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HACKING : HACKING Dont Learn to Hack Hack to Learn Who is a hacker? : Who is a hacker?

? There are at least two common interpretations: Someone who bypasses the systems access controls by taking advantage of security weaknesses left in the system by developers Someone who is both knowledgeable and skilled at computer programming, and who is a member of the hacker subculture, one with its own philosophy and code of ethics. A hacker is a person who breaks into computers and computer networks for profit, as protest, or sometimes by the motivation of the challenge.[1] The subculture that has evolved around hackers is often referred to as the computer underground but is now an open community. A Brief History of Hacking : A Brief History of Hacking 1960s MIT AI Lab Ken Thompson invented UNIX Positive Meaning 1970s Dennis Ritchie invented C Phreaking : John Draper Phreaking : YIPL/TAP Phreaking : Blue boxes A Brief History of Hacking : A Brief History of Hacking 1980s Cyberspace coined 414s arrested Two hacker groups formed 2600 published 1990s National Crackdown on hackers Kevin Mitnick arrested Microsofts NT operating system pierced National infrastructure protection center unveiled A Brief History of Hacking : A Brief History of Hacking 2000 In one of the biggest denial-of-service attacks , hackers launch attacks against eBay, Yahoo!, CNN.com., Amazon and others.

What Do Hackers Do? : What Do Hackers Do? System Access confidential information Threaten someone from YOUR computer Broadcast your confidential letters or materials Store illegal or espionage material What Do Hackers Do? : What Do Hackers Do? Network Eavesdrop and replay Imposer: server / client Modify data / stream Denial-of-Service

Classification of a Hacker : Classification of a Hacker Hackers can be classified by their motivation Cyberterrorists They attack government computers or public utility infrastructures. They crash critical systems or steal classified government information. Hacktivists They try to disseminate political or social messages through their work. A hacktivist wants to raise public awareness over an issue. Hackers techniques : Hackers techniques System hacking Network hacking Software hacking System Hacking : System Hacking Footprinting Scanning Enumeration Gaining access Escalating privilege Covering tracks Creating backdoors Denial of service Footprinting : Footprinting Objective To learn as much as you can about target system, it's remote access capabilities, its ports and services, and the aspects of its security. Techniques Open source search Whois Web interface to whois ARIN whois

Basic Hacking Skills 1. Learn how to program. 2. Get one of the open-source Unixes and learn to use and run it. 3. Learn how to use the World Wide Web and write HTML. 4. If you don't have functional English, learn it.
Techniques Vulnerability scanner A vulnerability scanner is a tool used to quickly check computers on a network for known weaknesses. Hackers also commonly use port scanners. These check to see which ports on a specified computer are "open" or available to access the computer, and sometimes will detect what program or service is listening on that port, and its version number. (Note that firewalls defend computers from intruders by limiting access to ports/machines both inbound and outbound, but can still be circumvented.) Password cracking Password cracking is the process of recovering passwords from data that has been stored in or transmitted by a computer system. A common approach is to repeatedly try guesses for the password.

Packet sniffer A packet sniffer is an application that captures data packets, which can be used to capture passwords and other data in transit over the network. Spoofing attack (Phishing) A spoofing attack involves one program, system, or website successfully masquerading as another by falsifying data and thereby being treated as a trusted system by a user or another program. The purpose of this is usually to fool programs, systems, or users into revealing confidential information, such as user names and passwords, to the attacker. Rootkit A rootkit is designed to conceal the compromise of a computer's security, and can represent any of a set of programs which work to subvert control of an operating system from its legitimate operators. Usually, a rootkit will obscure its installation and attempt to prevent its removal through a subversion of standard system security. Rootkits may include replacements for system binaries so that it becomes impossible for the legitimate user to detect the presence of the intruder on the system by looking at process tables. Social engineering Social engineering When a Hacker, typically a black hat, is in the second stage of the targeting process, he or she will typically use some social engineering tactics to get enough information to access the network. A common practice for hackers who use this technique, is to contact the system administrator and play the role of a user who cannot get access to his or her system. Hackers who use this technique have to be quite savvy and choose the words they use carefully, in order to trick the system administrator into giving them information. In some cases only an employed help desk user will answer the phone and they are generally easy to trick. Another typical hacker approach is for the hacker to act like a very angry supervisor and when the his/her authority is questioned they will threaten the help desk user with their job. Social Engineering is so effective because users are the most vulnerable part of an organization. All the security devices and programs in the world wont keep an organization safe if an employee gives away a password. Black Hat Hackers take advantage of this fact. Social Engineering can also be

broken down into four sub-groups. These are intimidation, helpfulness, technical, and name-dropping. Intimidation As stated above, with the angry supervisor, the hacker attacks the person who answers the phone with threats to their job. Many people at this point will accept that the hacker is a supervisor and give them the needed information. Helpfulness Opposite to intimidation, helpfulness is taking advantage of a person natural instinct to help someone with a problem. The hacker will not get angry instead act very distressed and concerned. The help desk is the most vulnerable to this type of Social Engineering, because they generally have the authority to change or reset passwords which is exactly what the hacker needs. Name-Dropping Simply put the hacker uses the names of advanced users as "key words", and gets the person who answers the phone to believe that they are part of the company because of this. Some information, like web page ownership, can be obtained easily on the web. Other information such as president and vice president names might have to be obtained via dumpster diving. Technical Using technology to get information is also a great way to get it. A hacker can send a fax or an email to a legitimate user in hopes to get a response containing vital information. Many times the hacker will act like he/she is involved with law enforcement and needs certain data for record keeping purposes or investigations. Trojan horses A Trojan horse is a program which seems to be doing one thing, but is actually doing another. A trojan horse can be used to set up aback door in a computer system such that the intruder can gain access later. (The

name refers to the horse from the Trojan War, with conceptually similar function of deceiving defenders into bringing an intruder inside.) Viruses A virus is a self-replicating program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. Therefore, a computer virus behaves in a way similar to a biological virus, which spreads by inserting itself into living cells. While some are harmless or mere hoaxes most computer viruses are considered malicious. Worms Like a virus, a worm is also a self-replicating program. A worm differs from a virus in that it propagates through computer networks without user intervention. Unlike a virus, it does not need to attach itself to an existing program. Many people conflate the terms "virus" and "worm", using them both to describe any self-propagating program. Key loggers A key logger is a tool designed to record ('log') every keystroke on an affected machine for later retrieval. Its purpose is usually to allow the user of this tool to gain access to confidential information typed on the affected machine, such as a user's password or other private data. Some key loggers uses virus-, trojan-, and rootkit-like methods to remain active and hidden. However, some key loggers are used in legitimate ways and sometimes to even enhance computer security. As an example, a business might have a key logger on a computer used at a point of sale and data collected by the key logger could be used for catching employee fraud. [edit]

What is Hacking? :
4/Dec/2009 Anshul Roy Hacking is to secretly find a way of compromising with someones else information or penetrating inside someones else network. Hackers can be malicious hackers (hackers with criminal intention) and ethical hackers (hackers who analyze security lapse in networks by hacking it). Whatever the case, most people give hackers a negative connotation. What is Hacking?

Classification of a Hacker :
Classification of a Hacker Hackers can be classified by their motivation Cyberterrorists They attack government computers or public utility infrastructures. They crash critical systems or steal classified government information. Hacktivists They try to disseminate political or social messages through their work. A hacktivist wants to raise public awareness over an issue.

Hacking Passwords :
Hacking Passwords Password hacking is one of the easiest and most common ways attackers obtain unauthorized computer or network access. Passwords are the weakest links in the information security chain. Passwords rely on secrecy. In the few following slides I will show how hackers hack passwords by using password cracking methods.

LowTech Password Cracking :


4/Dec/2009 Anshul Roy LowTech Password Cracking The easiest and the oldest way to crack a password is by using the physical vulnerabilities- Shoulder surfing Shoulder surfing (the act of looking over someones shoulder to see what they are typing) is an effective low tech password hack. Inference Inference is to simply guess the password from the information you know about the user like birth date, phone number etc.

High-Tech Password Cracking :


4/Dec/2009 Anshul Roy High-Tech Password Cracking High tech password cracking involves using a program that tries to guess a password by determining all possible password combinations. Some of the commonly used softwares are Pwdump3(www.openwall.com/passwords/dl/pwdump/pwdump3v2.zip) John the Ripper(www.openwall.com/john) Proactive Password Auditor (www.elcomsoft.com/ppa.html) Rainbowcrack (www.rainbowcrack.com)

Other Password Hacking Tricks :


4/Dec/2009 Anshul Roy Other Password Hacking Tricks Some other ways to crack passwords are as follow Keystroke Logging One of the best techniques for capturing passwords is remote keystroke logging the use of software to record keystrokes as they are being typed on the computer. You can download logging tools from www.spectorsoft.com, www.amecisco.com and www.keyghost.com. Searching You can try to find passwords by using your favorite text-searching utility such as Windows

search function to search for passwords on your computer drives. You may be shocked to find whats on your system.

Slide 8:
4/Dec/2009 Anshul Roy Keystroke Logging Hacker Victim The Hacker sends an e-mail to the victim in which he has attached a keystroke logger. Even if the victim does not opens the attachment file, the keystroke logger starts recording the keystrokes. The keystrokes are relayed to the hacker which he can use for personal gain.

Social Engineering :
Social Engineering Social Engineering takes advantage of the weakest link in any organizations information security defenses: the employees. Social Engineering is people hacking and involves maliciously exploiting the trusting nature of human beings to obtain information that can be used. Malicious attackers pose as someone else to gain information they otherwise cant access.

Slide 10:
4/Dec/2009 Anshul Roy Social Engineer Victim The social engineer calls the victim and asks for his password. Good Evening sir, I am your Yahoo accounts manager. We are suspecting that your e-mail id has some malware. Yahoo needs to clear it up otherwise your network can crash. Your are required to give me your password. So that it can be cleared. Okay sir, my password is streetchasers. I hope you get rid of the malware as soon as possible. The victim trusts him and gives his password. The trust factor in a human being helps a social engineer to gain access to someones else account. They may ask the password from the person through mail or telephone conversation.

Examples of Social Engineering :


4/Dec/2009 Anshul Roy Examples of Social Engineering Here are some examples of social engineering False Vendors They claim to make updates in the victims e-mail account and ask for the password and then gain full access. Phishers Phishing e-mails sent by hackers gather user IDs and passwords of unsuspecting recipients. The hacker then use those passwords to gain access to bank accounts and more.

Slide 12:
4/Dec/2009 Anshul Roy Phisher Victim Form asking for personal information The unsuspected victim gives information Phisher sends e-mail that appears to be from a

source the user trusts and it urges quick action, such as clicking on a link or opening a email attachment. Clicking the link opens a browser window on a web page where the user is asked to provide personal information. Information is relayed to the phisher. Personal data allows phishers to steal identities and money or government and corporate secrets.

Slide 13:
4/Dec/2009 Anshul Roy

E-Mail Hacking :
E-Mail Hacking Practically all messages applications are hacking targets on our network. Infact, e-mail systems are most targeted. In the following slides I have showed some email hacking tricks.

E-Mail Bombs :
E-Mail Bombs E-mail bombs can crash a server and provide unauthorized administrator access. They attack by creating denial of service (DoS) conditions against your e-mail software and even your network and Internet connection by taking up a large amount of bandwidth and sometimes requiring large amount of storage space.

Slide 16:
4/Dec/2009 Anshul Roy An attacker can create an attachment overloading attack by sending hundreds or thousands of e-mails with very large attachments to one or more recipients on a network. Multiple large messages can quickly fill the total storage capacity of an e-mail server. This can create crash the network or require you to take your system offline to clean up the junk. An attacker can crash your e-mail service or bring it to crawl by filling the incoming internet connection with junk. Even if your system automatically identifies and discards obvious attachment attacks, bogus messages eat resources and delay processing of valid messages. Hacker Victim E-mail bomb attack

Password Cracking Tools :


Password Cracking Tools BIOS passwords (lambice.techtarget.com/articles/BIOS_hack.htm) Brutus (securitylab.ru/-tools/brutusae2.zip) Cain and Aibel (www.oxid.it/cain.html) Ophcrack (www.objectifsecurite.ch/ophcrack) WinHex (www.winhex.com)

Malware :
Malware Chrootkit (www.chrootkit.com) Eicar (www.eicar.org/anti_virus_test_file.htm) Rkdet (vancouver-webpages.com/rkdet)

Slide 19:
Thank You And basically Hackers are of 3 types i.e. WHITE, BLACK AND GREY HAT hacker. The first one is the black hat, also known as a cracker, someone who uses his computer knowledge in criminal activities in order to obtain personal benefits. A typical example is a person who exploits the weaknesses of the systems of a financial institution for making some money. On the other side is the white hat hacker. Although white hat hacking can be considered similar to a black hacker, there is an important difference. A white hacker does it with no criminal intention in mind. Companies around the world, who want to test their systems, contract white hackers. They will test how secure are their systems, and point any faults that they may found. If you want to become a hacker with a white hat, linux, a PC and an internet connection is all you need. A grey hat hacker is someone who is in between these two concepts. He may use his skills for legal or illegal acts, but not for personal gains. Grey hackers use their skills in order to prove themselves that they can accomplish a determined feat, but never do it in order to make money out of it. The moment they cross that boundary, they become black hackers.

The first thing to do in computer hacking prevention is to assure yourself that all your software is up to date; especially your operating system and your web browser. Why? Because they are the two things that hackers will try to attack first if they want to get into your computer.

Firewalling
The second thing that you need to do is to install a firewall. As a matter of fact internet firewall hacker protection has become so necessary that Microsoft now ships it for free as part of their Windows XP operating system. It took them some years to admit it, but the truth is that their software was an easy target for the hackers and crackers that lurked through the World Wide Web. In case you don't want to use Windows XP firewall, there are many alternatives in the market. Companies like Symantec and Zone Labs have produced software firewalls for some time and have become a necessity for all the computers of corporate America. If

you don't know which one you want to buy, use the trial periods. Usually you can use the firewall for 15 to 30 days; that amount of time is more than enough to make your decision. The next step in security is to have an antivirus installed. There are free versions like AVG antivirus, or pay per year licenses, like Norton Antivirus (also from Symantec). As in the case of firewalls, there are many varieties available in the market; use the trial periods for choosing wisely.

Anti Spyware/Adware
1. Finally, there is the anti-spyware program. As if viruses were not enough, companies from around the world decided to create programs that could pick up data from your computer in order to acquire information for their databases. It may not be as dangerous as a virus, but it is an intrusion to your privacy. Wipe them out with this piece of software. Nowadays hacker prevention has become a task for all of us. No longer is it the responsibility of the system administrator of our company. After all, he can install all the security of the world in the company's network, but if you let a virus in because of your carelessness, he won't be able to stop it. The same goes for your computer at home. You are the only one responsible for it. Remember that new hacker tricks appear as each day goes by, so you need to be pImplement a firewall -- A firewall is a barrier that keeps hackers and viruses out of computer networks. Firewalls intercept network traffic and allow only authorized data to pass through. 2. Develop a corporate security policy -- Establish a corporate security policy that details practices to secure the network. The policy should direct employees to choose unique passwords that are a combination of letters and numbers. Passwords should be changed every 90 days to limit hackers' ability to gain possession of a functioning password. When someone leaves company, immediately delete the user name and password. The corporate policy should outline consequences for network tampering and unauthorized entry. 3. Install anti-virus software -- All computers should run the most recent version of an anti-virus protection subscription. Ideally a server should be configured to push virus updates out periodically to all client systems. Employees should be educated about viruses and discouraged from opening e-mail attachments or email from unknown senders. 4. Keep operating systems up to date -- Upgrade operating systems frequently and regularly install the latest patches or versions of software, which are often free over the Web. If you use Microsoft Windows, check www.windowsupdate.com periodically for the latest patches. 5. Don't run unnecessary network services -- When installing systems, any nonessential features should be disabled. If a feature is installed but not actively used,

it is less likely to be updated regularly, presenting a larger security threat. Also, allow only the software employees need to do their job effectively. 6. Conduct a vulnerability test -- Conducting a vulnerability test is a cost-effective way to evaluate the current security program. This test highlights flaws and limitations in the program, and experts can offer suggestions for improvement. The best method for conducting a vulnerability test is to contact a computer consulting company and provide access to your system for a day or two. This will provide ample time for network appraisal and follow-up discussion and planning. 7. Keep informed about network security -- Numerous books, magazines and online resources offer information about effective security tools and "lessons learned." Also, the Web provides ample and very current information about security - type in the key words "network security." repared.