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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 55, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2008

Predictive Strategy to Control Common-Mode Voltage in Loads Fed by Matrix Converters

René Vargas, Student Member, IEEE, Ulrich Ammann, Member, IEEE, José Rodríguez, Senior Member, IEEE, and Jorge Pontt, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract —Common-mode voltages (CMVs) cause overvoltage stress to the winding insulation and bearings deterioration, re- ducing the lifetime of electric machines. This paper presents a predictive strategy that effectively mitigates CMVs from matrix converters (MCs), without affecting its functionality and allowing the use of rotating vectors. The method was experimentally tested on an MC feeding an induction machine, mitigating CMVs in 70% and reducing abrupt changes. The reduction is achieved with no tradeoff on the performance of the drive until reaching 40%, point where further reduction comes with an increase on the total harmonic distortion of line side currents. The designer can adjust the method in order to protect the ac machine, extending its lifetime and reducing negative effects of CMVs, and still comply with the standard for connection to the grid due to the flexibility allowed by the proposed strategy.

Index Terms —AC–AC power conversion, AC motor drives, common-mode voltage (CMV), matrix converters (MCs), predic- tive control.

I. INTRODUCTION

C OMMON-MODE voltages (CMVs) produced by power converters feeding electric machines cause overvoltage

stress to the winding insulation, affecting its lifetime and pro- ducing deterioration [1], [2]. Capacitive currents affect bearings

and conducted or radiated electromagnetic interference affects the functionality of electronic systems. For those reasons, with the development of modern ac electrical drives [3], the topic has called the attention of researchers and the industry [4]–[9]. The matrix converter (MC) is a single-stage power converter, capable of feeding a m-phase load from a n-phase source (n × m MC) without energy storage devices [10], [11]. As drive for electric ac machines, it represents an alternative to back-to-back converters, particularly in cases where size and the absence of large capacitors or inductances to store energy are relevant issues [12]–[14]. Several modulation techniques have been developed to control an MC, which can be classified into two main groups: scalar and vectorial methods [15]–[18]. The high number of switching states, the direct interaction

Manuscript received March 12, 2008; revised September 9, 2008. First published October 31, 2008; current version published December 2, 2008. This work was supported in part by the Chilean Research Fund CONICYT under Grant 1060424, by the Industrial Electronics and Mechatronics Millennium Science Nucleus, by the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, and by

the Institute of Power Electronics and Electrical Drives, University of Stuttgart.

R. Vargas, J. Rodríguez, and J. Pontt are with the Department of Electronics

Engineering, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso 110-V,

Chile (e-mail: rene.vargas@usm.cl).

U. Ammann is with the Institute of Power Electronics and Electrical Drives,

University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2008.2007016

between source and load, and the presence of rotating vectors introduce an important complexity in the analysis and control of an electric machine through an MC [19]–[22]. To reduce

the CMV produced in systems fed by MCs is a timely topic that has been investigated in recent years, with the objective of improving the performance of the converter and bringing this topology closer to industrial applications [23]–[27]. Predictive control has found applications in power converters [28]–[31]. Recently, model-based predictive control [32] has been introduced as a method to control load current from a voltage source inverter (VSI) [33], a three-level VSI [34], and an MC [35]. The method allows also to control the switching frequency and balance in the dc-link of a three-level VSI [34]

and

to perform input power factor (PF) regulation on an

MC

[35]. An additional interesting application of this control

method is the torque and flux control for inverter-fed induction

machines [36], [37]. All these control methods evaluate a

quality function for every valid switching state of the converter over a finite receding horizon, based on predictions from a model of the system. No modulation or linear controllers are required. This paper presents a novel method to reduce CMVs in MC, based on predictive control. The approach differs from other well-known control methods for MCs, such as space vector modulation (SVM) or direct torque control (DTC), because it considers all valid switching states, including rotating vectors

that in most cases are not used. This fact is a significant

advantage considering that rotating vectors generate zero CMV.

The effectiveness of the strategy controlling the induction

machine, input currents, and considerably reducing CMVs without affecting the performance of the drive is demonstrated in simulations and experimentally. If a higher value of total harmonic distortion (THD) in the input current is acceptable according to the standard that must be fulfilled, the method allows one to further decrease the CMV by increasing this distortion in order to protect the ac machine extending its lifetime and still complying with the standard for connection to the grid.

II. BASIC CONTROL STRATEGY

In order to introduce the strategy to reduce CMVs, it is necessary to present the control method and power circuit in

which the strategy is being applied. The basic concept to reduce CMV, which will be introduced in this paper, can be applied theoretically to any power converter feeding a three-phase load.

The analysis is centered on MCs because in this converter,

0278-0046/$25.00 © 2008 IEEE

VARGAS et al. : PREDICTIVE STRATEGY TO CONTROL CMV IN LOADS FED BY MATRIX CONVERTERS

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TO CONTROL CMV IN LOADS FED BY MATRIX CONVERTERS 4373 Fig. 1. Power circuit of the

Fig. 1.

Power circuit of the system.

the advantages of the proposed control strategy can be clearly identified and appreciated.

A. MC Circuit and Modulation

The power circuit of the system can be observed in Fig. 1. An MC is feeding a three-phase resistive-inductive-active load. The converter is connected to the mains through an input filter. The reason to use this load is because it can represent one of the most common applications for this kind of converter, an induction machine [35]. Moreover, with this model, it is possible to characterize a wide range of applications, including passive loads and grid-connected converters. Three-phase variables are characterized as complex vectors by means of a 2-D representation. Throughout this paper, this representation is considered when vectors are used. From Fig. 1, the output or load voltage space vector is defined as

v o =

2

3 (v a + a · v b + a 2 · v c )

(1)

where a = e j (2 π/ 3) , v x , with x ∈ {a,b,c}, are output phase voltages, and i ex , with x ∈ {u,v,w}, are input phase currents of the MC. A similar definition can be applied to obtain the input current vector i e , the source current vector i s , the source voltage vector v s , and the load or output current vector i o . In Fig. 1, bidirectional switches are associated with variables defined as S xy with x ∈ {u,v,w} and y ∈ {a,b,c}. S xy is also known as switching function for the switch xy. S xy = 1 implies that the switch xy is on, closed, or conducting, and S xy = 0 implies that the switch xy is off, open, or blocking. Taking into account that the load should not be in an open circuit, due to its inductive nature, and that phases of the source should not be connected in short circuit, switching functions should at all times fulfill the following equation:

S uy + S vy + S wy = 1

y ∈ {a,b,c}.

(2)

The previous restriction allows this topology to have 27 valid switching states. These 27 switching states are classified into

three groups, according to the kind of output voltage and input current vector that each switching state generates. 1) Zero space vector: all three output phases connected to the same input phase. Switching states from this group generate a space vector with amplitude zero. 2) Stationary space vectors: two output phases connected to a common input phase, and the third connected to

a different input phase. This group generates stationary

space vectors with varying amplitude and fixed direction. 3) Rotating space vectors: each output phase connected to

a different input phase. Vectors have constant amplitude,

but its angle varies at the supply angular frequency. The challenge of commutating bidirectional switches fulfill- ing the requirements imposed by this topology has been studied and solved by means of gate drive intelligence [38]. Most control methods developed for MCs consider only switching states within groups 1 and 2, leaving aside group 3. That is the case of modulation strategies, like most SVM-based techniques [10], [11], [16]–[18] and of DTC of induction machines fed by MCs [19]–[22]. The reason for that is the difficulty of dealing with rotating vectors with those control techniques. Unfortunately, rotating vectors are active vectors that could contribute to the control objectives and, more important for the focus of this paper, rotating vectors generate zero CMV. The method presented in this paper considers all 27 valid switching states, including the ones that generate rotating vec- tors and consequently zero CMV, by means of a conceptually simple strategy.

B. Predictive Current Control (PCC)

This control technique has been recently introduced and ap- plied to a variety of power converters [33]–[35]. The objective is to control the load current and the input current, on grid- connected converters as the MC [35], through a predictive algorithm. As mentioned, power converters have a certain number of valid switching states. For a three-phase inverter, it is possible to apply eight different switching states [33]. The MC, as stated, offers 27 valid combinations [10], [11]. The method consists of choosing, at fixed sampling intervals, the best possible switching state that the converter could generate to the load, based on an evaluation criterion and predictions of the behavior of the system. The selection of the switching state to be set at the following time interval is performed via a quality function minimization. For the computation of this quality function, certain variables are predicted based on models. In this case, the load current i o and the reactive input power Q at the next sampling interval are predicted for each switching state with the aid of a mathemati- cal model of the load and line side (filter), respectively. 1) Model of the Load: In this case, the objective is to obtain an equation to predict the future value of the load current in the next sampling instant, for each possible switching state. The load model is based on the equation of a three-phase resistive- inductive-active load, which fulfills

L d i o dt

= v o R i o e

(3)

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 55, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2008

where R and L are the load resistance and inductance, respec- tively, and e is the electromotive force (EMF) vector of the load. Applying a sampling period T s , the derivative form d i /dt can be approximated by

d i o i o (k) i o (k 1)

dt

T s

.

(4)

Replacing (4) in (3) and shifting the discrete time one step forward, the relation between the discrete-time variables can be described as

i o (k + 1) =

T s RT s + L L

T s i o (k) + v o (k + 1) e(k + 1) .

(5)

Equation (5) is used to obtain predictions for the future value of the load current i (k + 1) for each voltage vector v o (k + 1) generated by valid switching states. The corresponding voltage vector for each switching state can be calculated by means of (1) evaluated at time (k + 1). The future load back EMF e(k + 1) can be estimated using

a second-order extrapolation from present and past values or considering e(k + 1) e(k), depending on the sampling time and the platform used for implementation. For a sufficiently small sampling time, no extrapolation is needed. Present and past estimations of e can be obtained from the load (5) shifted backward in time as

eˆ(k) = v o (k) +

L

T

s

i o (k 1) RT s + L i o (k).

T

s

(6)

The effect of errors and uncertainties in the load’s parameters

is treated in [33]. It is worth mention that knowledge of the

load parameters is a requirement on any control method in order

to tune linear controllers and select the modulation frequency. PCC is not an exception in this sense. 2) Model of the Input Filter: The input filter model, based on Fig. 1, can be described by the following continuous-time equations:

v s = R f i s + L f d i s + v e ,

dt

i s = i e + C f d dt v e

(7)

where L f and R f are the joint inductance and resistance of the line and filter and C f is the filter’s capacitance. From that continuous-time system, and solving for i s (k + 1), the subsequent discrete-time equation is achieved

i s (k + 1) = c 1 v s (k) + c 2 v e (k) + c 3 i s (k) + c 4 i e (k).

(8)

Constants c 1 to c 4 depend on the filter parameters and the sampling time T s and are computed so the continuous values match with the discrete variables at sampling instants [35], considering a zero-order hold at the inputs. For further infor- mation, refer to the function of MATLAB c2d(): conversion of continuous-time models to discrete time. To analyze the resulting effect on the reactive input power,

it is necessary to consider the instantaneous power theory [39].

necessary to consider the instantaneous power theory [39]. Fig. 2. Block diagram of the control strategy.

Fig. 2.

Block diagram of the control strategy.

The instantaneous reactive input power can be predicted, based on predictions of the input current, as

¯

¯

Q(k + 1) = Im v s (k + 1) · i s (k + 1)

=v sβ (k + 1)i sα (k + 1)

v sα (k + 1)i sβ (k + 1)

(9)

where i s is the complex conjugate of vector i s and the subscripts

α and β represent real and imaginary components of the associ-

ated vector. Source voltages are low-frequency signals. There- fore, the method considers v s (k + 1) v s (k). Equations (5) and (9) are used to obtain predictions for the future value of the load current i o and reactive input power Q, considering all possible voltage vectors v o generated by the MC. 3) Quality Function g : The quality function to be evaluated must allow for reference tracking of the output current and reduce the input reactive power. These objectives are reflected in the following quality function [35]:

g = |i

i p

| + i

i p

+ A|Q Q p |

(10)

where A is a weighting factor that handles the relation between the source and load conditions and is measured in V 1 in order to match scale values within g. The superscript “p” indicates that the value is a prediction for the next sampling period, while ” indicates reference values. In Fig. 2, a diagram of the complete control strategy applied on a induction machine fed by an MC is presented. Field- oriented control (FOC) is used to generate the output reference current to the Predictive Current Control (PCC) segment of the control strategy, shown in Fig. 2, replacing current con- trollers and modulation techniques of classic methods. After measuring, predictions are computed from (5) and (9), in blocks Predictive Model. Predicted values of i o and Q for each valid switching state are passed to the Switching State Selector . The one that minimizes g is applied during the next sampling time. Most applications require unity PF. For that reason, the reactive

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TO CONTROL CMV IN LOADS FED BY MATRIX CONVERTERS 4375 Fig. 3. Path of the leakage

Fig. 3.

Path of the leakage current through the system.

input power Q p should be reduced and its reference value Q

in Fig. 2 should be zero. Some implementation considerations must be noticed. Be-

cause of its commutated pattern, voltage v o and current i e are

not directly measured. These values are calculated based on

measurements of v e and i o (voltage on a capacitor and current through an inductive load, respectively) and the switching state

of the converter [10], [35]. The equation that relates both currents through the switching state is

i

i

i

eu

ev

ew

=

S ua

S va

S wa

S ub

S vb

S wb

S uc

S vc

S wc

·

i

i

i

a

b

c

(11)

while the voltages’ relation is presented in (13) and is the basis

of the CMV prediction.

III. STRATEGY TO REDUCE CMVS

As mentioned, CMVs cause overvoltage stress to the winding

insulation and bearings deterioration while inducing leakage currents, reducing the lifetime of electric machines. Leakage currents follow the path presented in Fig. 3. The goal of the proposed method is to avoid high values of CMV, reducing

also its dv/dt. This objective is achieved by adding, within the

quality function, a prediction of the CMV V cm generated by the

MC to the load. By this means, the method will associate a cost

to switching states that produce CMV. The prediction of V cm is accomplished by knowing the output voltage per phase that

each switching state under evaluation would produce. Then, the

CMV is defined as [2], [5], [23]

V cm =

v aN + v bN + v cN

3

.

(12)

For a VSI, this calculation is remarkably straightforward, since

the voltage connected to each output phase is directly defined by the switching state and the dc-link voltage. Therefore, the

prediction is extremely simple. For an MC, output voltages can

also be calculated from input voltages and the switching state

[10], [14], [35] by means of

v

v

v

aN

bN

cN

=

S ua

S ub

S uc

S va

S vb

S vc

S wa

S wb

S wc

·

v

v

v

euN

evN

ewN

.

(13)

TABLE

I

PARAMETERS OF THE POWER CIRCUIT AND CONTROL METHOD

P ARAMETERS OF THE P OWER C IRCUIT AND C ONTROL M ETHOD With (12) and

With (12) and (13), it is possible to predict the CMV that

each switching state would generate if applied during the next sampling time.

The new quality function to be evaluated, considering the

CMV prediction, is

g = |i

i p

| + i

i p

+ A|Q p | + B|V cm |

(14)

where B is the weighting factor associated to V cm and is measured in A/V in order to match scale values within g. No further measurements are required, and the additional compu- tational effort needed to implement the proposed strategy is not significant compared to the basic PCC algorithm.

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS

The proposed method was simulated using MATLAB 7.0

(R14), in order to have a deeper understanding of the potential of the strategy. Relevant parameters of the simulated system (Fig. 1)—also valid for the laboratory implementation dis- cussed in the next section—are presented in Table I. Parameter B from (14), or weighting factor for the CMV’s cost, will be set to a value between 0 and 0.05 A/V, depending on the specific test. The magnitudes of A and B are related to the desired performance of the system and the nature of the magnitudes to compare, i.e., a difference—for the output current error and the reactive input power—and directly a voltage for the CMV. Simulations were carried out assuming that the machine is running in steady state at 1000 r/min with an external load torque of 25 N · m. Ideal switches as well as an equivalent resistive-inductive-active load were considered. A complete description of the power stage of the simulated system can be

found in [40]. In first place, two different values of the weight-

ing factor B were studied: 0 A/V (no cost assigned to reduce the CMV) and B = 0.045 A/V. Results can be observed in Figs. 4 and 5, respectively. The method achieved in both cases sinusoidal output currents. As expected, the main difference can be observed in V cm (CMV). Fig. 4 shows a CMV with abrupt

changes and high magnitudes, reaching a rms value of 135 V. On the other hand, applying the proposed method, the rms value of the CMV decreased to 30 V in Fig. 5. The strategy evidently succeeded mitigating the CMV. A slight increase in the ripple observed in line current i u can be noticed in Fig. 5. That can

be explained as a tradeoff (see Fig. 6). To increase the cost assigned to reduce the CMV implies to give higher importance to mitigate CMV over other objectives reflected in (14), i.e.,

output currents and reactive power control.

To investigate the relation between the weighting factor B

and the rms value of the CMV and THD of the line current, a

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 55, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2008

ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 55, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2008 Fig. 4. B = 0 A/V. Simulated

Fig. 4.

B = 0 A/V.

Simulated results in steady state at 1000 r/min and 25 N · m with

results in steady state at 1000 r/min and 25 N · m with Fig. 5. B

Fig. 5.

B = 0 .045 A/V.

Simulated results in steady state at 1000 r/min and 25 N · m with

sequence of 180 simulations were carried out, in order to cover the range of parameter B from 0 to 0.05 A/V, increasing the

value

of B each time in 0.28 mA/V. After each simulation, the

value

of the CMV (rms voltage) and THD of the line current

were

saved. The result of that study is shown in Fig. 6. As

expected, the rms value of the CMV decreases as the parameter B increases. The relation is always decreasing. The behavior of the THD of the line current as parameter B increases is not as straightforward as the one presented by the CMV. Although, as expected, the THD increases with higher values of B, with

values of B lower than 0.02 A/V it maintains a value near 5%, as observed for B = 0 A/V, even though the rms value of the

CMV drops considerably.

In summary, it is possible to use a value of B near 0.02 A/V to achieve a reduction of the CMV from 135 to 85 V without tradeoff at the input current [the input current’s THD is the

at the input current [the input current’s THD is the Fig. 6. of the CMV and

Fig. 6.

of the CMV and THD of the line current.

Simulation: relation between the weighting factor B and the rms value

relation between the weighting factor B and the rms value Fig. 7. General performance of the

Fig. 7.

General performance of the MC-based induction machine drive.

same in both cases (Fig. 6)]. The method achieves the reduction without negative consequences. On the other hand, if a higher value of THD in the input current is acceptable according to the standard that must be fulfilled, then a greater value of B can be used. The method gives that flexibility and allows one to protect the ac machine to increase its lifetime complying with the standard for connection to the grid. The value of the reactive input power weighting factor A remained unchanged during this study, in order to isolate the effect of B. Its value was chosen in order to achieve good results in terms of output current and input PF [35].

V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

The presented strategy was implemented on an experimental setup, based on an 18-kVA MC and an 11-kW induction ma- chine. Both the proposed control method and the FOC (Fig. 2) were implemented on a rapid prototyping board dS1103 from dSPACE, with a sampling period T s = 8 μs for the predictive method. Other parameters of the experimental setup are pre- sented in Table I.

VARGAS et al. : PREDICTIVE STRATEGY TO CONTROL CMV IN LOADS FED BY MATRIX CONVERTERS

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TO CONTROL CMV IN LOADS FED BY MATRIX CONVERTERS 4377 Fig. 8. B = 0 A/V.

Fig. 8.

B = 0 A/V.

Experimental results in steady state at 1000 r/min and 25 N · m with

results in steady state at 1000 r/min and 25 N · m with Fig. 9. B

Fig. 9.

B = 0 .045 A/V.

Experimental results in steady state at 1000 r/min and 25 N · m with

The first step, as mentioned, is to define the value of A to achieve good input and output performance of the MC [35]. The behavior of the system with the selected value of A (Table I) can be observed in Fig. 7, with the machine running at 1000 r/min and 30 N · m load torque applied from a dc machine. The control method achieves a suitable control of the induction machine, with low-torque ripple and almost sinusoidal output current. The input current presents low distortion and same phase as the input voltage (unity PF), resulting in very low reactive input power from the system. The measured switching frequency per insulated gate bipolar transistor was 13 kHz. Subsequently, the analysis was centered on studying the performance of the method to reduce CMVs. The speed ref- erence was set at 1000 r/min with 25 N · m load torque. The B weighting factor was set at 0 A/V—no cost assigned to reduce CMVs—and 0.045 A/V, in order to contrast the performance of both cases as done with simulations (Figs. 4 and 5). The ex-

both cases as done with simulations (Figs. 4 and 5). The ex- Fig. 10. Experimental results

Fig. 10. Experimental results in steady state at 1000 r/min and 25 N · m. Closer look at 500 μs of the CMV for three values of B, from top to bottom:

0 A/V, 0.0005 A/V, and 0.045 A/V.

B , from top to bottom: 0 A/V, 0.0005 A/V, and 0.045 A/V. Fig. 0 .

Fig.

0.045 A/V.

11.

Output

voltage

spectrum.

(Top)

B = 0

A/V.

(Bottom)

B =

11. Output voltage spectrum. (Top) B = 0 A/V. (Bottom) B = Fig. 12. 0.045 to

Fig. 12.

0.045 to 0 A/V at time t = 0 .107 s.

Experimental results at 1000 r/min and 25 N · m. Step on B from

perimental results are shown in Figs. 8 and 9, respectively. The method was also tested with B = 0.0005 A/V. Waveforms from that test are not included because of its resemblance with Fig. 8. As shown in Figs. 8 and 9, the proposed method achieves the objective, considerably reducing the CMV (lower waveforms). Compared with simulations, a considerably higher ripple of the input current can be observed in experimental results. This can be explained due to the fact that in simulations, mains are ideal sinusoidal sources, and in the real implementation, the

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ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 55, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2008 Fig. 13. Experimental results of the system
Fig. 13. Experimental results of the system under a speed reversal with B = 0
Fig. 13.
Experimental results of the system under a speed reversal with B = 0 A/V—without the technique to reduce CMV.
Fig. 14.
Experimental results of the system under a speed reversal with B = 0 .045 A/V—applying the technique to reduce CMV.

electric supply presents a considerable amount of distortion and pollution. Analyzing the experimental results, the rms value of V cm decreased from 100.3 V (B = 0 A/V, Fig. 8) to 93.5 V (B = 0.0005 A/V) and 29.7 V (B = 0.045 A/V, Fig. 9), also reduc- ing abrupt changes, as observed in the closer view to CMVs shown in Fig. 10. The previous waveforms and statistics were obtained based on the acquisition of series of 50 k samples

at a sample rate of 2 μs per sample, resulting in 0.1 s of

measured data.

It is possible to notice that the load current i a is almost perfectly sinusoidal in both cases (Figs. 8 and 9). A closer look

at the line-to-line output voltage v ab , shows that the presented

strategy avoids applying switching states that generate zero line-to-line voltages and, as a consequence, CMV. That fact is clearly noticed comparing v ab on Figs. 8 and 9. The tradeoff, as

reported based on simulations, is an increase on the THD of the input current i u , from 23.8% (Fig. 8) to 40.6% (Fig. 9), which can be reduced using a lower value of B, as discussed based on Fig. 6. The designer should decide the value of B according to the performance required. Observing the output voltage spectra shown in Fig. 11, the method exhibit a spread spectrum for both values of B. This behavior is expected for this control techniques [33]–[37].

A concentrated spectrum can be reached adding some mod-

ifications to the method (if required) [41]. The addition of

the strategy to reduce CMV does not significantly affect the harmonic content of the variable. The parameter B was changed from 0.045 to 0 A/V at time t = 0.107 s with the machine running at 1000 r/min with a load torque of 25 N · m. The result of the step on the parameter B in the performance of the system can be observed in Fig. 12. The control method forces an almost instantaneous change in the behavior of the system when parameter B is changed. The transition caused no consequence in the stability of the system while going from the behavior observed in Fig. 9, with CMV = 29.7 V, to the behavior observed in Fig. 8, with CMV = 100.3 V. The tradeoff related to the quality of the input current can also be observed in Fig. 12, where a higher ripple can be noticed in i u when B = 0.045 A/V. This distortion, observed at the input filter’s resonance frequency, is an issue that every control technique applied to MCs must confront [10], [11] and can cause distortions at the input voltages of the converter. These over voltages are effectively compensated by the method at the output side of the converter (load), as shown in Fig. 9. Subsequently, the drive was tested under a speed reversal, changing the speed reference from 1000 to 1000 r/min. The achieved measurements can be observed in Figs. 13 and 14, for weighting factor B = 0—no cost assigned to reduce CMVs—and B = 0.045 A/V, respectively. It must be men- tioned that, in order to capture the speed reversal, the total acquisition time was changed to 2 s. That forced to change also

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the sampling rate of the instrument to 200 μs between samples. As a consequence, abrupt changes of the CMV are not captured in Figs. 13 and 14, as they were in Figs. 7–12. Nevertheless, results shown in Figs. 13 and 14 show the excellent behavior of the control strategy and drive system during a speed reversal, with very similar performance of the induction machine in both cases. The difference is obvious when observing the CMV. The proposed method effectively reduced the CMV generated to the load without affecting output variables or the performance of the machine. The speed measurement in Fig. 14 presents less noise, as a result of the reduction of the CMV and its negative effects. The measured switching frequency was the same for all tested values of B. At each sampling time, the method decides to switch to a given switching state, considering the objectives related to the output current, the reactive input power, and, with the proposed technique, the CMV. If the sampling period T s is not changed (the same value was used through this paper), these decisions will be made with the same frequency at equidistant intervals. The method was also implemented on a control platform based on a Texas Instruments (TI) TMS320C6713 digital signal processor (DSP). In this case, the minimum sampling time achieved was 50 μs. Similar predictive strategies, in terms of computational requirements, have been tested on a dSPACE DS1104 and on a control platform based on a TI TMS320F2812 DSP, reaching sampling periods near 80 μs in both cases. To increase the sampling time implies diminishing the quality of input and output currents and, ultimately, the performance of the drive, as would happen with any other modulation tech- nique, e.g., SVM.

VI. CONCLUSION

The proposed strategy to reduce CMV was simulated and experimentally tested on an MC and induction machine setup, proving its effectiveness. It represents an attractive method to reduce CMV on power converters, particularly on MC since classic modulation and control schemes (e.g., SVM and DTC) do not consider rotating vectors that produce zero CMV. On the contrary, the proposed predictive strategy considers all valid switching states of the converter. One of the key aspects of the method is the use of costs assigned to each objective to achieve output current control, reactive power control, and mitigate CMV. The simplicity of the theory makes it easy to understand and implement. The strategy allows the designer to adjust the A and B parameters to fit the requirements in terms of the machine’s performance, quality of the input current, and CMV. The method can easily be implemented taking advantage of the present technologies available in DSPs. The higher sampling frequencies required should not be a problem nowa- days. This control strategy uses, with a conceptually different approach, the discrete nature of power converters and micro- processors used in their control. Its applicability is subject to the use of a general predictive control technique, frame in which the proposed strategy can be implemented. Improvements like the one proposed in this paper can help predictive control to be

presented as a more attractive control approach, with substantial benefits in terms of flexibility, versatility, and performance, with real applicability in power conversion and drives.

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Power Electron. , vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 612–618, Mar. 2008. René Vargas (S’05) received the

René Vargas (S’05) received the Engineer and M.Sc. degrees (with honors) in electronics engineer- ing from the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso, Chile, in 2005, where he is cur- rently working toward the Ph.D. degree. He was with the Institute of Power Electronics and Electrical Drives, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, during scientific stays in 2006, 2007, and 2008. His main research interests include predictive control, matrix converters, and new control tech- niques applied to power conversion and drives.

control tech- niques applied to power conversion and drives. Ulrich Ammann (M’06) received the Dipl.Ing. de-

Ulrich Ammann (M’06) received the Dipl.Ing. de- gree in electrical engineering from the University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, in 2002, where he is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree focusing on the field of discrete-time modulation schemes, including predictive techniques. Since 2002, he has been with the Institute of Power Electronics and Electrical Drives, University of Stuttgart, as a Research Assistant. His fields of interest include electric drives, high-power current sources, and automotive power electronics.

current sources, and automotive power electronics. José Rodríguez (M’81–SM’94) received the Engineer

José Rodríguez (M’81–SM’94) received the Engineer degree in electrical engineering from the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso, Chile, in 1977 and the Dr.Ing. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany, in 1985. Since 1977, he has been with the University Federico Santa María in Valparaíso, Chile, as a Professor. From 2001 to 2004, he was appointed as Director of the Electronics Engineering Department. From 2004 to 2005, he served as Vice-Rector of academic affairs, and in 2005, he was elected Rector of the same university, position he holds until today. During his sabbatical leave in 1996, he was responsible for the mining division of the Siemens Corporation, Chile. He has a large consulting experience in the mining industry, particularly in the application of large drives like cycloconverter-fed synchronous motors for semiautogenous grinding mills, high-power conveyors, controlled ac drives for shovels, and power quality issues. His main research interests include multilevel inverters, new converter topologies, and adjustable speed drives. He has directed over 40 R&D projects in the field of industrial electronics, coauthored over 250 journal and conference papers, and contributed with one book chapter. His research group has been recognized as one of the two centers of excellence in engineering in Chile in the years 2005 and 2006. Dr. Rodríguez is an active Associate Editor of the IEEE Power Electronics and Industrial Electronics Societies since 2002. He has served as Guest Editor

of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS in four oppor-

tunities [Special Section on: Matrix Converters (2002), Multilevel Inverters (2002), Modern Rectifiers (2005), and High Power Drives (2007)].

Jorge Pontt (M’00–SM’04) received the Engi- neer and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (UTFSM), Valparaíso, Chile, in 1977. Since 1977, he has been a Professor with the De- partment of Electrical Engineering and the Depart- ment of Electronics Engineering, UTFSM, within the R&D and graduate programs in power electronics. He leads the Laboratory for Reliability and Power Quality, UTFSM, and is currently the Director of the Millennium Nucleus on Industrial Electronics and Mechatronics, UTFSM. He is a coauthor of the software Harmonix, which is used in harmonic studies in electrical systems. He is also a Consultant in the mining industry and energy processing, particularly in the design and application of power electronics, drives, instrumentation systems, power qual- ity, and electromagnetic compatibility issues, with management of more than 80 consulting and R&D projects. He has had scientific stays at the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany (1979–1980); the University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany (1990); and the University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany (2000–2001). He is a Cofounder of the spin-off company ETT Ltda. (Chile) related to instrumentation for large grinding mills. He has published more than 100 refereed journal and conference proceeding papers. He has been appointed by IEEE as Eminent Engineer in the year 2008 in the region 9 (Latinamerica Region).

papers. He has been appointed by IEEE as Eminent Engineer in the year 2008 in the