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Centre
No.

Initial(s)

Paper Reference

7 0 4 2

Candidate
No.

0 2

Signature

Paper Reference(s)

7042/02

Examiners use only

London Examinations GCE

Team Leaders use only

Human Biology
Ordinary Level

Question Leave
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Paper 2

Thursday 20 May 2010 Morning

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Time: 2 hours
Materials required for examination
Nil

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Items included with question papers
Nil

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Instructions to Candidates
In the boxes above, write your centre number, candidate number, your surname, initial(s) and
signature.
Answer FIVE questions, THREE from Section A and TWO from Section B.
Write your answers in the spaces provided in this question paper.
Indicate which question you are answering by marking the box ( ). If you change your mind, put a
line through the box ( ) and then indicate your new question with a cross ( ).

Information for Candidates


The total mark for this paper is 100. All questions carry equal marks.
The marks for parts of questions are shown in round brackets: e.g. (2).
This paper has 9 questions.
There are 20 pages in this question paper. Any blank pages are indicated.

Advice to Candidates
Write your answers neatly and in good English.
In calculations, show all the steps in your working.

Total
This publication may be reproduced only in accordance with
Edexcel Limited copyright policy.
2010 Edexcel Limited.
Printers Log. No.

N35913A
W850/U7042/57570 5/5/5/

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SECTION A
Answer any THREE questions in this section.
If you answer Question 1, put a cross in this box
1.

(a) Describe the process of mitosis that occurs during nuclear division.
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(8)
(b) (i) In which organs does meiosis occur in humans?
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(2)

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(ii) Nuclear division can be either by mitosis or by meiosis. Describe two ways in
which the daughter cells produced by these methods differ.
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(4)
(c) Sometimes cell division results in a mutation occurring.
(i) State two factors that may increase the risk of mutations occurring.
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(2)
(ii) Explain what a mutation is and why some mutations have harmful effects.
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(4)

Q1

(Total 20 marks)

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If you answer Question 2, put a cross in this box


2.

(a) (i) Explain what is meant by a reflex action and why reflexes are important to the
body.
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(4)
(ii) Use a large labelled diagram to show the nerve pathway of the withdrawal
reflex.

(8)
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(b) (i) Explain why damage to the vertebral column in the neck region sometimes results
in a loss of feeling and paralysis of the legs, even though there is no damage to
the leg muscles.
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(6)
(ii) Suggest why such damage is frequently permanent.
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(2)

Q2

(Total 20 marks)

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3.

(a) (i) With the help of a large labelled diagram, explain how the forearm is raised at the
elbow joint.

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(8)
(ii) Describe how the range of movement at the shoulder joint is greater than at the
elbow joint.
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(b) (i) During exercise energy is needed by muscle cells. Describe the processes by
which energy is released in a muscle cell.
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(4)
(ii) During vigorous exercise, energy demand over a short time can lead to the
formation of lactic acid. Describe the process that produces lactic acid and how
the lactic acid is destroyed.
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(4)

Q3

(Total 20 marks)

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4.

(a) (i) Describe the relationship between blood plasma, tissue fluid and lymph.
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(ii) Describe the functions of each of these fluids.
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(b) (i) During vigorous exercise both the pulse rate and blood pressure usually rise
significantly. Explain why this is important to the muscles of the body.
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(ii) Suggest possible dangers of permanently raised blood pressure.
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(3)
(iii) Suggest what actions a doctor might advise a patient to take to reduce dangerously
high blood pressure.
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(3)

Q4

(Total 20 marks)

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5.

(a) (i) Describe the structure of the human urinary system.


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(ii) Explain how the kidney regulates the composition and concentration of the
blood.
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(b) In each of the following situations, explain why the composition and concentration of
the urine varies.
(i) On a hot day with very little water to drink
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(ii) After eating a meal rich in protein
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(4)

Q5

(Total 20 marks)
TOTAL FOR SECTION A: 60 MARKS

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SECTION B
Answer any TWO questions in this section.
If you answer Question 6, put a cross in this box
6.

(a) Explain why, for the health of a community, it is important that sewage does not come
into contact with the water supply.
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(3)
(b) What are the likely effects if untreated sewage enters a lake or river?
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(c) Describe the sequence of events that occurs in a modern sewage works. Explain the
purpose of each stage.
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(10)

Q6

(Total 20 marks)

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If you answer Question 7, put a cross in this box


7.

(a) Describe two ways in which fungi differ from bacteria in structure.
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(b) Describe two ways in which fungi obtain their nutrients.
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(c) Describe how the transmission of athletes foot from person to person can be prevented
and how this condition can be treated.
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(d) Describe how fungi are of use to humans.
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(7)

Q7

(Total 20 marks)

*N35913A01520*

15

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If you answer Question 8, put a cross in this box


8.

(a) (i) Use a large labelled diagram to show the structure of a virus.

(3)
(ii) Describe how the reproduction of a virus is brought about.
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(iii) Describe three ways in which viruses differ from bacteria.


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(3)
(b) (i) Poliomyelitis (polio) can be prevented by the use of a vaccine. Explain how a
vaccine can help the body to develop immunity to a disease, such as polio.
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(ii) Describe how a patient who shows symptoms of polio can be treated.
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(3)

Q8

(Total 20 marks)

*N35913A01720*

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If you answer Question 9, put a cross in this box


9.

(a) (i) Describe how humans depend on green plants for their supplies of oxygen and
energy.
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(6)
(ii) Suggest how chemicals used in the environment, such as weedkillers, can also
accumulate in the body of a human.
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(b) (i) Sulphur dioxide is a major pollutant in the atmosphere. Describe how this
gas comes to be present in the air and the effects it has on humans and on the
environment.
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(5)
(ii) The concentration of many pollutants, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon
dioxide, appears to be increasing. Suggest reasons for this increase and some of
the measures that could be taken to reduce it.
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(5)

Q9

(Total 20 marks)
TOTAL FOR SECTION B: 40 MARKS
TOTAL FOR PAPER: 100 MARKS
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