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A BLACK SUBSTANCE 1
A
BLACK
SUBSTANCE
1

Photography and its digital application in today’s media world

A Substance in Black

Bhaskar Hande A BLACK SUBSTANCE Part One Ousia Artimediair The Hague

Bhaskar Hande

A

BLACK

SUBSTANCE

Part One

Ousia

Artimediair

The Hague

Ousia A Black Substance

© Bhaskar Hande 2009

Pretoriusstraat 131 2571VD The Hague email: bhaskarhande@yahoo.com

Acknowlagement:

Stroom/ HCBK The Hague Vaishwik Art Environment Pune

*Text reference is taken from free encyclopedia www.wikipedia.org

Publisher

Gallery Artimediair 2512 BN The Hague The Netherlands Email: vaishwikart@yahoo.com

Printined at Swaroop Mudran 687 Narayan peth Pune 411003

No part of this book would copied or reprinted without permission

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In a recent project, “Palkhisohala”, I have been drawing, taking photographs, reading people's minds, meeting strangers and documenting events in visual form. I took many photographs as a way of critically observing objects, noting their artistic value and appreciating them. An object or a subject draws one's attention; an object demands that it be looked at and a subject needs to be ruminated over. In visual documentation one needs to perceive the importance of the image. A monument is an object that symbolizes an era in history and a document shows textual or pictorial evidence of an agreement or treaty. Personal letters and sketches constitute subjective matter that can serve as both evidence of a crime or incident, as well as literature. The Dehu Palkhisohala (Palanquin Procession) has been going on for the past 325 years. Actually, I've long been interested in documenting this event in a unique way. The year 2008 was Sant Tukaram's 400 birth anniversary. I had the opportunity to be in India for this occasion. So I decided to follow the Palkhisohala by making on-the-spot drawings. It was a living experience in itself. I invited local artists and art schools that are along the Dehu Palkhisohala route. Some of them responded enthusiastically to my appeal.

th

The concept developed in my mind while travelling through Europe and India with the project “Show Your Hope”. What would I do with thousands and thousands of images taken during the journey? As I pondered over this idea of 'A Black Substance' I read some Western philosophy. My curiosity and interest grew in a wide range of subjects. Since I've been writing poems, painting, drawing and sculpting, I realized that I've been a very meditative person all my life. Actually, I lived my life ignoring some of the facts and practices involved in modern-day meditation. But I focused on various subjects that have occupied me over the years and imaginatively pursued their development. I found some way of working with images and produced the visuals that reflect the philosophies I'm concerned with here.

In discussion with some of my friends in The Netherlands, who are lovers of Indian culture as well as critical writers, I discovered and accepted that the subject of Vithoba has

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parallels with the concept of substance in Western philosophy. Tukaram has described this in his abhangas. All his affectionate descriptions of Lord Vithoba are substantive in nature, and Jnandev's description of a cosmic Being incorporates the idea of 'substance'. Later, in Western philosophy, Spinoza's notion of stoicism held that there is only one substance.

For the past few years I've been reading more of Spinoza's philosophy in the context of his house, now a monument that stands in front of my studio in The Hague. He was a contemporary of Sant Tukaram. It is by sheer coincidence that I worked on translating Sant Tukaram's abhangas in visual terms and arrived at Spinoza's door. Every day I looked at Spinoza's statue and reflected on Tukaram's poetry. Some of my European writer friends made fun of this, and my

Indian friends made similar remarks in their writings. Another aspect of this area is the lane that runs alongside my studio. It is where prostitutes ply their trade, in front of Spinoza's house and statue, and right by my studio and gallery. Because of this one can hear plenty of controversial remarks by tourists and visitors just around the corner. Photography is a subject which relates concrete evidence to substance theory. It contains light and dark (black) matter. With each increment of light the darker part changes the identity of the image. In terms of its surface the visual identity of the image changes. In three-dimensional terms its identity changes, but its properties remain the same. Each angle of approach to the frame of the image changes the property of that space and creates a separate image with its own special form. The negative or positive form of the image again transforms the identity of that image. Changes in hue, contrast and brightness bring about incremental changes that create more and more images from a single image. The image of Being (Ousia) is captured by light and represented on a flat two-dimensional surface. The quality of light is characterized by the intensity of light falling on an object or simply illuminating a space, and that's what identifies an image. (A substance, or ousia, is a permanent property of an object without which the object no longer remains itself, and therefore becomes some other object.*)

* from Wikipedia

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For this book I worked on photographic images to produce artistic images. Computer software has now

For this book I worked on photographic images to produce artistic images. Computer software has now made it easier to transform images as you please. It may help technically, but artistic judgments are based on one's own experience. Photography becomes just a routine technique in the practice of art. It has provided an enormous amount of visual data. These days making short art films and editing them makes me want to obtain black and white images just to stimulate my imagination. This process has been instrumental in producing the images in this book. I surprised myself as I created them. One always discovers something different in the subtle interplay of light and substance.

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Being

8

Food 9

Food

9

Construction of light 10

Construction of light

10

Growth 11

Growth

11

Content 12

Content

12

Volume 13

Volume

13

House 14

House

14

Love matter 15

Love matter

15

Sun rays 16

Sun rays

16

Shadow Transparency 17

Shadow Transparency

17

A Thread Body 18

A Thread Body

18

Reminder Theorem 19

Reminder Theorem

19

Seeds and leaf 20

Seeds and leaf

20

A fringe 21

A fringe

21

Nature infirmity 22

Nature infirmity

22

Content 23

Content

23

A Voyager 24

A Voyager

24

A Folk act 25

A Folk act

25

Beginning 26

Beginning

26

Innocency 27

Innocency

27

Awaiting 28

Awaiting

28

Entertainers 29

Entertainers

29

A Onlooker 30

A Onlooker

30

A player 31

A player

31

Against light 32

Against light

32

A Shadower 33

A Shadower

33

Reflection of Transparency 34

Reflection of Transparency

34

A heat Absorber 35

A heat Absorber

35

Inner

The nature of protection 37

The nature of protection

37

Hills inn 38

Hills inn

38

Massive 39

Massive

39

A Reflectory Factor 40

A Reflectory Factor

40

A Reflectory Factor 41

A Reflectory Factor

41

Massive Body 42

Massive Body

42

Protective Growth 43

Protective Growth

43

Numerica Naturel 44

Numerica Naturel

44

Numbered Bush 45

Numbered Bush

45

Inner Search 46

Inner Search

46

Cruisifide 47

Cruisifide

47

Blind 48

Blind

48

Scream 49

Scream

49

Husk 50

Husk

50

Face to face 51

Face to face

51

Player 52

Player

52

Actor

Looked at 54

Looked at

54

Crossed 55

Crossed

55

In Between 56

In Between

56

Bush 57

Bush

57

Invalid 58

Invalid

58

Death of a Branch 59

Death of a Branch

59

Cover Up 60

Cover Up

60

A Surprise 61

A Surprise

61

A Witness 62 Witness 62
A Witness
62
Witness
62
A Bite 63

A Bite

63

Trauma 64

Trauma

64

A face 65

A face

65

It marked and crossed 66

It marked and crossed

66

Punished 67

Punished

67

Group 68

Group

68

Massacre 69

Massacre

69

Disease 70 Death by disease 70
Disease
70
Death by disease
70
Death by disease 71

Death by disease

71

Life Within 72

Life Within

72

Second Dimension 73

Second Dimension

73

Surprise 74

Surprise

74

Hole 75

Hole

75

Cross or plus ? 76

Cross or plus ?

76

Black magic 77

Black magic

77

Mirror Image 78

Mirror Image

78

Against all odd 79

Against all odd

79

Middle of light 80

Middle of light

80

Textural Material 81

Textural Material

81

Walk in 82

Walk in

82

Illuminated aspects 83

Illuminated aspects

83

Step in 84

Step in

84

A Tourist 85

A Tourist

85

An Art Act 86

An Art Act

86

Reflective Melody 87

Reflective Melody

87

Etalage 88

Etalage

88

A Tourist in Town 89

A Tourist in Town

89

Display of Goods 90

Display of Goods

90

Legendary Suspect 91

Legendary Suspect

91

Oval Commitment 92

Oval Commitment

92

Square Circled 93

Square Circled

93

Rural Instalation 94

Rural Instalation

94

Growth Empower 95

Growth Empower

95

Fragile Particles 96

Fragile Particles

96

Wish fulfilling divine Space 97

Wish fulfilling divine Space

97

Dramatic 98

Dramatic

98

Dramatic 99

Dramatic

99

Subtle Environment 100

Subtle Environment

100

Planetaries 101

Planetaries

101

A Construction 102

A Construction

102

The Wall 103

The Wall

103

Devotional Elements 104

Devotional Elements

104

Divine Place 105

Divine Place

105

The wall of moisture 106

The wall of moisture

106

Around me and myself 107

Around me and myself

107

Substance theory, is an ontological theory about

object hood, positing that a substance is distinct from

its properties. This is part of essentialism in that ousia

as a substance can also be a descriptor of an object's

being (ontology) and/or nature. As substance or ousia is

a permanent property of an object without which the

object no longer remains itself and therefore becomes

some other object.

Substance is a core concept of ontology and

metaphysics. Indeed, philosophies may be divided into

monist philosophies, and dualist or pluralist

philosophies. Monistic views, often associated with

immanence, hold that there is only one substance,

sometimes called God or Being. Dualist and pluralist

views hold that two or more types of substances do

exist, and that these can be placed in an ontological

hierarchy. Platonism or Aristotelianism considers that

there are various substances, while stoicism and

Spinoza hold that there is only one substance.

The concept of substance in Western philosophy

In the millennia-old Aristotelian tradition, as well as

early modern traditions that follow it, substances or

ousia are treated as having attributes and modes or

things.

This concept helps to explain, for instance, state

transitions. Let us take a quantity of water and freeze

it into ice. Substance theory maintains that there is a

"substance" which is unchanged through this transition,

which is both the liquid water and also the frozen ice.

It maintains that the water is not replaced by the ice -

it is the same "stuff," or substance. If this is true, then

it must be the case that the wetness of water, the

hardness of ice, are not essential to the underlying

substance. (Essentially, matter does not disappear, it

only changes form.)

The Aristotelian view of God considered God as both

ontologically and causally prior to all other substance;

others, including Spinoza, argued that God is the only

substance. Substance, according to Spinoza, is one and

indivisible, but has multiple modes; what we ordinarily

call the natural world, together with all the individuals

in it, is immanent in God: hence the famous phrase

Deus sive Natura ("God, or Nature"). Aristotle was

creating his theory of substance in response and

counter to Plato's theory of framework or structures

called the theory of forms.

The Roman Catholic Church has adopted substance

theory as part of its theology of transsubstantiation.

which is in such a way that it need no other entity in

order to be." Therefore, only God is a substance as

ens perfectissimus (most perfect being). Heidegger

showed the inextricable relationship between the

concept of substance and of subject, which explains

why, instead of talking about "man" or "humankind",

he speaks about the Dasein, which is not a simple

subject, nor a substance.

Roman Catholic theologian Karl Rahner, as part of his

critique of transsubstantiation, rejected substance

theory and instead proposed the doctrine of

transfinalization, which he felt was more attuned to

modern philosophy. However, this doctrine was

rejected by Pope Paul VI in his encyclical Mysterium

Fidei.

Primitive concepts of substance theory

Two primitive concepts (i.e., genuine notions that

cannot be explained in terms of something else) in

substance theory are the bare particular and the

inherence relation.

Bare particular In substance theory, a bare

particular of an object is the element without which

the object would not exist, that is, its substance,

which exists independent from its properties, even if

it is physically impossible for it to lack properties

entirely. It is "bare" because it is considered without

its properties and "particular" because it is not

abstract. The properties that the substance has are

said to inhere in the substance.

In substance theory of the mind, the objects are

minds.

Inherence relation Another primitive concept in

substance theory is the inherence relation between a

substance and its properties. For example, in the

sentence, "The apple is red," substance theory says

that red inheres in the apple. Substance theory

considers to be clear the meaning of the apple having

the property of redness or the property of being

juicy, and that a property's inherence in a substance

is similar to, but not identical with, being part of the

substance. Thus, Aristotle wrote:

"By being 'present in a subject' I do not mean present

as parts are present in a whole, but being incapable

of existence apart from the said subject." (The

a

Categories 1 24-26)

The inverse relation is participation. Thus in the

example above, just as red inheres in the apple, so

the apple participates in red.

Criticisms of the concept of substance

Friedrich Nietzsche and, after him, Martin Heidegger,

Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze rejected the notion

of "substance", and in the same movement the concept

of subject contained with the framework of Platonic

idealism. For this reason, Althusser's "anti-humanism"

and Foucault's statements were criticized, by Jürgen

Habermas and others, for misunderstanding that this

led to a fatalist conception of social determinism. For

Habermas, only a subjective form of liberty could be

conceived, to the contrary of Deleuze who talks about

"a life", as an impersonal and immanent form of liberty.

For Heidegger, Descartes means by "substance" that by

which "we can understand nothing else than an entity

Arguments supporting the theory Two common

arguments supporting substance theory are the

argument from grammar and the argument from

conception.

Argument from grammar The argument from

grammar uses traditional grammar to support

substance theory. For example, the sentence, "Snow

is white," contains a subject, "snow", and the

assertion that the subject is white. The argument

holds that it makes no grammatical sense to speak of

"whiteness" disembodied, without snow or some other

subject that is white. That is, the only way to make a

meaningful claim is to speak of a subject and to

predicate various properties of it. Substance theory

  • 108 calls this subject of predication a substance. Thus, in

order to make claims about physical objects, one must

refer to substances, which must exist in order for those

claims to be meaningful.

Many ontologies, including bundle theory, reject the

argument from grammar on the basis that a

grammatical subject does not necessarily refer to a

metaphysical subject. Bundle theory, for example,

maintains that the grammatical subject of statement

refers to its properties. For example, a bundle theorist

understands the grammatical subject of the sentence,

"Snow is white", as a referent to a bundle of properties,

including perhaps the containing of ice crystals, being

cold, and being a few feet deep. To the bundle theorist,

the sentence then modifies that bundle of properties to

include the property of being white. The bundle

theorist, then, maintains that one can make meaningful

statements about bodies without referring to

substances that lack properties.

Argument from conception

Another argument for the substance theory is the

argument from conception. The argument claims that in

order to conceive of an object's properties, like the

redness of an apple, one must conceive of the object

that has those properties. According to the argument,

one cannot conceive of redness, or any other property,

distinct from the thing that has that property. The thing

that has the property, the argument maintains, is a

substance. The argument from conception holds that

properties (e.g. redness or being four inches wide) are

inconceivable by themselves and therefore it is always

a substance that has the properties. Thus, it asserts,

substances exist.

A criticism of the argument from conception is that

properties' being of substances does not follow from

inability to think of isolated properties. The bundle

theorist, for example, says that properties need only be

associated with a bundle of other properties, which

bundle is called an object. The critic maintains that the

inability for an individual property to exist in isolation

does not imply that substances exist. Instead, he

argues, bodies may be bundles of properties, and an

individual property may simply be unable to exist

separately from such a bundle.

Bundle theory In direct opposition to substance theory

is bundle theory, whose most basic premise is that all

Indiscernibility

The indiscernibility argument from the substance

theorist targets those bundle theorists who are also

metaphysical realists. Metaphysical realism uses

repeatable entities known as universals exemplified by

concrete particulars to explain the phenomenon of

attribute agreement. Substance theorists then say that

bundle theory and metaphysical realism can only

coexist by introducing an identity of indiscernibles

creed, which substance theorists suggest is incoherent.

The identity of indiscernibles says that any concrete

particular that is numerically different from another

must have its own qualitive properties, or attributes.

Since bundle theory states that all concrete particulars

are merely constructions or 'bundles' of attributes, or

qualitive properties, the substance theorist's

indiscernibility argument claims that the ability to

recognize numerically different concrete particulars,

such as concrete objects, requires those particulars to

have discernible qualitative differences in their

attributes and that the metaphysical realist who is also

a bundle theorist must therefore concede to the

existence of 'discernible (numerically different)

concrete particulars', the 'identity of indiscernibles',

and a 'principle of constituent identity'.

Discernible concrete particulars

Necessarily, for any complex objects, a and b,

if for any entity, c, c is a constituent of a if and

only if c is a constituent of b, then a is

numerically identical with b.

The indiscernibility argument points out that if bundle

theory and discernible concrete particulars theory

explain the relationship between attributes, then the

identity of indiscernibles theory must also be true:

Identity of indiscernibles

Necessarily, for any concrete objects,a and b, if

for any attribute, Ö, Ö is an attribute of a if

and only if Ö is an attribute of b, then a is

numerically identical with b.

The indiscernibles argument then asserts that the

identity of indiscernibles is false. For example, two

different pieces of printer paper can be side by side,

numerically different from each other. However, the

argument says, all of their qualitive properties can be

the same (e.g. both can be white, rectangular-shaped,

concrete particulars are merely constructions or

9 x 11

Thus, the argument claims, bundle

'bundles' of attributes, or qualitive properties:

theory and metaphysical realism cannot both be

Necessarily, for any concrete entity, a, if for

correct.

any entity, b, b is a constituent of a, then b is

an attribute.

The bundle theorist's principal objections to substance

theory concern the bare particulars of a substance,

which substance theory considers independently of the

substance's properties. The bundle theorist objects to

the notion of a thing with no properties, claiming that

one cannot conceive of such a thing and citing John

Locke, who described a substance as "a something, I

know not what." To the critic, as soon as one has any

notion of a substance in mind, a property accompanies

that notion. That is, to the critic it is not only

physically impossible to encounter a bare particular

without properties, but the very notion of a thing

without properties is so strange that he cannot even

form such a notion.

However, bundle theory combined with trope theory

(as opposed to metaphysical realism) is immune to the

indiscernibles argument. The immunity stems from the

fact that each trope (attribute) can only be held by one

concrete particular, thus qualitive indiscernible objects

can exist while being numerically identical and the

identity of indiscernibles therefore does not hold.

Stoicism The Stoics rejected the idea that incorporeal

beings inhere in matter, as taught by Plato and

Aristotle. They believed that all being is corporeal.

Thus they developed a scheme of categories different

from Aristotle's based on the ideas of Anaxagoras and

Timaeus.

109

Black is the color of objects that do not emit or reflect light in any part of the visible spectrum; they absorb all

bleachers, painted black to give hitters a decent background for pitched balls.

such frequencies of light. Although black is sometimes

Ambiguity and secrecy

described as an "achromatic", or hueless, color, in

·

A black box is any device whose internal

practice it can be considered a color, as in expressions

workings are unknown or inexplicable. In theatre, the

like "black cat" or "black paint".

black box is a smaller, undecorated theater whose

Black can be defined as the visual impression experienced when no visible light reaches the eye.

auditorium and stage relationship can be configured in various way.

(This makes a contrast with whiteness, the impression of any combination of colors of light that equally stimulates all three types of color-sensitive visual

A black project is a secretive project, like Enigma Decryption, other classified military programs or operations, Narcotics, or police sting operations.

·

receptors.)

·

Some organizations are called "black" when

Philosophy

·

In arguments, things can be black-and-white,

meaning that the issue at hand is dichotomized (having two clear, opposing sides with no middle ground).

In ancient China, black was the symbol of North and Water, one of the main five colors.

·

Politics

The List of black flags, although not exclusively political, gives many political meanings.

·

·

Black is used for anarchist symbolism,

sometimes split in diagonal with other colors to show alignment with another political philosophy. The plain black flag is explained in various ways, sometimes as an anti-flag or a non-flag. Wearing black clothing is also sometimes an anarchist tactic during demonstrations, with a practical benefit of not attracting attention and making later identification of a subject difficult. This strategy is referred to as a black bloc.

In Portuguese politics, black (and red) is the party color of the Left Bloc.

·

·

·

The blackshirts were Italian Fascist militias. The blackshirts was a nickname for the SS.

The black triangle was used by the Nazis to designate "asocial" people (homeless and Roma, for

·

example); later the symbol was adopted by lesbian culture. Science

Black sky refers to the appearance of space as one emerges from the Earth's atmosphere.

·

·

The term "black hole" is applied to collapsed

stars.

they keep a low profile, like Sociétés Anonymes and

secret societies. A polished black mirror is used for scrying, and

·

is thought to help see into the paranormal world without interference or distraction.

Black frequently symbolizes ambiguity, secrecy, and the unknown.

·

Beliefs, religions and superstitions

·

Black is a symbol of mourning and bereavement

in Western societies, especially at funerals and memorial services. In some traditional societies, within

for example Greece and Italy, widows wear black for the rest of their lives. In contrast, across much of Africa and parts of Asia, white is a color of mourning and is worn during funerals.

·

In English heraldry, black means darkness,

doubt, ignorance, and uncertainty. [3] In the Maasai tribes of Kenya and Tanzania, the

·

color black is associated with rain clouds, a symbol of

life and prosperity. Native Americans associated black with the

· life-giving soil. The Hindu deity Krishna means "the black one". The medieval Christian sect known as the

·

· Cathars viewed black as a color of perfection.

The Rastafari movement sees black as

· beautiful. In the Japanese culture, Black is associated

·

with honor, not death with the white color being

associated with death.

·

Black body radiation refers to the radiation

coming from a body at a given temperature where all

incoming energy (light) is converted to heat. Sport The national rugby union team of New Zealand is called the All Blacks, in reference to their black outfits, and the color is also shared by other New Zealand national teams such as the Black Caps (cricket) and the Kiwis (rugby league).

·

Association football (soccer) referees

traditionally wear all-black uniforms, however

nowadays other uniform colors may also be worn.

·

A large number of teams have uniforms

designed with black colors - many feeling the color sometimes imparts a psychological advantage in its wearers. Among the more famous (or infamous) include Oakland Raiders and Pittsburgh Steelers of the NFL, the San Antonio Spurs and Miami Heat of the NBA, and Inter Milan of the Serie A of the Italian soccer leagues.

In auto racing, a black flag signals a driver to go into the pits.

·

· eye, a blacked out area around the center-field

In baseball, "the black" refers to the batter's

110

Ousia

Ousia is the Ancient Greek noun formed on the feminine present participle of (to be); it is analogous to the English participle being, and the Greek ontic. Ousia is often translated (sometimes incorrectly) to Latin as substantia and essentia, and to English as substance and essence; and (loosely) also as (contextually) the

Latin word accident

[1]

which conflicts with the

denotation of sumbebekos, given that Aristotle uses

sumbebekos in showing that inhuman things (objects) also are substantive

Philosophic and scientific use

The Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle used ousia in their ontologies; their denotations are the contemporary philosophic and theological usages. Aristotle used ousia in creating animal phyla in biology, and hypostasis denoting general existence (reality), and ousia denoting a specific substance, essence, being, person, or thing.

Quite later, Martin Heidegger said that the original meaning of the word ousia was lost in its translation to the Latin, and, subsequently, in its translation to modern languages. For him, ousia means Being, not substance, that is, not some thing or some being that "stood"(-stance) "under"(sub-). Moreover, he also uses the bi-nomial parousia-apousia, denoting presence- absence, and hypostasis denoting existence.

Theologcial significance

Origen, (d. 251) used ousia in defining God as one genus of ousia, while being three, distinct species of hypostasis: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The Synods of Antioch condemned the word homoousios (same substance) because it originated in pagan Greek philosophy. The Paul of Samosata entry of the Catholic Encyclopedia says:

It must be regarded as certain that the council, which condemned Paul, rejected the term homoousios; but, naturally, only in a false sense, used by Paul; not, it seems, because he meant by it a unity of Hypostasis in the Trinity (so St. Hilary), but because he intended, by it, a common substance, out of which both Father and Son proceeded, or which it divided between them so St. Basil and St. Athanasius; but the question is not clear. The objectors to the Nicene doctrine in the fourth century made copious use of this disapproval of the Nicene word by a famous council.

[3]

The general agreed upon meaning of ousia in Eastern Christianity is all that subsist by itself and which has

not its being in another.

[4]

In contrast to hypostasis

which is used to mean reality or existence.

[5]

In 325, the First Council of Nicaea condemned Arianism and formulated a creed, which stated that in the Godhead the Son was Homoousios (same in substance) of the Father. However, controversy did not stop and many Eastern clerics rejected the term because of its earlier condemnation in the usage of Paul of Samosata. Subsequent Emperors Constantius II and Valens supported Arianism and theologians came up with alternative wordings like Homoios (similar) homoiousios (similar in substance), or Ahomoios (unsimilar). While the Homoios achieved the support of several councils

and the Emperors, those of an opposing view were suppressed. The adherents of the Homoiousios eventually joined forces with the (mostly Western) adherents of the Homoousios and accepted the formulation of the Nicene creed.

Matter is the substrate from which physical existence is derived, remaining more-or-less constant amid changes. The word, matter is derived from the Latin word, mâteria, meaning wood. Mâteria, itself, traces back to the word, mâter, meaning mother. Thus considered, matter is the mother substance.

Text reference is taken from www.wikipedia.org

111

Benedict de Spinoza

Baruch or Benedict de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. Revealing considerable scientific aptitude, the breadth and importance of Spinoza's work was not fully realized until years after his death. Today, he is considered one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy, laying the groundwork for the 18th century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism. By virtue of his magnum opus, the posthumous Ethics, in which he opposed Descartes' mindbody dualism, Spinoza is considered to be one of Western philosophy's most important philosophers. Philosopher and historian Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel said of all modern philosophers, "You

[1]

are either a Spinozist or not a philosopher at all." of Spinoza's works were listed on the Index Librorum

All

Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books) by the Roman Catholic Church.

Spinoza lived quietly as a lens grinder, turning down rewards and honors throughout his life, including prestigious teaching positions, and gave his family inheritance to his sister. Spinoza's moral character and philosophical accomplishments prompted 20th century philosopher Gilles Deleuze to name him "the 'prince' of

philosophers."

[2]

Spinoza died at the age of 44 of a lung

illness, perhaps tuberculosis or silicosis exacerbated by fine glass dust inhaled while tending to his trade. Spinoza is buried in the churchyard of the Nieuwe Kerk on Spui in The Hague.

Sant Tukaram

Tukaram (1608- 1950) was born in 1608 at Dehu dist.Pune India and vanished without a trace in 1650.What little we know of his life is a reconstruction from his own autobiographical poems, the contemporary poetess Bahinabai's memoirs in verse, and the latest biographer of Marathi poet-saints, Mahipati's account. The rest is all folklore , though it cannot be dismissed on those grounds alone. Modern scholars such as the late V.S.Bendre have made arduous efforts to collate evidence from disparate contemporary sources to establish a well-researched biography of Tukaram. But even this is largely conjectural.

There is a similar mystery about Tukaram's manuscripts. The Vithoba-Rakhumai temple in Tukaram's native village, Dehu, has a manuscript on display that is claimed to be in Tukaram's own handwriting. What is more important is the claim that this manuscript is part of the collection Tukaram was forced to sink in the local river Indrayani and which was miraculously restored after he undertook a fast-unto-death. The present manuscript is in a somewhat precarious condition and contains only about 250 poems. At the beginning of this century the same manuscript was recorded as having about 700 poems and a copy of it is still found in Pandharpur.

Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677)

Benedict de Spinoza Baruch or Benedict de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 February 21, 1677) was a

Sant Tukaram (1608-1650)

Benedict de Spinoza Baruch or Benedict de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 February 21, 1677) was a

112

A sculpture Of lord Vithoba 113

A sculpture Of lord Vithoba

113

A square near Samadhi place of Sant Jnandev 114

A square near Samadhi place of Sant Jnandev

114

Samadhi place of Sant Jnandev 115

Samadhi place of Sant Jnandev

115

Tree witnessed departure Of Sant Tukaram 116

Tree witnessed departure Of Sant Tukaram

116

Shelter 117

Shelter

117

Day after Disaster 118

Day after Disaster

118

A Fruit 119

A Fruit

119

A Fruit 120

A Fruit

120

A Fruit 121

A Fruit

121

A Messenger 122

A Messenger

122

A Reflection Factor 123

A Reflection Factor

123

A Door 124

A Door

124

Age,Time and Matter 125

Age,Time and Matter

125

Romantic Representative 126

Romantic Representative

126

Drawing of Samadhi 127

Drawing of Samadhi

127

New Concept 128

New Concept

128

Light Force 129

Light Force

129

Stone Marks 130

Stone Marks

130

Cultivation Theory 131

Cultivation Theory

131

Bhaskar Hande 1957 BIOGRAPHY 1957 Born in Umbraj,state Maharashtra,India. 1974 Came to Bombay as banner painter

Bhaskar Hande 1957

BIOGRAPHY

1957

Born in Umbraj,state Maharashtra,India.

1974

Came to Bombay as banner painter in film

industry

1976-81 Studied at sir J.J.institute of applied arts Mumbai India obtained G.D.ARTS diploma.in applied art.

1979

Forth prize Maharashtra state competation

1981

Second prize Maharashtra state competation

1982

Went to the Netherlands for post graduation

1982-84 Studied at the Royal Academy of Visual Arts the

Hague.NL. Obtained diploma in Monumental Painting and Design. 1985-87 Studied animation and video at the Free Academy of Visual Arts the Hague,NL.

1987

Since than is working as free-lance fine artist

In The Nederlands (Holland) and India with his Art

Environment studio.

BOOKS

1989

  • 1 Encounter/Ontmoeting Forum/GTP Amsterdam,NL

English/Nederlands Catalogue and poetry Poet Adriaan

Morrian

1990

  • 2 DASHAK BAPU Nashik,IND Marathi poetry

1995

  • 3 Your form is my creation Vaishwik Pune,IND

Marathi/English Artbook/catalogue Text Dilip Chitre /Dr.Sadanand More

1995

  • 4 Budala gaon gaon budala Bapu Nashik,IND Marathi

poetry

1996

  • 5 Merging colours Warre fine arts English catalogue

Artimediar The Hague,NL

1996

  • 6 Your form is my creation Century Union The Hague NL

Hindi/English artbook/catalogue

1997

  • 7 Holland-India Marathi/Nederlands artbook/catalogue

  • 8 Prints by Bhaskar Hande Century union The Hague,NL

English/Nederlands part one

1999

  • 9 BHASKAR1999/2000 Gallery Blackheath London,UK

English artbook/catalogue

2001

  • 10 Holland-Europe Vaishwik Pune,IND Give and take in

art 2 Marathi / Nederlands artbook/catalogue

  • 11 Tirast Manera Vaishwik Pune, IND Marathi poetry

  • 12 Encounter with International artist Stg. IHK The

Hague NL Stg. Internationale Haagse Kunst

2004

  • 13 Amber Amber international,Amsterdam NL

International Dutch and Punjabi literature

2005

  • 14 Amber Amber international, Amsterdam NL

International Dutch and Punjabi literature

2006

  • 15 Colour Saga Exhibition catalogue Fabs Warsaw

Poland

  • 16 Dehu Pandharpur palakhi sohala 2008

132

CURATION

CURATION Wooden Collage2007 1989 Musee Alternative. 20 Young artists in Rex Theater, The Hague. 1991 Colored

Wooden Collage2007

1989

Musee Alternative. 20 Young artists in Rex

Theater, The Hague.

1991

Colored festival. 8 Multicultural artists in The

Hague.

1992

"The Two World Accents". 2 Different nationalities

artists in The Hague, Iserlohn Hohen-limburg, Lubeck,

Germany

Colored festival The Hague The Netherlands.

1993

October 6 Multicultural artists in The Hague.

Forum Gallery Amsterdam.

1996

January Where Cultures Meet/Merging Colors The

Hague The Netherlands

1997

April Give and Take in Art Holland India 6 young

Dutch artist in Pune India.

1998

June Give and Take in Art1 India-Holland 6 Indian

artist in the Hague Holland

1999

May Give and Take in Art India-Holland 6 Indian

artist in the Hague NEDERLAND

2001

June Give and Take in Art2 Holland-Europe 3

young Dutch artist in Pune INDIA.

2004

April Give and Take in Art3 Holland-Europe 6

Dutch Artist in Mumbai INDIA

2006

April Give and Take in Art3 Holland-Europe 8

Indian and 8 Dutch artist in the ISS Nederland

2007

-08 Show Your Hope World Tour part one

Nederland To India Via Turkey, Gorgia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Pakistan and India.

Project Your Form is My Creation at Dehu India.

2009

Dehu-Pandharpur Palkhisohala 2008 Pune

133

Baruch Spinoza’s house in The Hague 134

Baruch Spinoza’s house in The Hague

134

Dublet Street apposite Spinoza house

Dublet Street apposite Spinoza house

Part One Artimediair The Hague

Part One

Artimediair

The Hague