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Error Analysis Final Paper

Assignment 3
Dwi Woro Tiastuti
DIK A 2008

2215086426

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT THE FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND ARTS UNIVERSITAS NEGERI JAKARTA 2011
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA

1. Analysis Data The writer decides to take her private students work to be her data for error analysis. It is taken from Alfin Aghisna, a student from year five of SDIBI (Sekolah Dasar Islam Bertaraf International) program at SD Islam AL Azhar 1 Jakarta Selatan. She wrote this example for her English homework by making the instruction on how to to start a stamp collection on her book entitled My Pals Are Here! for year five from Marshal Cavendish Education, Singapore.

Colllecting stamps
1. First, get an album of stamp. 2. Next, ask all your friends and relative to give you envelopes with the stamps. 3. When you collected some envelopes, you can start your collection stamp. 4. Careful tear off or cut away the paper around each the stamps. 5. Soak the stamp and paper in water. 6. When the paper is very wet, peel gently the stamp away from it. 7. Allow to dry the stamp. 8. Attach the stamp to your album. 9. If you collect the stamps, you can have diferent pages for stamp from diferent country.

First thing the writer does is making sure on typing originally hand written of her private student without checking Alfin Aghisna work before (to address the morphological errors). Then, she conducts Alfin Aghisna to read her written aloud in front her while the writer records her voice. After reading it, the writer founds that Alfin Aghisna makes many errors in pronunciation, the writer begins to analyze the data. Firstly, the writer transcribed Alfin Aghisnas pronunciation into phonetic transcriptions based on Hornsbys Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary of Current English. Secondly, she grouped her errors in pronouncing English into separate divisions namely are segmental features consist of vowels, and consonants, consonants cluster, diphthongs, tripthongs and suprasegmental features, which refer to such feature as stress and intonation into the correct pronunciation and the incorrect pronunciation. The next step, she analyses the causes of errors, the appropriate techniques to solve the errors. Finally, she make conclusion the result of the data analysis.

1.1 Table Analysis of Morphology

No 1 2

Sentences First, get an album of stamp. Next, ask all your friends and relative to give you envelopes with the stamps. When you collected some envelopes, you can start your collection stamp.

Morphological Errors -

relative -> relatives One minimal unit morpheme of grammatical function s (indicating plural). you collected -> you have collected A past tense morpheme has been added to the verb, but it's not supposed to be there. collection stamp -> stamp collection Morpheme substitutions careful -> carefully bound morpheme lly as an adverb (indicating suffix errors) the stamps -> stamp the functional words article using in morpheme.
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Careful tear off or cut away the paper around each the stamps.

5 6

Soak the stamp and paper in water. When the paper is very wet, peel gently the stamp away from it. Allow to dry the stamp. Attach the stamp to your album. If you collect the stamps, you can have diferent pages for stamp from diferent country.

peel gently -> gently peel Morpheme substitutions to dry the stamp -> the stamp to dry Morpheme substitutions
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7 8 9

the stamps -> a lot of stamps One minimal unit morpheme of grammatical function a lot of (indicating plural). diferent -> different mistyping from single f to double ff stamp -> stamps One minimal unit morpheme of grammatical

function s (indicating plural). country -> countries The Reduction-Inflection process. It is to reduce the input word to its base form according to several reduction rules

1. Cause of Errors In English and some other languages, spelling problems that arise at a phonological level can sometimes be solved through consideration of morphology. In an alphabetic writing system, the spelling of a word reflects the sounds that it contains. Learning to spell, in large part, involves learning the mappings between sounds and letters. Difficulties of several sorts may arise as children learn and use these mappings. One source of difficulty is phonemic segmentation skills that are not fully developed. Other difficulties occur because of irregularities in the sound-to-spelling correspondences of a writing system. In English and certain other languages, spelling difficulties at the phonological level can sometimes be overcome through the use of morphological information. Advanced learners, of course, not only want to understand the idoms and colloquials they hear or read, but they also want to use them themselves. An inappropriately-used or incorrectly-used colloquial will simply draw attention to the fact that the speaker is not a native speaker. This is unfortunate since the ultimate goal of most learners of English to reach a level of language indistinguishable from that of the native speaker. When talking about pronunciation, English language is included to category difficult to mastery. So that is way, many learner of second language often make error in pronounce it. Pronunciation errors now become common error around the learner of second language. So, his book, James discusses the causes of error. The first cause is mother-tongue influence, James (1998) said that they are encumbered by negative transfer or interference. Actually there are also some experts that has same opinion with James, Lanteigne (2006), he
confirms that difficulties in learning English occur due to the fact that some of English sounds do not exist in the mother tongue of the learners. Another expert is Ramelan (1985:6-8), he says English

causes problems for Indonesian learners since there are sounds in English that do not exist in their native language. Second cause is inaccurate learning as cause of pronunciation error. James (1998) said that Learning strategies are used for encoding and decoding strategies. Both types of strategy can be the source of error. Third cause is innacurate teaching

(materials-induced error, Teacher-talk induced error, exercise-based induced errors). In James book, Stenson said that learner error that result more from the classroom situation that from either the students incomplete competence in English grammar or first language interference. From the statements above, we can conclude that, there are three causes of error, namely are the influence of mother tongue, innacurate learning and also innacurate teaching.
2. How to overcome

When both pronunciation and morphological errors do occured, and we know about the causes of error, in order to to solve it, pronunciation and morphological errors need treatments, when do the treatments there are two aspects that are important, namely are the techniques that we need to solve the error and also the time, when the appropriate time to solve the error. 3.1. Techniques Actually for this report, the writer provide the techniques that appropriate when error made by her, it means that the techniques can use to solve the error when the role of writer as the teacher and also students here. So According to Lyster and Ranta (1997), there are some techniques that we can do when we face the pronunciation error. First technique is explicit correction, means that correction will be corrected directly when the error occur in pronouncing particular words and the user conscious to the error that she made. Second technique is repetition, means that the correction will be corrected by drilling the correct form. Third technique is clarification request, means that the user clarify errors by critical thinking. So from statements above we can conclude that there are also three treatments that can solve the errors, namely are explicit correction, repetition, and the last is clarification request. 3.2 Time There are three time when we want to solve the error, or doing the treatment for errors, namely are first in progress, means that the giving of treatment will be done directly when the user pronounce the error. Second after context, means that the treatments will be given after a particular context. The last is after the situation, means that the treatments will be done after a situation, or the treatment will be done after the lesson is finished.