhancing coordination, optimizing coordination, coordination "to the best degree possible," or similar terms are used, it generally means the overcurrent protective devices are not selectively coordinated over the full range of short-circuit currents that are available in the application. 2. Selective coordination is for the full range of overcurrents available at all mains, feeders and branch circuits. It is not acceptable to arbitrarily consider selective coordination is applicable only above certain times such as 0.01, 0.1, or 1.0 seconds. The coverage of selective coordination in the sections on Selective Coordination for Fuses and Circuit Breakers of this SPD publication explains how to assess fuses and circuit breakers for the full range of overcurrents irrespective of the times. Also, these preceding sections provide some easy, quick methods to assess selective coordination for both fuse and circuit breaker systems.

2005 Cooper Bussmann

101

Selective Coordination
Essential Electrical Systems In Healthcare Facilities, Emergency Systems and Legally Required Standby Systems
Frequently Asked Questions: Fuse System
Q. How about when two different current-limiting fuses are plotted on a time current curve and there is a space between the lower ampere fuse total clear curve and the larger ampere fuse minimum melt curve does this ensure selective coordination (if the selectivity ratio is not known)? A. In this case, without knowing the selectivity ratio and having only time current curves, selective coordination can only be ensured for the level of overcurrent up to the point where the larger fuse curve crosses 0.01 seconds. For times where the fuse opening time is less than 0.01 seconds, selectivity ratios are necessary. It is not necessary to plot fuse time current curves; just adhere to the selectivity ratios. Q. What about lighting branch circuits? There has not been a commercially available fusible lighting panelboards, so how can selective coordination be achieved for the 20A panelboard circuits? A. In order to achieve a selectively coordinated fusible system, Cooper Bussmann has the Coordination Module, which is a fusible branch circuit panelboard. So now it is easy to achieve selective coordination from main to branch circuit with an all fusible system, including branch circuit lighting panelboards, by adhering to the simple selectivity ratios. Information on Coordination Module on www.cooperbussmann.com data sheet 3115.

Selectivity Ratio Guide For Coordination Module Load-Side Fuse LP-CC FNQ-R KTK-R Line-Side Fuse
LPJ_SP LPN-RK_SP LPS-RK_SP FRN-R FRS-R 2:1 2:1 2:1 2:1 2:1

Ratios only apply to Cooper Bussmann Fuses. When fuses are in the same case size, consult Cooper Bussmann.

102

2005 Cooper Bussmann

Selective Coordination
Essential Electrical Systems In Healthcare Facilities, Emergency Systems and Legally Required Standby Systems
Circuit Breaker Systems
As stated earlier, if a designer wants to use circuit breakers, it may be possible to achieve a selectively coordinated system. There are a host of circuit breaker alternatives in the form of circuit breaker types, optional features, and possible settings. See Circuit Breaker Coordination section in this publication for more in-depth discussion on some of the options and tradeoffs. The designer must understand the characteristics, setting options and override particulars for each circuit breaker considered and in some cases, factor in the specific circuit parameters such as the available short-circuit currents at each point in the system. If circuit breakers are considered, typically the following become important:
1. A short-circuit current study with a coordination study (interpreted properly) is necessary to determine if selective coordination is achieved for each circuit and for the entire circuit path. It is necessary to have the available short-circuit currents and circuit breakers characteristics and settings. Depending on the circumstances, the designer may have to use different type circuit breakers or options in order to achieve selective coordination. 2. Typically the designer will have to utilize circuit breakers with short-time delays and possibly larger frame sizes. This may increase the cost and equipment size. 3. Tradeoffs in system protection: These decisions that may improve the level of coordination may negatively impact the level of component protection. 4. Arc flash hazard level: These decisions that may improve the level of coordination may negatively impact the arc flash hazard level. 5. In many cases, the circuit breaker solution may only be selectively coordinated for the exact designed system (for specific circuit breaker settings and available short circuit currents of a specific system). Most systems get upgraded or change at some point in time and this can significantly increase the available short-circuit currents. This may negate the selective coordination for some circuit breaker systems that may have originally been selectively coordinated. 6. Testing and maintenance: periodic exercising and testing are important for circuit breakers to ensure they operate as intended. If circuit breakers are found not to operate as specified, maintenance or replacement of these circuit breakers is necessary. For instance, if a feeder circuit breaker fails to operate or operates slower than as specified, it may cause the main circuit breaker to open due to a feeder fault. The result would be a much larger portion of these critical system loads being without power.

New Requirement Compliance


Achieving overcurrent protective device selective coordination for a system requires the proper engineering, specification and installation of the required devices, and in addition, knowledgeable plan review and inspection to ensure compliance. The designer, contractor, and plan review/inspector each have their role in compliance to selective coordination in order to ensure safety to human life.

Role of Designers
For these vital systems, the designer must select, specify, and document overcurrent protective devices that achieve selective coordination for the full range of possible overcurrents and for faults at all possible points in the system (faults can occur in the branch circuits, sub-feeders, and feeders). The designer should provide the plan reviewer a stamped analysis verifying that selective coordination is achieved as designed for the required electrical systems. Documentation of the basis should be included. Also, this information is necessary so that the contractor quotes and installs the overcurrent protective devices as designed.

Role of Plan Review/Inspectors


The plan review process is a critical phase. If a non-compliant design does not get caught and corrected in the plan review, it could get red tagged in the inspection phase, which may require a very expensive gear change out. During the plan review process, the engineer must provide the stamped substantiation in the form of documentation that his design achieves selective coordination for these vital circuits. The plan reviewer should not have to prove or disprove that selective coordination is achieved. The engineers documentation should be clear enough to demonstrate that the design work included the proper selective coordination analysis and that the plans and specifications clearly articulate the required details on type of overcurrent protective devices, ampere ratings, and settings (if circuit breakers). The engineers documentation should clearly state that the plans specify overcurrent protective devices that achieve selective coordination for these vital systems. During the inspection process, prior to energizing the system, the field inspection should include verifying that the overcurrent protective devices have been installed as specified. If circuit breakers are used, the settings should be verified as per plan.

System with Mixture of Fuses and Circuit Breakers


Fuses and circuit breakers operate in totally different ways. Fuses are thermal devices that have encased fusible elements that operate under overcurrent conditions by melting or vaporizing at some points of the element, arcing, and clearing the circuit. All circuit breakers have three operating functions to clear a circuit: (1) overcurrent sensing, (2) unlatching, and (3) parting the contacts, arcing, and clearing. There are numerous technologies used for circuit breaker overcurrent sensing. For downstream fuse and upstream circuit breaker, it is not a simple matter to determine if a fuse and circuit breaker will be selectively coordinated. Even if the plot of the time current curves for a downstream fuse and an upstream circuit breaker show that the curves do not cross, selective coordination may not be possible. If a fuse is upstream and a circuit breaker is downstream, at some point the fuse time current characteristic crosses the circuit breaker time current characteristic. For short-circuit currents at that point and higher, the upstream fuse is not coordinated with the down stream circuit breaker.

Role of Contractors
Contractors must install the system as designed to ensure selective coordination for the system. If a fusible system, install the fuse types and ampere ratings as called for in the design. If a circuit breaker system, install the circuit breaker types with the specified settings. If the contractor opts to suggest a value engineering option for these vital systems, it is critical that the engineer evaluates and approves of any changes as well as the plan reviewer.

2005 Cooper Bussmann

103

Selective Coordination
Elevator Circuit
Elevator Circuits and Required Shunt Trip Disconnect A Simple Solution.
When sprinklers are installed in elevator hoistways, machine rooms, or machinery spaces, ANSI/ASME A17.1 requires that the power be removed to the affected elevator upon or prior to the activation of these sprinklers. This is an elevator code requirement that affects the electrical installation. The electrical installation allows this requirement to be implemented at the disconnecting means for the elevator in NEC 620.51(B). This requirement is most commonly accomplished through the use of a shunt trip disconnect and its own control power. To make this situation even more complicated, interface with the fire alarm system along with the monitoring of components required by NFPA 72 must be accomplished in order to activate the shunt trip action when appropriate and as well as making sure that the system is functional during normal operation. This requires the use of interposing relays that must be supplied in an additional enclosure. Other requirements that have to be met include selective coordination for multiple elevators (620.62) and hydraulic elevators with battery lowering [620.91(C)]. There is a simple solution available for engineering consultants, contractors, and inspectors to help comply with all of these requirements in one enclosure called the Cooper Bussmann Power Module.
Power Module Elevator Disconnect All-in-One Solution for Three Disciplines
NEC Selective Coordination Hydraulic Elevators Traction Elevators NFPA 72 Fire Safety Interface Component Monitoring ANSI/ASME A17.1 Shunt Trip Requirement

Elevator Selective Coordination Requirement


In the 2005 NEC, 620.62 states: Where more than one driving machine disconnecting means is supplied by a single feeder, the overcurrent protective devices in each disconnecting means shall be selectively coordinated with any other supply side overcurrent protective devices. A design engineer must specify and the contractor must install main, feeder, sub-feeder, and branch circuit protective devices that are selectively coordinated for all values of overloads and short circuits. To better understand how to assess if the overcurrent protective devices in an electrical system are selectively coordinated refer to the Selective Coordination Section of this booklet. Below is a brief coordination assessment of an elevator system in a circuit breaker system (example 1) and in a fuse system (Example 2).

The Power Module contains a shunt trip fusible switch together with the components necessary to comply with the fire alarm system requirements and shunt trip control power all in one package. For engineering consultants this means a simplified specification. For contractors this means a simplified installation because all that has to be done is connecting the appropriate wires. For inspectors this becomes simplified because everything is in one place with the same wiring every time. The fusible portion of the switch utilizes Low-Peak LPJ-(amp)SP fuses that protect the elevator branch circuit from the damaging effects of short-circuit currents as well as helping to provide an easy method of selective coordination when supplied with an upstream Low-Peak fuse with at least a 2:1 amp rating ratio. More information about the Cooper Bussmann Power Module can be found at www.cooperbussmann.com.

Using the one-line diagram above, a coordination study must be done to see that the system complies with the 620.62 selective coordination requirement if EL-1, EL-2, and EL-3 are elevator motors. Go to the Selective Coordination section for a more indepth discussion on how to analyze systems to determine if selective coordination can be achieved.

104

2005 Cooper Bussmann

Selective Coordination
Elevator Circuit
Example 1 Circuit Breaker System
In this example, molded case circuit breakers (MCCB) will be used for the branch and feeder protective devices and an insulated case circuit breaker (ICCB) will be used for the main protective device.
1,000 800 600 400 300 200

Example 2 Fusible System


In our second example, LPJ-(amp)SP fuses will be used for the branch protection, LPS-RK-(amp)SP fuses will be used for the feeder protection, and KRP-C-(amp)SP fuses will be used for the main protection.
1,000 800 600 400 300

KRP-C-1600SP
200

LPS-RK-400SP
100 80 60 40 30 20

1600A ICCB 400A MCCB 200A MCCB 100A MCCB

100 80 60 40 30

LPS-RK-200SP LPJ-100SP

10 8 6

TIME IN SECONDS

20

TIME IN SECONDS

10 8 6 4 3

4 3 2

2
1 .8 .6 .4 .3 .2

1 .8 .6 .4 .3 .2

.1 .08 .06 .04 .03 .02

.1 .08 .06 .04 .03 .02

.01 60,000 80,000 100,000 100 200 300 400 600 800 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000

.01

BLACKOUT (PARTIAL) CURRENT IN AMPERES

BLACKOUT (TOTAL)

CURRENT IN AMPERES

Looking at the time current curves for the circuit breaker in the figure above, where any two circuit breaker curves overlap is a lack of selective coordination. The overlap indicates both devices open. If any fault current greater than 750A and less than 3100A occurs at EL-1, EL-2 or EL-3, the 200A circuit breaker will open as well as the 100A branch circuit breaker - this is not a selectively coordinated system and does not meet the requirements of 620.62. This lack of selective coordination could result in stranding passengers in elevators or not having elevators available for fire fighters. Fault currents above 3100A will open the 400A circuit breaker as well and faults above approximately 16,000A will open the 1600A circuit breaker - which further illustrates the lack of coordination. For a better understanding of how to assess circuit breaker coordination, see the section on Circuit Breaker Coordination in this book. A system that is not in compliance may result in needlessly stranding passengers and creating a serious safety hazard.

To verify selective coordination, go no further than the Fuse Selectivity Ratio Guide in the Fuse Selective Coordination section in this book. The Low-Peak fuses just require a 2:1 amp rating ratio to assure selective coordination. In this example, there is a 4:1 ratio between the main fuse (1600A) and the first level feeder fuse (400A) and a 2:1 ratio between the first level feeder fuse and the second level feeder fuse (200A). As well, there is a 2:1 ratio between the second level feeder fuse and the branch circuit fuse (100A). Since a minimum of a 2:1 ratio is satisfied at all levels for this system, selective coordination is achieved and 620.62 is met. As just demonstrated in the prior paragraph, the fuse time current curves do not have to be drawn to assess selective coordination. For illustrative purposes, the time current curves for this example are shown above.

60,000 80,000 100,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

6,000 8,000 10,000

100

200

300

400

600

800 1,000

20,000

30,000

40,000

2005 Cooper Bussmann

105