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Around the time UNESCO was established in 1946, India was also on the verge of being an independent nation. Thanks to the rich and ancient cultural heritage of India, it had a scholarly tradition in several fundamental areas of scientific activities. India's base for scientific knowledge goes back to more than a thousand years as is evident from the India's contributions in the field of astronomy, mathematics, architecture and town planning, metallurgy as well as in the fields of medicine and surgery. Even during the colonial era, particularly through the work of distinguished scientists like C.V. Raman, IC. Bose, M.N. Saha, S.N. Bose and many others, India's science flourished considerably - no doubt mainly due to the effort of these individuals. Scientific academies and even research institutes were established for pursuit of basic science. In order to provide a data base for natural resources in India, the Britishers established organizations like Botanical, Zoological, and Geological Surveys of India which provide excellent base for data collection and storage -- the essentials of an information system for science and technology As a developing country, India could not reap the fruits of scientific knowledge for its economic development, India missed the industrial revolution which had made a tremendous difference to the, Western societies. The major focus of UNESCO's activities has been on strengthening the scientific capacity of India through organizing a large number of training and workshop activities and providing fellowships in diverse disciplines of pure and applied sciences. These have been complemented by an, equally large number of conferences and symposia which have helped the Indian scientific community to interact and network with the international scientific community. The subject areas covered were biochemistry, materials, environmental chemistry, spectroscopy, cyclones, remote sensing, molecular biology, neurochemistry, physiology and a large number of other disciplines. The emphasis has generally been on biology, agriculture and other interdisciplinary fields. The support provided for these activities has not been very large. UNESCO has also provided financial assistance to various scientific institutions in India. As part of UNESCO's efforts to redress the imbalance between developed and developing countries, it has sponsored debates and discussions which have helped member countries to evolve their science policies depending on their individual developmental needs. UNESCO helped India and the countries in this region to prepare for the Global U.N. Conference on Sciences and Technology for Development (UNCSTD) which was held in Vienna in August 1979. It was as a result of the intense preparatory phase, where with UNESCO's help India was able to play a very major role in drafting the Vienna Programme of Action in 1979. In 1988, UNESCO initiated the forum of Science & Technology Policy Asian Network (STEPAN) which is an official Asia-wide network of people and institutions involved in research and training support for national science and technology (S&T) policy and management. India is an active member of STEPAN and has benefited considerably from its participation.

Over the years, UNESCO has assisted India in the field of communication. It promotes the free flow of ideas by word and image. The Film and Television Institute of India, Pune was established with the assistance of UNESCO. The National Book Trust of India at New Delhi has been assisted by UNESCO. The Southern Languages Book Trust at Madras, the Indian Institute of Mass Communication, New Delhi and the international Institute of Tamil Studies, Madras have also been assisted by UNESCO. In the rapidly changing socio-political global scenario, particularly in developing countries, the role of UNESCO and its IPDC become significant. Development of appropriate communication strategies to ensure free and speedy flow of information through all forms of media is a vital input to this process of change. Isolation and insularity; leading to suppression of information, are outmoded and redundant concepts today. UNESCO's emphasis, in the IPDC programmes, on training of manpower is very significant. The development of human resources through dissemination of knowledge, upgradation of skills and fostering innovative capacities should continue to be the ultimate goals of IPDC/UNESCO.

One, of die earliest, projects undertaken by the National Commission for UNESCO was on Gandhian Ideology in 1949-50. A major seminar was held in New Delhi in 1952 on the subject "Gandhian Ideology and the Resolution of National and International Tensions and Conflicts", which considered the various aspects of what was then UNESCO's central problem, namely how the crusade for peace could and should be carried out in the minds of men. Just seven years after the end of World War II it was understandably a prime concern that the new peace should be secured, and that the horrors of war never allowed to ravage humankind again. It was equally an area of special concern for India, having emerged only a few years before from the trauma of partition, and the riots that accompanied it, and from the shock of the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi. Another major project was the establishment of the first public library under UNESCO's Public Library Project, the Delhi Public Library, in 1951. This has now grown into a network of branches throughout the city which cater to thousands of readers. It is a unique institution, and it serves a most valuable purpose in the city.


UNESCO's activities cover a very wide spectrum in the broad fields of Education, Science, Cultural and Communication. Education has always been the largest sector of UNESCO activity from its very inception. In significant contribution, UNESCO helped to establish the Delhi Public Library, It was the first library established under the UNESCO Public Library Project in 1951. But perhaps one of the more significant contributions of UNESCO to education in India has been its advocacy of the concept of educational planning. A regional centre for the training of educational planners, administrators and supervisors in Asia was set up under the agreement of Government of India in 1962. It was redesignated as the Asian Institute, of Educational Planning and Administration in 1965. The functions of this Institute were the following: (a) to provide short in-service training courses for the officers of the various ministries or departments of education of participating Asian member states and associate members of UNESCO. (b) to undertake and promote research in the techniques of educational planning, administration and supervision and to place the results at the disposal of, such states, and (c) to assist such states, upon request, in organising educational planning services and in holding national training courses.

The United Nations and the Korean War

The Korean War from 1950 to 1953 was the most severe test the United Nations had to face since its inception in 1945. As part of the whole Cold War scenario, the Korean War was a complicated issue with which the United Nations had to successfully deal with or lose credibility just five years after it had come into being. In June 1950, North Korean troops unexpectedly attacked South Korea and America wanted the invasion immediately brought before the Security Council. At the end of World War Two, Korea was effectively spilt in two; the south was in the hands of America while Russia dominated the north. The United Nations had already involved itself in the affairs of Korea when in 1947, before partition, it had declared its intentions that elections should be held for a government for the whole country and that the United Nations would oversee these elections to ensure that they were fair.

In what was to become South Korea, the United Nations declared that the elections had been fair. The Russian presence in what was to become North Korea complicated matters as the Russians would not allow United Nations observers in. As a result, the United Nations declared that the election results from North Korea were not acceptable as they had not been independently observed. By the end of 1948, both North and South Korea had formed separate states. The North was supported by communist Russia and when China became communist in 1949, by Maos China. The South was supported by America and was considered by the west to be the only democratic nation out of the two. Both governments claimed the right to govern the other. The actual invasion of the South by the North took place on June 25th 1950. The Security Council of the United Nations met the same day. The Russian delegation to the Security Council did not attend the meeting as they were boycotting the United Nations for recognising Chiang Kai-sheks government in Taiwan as the official government for China whilst ignoring Maos communist regime in Beijing. Therefore, the obvious use of the veto did not occur. At the meeting, America claimed that North Korea had broken world peace by attacking South Korea. America called on North Korea to withdraw to the 38th Parallel. Nine out of the eleven countries in the Security Council supported this view. Russia was absent and one abstained. On June 27th 1950, America called on the United Nations to use force to get the North Koreans out as they had ignored the Security Councils resolution of June 25th. This was also voted for and once again the Russians could not use their veto as they were still boycotting the United Nations. The United Nations now had to formulate its plans. Sixteen member states would provide troops under a United Nations Joint Command. It would fight with the South Korean Army. This United Nations force was primarily dominated by America even to the extent of being commanded by an American general Douglas MacArthur. On September 15th 1950, United Nations troops landed in an amphibious assault at Inchon. The landing was a huge success and the United Nations effectively cut the North Korean army in half and pushed them out of South Korea. MacArthur then advanced into North Korea despite the warnings from Communist China. This resulted in a Chinese attack on United Nations troops and between November 1950 and January 1951, the Chinese managed to push back the United Nations force. After a clash with President Truman, MacArthur was sacked and the war degenerated into a war of stalemate with neither the United Nations or the Chinese managing to gain the upper hand. In 1953, a ceasefire was agreed at Panmunjon which exists to this day. The United Nations received much support for taking robust action against an aggressor nation. South Korea regained its independence and continued to be supported by

America. However, Russia had dropped its boycott of the Security Council and had rejoined it during the Korean War. It had used its veto to block numerous Security Council initiatives. As a result of this, America put forward a resolution called Uniting For Peace. This stated that if the Security Council vetoed any initiative that was considered important for maintaining peace, the General Assembly should take over to keep going the impetus for peace. Russia argued about the legality of this and it was a source of much argument for many years. Another consequence of the Korean War was the resignation of its Secretary-General, Trygve Lie. The Russians had been infuriated by the speed with which he had got the United Nations to deal with this crisis. The Russians claimed that he had acted outside of his powers. Lie had to resign as his position had become untenable without the support of the Russians.

United Nations Security Council and the Iraq War

In March 2003 the United States government announced that "diplomacy has failed" and that it would proceed with a "coalition of the willing" to rid Iraq under Saddam Hussein of weapons of mass destruction the US insisted it possessed. The 2003 invasion of Iraq began a few days later. Prior to this decision, there had been much diplomacy and debate amongst the members of the United Nations Security Council over how to deal with the situation. This article examines the positions of these states as they changed during 2002-2003. Prior to 2002, the Security Council had passed 16 resolutions on Iraq. In 2002, the Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 1441. In 2003, the governments of the US, Britain, and Spain proposed another resolution on Iraq, which they called the "eighteenth resolution" and others called the "second resolution." This proposed resolution was subsequently withdrawn when it became clear that several permanent members of the Council would cast no votes on any new resolution, thereby vetoing it. [1] Had that occurred, it would have become even more difficult for those wishing to invade Iraq to argue that the Council had authorized the subsequent invasion. Regardless of the threatened or likely vetoes, it seems that the coalition at no time was assured any more than four affirmative votes in the Councilthe US, Britain, Spain, and Bulgariawell short of the requirement for nine affirmative votes.[2] On September 16, 2004 Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, speaking on the invasion, said, "I have indicated it was not in conformity with the UN Charter. From our point of view, from the charter point of view, it was illegal."

Following the passage of Resolution 1441, on 18 November 2002, weapons inspectors of the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission returned to Iraq for the first time since being expelled. Whether Iraq actually had weapons of mass destruction or not was being investigated by Hans Blix, head of the Commission, and Mohamed ElBaradei, head of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Inspectors remained in the country until they withdrew after being notified of the imminent invasion by the United States, Britain, and two other countries. In early December 2002, Iraq filed a 12,000-page weapons declaration with the UN. After reviewing the document, UN weapons inspectors, the US, France, United Kingdom and other countries thought that this declaration failed to account for all of Iraq's chemical and biological agents. Many of these countries had supplied the Iraqi regime with the technology to make these weapons in the 1980s during the Iran-Iraq War. On December 19, United States Secretary of State Colin Powell stated that Iraq was in "material breach" of the Security Council resolution. Blix has complained that, to this day, the United States and Britain have not presented him with the evidence which they claim to possess regarding Iraq's alleged weapons of mass destruction.[2] On January 16, 2003, inspectors discovered 11 empty 122 mm chemical warheads. These components had not been previously declared by Iraq. Iraq dismissed the warheads as old weapons that had been packed away and forgotten. After performing tests on the warheads, UN inspectors believe that they were new.[citation needed] While the warheads are evidence of an Iraqi weapons program, they may not amount to a "smoking gun", according to US officials, unless some sort of chemical agent was also detected. It never was. UN inspectors believe there to be large quantities of weapons materials still unaccounted for.[citation needed] UN inspectors also searched the homes of several Iraqi scientists. On January 27, 2003, UN inspectors reported that Iraq had cooperated on a practical level with monitors, but had not demonstrated a "genuine acceptance" of the need to disarm unilaterally. Blix said that after the empty chemical warheads were found on the 16th, Iraq produced papers documenting the destruction of many other similar warheads, which had not been disclosed before. This still left thousands of warheads unaccounted for. Inspectors also reported the discovery of over 3,000 pages of weapons program documents in the home of an Iraqi citizen(citation needed), suggesting an attempt to "hide" them from inspectors and apparently contradicting Iraq's earlier claim that it had no further documents to provide. In addition, by the 28th, a total of 16 Iraqi scientists had refused to be interviewed by inspectors. The United States claimed that "sources" had told them that Saddam Hussein had ordered the death of any scientist that speaks with inspectors in private.No scientiest have yet admitted of any situations as such. Iraq insisted that they were not putting pressure on the scientists.