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B h a s k a r H a n d e

B h a s k a r H a n d e

A Black Substance
Part Two

The Hague

A Black Substance

Bhaskar Hande 2009

Pretoriusstraat 131 2571VD The Hague email: bhaskarhande@yahoo.com

Gallery Artimediair The Hague The Netherlands www.Tukaram.com

Vaishwik Art Environment Pune S. No. 246/4 D. P. Road Aundh pune 411007 www.vaishwik.com Email: vaishwikart@yahoo.com

Printined at
Swaroop Mudran 687 Narayan peth Pune 411003

No part of this book would copied or reprinted without permission 4

In a recent project, Palkhisohala, I have been drawing, taking photographs, reading people's minds, meeting strangers and documenting events in visual form. I took many photographs as a way of critically observing objects, noting their artistic value and appreciating them. An object or a subject draws one's attention; an object demands that it be looked at and a subject needs to be ruminated over. In visual documentation one needs to perceive the importance of the image. A monument is an object that symbolizes an era in history and a document shows textual or pictorial evidence of an agreement or treaty. Personal letters and sketches constitute subjective matter that can serve as both evidence of a crime or incident, as well as literature. The Dehu Palkhisohala (Palanquin Procession) has been going on for the past 325 years. Actually, I've long been interested in documenting this event in a unique way. The th year 2008 was Sant Tukaram's 400 birth anniversary. I had the opportunity to be in India for this occasion. So I decided to follow the Palkhisohala by making on-the-spot drawings. It was a living experience in itself. I invited local artists and art schools that are along the Dehu Palkhisohala route. Some of them responded enthusiastically to my appeal. The concept developed in my mind while travelling through Europe and India with the project Show Your Hope. What would I do with thousands and thousands of images taken during the journey? As I pondered over this idea of 'A Black Substance' I read some Western philosophy. My curiosity and interest grew in a wide range of subjects. Since I've been writing poems, painting, drawing and sculpting, I realized


that I've been a very meditative person all my life. Actually, I lived my life ignoring some of the facts and practices involved in modern-day meditation. But I focused on various subjects that have occupied me over the years and imaginatively pursued their development. I found some way of working with images and produced the visuals that reflect the philosophies I'm concerned with here. In discussion with some of my friends in The Netherlands, who are lovers of Indian culture as well as critical writers, I discovered and accepted that the subject of Vithoba has parallels with the concept of substance in Western philosophy. Tukaram has described this in his abhangas. All his affectionate descriptions of Lord Vithoba are substantive in nature, and Jnandev's description of a cosmic Being incorporates the idea of 'substance'. Later, in Western philosophy, Spinoza's notion of stoicism held that there is only one substance. For the past few years I've been reading more of Spinoza's philosophy in the context of his house, now a monument that stands in front of my studio in The Hague. He was a contemporary of Sant Tukaram. It is by sheer coincidence that I worked on translating Sant Tukaram's abhangas in visual terms and arrived at Spinoza's door. Every day I looked at Spinoza's statue and reflected on Tukaram's poetry. Some of my European writer friends made fun of this, and my Indian friends made similar remarks in their writings. Another aspect of this area is the lane that runs alongside my studio. It is where prostitutes ply their trade, in front of Spinoza's house and statue, and right by my studio and gallery. Because of this one can hear plenty of controversial remarks by tourists and visitors just around the corner. Photography is a subject which relates concrete evidence to substance theory. It contains light and dark (black) matter. With each increment of light the darker part changes the identity of the image. In terms of its surface the visual identity of the image changes. In three-dimensional terms its identity changes, but its properties remain the same. Each angle of approach to the frame of the image changes the property of that space and creates a separate image with its own special form. The negative or positive form of the image again transforms the identity of that image. Changes in hue,

A Black Substance
contrast and brightness bring about incremental changes that create more and more images from a single image. The image of Being (Ousia) is captured by light and represented on a flat two-dimensional surface. The quality of light is characterized by the intensity of light falling on an object or simply illuminating a space, and that's what identifies an image. (A substance, or ousia, is a permanent property of an object without which the object no longer remains itself, and therefore becomes some other object.*)

* from Wikipedia

For this book I worked on photographic images to produce artistic images. Computer software has now made it easier to transform images as you please. It may help technically, but artistic judgments are based on one's own experience. Photography becomes just a routine technique in the practice of art. It has provided an enormous amount of visual data. These days making short art films and editing them makes me want to obtain black and white images just to stimulate my imagination. This process has been instrumental in producing the images in this book. I surprised myself as I created them. One always discovers something different in the subtle interplay of light and substance.


Life on Earth I 10

Life on Earth II 11

Life on Earth III 12

Blooming 13

Blooming II 14

Hot Shot 15

Life on Earth 16

Wind Goes Round 17

Glowing grass 18

Deep in the Earth 19

Deep in the Earth


Deep in the Earth

High in the Sky 21

Growing Solid 22

In Various Forms 23

In Changing Seasons 24

Drawing shadow 25

Tone of skin 26

In High Contrast 27

Centurion I 28

Centurion II 29

Residence in pLight 30

Bright House 31

Structural Solidarity 32

A Protector 33

Outside of the Window 34

At the Door 35

Down on the Earth I 36

Down on the Earth II 37

Around Weather 38

Kristal Water 39

Script 40

A Reader 41

A Fire place 42

A Reader 43

Sunlight on Script. 44

Devotion 45

A Form 46

A Form 47

A Form 48

A Form 49

A Lighten Place I 50

A Lighten Place II 51

A Lighten Place 52

A Lighten space 53

A light and shadow play I 54

A light and shadowplay II 55

A light and shadow play III 56

Rain Fields 57

Snowscape 58

Frosen play 59

A Wall 60

A Roots 61

Composed 62

A Journey 63

Passing by 64

A Station 65

Passing by II 66

Passing through I 67

Passing through II 68

A flying Station 69

A Desire of Form I 70

A Desire of Form II 71

Transparency 72

A Plant 73

A Reflection 74

Transitors 75

A Reflector

A Planet 77

Resting Mood 78

Circled Meditation 79



Transparent Volume 81

A Stone I 82

A Stone II 83

A Branches 84

Textural Harmony 85

Multi factor I 86

Multi Factor II 87

Tonal Skin 88

Composted 89

A Wood Notes 90

A Texture Rap 91

Rain Fields 92



Ice Prints

Canvas Skin 96

Wood Moods 1 97

Wood Moods 2 98

Wood Moods 3 99

Wood Moods 4 100

Wood Moods 5 101

Wood Moods 6 102

Wood Moods 7 103

Wood Moods 8

Wood Moods 9 105

Wood Moods 10 106

Wood Moods 11 107

A Victim I 108

A Victim II 108

A Reformat 110

A Bounder 111

Growen circled 112

Circled Format 113

Cycled 114

Mix textured 115


Substance theory, is an ontological theory about object hood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties. This is part of essentialism in that ousia as a substance can also be a descriptor of an object's being (ontology) and/or nature. As substance or ousia is a permanent property of an object without which the object no longer remains itself and therefore becomes some other object. Substance is a core concept of ontology and metaphysics. Indeed, philosophies may be divided into monist philosophies, and dualist or pluralist philosophies. Monistic views, often associated with immanence, hold that there is only one substance, sometimes called God or Being. Dualist and pluralist views hold that two or more types of substances do exist, and that these can be placed in an ontological hierarchy. Platonism or Aristotelianism considers that there are various substances, while stoicism and Spinoza hold that there is only one substance. The concept of substance in Western philosophy In the millennia-old Aristotelian tradition, as well as early modern traditions that follow it, substances or ousia are treated as having attributes and modes or things. This concept helps to explain, for instance, state transitions. Let us take a quantity of water and freeze it into ice. Substance theory maintains that there is a "substance" which is unchanged through this transition, which is both the liquid water and also the frozen ice. It maintains that the water is not replaced by the ice it is the same "stuff," or substance. If this is true, then it must be the case that the wetness of water, the hardness of ice, are not essential to the underlying substance. (Essentially, matter does not disappear, it only changes form.) The Aristotelian view of God considered God as both ontologically and causally prior to all other substance; others, including Spinoza, argued that God is the only substance. Substance, according to Spinoza, is one and indivisible, but has multiple modes; what we ordinarily call the natural world, together with all the individuals in it, is immanent in God: hence the famous phrase Deus sive Natura ("God, or Nature"). Aristotle was creating his theory of substance in response and counter to Plato's theory of framework or structures

called the theory of forms. The Roman Catholic Church has adopted substance theory as part of its theology of transsubstantiation. Criticisms of the concept of substance Friedrich Nietzsche and, after him, Martin Heidegger, Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze rejected the notion of "substance", and in the same movement the concept of subject contained with the framework of Platonic idealism. For this reason, Althusser's "anti-humanism" and Foucault's statements were criticized, by Jrgen Habermas and others, for misunderstanding that this led to a fatalist conception of social determinism. For Habermas, only a subjective form of liberty could be conceived, to the contrary of Deleuze who talks about "a life", as an impersonal and immanent form of liberty. For Heidegger, Descartes means by "substance" that by which "we can understand nothing else than an entity which is in such a way that it need no other entity in order to be." Therefore, only God is a substance as ens perfectissimus (most perfect being). Heidegger showed the inextricable relationship between the concept of substance and of subject, which explains why, instead of talking about "man" or "humankind", he speaks about the Dasein, which is not a simple subject, nor a substance. Roman Catholic theologian Karl Rahner, as part of his critique of transsubstantiation, rejected substance theory and instead proposed the doctrine of transfinalization, which he felt was more attuned to modern philosophy. However, this doctrine was rejected by Pope Paul VI in his encyclical Mysterium Fidei. Primitive concepts of substance theory Two primitive concepts (i.e., genuine notions that cannot be explained in terms of something else) in substance theory are the bare particular and the inherence relation. Bare particular In substance theory, a bare particular of an object is the element without which the object would not exist, that is, its substance, which exists independent from its properties, even if it is physically impossible for it to lack properties entirely. It is "bare" because it is considered without its properties and "particular" because it is not abstract. The properties that the substance has are

said to inhere in the substance. In substance theory of the mind, the objects are minds. Inherence relation Another primitive concept in substance theory is the inherence relation between a substance and its properties. For example, in the sentence, "The apple is red," substance theory says that red inheres in the apple. Substance theory considers to be clear the meaning of the apple having the property of redness or the property of being juicy, and that a property's inherence in a substance is similar to, but not identical with, being part of the substance. Thus, Aristotle wrote: "By being 'present in a subject' I do not mean present as parts are present in a whole, but being incapable of existence apart from the said subject." (The a Categories 1 24-26) The inverse relation is participation. Thus in the example above, just as red inheres in the apple, so the apple participates in red. Arguments supporting the theory Two common arguments supporting substance theory are the argument from grammar and the argument from conception. Argument from grammar The argument from grammar uses traditional grammar to support substance theory. For example, the sentence, "Snow is white," contains a subject, "snow", and the assertion that the subject is white. The argument holds that it makes no grammatical sense to speak of "whiteness" disembodied, without snow or some other subject that is white. That is, the only way to make a meaningful claim is to speak of a subject and to predicate various properties of it. Substance theory 108calls this subject of predication a substance. Thus, in order to make claims about physical objects, one must refer to substances, which must exist in order for those claims to be meaningful. Many ontologies, including bundle theory, reject the argument from grammar on the basis that a grammatical subject does not necessarily refer to a metaphysical subject. Bundle theory, for example, maintains that the grammatical subject of statement refers to its properties. For example, a bundle theorist understands the grammatical subject of the sentence,

"Snow is white", as a referent to a bundle of properties, including perhaps the containing of ice crystals, being cold, and being a few feet deep. To the bundle theorist, the sentence then modifies that bundle of properties to include the property of being white. The bundle theorist, then, maintains that one can make meaningful statements about bodies without referring to substances that lack properties. Argument from conception Another argument for the substance theory is the argument from conception. The argument claims that in order to conceive of an object's properties, like the redness of an apple, one must conceive of the object that has those properties. According to the argument, one cannot conceive of redness, or any other property, distinct from the thing that has that property. The thing that has the property, the argument maintains, is a substance. The argument from conception holds that properties (e.g. redness or being four inches wide) are inconceivable by themselves and therefore it is always a substance that has the properties. Thus, it asserts, substances exist. A criticism of the argument from conception is that properties' being of substances does not follow from inability to think of isolated properties. The bundle theorist, for example, says that properties need only be associated with a bundle of other properties, which bundle is called an object. The critic maintains that the inability for an individual property to exist in isolation does not imply that substances exist. Instead, he argues, bodies may be bundles of properties, and an individual property may simply be unable to exist separately from such a bundle. Bundle theory In direct opposition to substance theory is bundle theory, whose most basic premise is that all concrete particulars are merely constructions or 'bundles' of attributes, or qualitative properties: Necessarily, for any concrete entity, a, if for any entity, b, b is a constituent of a, then b is an attribute. The bundle theorist's principal objections to substance theory concern the bare particulars of a substance, which substance theory considers independently of the substance's properties. The bundle theorist objects to the notion of a thing with no properties, claiming that

one cannot conceive of such a thing and citing John Locke, who described a substance as "a something, I know not what." To the critic, as soon as one has any notion of a substance in mind, a property accompanies that notion. That is, to the critic it is not only physically impossible to encounter a bare particular without properties, but the very notion of a thing without properties is so strange that he cannot even form such a notion. Indiscernibility The indiscernibility argument from the substance theorist targets those bundle theorists who are also metaphysical realists. Metaphysical realism uses repeatable entities known as universals exemplified by concrete particulars to explain the phenomenon of attribute agreement. Substance theorists then say that bundle theory and metaphysical realism can only coexist by introducing an identity of indiscernibles creed, which substance theorists suggest is incoherent. The identity of indiscernibles says that any concrete particular that is numerically different from another must have its own qualitive properties, or attributes. Since bundle theory states that all concrete particulars are merely constructions or 'bundles' of attributes, or qualitive properties, the substance theorist's indiscernibility argument claims that the ability to recognize numerically different concrete particulars, such as concrete objects, requires those particulars to have discernible qualitative differences in their attributes and that the metaphysical realist who is also a bundle theorist must therefore concede to the existence of 'discernible (numerically different) concrete particulars', the 'identity of indiscernibles', and a 'principle of constituent identity'. Discernible concrete particulars Necessarily, for any complex objects, a and b, if for any entity, c, c is a constituent of a if and only if c is a constituent of b, then a is numerically identical with b. The indiscernibility argument points out that if bundle theory and discernible concrete particulars theory explain the relationship between attributes, then the identity of indiscernibles theory must also be true: Identity of indiscernibles Necessarily, for any concrete objects,a and b, if

for any attribute, , is an attribute of a if and only if is an attribute of b, then a is numerically identical with b. The indiscernibles argument then asserts that the identity of indiscernibles is false. For example, two different pieces of printer paper can be side by side, numerically different from each other. However, the argument says, all of their qualitive properties can be the same (e.g. both can be white, rectangular-shaped, 9 x 11 inches...). Thus, the argument claims, bundle theory and metaphysical realism cannot both be correct. However, bundle theory combined with trope theory (as opposed to metaphysical realism) is immune to the indiscernibles argument. The immunity stems from the fact that each trope (attribute) can only be held by one concrete particular, thus qualitive indiscernible objects can exist while being numerically identical and the identity of indiscernibles therefore does not hold. Stoicism The Stoics rejected the idea that incorporeal beings inhere in matter, as taught by Plato and Aristotle. They believed that all being is corporeal. Thus they developed a scheme of categories different from Aristotle's based on the ideas of Anaxagoras and Timaeus. Black is the color of objects that do not emit or reflect light in any part of the visible spectrum; they absorb all such frequencies of light. Although black is sometimes described as an "achromatic", or hueless, color, in practice it can be considered a color, as in expressions like "black cat" or "black paint". Black can be defined as the visual impression experienced when no visible light reaches the eye. (This makes a contrast with whiteness, the impression of any combination of colors of light that equally stimulates all three types of color-sensitive visual receptors.) Philosophy In arguments, things can be black-and-white, meaning that the issue at hand is dichotomized (having two clear, opposing sides with no middle ground). In ancient China, black was the symbol of North and Water, one of the main five colors.

Politics The List of black flags, although not exclusively political, gives many political meanings. Black is used for anarchist symbolism, sometimes split in diagonal with other colors to show alignment with another political philosophy. The plain black flag is explained in various ways, sometimes as an anti-flag or a non-flag. Wearing black clothing is also sometimes an anarchist tactic during demonstrations, with a practical benefit of not attracting attention and making later identification of a subject difficult. This strategy is referred to as a black bloc. In Portuguese politics, black (and red) is the party color of the Left Bloc. The blackshirts were Italian Fascist militias. The blackshirts was a nickname for the SS. The black triangle was used by the Nazis to designate "asocial" people (homeless and Roma, for example); later the symbol was adopted by lesbian culture. Science Black sky refers to the appearance of space as one emerges from the Earth's atmosphere. The term "black hole" is applied to collapsed stars. Black body radiation refers to the radiation coming from a body at a given temperature where all incoming energy (light) is converted to heat. Sport The national rugby union team of New Zealand is called the All Blacks, in reference to their black outfits, and the color is also shared by other New Zealand national teams such as the Black Caps (cricket) and the Kiwis (rugby league). Association football (soccer) referees traditionally wear all-black uniforms, however nowadays other uniform colors may also be worn. A large number of teams have uniforms designed with black colors - many feeling the color sometimes imparts a psychological advantage in its wearers. Among the more famous (or infamous) include Oakland Raiders and Pittsburgh Steelers of the NFL, the San Antonio Spurs and Miami Heat of the NBA, and Inter Milan of the Serie A of the Italian soccer leagues. In auto racing, a black flag signals a driver to 120

go into the pits. In baseball, "the black" refers to the batter's eye, a blacked out area around the center-field bleachers, painted black to give hitters a decent background for pitched balls. Ambiguity and secrecy A black box is any device whose internal workings are unknown or inexplicable. In theatre, the black box is a smaller, undecorated theater whose auditorium and stage relationship can be configured in various way. A black project is a secretive project, like Enigma Decryption, other classified military programs or operations, Narcotics, or police sting operations. Some organizations are called "black" when they keep a low profile, like Socits Anonymes and secret societies. A polished black mirror is used for scrying, and is thought to help see into the paranormal world without interference or distraction. Black frequently symbolizes ambiguity, secrecy, and the unknown. Beliefs, religions and superstitions Black is a symbol of mourning and bereavement in Western societies, especially at funerals and memorial services. In some traditional societies, within for example Greece and Italy, widows wear black for the rest of their lives. In contrast, across much of Africa and parts of Asia, white is a color of mourning and is worn during funerals. In English heraldry, black means darkness, doubt, ignorance, and uncertainty. [3] In the Maasai tribes of Kenya and Tanzania, the color black is associated with rain clouds, a symbol of life and prosperity. Native Americans associated black with the life-giving soil. The Hindu deity Krishna means "the black one". The medieval Christian sect known as the Cathars viewed black as a color of perfection. The Rastafari movement sees black as beautiful. In the Japanese culture, Black is associated with honor, not death with the white color being associated with death.

Ousia Ousia is the Ancient Greek noun formed on the feminine present participle of (to be); it is analogous to the English participle being, and the Greek ontic. Ousia is often translated (sometimes incorrectly) to Latin as substantia and essentia, and to English as substance and essence; and (loosely) also as (contextually) the [1] Latin word accident which conflicts with the denotation of sumbebekos, given that Aristotle uses sumbebekos in showing that inhuman things (objects) also are substantive Philosophic and scientific use The Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle used ousia in their ontologies; their denotations are the contemporary philosophic and theological usages. Aristotle used ousia in creating animal phyla in biology, and hypostasis denoting general existence (reality), and ousia denoting a specific substance, essence, being, person, or thing. Quite later, Martin Heidegger said that the original meaning of the word ousia was lost in its translation to the Latin, and, subsequently, in its translation to modern languages. For him, ousia means Being, not substance, that is, not some thing or some being that "stood"(-stance) "under"(sub-). Moreover, he also uses the bi-nomial parousia-apousia, denoting presenceabsence, and hypostasis denoting existence. Theologcial significance Origen, (d. 251) used ousia in defining God as one genus of ousia, while being three, distinct species of hypostasis: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The Synods of Antioch condemned the word homoousios (same substance) because it originated in pagan Greek philosophy. The Paul of Samosata entry of the Catholic Encyclopedia says: It must be regarded as certain that the council, which condemned Paul, rejected the term homoousios; but, naturally, only in a false sense, used by Paul; not, it seems, because he meant by it a unity of Hypostasis in the Trinity (so St. Hilary), but because he intended, by it, a common substance, out of which both Father and Son proceeded, or which it divided between them so St. Basil and St. Athanasius;

but the question is not clear. The objectors to the Nicene doctrine in the fourth century made copious use of this disapproval of the Nicene [3] word by a famous council. The general agreed upon meaning of ousia in Eastern Christianity is all that subsist by itself and which has [4] not its being in another. In contrast to hypostasis [5] which is used to mean reality or existence. In 325, the First Council of Nicaea condemned Arianism and formulated a creed, which stated that in the Godhead the Son was Homoousios (same in substance) of the Father. However, controversy did not stop and many Eastern clerics rejected the term because of its earlier condemnation in the usage of Paul of Samosata. Subsequent Emperors Constantius II and Valens supported Arianism and theologians came up with alternative wordings like Homoios (similar) homoiousios (similar in substance), or Ahomoios (unsimilar). While the Homoios achieved the support of several councils and the Emperors, those of an opposing view were suppressed. The adherents of the Homoiousios eventually joined forces with the (mostly Western) adherents of the Homoousios and accepted the formulation of the Nicene creed. Matter is the substrate from which physical existence is derived, remaining more-or-less constant amid changes. The word, matter is derived from the Latin word, mteria, meaning wood. Mteria, itself, traces back to the word, mter, meaning mother. Thus considered, matter is the mother substance.

Text reference is taken from www.wikipedia.org

High Above I 122

High Above II 123

On the Top I 124

On the Top II 125

On fire I 126

On fire II 127

On fire III 128

On fire IV 129

Benedict de Spinoza
Baruch or Benedict de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. Revealing considerable scientific aptitude, the breadth and importance of Spinoza's work was not fully realized until years after his death. Today, he is considered one of the great rationalists of 17th-century philosophy, laying the groundwork for the 18th century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism. By virtue of his magnum opus, the posthumous Ethics, in which he opposed Descartes' mindbody dualism, Spinoza is considered to be one of Western philosophy's most important philosophers. Philosopher and historian Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel said of all modern philosophers, "You [1] are either a Spinozist or not a philosopher at all." All of Spinoza's works were listed on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books) by the Roman Catholic Church. Spinoza lived quietly as a lens grinder, turning down rewards and honors throughout his life, including prestigious teaching positions, and gave his family inheritance to his sister. Spinoza's moral character and philosophical accomplishments prompted 20th century philosopher Gilles Deleuze to name him "the 'prince' of [2] philosophers." Spinoza died at the age of 44 of a lung illness, perhaps tuberculosis or silicosis exacerbated by fine glass dust inhaled while tending to his trade. Spinoza is buried in the churchyard of the Nieuwe Kerk on Spui in The Hague.


Sant Tukaram
Tukaram (1608- 1950) was born in 1608 at Dehu dist.Pune India and vanished without a trace in 1650.What little we know of his life is a reconstruction from his own autobiographical poems, the contemporary poetess Bahinabai's memoirs in verse, and the latest biographer of Marathi poet-saints, Mahipati's account. The rest is all folklore , though it cannot be dismissed on those grounds alone. Modern scholars such as the late V.S.Bendre have made arduous efforts to collate evidence from disparate contemporary sources to establish a well-researched biography of Tukaram. But even this is largely conjectural. There is a similar mystery about Tukaram's manuscripts. The Vithoba-Rakhumai temple in Tukaram's native village, Dehu, has a manuscript on display that is claimed to be in Tukaram's own handwriting. What is more important is the claim that this manuscript is part of the collection Tukaram was forced to sink in the local river Indrayani and which was miraculously restored after he undertook a fast-unto-death. The present manuscript is in a somewhat precarious condition and contains only about 250 poems. At the beginning of this century the same manuscript was recorded as having about 700 poems and a copy of it is still found in Pandharpur.


1.Je ka ranjale ganjale Know him to be a true man who takes to his bosom those who are in distress. Know that God resides in the heart of such a one. His heart is saturated with gentleness through and through. He receives as his only those who are forsaken. He bestows on his man servants and maid servants the same affection he shows to his children. Tukaram says: What need is there to describe him further? He is the very incarnation of divinity. 2.Papachi vasana nako davoo dola O God, let me not be witness to desire for sin, better make me blind; let me not hear ill of anyone, better make me deaf; let not a sinful word escape my lips, better make me dumb; let me not lust after another's wife, better that I disappear from this earth. Tuka says: I am tired of everything worldly, Thee alone I like, O Gopal. 3. Pavitra te kul paawan to desh jethe Hariche daas janma gheti Blessed is that family and that country where servants of God take birth. God becomes their work and their religion. The three worlds become holy through them. Tell me who have become purified through pride of birth? The Puranas have testified like bards without reserve that those called untouchables have attained salvation through devotion to God. Tuladhar, the Vaishya, Gora, the potter, Rohidas, a tanner, Kabir, a Momin, Latif, a Muslim, Sena, a barber, and Vishnudas, Kanhopatra, Dadu, a carder, all become one at the feet of God in the company of hymn singers. Chokhamela and Banka, both Mahars by birth, became one with God. Oh, how great was the devotion of Jani the servant girl of Namdev! Pandharinath (God) dined with her. Meral Janak's family no one knows, yet who can do justice to his greatness? For the servant of God there is no caste, no varna, so say the Vedic sages. Tuka says: I cannot count the degraded. 4. Jethe jato tethe tu maajha saangaati Wherever I go, Thou art my companion. Having taken me by the hand Thou movest me. I go alone depending solely on Thee. Thou bearest too my burdens. If I am likely to say anything foolish, Thou makest it right. Thou

hast removed my bashfulness and madest me selfconfident, O Lord. All the people have become my guards, relatives and bosom friends. Tuka says: I now conduct myself without any care. I have attained divine peace within and without. 5.Na kalataa kaay When one does not know, what is one to do so as to have devotion to Thy sacred feet? When will it so happen that Thou wilt come and settle in my heart? O God, when wilt Thou so ordain that I may meditate on Thee with a true heart? Remove Thou my untruth and, O Truth, come and dwell Thou in my heart. Tuka says: O Panduranga, do Thou protect by Thy power sinners like me. 6. Muktipang naahi vishnuchiyadaasaa To the servants of Vishnu there is no yearning even for salvation; they do not want to know what the wheel of birth and death is like.; Govind sits steadily settled in their hearts; for them the beginning and the end are the same. They make over happiness and misery to God and themselves remain untouched by them, the auspicious songs sing of them; their strength and their intellect are dedicated to benevolent uses; their hearts contain gentleness; they are full of mercy even like God; they know no distinction between theirs and others'. Tuka says: They are even like unto God and Vaikuntha is where they live. 7. Kaay vaanu aata How now shall I describe (the praises of the good); my speech is not enough (for the purpose). I therefore put my head at their feet.The magnet leaves its greatness and does not know that it may not touch iron. Even so good men's powers are for the benefit of the world. They afflict the body for the service of others. Mercy towards all is the stock-in-trade of the good. They have no attachment for their own bodies. Tuka says: Others' happiness is their happiness; nectar drops from their lips. 8.Naahi santpan milat haati Saintliness is not to be purchased in shops nor is it to be had for wandering nor in cupboards nor in deserts nor in forests. It is not obtainable for a heap of riches. It is not in the heavens above nor in the entrails of the earth

below. Tuka says: It is a life's bargain and if you will not give your life to possess it better be silent. 9.Bhakt aise jaana je dehi udaas He is a devotee who is indifferent about body, who has killed all desire, whose one object in life is (to find) Narayana, whom wealth or company or even parents will not distract, for whom whether in front or behind there is only God in difficulty, who will not allow any difficulty to cross his purpose. Tuka says: Truth guides such men in all their doings. 10. Ved anant bolilaa The essence of the endless Vedas is this: Seek the shelter of God and repeat His name with all thy heart. The result of the cogitations of all the Shastras is also the same; Tuka says: The burden of the eighteen Puranas is also identical. 11. Aanik dusre naahi maj aata This heart of mine is determined that for me now there is nothing else; I meditate on Panduranga, I think of Panduranga, I see Panduranga whether awake or dreaming. All the organs are so attuned that I have no other desire left. Tuka says: My eyes have recognized that image standing on that brick transfixed in meditation unmoved by anything. 12.Na milo khavaya na vadho santan What though I get nothing to eat and have no progeny? It is enough for me that Narayana's grace descends upon me. My speech gives me that advice and says likewise to the other people -Let the body suffer, let adversity befall one, enough that Narayana is enthroned in my heart. Tuka says: All the above things are fleeting;my welfare consists in always remembering Gopal. 13. Maharasi shive kope to Brahman navhe He who becomes enraged at the touch of a Mahar is no Brahmin. There is no penance for him even by giving his life. There is the taint of untouchability in him who will not touch a Chandal. Tuka says: A man becomes what he is continually thinking of. 14. Punya parupkaar paap te par pidaa

Merit consists in doing good to others, sin in doing harm to others. There is no other pair comparable to this. Truth is the only religion (or freedom); untruth is bondage, there is no secret like this. God's name on one's lips is itself salvation, disregard (of the name) know to be perdition. Companionship of the good is the only heaven, studious indifference is hell. Tuka says: It is thus clear what is good and what is injurious, let people choose what they will. 15. Shevatchi vinanawani This is my last prayer, O saintly people listen to it: O God, do not forget me; now what more need I say, Your holy feet know everything. Tuka says: I prostrate myself before Your feet, let the shadow of Your grace descend upon me. 16. Hechi daan de ga devaa O God, grant only this boon. I may never forget Thee; and I shall prize it dearly. I desire neither salvation nor riches nor prosperity; give me always company of the good. Tuka says: On that condition Thou mayest send me to the earth again and again. 28-10-1930

Translations of Abhang from Tukaramachi Gatha were done by Mahatma Gandhi in Yerwada Central Jail between 15-10-1930 to 28-10-1930.

Bhaskar Hande
BIOGRAPHY 1957 Born in Umbraj,state Maharashtra,India. 1974 Came to Bombay as banner painter in film industry 1976-81 Studied at sir J.J.institute of applied arts Mumbai India. obtained G.D.ARTS diploma.in applied art. 1979 Forth prize Maharashtra state competation 1981 Second prize Maharashtra state competation 1982 Went to the Netherlands for post graduation 1982-84 Studied at the Royal Academy of Visual Arts the Hague.NL. Obtained diploma in Monumental Painting and Design. 1985-87 Studied animation and video at the Free Academy of Visual Arts the Hague,NL. 1987 Since than is working as free-lance fine artist In The Nederlands (Holland) and India with his Art Environment studio.

Bhaskar Hande 1957


BOOKS 1989 1 Encounter/Ontmoeting Forum/GTP Amsterdam,NL English/Nederlands Catalogue and poetry Poet Adriaan Morrian 1990 2 DASHAK BAPU Nashik,IND Marathi poetry 1995 3 Your form is my creation Vaishwik Pune,IND Marathi/English Artbook/catalogue Text Dilip Chitre /Dr.Sadanand More 1995 4 Budala gaon gaon budala Bapu Nashik,IND Marathi poetry 1996 5 Merging colours Warre fine arts English catalogue Artimediar The Hague,NL 1996 6 Your form is my creation Century Union The Hague NL Hindi/English artbook/catalogue 1997 7 Holland-India Marathi/Nederlands artbook/catalogue 8 Prints by Bhaskar Hande Century union The Hague,NL English/Nederlands part one 1999 9 BHASKAR1999/2000 Gallery Blackheath London,UK English artbook/catalogue 2001 10 Holland-Europe Vaishwik Pune,IND Give and take in art 2 Marathi / Nederlands artbook/catalogue 11 Tirast Manera Vaishwik Pune, IND Marathi poetry 12 Encounter with International artist Stg. IHK The Hague NL Stg. Internationale Haagse Kunst 2004 13 Amber Amber international,Amsterdam NL International Dutch and Punjabi literature 2005 14 Amber Amber international, Amsterdam NL International Dutch and Punjabi literature 2006 15 Colour Saga Exhibition catalogue Fabs Warsaw Poland 2008 16 Show your Hope Concept and Contributors English

vaishwik Pune IND And Artimediair The Hague NL 2010 17 Dehu-Alandi to Pandharpur Palakhisohala 325 Years Vaishwik Pune, India. 18 A black Substance Artimediair The Hague, Holland. CURATION 1989 Musee Alternative. 20 Young artists in Rex Theater, The Hague. 1991 Colored festival. 8 Multi cultural artists in The Hague. 1992 "The Two World Accents". 2 Different nationalities artists in The Hague, Iserlohn Hohen-limburg, Lubeck, Germany Colored festival The Hague The Netherlands. 1993 October 6 Multi cultural artists in The Hague. Forum Gallery Amsterdam. 1996 January Where Cultures Meet/Merging Colors The Hague The Netherlands 1997 April Give and Take in Art Holland India 6 young Dutch artist in Pune India. 1998 June Give and Take in Art1 India-Holland 6 Indian artist in the Hague Holland 1999 May Give and Take in Art India-Holland 6 Indian artist in the Hague NEDERLAND 2001 June Give and Take in Art2 Holland-Europe 3 young Dutch artist in Pune INDIA. 2004 April Give and Take in Art3 Holland-Europe 6 Dutch Artist in Mumbai INDIA 2006 April Give and Take in Art3 Holland-Europe 8 Indian and 8 Dutch artist in the ISS Nederland 2007 -08 Show Your Hope World Tour part one Nederland To India Via Turkey, Gorgia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Pakistan and India. Project Your Form is My Creation at Dehu India. 2009 Dehu-Pandharpur Palkhisohala 2008 Pune

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Part Two

The Hague