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13.3 Six different machines are being considered for use in manufacturing rubber seals.

The machines are being compared with respect, to tensile strength of the product. A random sample of 4 seals from each machine is used to determine whether the mean tensile strength varies from machine to machine. The following are the tensile-strength measurements in kilograms per square centimeter x 10~':

Perform the analysis of variance at the 0.05 level of significance and indicate whether or not the mean tensile strengths differ significantly for the 6 machines.
13.5 In an article Shelf-Space Strategy in Retailing,published in the Proceedings: Southern Marketing Association,the effect of shelf height on the supermarketsales of canned dog food is investigated. An experiment was conducted at a small supermarket for a period of 8 days on the sales of a single brand of clog food, referred to as Arf dog food, involving three levels of shelf height: knee level, waist level, and eye level. During each day the shelf height of the canned clog food was randomly changed on three different occasions. The remaining sections of the gondola that housed the given brand were filled with a mixture of dog food brands that were both familiar and unfamiliar to customers in this particular geographic area. Sales, in hundreds of dollars, of Arf dog food per day for the three shelf heights are as follows:

Is there a significant difference in the average daily sales of this dog food based on shelf height? Use a, 0.01 level of significance. 13.7 It has been shown that the fertilizer magnesium ammonium phosphate, MgNH^POi, is an effective supplier of the nutrients necessary for plant growth. The compounds supplied by this fertilizer are highly soluble in water, allowing the fertilizer to be applied directly on the soil surface or mixed with the growth substrate during the potting process. A study on the Effect, of Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate on Height of Chrysanthemums was conducted at George Mason University to determine a possible optimum level of fertilization, based on the enhanced vertical growth response of the chrysanthemums. Forty chrysanthemum seedlings were divided into 4 groups each containing 10 plants. Each was planted in a similar pot containing a uniform growth medium. To each group of plants an increasing concentration of .\lgNH4PO4, measured in grains per bushel, was added. The 4 groups of plants were grown under uniform conditions in a greenhouse for a period of four weeks. The treatments and the respective changes in heights, measured in centimeters, are shown in the following table:

Can we conclude at the 0.05 level of significance that different concentrations of Mg'NH.iPO.i affect the average attained height of chrysanthemums'' How much Mg'NH.iPO.i appears to be best? 13.9 The mitochondrial enzyme NAPH:NADtranshydrogenase of the common rat tapeworm (llymenolepiasisdiminuta) catalyzes hydrogen in transfer from NADYH to NAD, producing NADH. This enzyme is known to serve a vital role in the tapeworm's anaerobic metabolism, and it has recently been hypothesized that it may serve as a proton exchange pump, transferring protons across the mitochondrial membrane. A study on Effect of Various Substrate Concentrations on the Conformational Variation of the, NADPII:NADTranshydrogenase of Hymenolepiasisdiminutaconducted at Bowling Green State: University was designed to assess the ability of this enzyme to undergo conformation or shape changes. Changes in the specific activity of the enzyme caused by variations in the concentration of NADP could be interpreted as supporting the theory of conformational change. The enzyme in question is located in the inner membrane of the tapeworm's mitochondria. These tapeworms were homogenized, and through a series of centrifugations, the enzyme was isolated. Various concentrations of NADP were then added to the isolated enzyme solution, and the mixture was then incubated in a water bath at 56C for 3 minutes. The enzyme was then analyzed on

dualbeam spectrophotometer, and the following results were calculated in terms of the specific activity of the: enzyme in nanomoles per minute per milligram of protein:

Test the hypothesis at the 0.01 level that the: average specific activity is the same for the four concentrations. 13.13 The purpose of the study The Incorporation of a. Chelating Agent into a Flame Retardant Finish of a Cotton Flannelette nd the Evaluation of Selected Fabric Properties conducted at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was to evaluate: the use of a chelating agent as part of the flamc-ictardant finish of cotton flannelette by determining its effects upon 13.13 The purpose of the study The Incorporation of a. Chelating Agent into a Flame Retardant Finish of a Cotton Flannelette and the Evaluation of Selected Fabric Properties conducted at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was to evaluate: the use of a chelating agent as part of the flamc-ictardant finish of cotton flannelette by determining its effects upon

(a) Perforin an analysis of variance using a 0.01 level of significance and determine whether there are any significant differences among the treatment means. (b) Use single-degree-of-freedom contrasts with a = 0.01 to compare the mean burn time of treatment 1 versus treatment 2 and also treatment 3 versus treatment 4. 13.17 In the study An Evaluation of the Removal Method for Estimating Benthic Populations and Diversity conducted by the irginia Polytechnic Institute and State University on the Jackson River, 5 different sampling procedures were used to determine he species count. Twenty samples were selected at random and each of the 5 sampling procedures were repeated 4 times. The species counts were recorded as follows:

(a) Is there a significant difference in the average species count for the different sampling procedures? Use a P-value in your conclusion. (b) Use Tukey's test with a = 0.05 to find which sampling procedures differ. 13.19 In the following biological experiment 4 concentrations of a certain chemical are used to enhance the growth of a certain type of plant over time. Five plants are used at each concentration and the growth in each plant is measured in centimeters. The following growth data are taken. A control (no chemical) is also applied.

Use Dunnett's two-sided test at the 0.05 level of significance to simultaneously compare the concentrations with the control. 13.23 It is suspected that the environmental temperature in which batteries are: activated affects their life. Thirty homogeneous batteries were tested, six at each of five temperatures, and the data are shown below (activated life in seconds). Analyze and interpret the data. (C. R. Hicks, Fundamental Concepts in Design, of Experiments, Holt. Rinehart and Winston.New York, 1973.)

13.27 Four kinds of fertilizer f\,f2,f3, and f4 are used to study the yield of beans. The soil is divided into 3 blocks each containing 4 homogeneous plots. The yields in kilograms per plot and the corresponding treatments are as follows:

(a) Conduct an analysis of variance at the 0.05 level of significance using the randomized complete block model. (b) Use single-degree-of-freedom contrasts and a 0.01 level of significance to compare the fertilizers (/1./3) versus (f2,f4) and /1 versus /3- Draw conclusions. 13.29 The following data are the percents of foreign additives measured by 5 analysts for 3 similar brands of strawberry jam, A, B, and C:

Perform the analysis of variance and test the hypothesis, at the 0.05 level of significance, that the percent of foreign additives is the same for all 3 brands of jam. Which brand of jam appears to have fewer additives? 13.31 In a study on The Periphyton of the South River, Virginia: Mercury Concentration, Productivity, and Autoimpic Index Studies conducted, by the Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, the total mercury concentration in periphyton total solids is being measured at 6 different stations on 6 different, days. The following data were recorded:

Determine whether the mean mercury content is significantly different between the stations,and discuss your findings.

13.33 In a study conducted by the Department of Health and Physical Education at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 3 diets were assigned for a period of 3 days to each of 6 subjects in a randomized block design. The subjects, playing the role of blocks, were assigned the following 3 diets in a random order: Diet 1: mixed fat and carbohydrates, Diet 2: high fat, Diet 3: high carbohydrates. At the end of the 3-day period each subject was put on a treadmill and the time to exhaustion, in seconds, was measured. The following data were recorded:

Perform the analysis of variance, separating out the diet, subject, and error sum of squares. Use a P-value to determine if there are significant differences among the diets. 13.35 Scientists in the Department of Plant Pathology at Virginia Tech devised an experiment in which 5 different treatments were applied to 6 different locations in an apple orchard to determine if there were significant differences in growth among the treatments. Treatments 1 through 4 represent different herbicides and treatment 5 represents a control. The growth period was from May to November in 1982, and the new growth, measured in centimeters, for samples selected from the 6 locations in the orchard were recorded as follows:

Perform an analysis of variance, separating out the treatment, location, and error sum of squares. Determine if there are significant differences among the treatment means. Quote a P-value. 13.39 The mathematics department of a large university wishes to evaluate the teaching capabilities of 4 professors. In order to eliminate any effects due to different mathematics courses and different times of theday, it was decided to conduct an experiment using aLatin square design in which the letters A, B, C, andD represent the 4 different professors. Each professortaught one section of each of 4 different courses scheduledat each of 4 different times during the day. Thefollowing data show the grades assigned by these professorsto 16 students of approximately equal ability.Use a 0.05 level of significance to test the hypothesis that different professors have no effect on the grades.

13.43 The following data show the effect of 4 operators, chosen randomly, on the output of a particular machine:

(a) Perform a model II analysis of variance at the 0.05 level of significance. (b) Compute an estimate of the operator variance component and the experimental error variance component.